Law _ Jurisprudence - Anne Arundel Community College by liuhongmeiyes


									Law &
Transfer DEGREE

             For more information contact:
                  Karen L. Cook, J.D.
            Director, Legal Studies Institute

     Visit our website at

                                                      October 2011
Notice of Non-Discrimination

AACC is an equal opportunity , affirmative action, Title IX, ADA Title 504 compliant
institution. Call Disability Support Services, 410-777-2307 or Maryland Relay 711, 72
hours in advance to request most accommodations. Requests for sign language inter-
preters, alternative format books or assistive technology require 30-days notice. For
information on AACC’s compliance and complaints concerning discrimination or har-
assment, contact Karen L. Cook, Esq., Federal Compliance Officer, 410-777-7370 or
Maryland Relay 711.
Dear Prospective Law & Jurisprudence Student:

WELCOME to Anne Arundel Community College’s Law & Jurisprudence Program!
We are excited that you are considering enrolling in our program. Please read the
enclosed information about the program and the legal field.

The Law & Jurisprudence Program is designed as a transfer degree program providing
a law and liberal arts foundation for students interested in transferring to four-year
colleges and universities to pursue a bachelor’s degree in jurisprudence and,
ultimately, attend law school. Currently, the Law & Jurisprudence Program provides
a seamless transfer to the University of Baltimore’s Jurisprudence transfer
undergraduate program, University of Maryland University College, and the
American Public University System’s Legal Studies Program.

In the Law & Jurisprudence Program students gain knowledge and insight into the
building blocks of the American legal system, refine critical thinking and analytical
skills, and gain experience in the intricacies of the practice of law.

If, after reviewing this brochure, you have questions about the Law & Jurisprudence
Program or career choices, or you want to schedule an appointment to discuss your
schedule and career goals, please do not hesitate to contact me at 410-777-7370 or


Karen L. Cook, J.D.
Director, Legal Studies Institute

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic                                                                                                        Page

   Law and Jurisprudence Degree Requirements .............................................. 1
   Course Descriptions ........................................................................................... 2
   Legal Studies Institute (LSI)
    Overview of Programs, Resources & Facilities .............................................. 8
   Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010 - 11 Edition................................... 13
   AACC Vision & Spirit of Community Statement ........................................ 20
                                                 LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE

LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE                                                        GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS:
ASSOCIATE OF ARTS DEGREE                                                     31-37 credits
CAREERS BUILDING                                                             An approved list of general education courses can be found on pages
ROOM 232, 410-777-7323                                                       259-264 of the AACC College Catalog. Choose general education
                                                                             courses from the following topics:
Award: Associate of Arts degree, A.A.
       (code AA.LGS.JURIS-TRANS)                                              ENGLISH ......................................................................................... 3-6
                                                                                  ENG 111 and ENG 112 Composition and Introduction to Literature 1, 2
Total Credit Hours: A minimum of 60 credit hours.                             OR ENG 115 and ENG 116 Composition and Introduction to Literature for
                                                                                  Non-native Speakers 1, 2
Purpose: This transfer program provides a law and liberal arts                OR ENG 121 Composition and Literature
foundation for those students transferring to four-year colleges and           Successful completion of ENG 121 fully satisfies the college English
universities to pursue a bachelor’s degree in jurisprudence and,               composition general education requirements. A minimum of 60 credits is
ultimately, attend law school. Prospective lawyers should develop              required for a degree.
proficiency in writing, speaking, reading, researching, analyzing and         ARTS and HUMANITIES .................................................................... 6
                                                                                 COM 111 Fundamentals of Oral Communication
thinking logically. A multidisciplinary background is critical; therefore,
                                                                              OR COM 116 Fundamentals of Oral Communication for Non-Native Speakers
this program provides a core of courses considered essential to the           AND PHIL 141 Introduction to Logic
pre-law/jurisprudence student.                                               BIOLOGICAL and PHYSICAL SCIENCES ..................................... 7-8
                                                                                    At least one lab science required
RANGE OF OCCUPATIONS                                                          COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY .......................................................... 3-4
The skills and knowledge acquired in this program can be applied to           HEALTH / FITNESS / WELLNESS ..................................................... 3
a variety of occupations, including: lawyer, law clerk, paralegal, legal      MATHEMATICS ............................................................................... 3-4
assistant, mediator, arbitrator, title examiner, abstractor, judge,              MAT 131 College Algebra
                                                                              OR more advanced level if qualified
magistrate and other judicial workers. Occupations can be explored
                                                                              SOCIAL and BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ............................................ 6
further through the virtual Careers Center at
                                                                                 SOC 111 Introduction to Sociology
careers.                                                                      OR PSY 111 Introduction to Psychology
Degree Requirements: The general education degree                             AND HIS 211 History of the United States 1
requirements section on pages 259-267 of the AACC College
Catalog includes the general education requirements for this
degree. Refer to those pages to ensure that diversity, computing             PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS: 28 credits
and information technology and general education degree                                                                                                                       CREDITS
requirements are included in your course selections.
                                                                              HIS 212         History of the United States 2 ........................................... .3
Transfer Agreements: Agreements may exist for this program of                 LGS 111         Introduction to Paralegal Studies ..................................... .3
study. To access agreements, go to and                  LGS 143         Legal Research and Writing ............................................. .3
then click on “Articulations.”                                                LGS 144         Advanced Legal Research and Writing ............................ .4
Related Educational Opportunities: Additional courses,                        LGS 210         Legal Ethics ...................................................................... .3
credentials and/or certifications may be available through the AACC           LGS 217         Constitutional Law ............................................................ .3
School of Continuing and Professional Studies. Visit                          PHIL 142        Ethics ................................................................................ .3 for more information.                                      Electives       ........................................................................................... 6
                                                                               Choose two from the following: ECO 121, PLS 111, PLS 113, or HIS 227.

                                                                             ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

                                                                              COMPUTER COMPETENCY REQUIREMENT
                                                                                See page 265 of the AACC College Catalog for a list of approved courses.
                                                                                Students may satisfy the computer competency requirement simultaneously with
                                                                                their computer technology general education requirement.
                                                                              DIVERSITY REQUIREMENT
                                                                                Students may satisfy the diversity requirement simultaneously as they satisfy
                                                                                the social and behavioral science or biological and physical sciences general
                                                                                education requirements.

             Credit courses of instruction in Legal Studies Institute

LGS 100                                                          LGS 135
Introduction to the Law                                          Organized Crime
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                   3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
      Provides a general overview of topics and skills                Provides a historical examination and analysis of
related to law and jurisprudence. Students will gain a           organized crime worldwide. Explores the history of
basic perspective on the history and development of              organized crime in the United States. Explores the socio-
the law as well as an understanding of how the law               economic and political aspects of organized crime.
affects individuals, government and business in                  Examines organized crime as a response to organized
today’s society. Study of course topics include                  crime. Includes an examination of organized crime’s role
constitutional law principles, judicial decision-                in unions and labor movements, organized crime and
making, the state and federal court systems, as well             the media, organized crime commissions and organized
as a survey of substantive criminal law, family law,             crime internal and external policies.
contracts, torts, property and procedural law. Lab fee                 Note: Also offered as CJS 135; credit is not given for
$10.                                                             both LGS 135 and CJS 135. This course is not considered a
      Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or        legal specialty course for the purpose of earning legal
ENG 121. Note: Not available to paralegal or law and             specialty credits in the Paralegal Studies Program.
jurisprudence majors to fulfill a required or elective course.   However, it may be applied as a general elective in the
LGS 111                                                          Paralegal Studies Program as noted in the program
                                                                 description. Please see an adviser before registering for this
Introduction to Paralegal Studies
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
     Provides a general perspective of the legal                 LGS 136
system and role of paralegals within that system.                History of Homicide
Topics include legal procedure, evidence,                        3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
investigation, litigation, legal research and writing,                 Provides a historical examination and analysis
ethics and a brief look at contracts, torts, criminal law        of homicide. Explores the differences between
and administrative law. Lab fee $10.                             homicide and murder and analyzes the different
Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or ENG 121.     degrees of murder. Examines theories on the motives
LGS 112                                                          for homicide, murder, mass murder and serial
                                                                 murders. Studies the historical application of the law
Law Office Practice and Technology
                                                                 to homicide and murder cases. Explores how well the
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
                                                                 criminal justice system works with homicide and
     Explore the technology that enhances law office
                                                                 other capital crimes. Examines the detection,
management processes and procedures and supports
                                                                 investigation and prosecution of murder cases,
the modern-day practice of law. Gain hands-on
                                                                 including the analysis of forensic evidence in
experience with software related to case
                                                                 homicide cases to determine cause of death.
management, timekeeping and billing, docket                            Note: Also offered as CJS 136; credit is not given for
control, electronic discovery (e-discovery) ,                    both LGS 136 and CJS 136. This course is not considered a
marketing via the Internet and computer-aided                    legal specialty course for the purpose of earning legal
report preparation and presentations. Lab fee $25.               specialty credits in the Paralegal Studies Program.
     Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111.              However, it may be applied as a general elective in the
LGS 113                                                          Paralegal Studies Program as noted in the program
                                                                 description. Please see an adviser before registering for this
Maximize Your Paralegal Education
1 credit hour — 15 hours; one term.
     Assists paralegal students in identifying their                  Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or
professional goals. Covered areas include selection of           ENG 121. Note: Also offered as CJS 138; credit is not
                                                                 given for both LGS 138 and CJS 138.
program electives and internships, self-marketing
strategies and exploration of transfer options.

             Credit courses of instruction in Legal Studies Institute

LGS 138                                                         LGS 156
International Law and Human Rights                              Legal Issues in Aging
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                  3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
     Introduces students to the scope and sources of                  Introduces students who are studying for careers
international law, jurisdiction and dispute                     in health professions to laws related to the elderly.
mechanism in the international community.                       Students will explore access to care, competency and
Students will explore fundamental human rights,                 decision making, euthanasia, suicide, organ
focusing on genocide, civil rights, and war crimes.             procurement and allocation, guardianship, estate
Students will also discuss arms control and the laws            planning and transfer of property upon death.
of war.                                                                Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or
     Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115           ENG 121
or ENG 121. Note: Also offered as CJS 138; credit is not               Note: This course will not count toward a Paralegal
given for both LGS 138 and CJS 138.                             Studies degree or certificate. This course is not considered a
                                                                legal specialty course for the purpose of earning legal specialty
LGS 143                                                         credits in the Paralegal Studies Program. However, it may be
Legal Research and Writing                                      applied as a general elective in the Paralegal Studies Program
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                  as noted in the program description. Please see an adviser
      Gain a working knowledge of major techniques              before registering for this course.
of legal research. Explore topics that include sources
of law, locating statutory law and case law, research           LGS 160
aids, shepardizing, use of West’s Digest System,                Domestic Relations
legal periodicals and proper citation forms. Learn              3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
and apply writing skills to complete memoranda                        Analyze legal matters relating to marriage,
and case briefs. Lab fee $10.                                   divorce, separation, annulment, child support,
      Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111 and         alimony, adoption, custody and related topics.
eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or ENG 121, or               Examine the practical aspects of the paralegal’s role in
permission of legal studies director.                           this field.
                                                                      Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111.
LGS 144
Advanced Legal Research and Writing                             LGS 165
4 credit hours — Four hours weekly; one term.                   Mediation and Alternative Dispute Resolution
Explore techniques of advanced legal research,                  (ADR)
computer-assisted legal research and legal writing.             3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
Use online and CD-ROM services to perform legal                       Focuses on the application of negotiation,
research and use such research to prepare                       mediation and arbitration as methods of resolving
correspondence, office memoranda, persuasive                    conflicts outside the courtroom. Students will learn
memoranda, federal and state court complaints,                  the nature of conflict and the specific methods and
answers and discovery documents. Learn how to                   techniques for resolving conflict. Students will
draft clear, concise, well-organized legal documents.           examine the processes and skills involved, the training
Lab fee $45.                                                    required and the employment opportunities available
     Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 143.             in the fast-growing field of alternative dispute
     Note: Credit will not be given for both LGS 144 and
                                                                resolution (ADR).
LGS 145.
                                                                      Note: Also offered as BPA 165 and HUS 165; credit
LGS 145                                                         will only be given for one of the following: BPA 165, HUS
Electronic Legal Research                                       165, LGS 165.
1 credit hour — 15 hours; one term.
      Study and application of computer-assisted legal
research using online and CD-ROM services.
Enrollment is limited. Lab fee $35.
       Prerequisite or co-requisite: LGS 143 or permission of
legal studies director.

             Credit courses of instruction in Legal Studies Institute

LGS 170                                                      LGS 210
Civil Procedure                                              Legal Ethics
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.               3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
     Gain a basic understanding of civil litigation               Analyze ethical considerations in the legal field.
processes and procedures. Explore topics that                Explore the history of the legal profession, regulation of
include state and federal court systems, pleadings,          lawyers, professional discipline, lawyer-client relationship,
court documents, discovery, trial, parties, judgments        lawyer competence, confidentiality, conflicts of interest and
and attacks on judgments.                                    the adversary system. Understand the practical aspects of
     Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111.          the paralegal’s role in the ethical practice of law and what
                                                             constitutes the unauthorized practice of law.
LGS 171                                                           Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111.
Tort Law                                                     LGS 215
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.               Criminal Law
     Familiarizes students with all aspects of tort          3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
law. Topics include intentional torts, negligent torts,           Examines pertinent aspects of federal and state
defenses, joint tortfeasors and strict liability.            criminal law. Includes basic elements of law and specific
     Prerequisite or co-requisite: LGS 111, LGS 253 or       issues of interest to law enforcement. Discuss recent court
BPA 253.                                                     decisions relating to crimes against the person and
LGS 200                                                      property. Lab fee $5.
                                                                  Note: Also offered as CJS 215; credit is not given for
Real Estate Law for Paralegals
                                                             both LGS 215 and CJS 215.
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
                                                             LGS 216
      Learn legal concepts that form the foundation
for a basic understanding of a real estate transaction.
                                                             Criminal Evidence and Procedure
                                                             3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
Use many of the current legal websites to
                                                                  Study key issues relating to criminal procedure
supplement course materials and learn how to
                                                             including an examination of the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and
research the diverse legal topics covered. Explore
                                                             Eighth Amendments of the United States Constitution.
such topics as ethics, categories of property,
                                                             Examine the rules of evidence including concepts such as
ownership restrictions, legal descriptions of property,
                                                             relevancy, witnesses, hearsay, chain of custody and the trial
real estate licensees, real estate contracts, deeds,
                                                             process with a focus on procedure in Maryland courts. Lab
property liens, financing, title, settlements, leases,
                                                             fee $5.
litigation and mortgage foreclosures.
                                                                   Note: Also offered as CJS 216; credit is not given for
      Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111.
                                                             both LGS 216 and CJS 216.
LGS 205                                                      LGS 217
Cyberlaw                                                     Constitutional Law
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.               3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
      Introduces students to emerging laws of                      Examines the United States Constitution and Bill of
cyberspace. Explore methods of investigating and             Rights. Analyzes cases focusing on governmental powers
preventing cybercrimes and infringements upon                and limitations, due process, free speech, privacy rights
information security. Discuss laws governing e-              and religious freedoms and apply these concepts to today’s
commerce and intellectual property protections,              constitutional issues.
focusing on landmark and other cases such as                        Prerequisite: LGS 111 or CJS 111 or permission of legal
Napster. The class will also debate privacy rights and       studies director.
free speech on the Internet.                                        Note: Also offered as CJS 217; credit is not given for both
      Prerequisite: CJS 111 or LGS 111 or LGS 253.           LGS 217 and CJS 217. This course is not considered a legal
      Note: Students with no prior computer experience are   specialty course for the purpose of earning legal specialty credits
encouraged to take one of the following before taking this   in the Paralegal Studies Program. However, it may be applied as
course: CSI 112 or CSI 113. Also offered as BPA 205, CJS     a general elective in the Paralegal Studies Program as noted in
205 and CSI 205; credit is not given for LGS 205 and also    the program description. Please see an adviser before registering
BPA 205, CJS 205 and CSI 205.                                for this course.

              Credit courses of instruction in Legal Studies Institute

LGS 218                                                            LGS 225
Introduction to Immigration Law                                    Environmental Law and Policy
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                     3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
      Learn the history of immigration and the laws,                    Understand the practical balance between
policies, and regulations regarding citizenship. Study             environmental laws, policies and societal values and
various visa petitions including, but not limited to,              how environmental protections are often a dynamic
non-immigrant visas, family-based immigration,                     fusion of these factors. Learn the differences between
employment-based immigration, asylum/refugee                       environmental laws and policies and discuss and
applications and deportation and adoption issues.                  debate how applicable case laws, statutes,
Discuss the appellate process and post 9/11 issues,                administrative agency rules and regulations impact
including the creation of the Department of Homeland               national, state and local issues affecting the
Security (DHS). Lab fee $5.                                        environment. Gain insight into how core legal
      Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or          principles interplay with policy considerations and
ENG 121.                                                           case law coupled with local statutes form an interlacing
      Note: This course is not considered a legal specialty        framework of policies and legal protections that
course for the purpose of earning legal specialty credits in the   ultimately determine, influence and define the
Paralegal Studies program. However, it may be applied as a         ―environment‖ as we know it. Lab fee $5.
general elective in the Paralegal Studies degree program as
                                                                         Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or
noted in the program description. Please see an adviser before
                                                                   ENG 121.
registering for this course.
                                                                         Note: This course is not considered a legal specialty
LGS 220                                                            course for the purpose of earning legal specialty credits in the
Administrative Law                                                 Paralegal Studies program. However, it may be applied as a
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                     general elective in the Paralegal Studies degree program as
                                                                   noted in the program description. Please see an adviser before
     Examines the nature and function of
                                                                   registering for this course.
administrative agencies at the local, state and federal
levels. Students will explore the body of laws created             LGS 230
by administrative agencies in the form of rules,                   Employment Law
regulations, orders and decisions and learn about the              3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
administrative hearing processes at all levels of                       Studies the impact of state and federal laws upon
government.                                                        employment relationships. This course will detail
     Prerequisite or co-requisite: LGS 111 or LGS 253.             substantive and procedural aspects of employment
                                                                   law, focusing on worker’s compensation, employment
                                                                   discrimination, pensions and health benefits, wage and
                                                                   hour laws and labor relations.
                                                                        Prerequisite: LGS 111 or LGS 253 or BPA 253 or
                                                                   permission of legal studies director.

              Credit courses of instruction in Legal Studies Institute

LGS 232 Construction Law                                       LGS 240
3 credit hours—Three hours weekly; one term.                   Health Care Law
     Learn current legal principles and practices              3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
related to the construction industry and AIA and                    Studies the application of law to the provision of
federal government documents. Learn the legal                  health care services. Focus on the creation and
vocabulary, laws and legal processes applicable to and         maintenance of the treatment relationship; informed
necessary for work in construction litigation,                 consent; duties of health care professionals, institutions
construction management, architecture, and                     and managed-care companies; liability of health care
engineering fields. Understand construction law                providers; procedure for prosecuting health care claims;
through analysis of current construction court cases.          reproduction law; and medical research. Lab fee $10.
Discuss sources of law; project delivery systems;
mechanics’ liens; contract formation and breach;               LGS 241
mediation and arbitration; changes, additions, delays,         Legal Issues of Death, Dying and Organ
scope of work; surety bonds; insurance; and green              Transplantation
building laws.                                                 2 credit hours — Two hours weekly; one term.
      Prerequisite: Eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or           Study and application of law related to death, dying
ENG 121.                                                       and organ transplantation. Focus on the legal definition of
      Note: This course is not considered a legal specialty    death; competency; decision making regarding life-
course for the purpose of earning legal specialty credits in   sustaining treatment; suicide; self-determination and
the Paralegal Studies program. However, it may be applied      procurement and allocation of organs. Study the judicial
as a general elective in the Paralegal Studies program as      process relating to patient and proxy decision making and
noted in the program description. Please see an adviser        prepare living wills and durable health care powers of
before registering for this course.                            attorney. Lab fee $5.
LGS 235                                                        LGS 242
Estates and Trusts                                             Medical Insurance Law
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                 1 credit hour — 15 hours; one term.
     Examine the laws pertaining to wills, trusts,                   Studies the impact of state and federal laws upon
estates and gifts. Explore the paralegal’s role in the         health care, managed care and insurance. Covers
process of drafting documents, and handling                    eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid. Course also focuses
administration of and filing tax returns for an estate.        on the Comprehensive Omnibus Budget Reconciliation
     Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in LGS 111.
                                                               Act (COBRA), portability, the scope of coverage and
LGS 236                                                        billing and payment under public and private insurances.
Intellectual Property Law                                      LGS 250
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
                                                               Entrepreneurship: Legal Issues for Business
      Learn the legal concepts that form the foundation        3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
for a basic understanding of the four areas of
                                                                    Provides an overview of legal consequences as
intellectual property law. Students will study
                                                               entrepreneurs launch and operate a business. Students
copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets, and
                                                               examine practical ways to minimize liability in areas such
their applications in business and the arts. Emphasis
                                                               as business organization and management, obligations
will be placed on ethics, research and practice. Upon
                                                               created by contracts and torts, and relationships between
completion of this course, students will be able to
                                                               employers and employees and between creditors and
offer valuable assistance to attorneys in this growing
                                                               debtors. Other topics include government regulation and
field. Lab fee $10.
                                                               property interests, and intellectual property law. Lab fee
      Prerequisite: LGS 111, LGS 253 or BPA 253.
                                                                    Note: Also offered as BPA 250 and ESI 250; credit will be
                                                               given for only one of the following: BPA 250, ESI 250,
                                                               LGS 250.

             Credit courses of instruction in Legal Studies Institute

LGS 253                                                       LGS 270
Business Law 1                                                Gender and the Law
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.
     Introduces basic principles of law and their                   Study and application of law related to gender
impact on common business transactions. Areas of              and sexuality. Focus on constitutional scrutiny of
emphasis include sources of law, the judicial system,         gender issues; the right to privacy; theories of
a wrongdoer’s liability for harm to society (crimes)          sexuality and gender; sexual harassment and
and to the injured party (torts), the formation and           discrimination in the workplace, education, and the
performance of contracts, the ownership and transfer          military; bodily integrity and consent; and legal issues
of personal and real property, principals and their           of marriage, custody, adoption and assisted
agents and factors to be considered in choosing the           reproduction. Lab fee $10.
form of a business (partnerships and corporations) to               Note: Also offered as GSS 270; credit is not given for
be organized. Lab fee $5.                                     both LGS 270 and GSS 270. This course is not considered a
     Note: Also offered as BPA 253; credit is not given for   legal specialty course for the purpose of earning legal
both LGS 253 and BPA 253.                                     specialty credits in the Paralegal Studies Program.
                                                              However, it may be applied as a general elective in the
LGS 254                                                       Paralegal Studies Program as noted in the program
Business Law 2                                                description. Please see an adviser before registering for this
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                course.
     Examines the legal consequences of a variety of
business decisions, including the form of business
                                                              LGS 271
organization. Explores competing interests of buyers          Civil Rights Law
and sellers, creditors and debtors, suppliers and             3 credit hours— Three hours weekly; one term.
consumers. Study of the Uniform Commercial Code                    Addresses the constitutionality and application
follows a sales transaction from drawing up a                 of historical and current laws as they relate to race.
contract through financing. An overview of                    Delve into the legal history of slavery in the United
government regulation of business stresses antitrust          States through emancipation. Focus on equal
laws, employer-employee relations and securities              protection in education, employment, public
regulations. Also covers estate planning and trusts.          accommodations, military service and family issues.
Lab fee $5.                                                   Discuss racism in the criminal justice system.
     Prerequisite: LGS 253.                                         Prerequisite or co-requisite: LGS 111 or CJS 111.
     Note: Also offered as BPA 254; credit is not given for         Note: Also offered as CJS 271; credit is not given for
both LGS 254 and BPA 254.                                     both LGS 271 and CJS 271.

LGS 260                                                       LGS 275
Bankruptcy Law                                                Paralegal Internship
3 credit hours — Three hours weekly; one term.                3 credit hours — One hour seminar,
     Provides a general perspective of bankruptcy             10 hours work weekly; one term.
law and practice and the roles of paralegals within                 Students gain practical experience in the functions
that system. Topics include Chapter 7 bankruptcy,             and responsibilities of a paralegal on the job. Placement
Chapter 11 bankruptcy and Chapter 13 bankruptcy;              will afford lawyer-supervised opportunities to integrate
investigation and information gathering; researching          and reinforce classroom principles and concepts. May be
bankruptcy law; preparing and filing papers and               repeated once for credit.
schedules; use of computer-assisted document                        Prerequisite: 14 credits including LGS 111 and LGS
preparation; automatic stays; turnover of property;           143 with an overall grade point average of 2.5 or better,
exemptions; secured creditors; and discharge.                 including a C or better in all LGS courses, or permission of
Lab fee $10.                                                  internship coordinator. LGS 144 and LGS 170 advisable.
                                                                    Note: Students will be provided with numerous
                                                              internship opportunities and mentorship in securing
                                                              placement; however, it is the student’s responsibility to be
                                                              interviewed and accepted by the internship agency.

The Legal Studies Institute (LSI) is recognized as a leading provider of comprehensive legal
education programs and training vital to students, legal professionals and the community, and to
the growth and quality of legal services in the region.

                         Created in July 2008, LSI’s mission is to meet the legal education,
                         training and information needs of students, legal professionals and
                         the community by providing:
                            ABA-approved instructional programs for future paralegals
                            Quality instructional programs for future lawyers
                            Customized training for attorneys, paralegals, and other
                            Continuing legal education programs and events
                            Partnerships with the courts, government offices, and legal
                            Affordable and accessible legal programs and activities for the

LSI is your gateway to an exciting legal career! Students can choose from a degree or
certificate program in Paralegal Studies—including a certificate program leading to work as
a nurse paralegal—or a pre-law degree transfer program in Law & Jurisprudence. Students
can even fast tract their education with LSI’s accelerated Paralegal Studies certificate cohort
program and earn a degree in only one year! Visit for more
Hard working, dedicated faculty members play a key role in the success of LSI students. A
rigorous program of study, taught by a professional and experienced team of six full-time
and approximately 20 part-time faculty members, prepares students with the knowledge
and skills needed to excel in the legal field. Full-time faculty members are attorneys whose
credentials include work as private practitioners, an assistant county attorney, a clerk for the
Court of Special Appeals and president of the county bar association. Part-time faculty
members include district, circuit, and administrative law judges, masters, practicing
attorneys, assistant state’s attorneys, mediators and experienced paralegals.
Assisting LSI faculty is an active external advisory board composed of judges, attorneys,
paralegals, and business executives from the community. The board meets twice annually
to review the curricula and suggest ways to expand and design the program to meet
workforce and professional needs.

Guest lecturers, who are professionals in their fields, speak to classes on topics ranging from
constitutional law to domestic law and mediation. Students learn about current issues such
as interpretation of constitutional amendments, use of legal software and child support
guidelines. LSI’s annual Forum on the Judiciary provides students a rare opportunity to
interact with judges from all levels of the Maryland Judiciary; and the annual Paralegal
Forum brings back to campus recent LSI graduates who discuss with current students career
options, education planning, and tips for finding the perfect job.

Comprehensive Program
LSI’s Law & Jurisprudence degree program offers a law and liberal arts foundation for
students interested in transferring to a four-year college or university to pursue a bachelor’s
degree in jurisprudence and, ultimately, attend law school. With a challenging curriculum,
students gain knowledge and insight into the building blocks of the American legal system,
refine critical thinking and analytical skills and gain experience in the intricacies of the
practice of law.
Students completing the Law & Jurisprudence program can expect seamless transfers to
four-year schools such as the University of Baltimore, the University of Maryland University
College, and the American Public University System.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for attorneys is good, but with keen job competition, according to
the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment for attorneys is
expected to grow 13 percent during the 2008-2018 decade, about as fast as the average for all
occupations. The growth in population and level of business activity is expected to create
more legal transactions, civil disputes, and criminal cases. Job growth among attorneys also
will result from increasing demand for legal services in areas such as health care, intellectual
property, bankruptcy, corporate and security litigation, antitrust, and environmental law.

ABA-Approved Program
LSI’s Paralegal Studies degree and certificate programs are approved by the American Bar
Association (ABA), which means the curricula meets the ABA’s stringent requirements and
standards for quality paralegal education. The program was reapproved by the ABA for the
maximum seven-year approval period through February 2012. Only five Maryland college
or university paralegal programs are ABA approved. Although many employers do not
require such approval, graduation from an ABA-approved program can enhance
employment opportunities

The Paralegal Studies Program has statewide designation, meaning out-of-county students
who are eligible may attend at in-county tuition rates.

Substantive Courses and Electives
Core courses in the degree and certificate programs provide a comprehensive sequence of
legal study including Introduction to Paralegal Studies, Business Law I and II, Torts,
Criminal Law, Criminal Evidence and Procedure, Civil Procedure, Legal Ethics, Domestic
Relations, Law Office Practice and Technology, Legal Research and Writing, and Advanced
Legal Research and Writing. Substantive legal topics are covered in electives such as
Mediation, International Law, Real Estate Law, Cyberlaw, Administrative Law, Trusts and
Estates, Intellectual Property, Health Care, Legal Issues in Aging and more.
Articulation agreements between AACC and other educational institutions enable Paralegal
Studies degree graduates to transfer seamlessly to paralegal or legal studies programs at
Stevenson University (formerly Villa Julie College), University of Baltimore, and University
of Maryland University College.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for paralegals is excellent. Employment in the paralegal profession is
projected to grow 28 percent, or much faster than average for all occupations in the decade
ending in 2018, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. In
Maryland where the field is among the top 10 fastest growing occupations, 205 openings are
projected annually through 2014 and beyond. Employers are trying to reduce costs and
increase the availability and efficiency of legal services by hiring paralegals to perform tasks
once done by lawyers. Paralegals are performing a wider variety of duties, making them
more useful to businesses. Private law firms employ 7 out of 10 paralegals; most of the
remainder work for corporate legal departments and various levels of government. Within
the Federal Government, the U.S. Department of Justice is the largest employer, followed by
the Social Security Administration, and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. A small
number of paralegals own their own businesses and work as freelance paralegals under the
supervision of client attorneys.
Demand for paralegals is expected to grow as an expanding population requires legal
services, especially in areas such as intellectually property, health care, international law,
elder issues, and criminal law. Private law firms will continue to be the largest employers of
paralegals, but a growing array of other organizations, such as corporate legal departments,
insurance companies, real estate and title insurance firms, and banks also hire paralegals.
Corporations in particular are expected to increase their in-house legal departments to cut costs.

State-of-the-Art Facilities
The Legal Studies Institute occupies space in the newly renovated Careers Building on the
Arnold campus. A suite of administrative offices, faculty space, law library, smart
classrooms, and meeting space provide students, faculty and staff with an exceptional
learning and working environment.
Courses are also taught at several other campus locations, including the Maryland State Law
Library, Arundel Mills campus, Glen Burnie Town Center campus, and Fort Meade.
J. Lynne Wood Law Library and Truxal Library
Paralegal Studies students are fortunate to have on-site at the Arnold campus two areas in
which to do research: The J. Lynne Wood Law Library in the Careers Building and the
college’s main Truxal Library.

The J. Lynne Wood Law Library contains Maryland legal resource materials, including the
Maryland Reporter, Maryland Appellate Reports, Maryland Annotated Code, Maryland
Digest, Maryland Law Encyclopedia, and Maryland Rules. In addition, there are many other
secondary sources, including textbooks, periodicals, magazines, etc. There are seven (7)
computer work stations, a printer, and a copier for student use. The Job Board and
Paralegal/Legal Studies Club bulletin board are housed in this facility.

In addition to this resource, students have access to AACC’s acclaimed Truxal Library,
which houses additional legal resources. For more information, visit

Other Nearby Legal and Government Resources
Students also have rich resources in legal and government centers located in Annapolis,
within close proximity to Anne Arundel Community College.

Students have access to the Maryland State Law Library (where Legal Research and Writing
is taught), the Maryland Archives, and the Maryland General Assembly (the State’s
legislative body). Students have toured Maryland’s courts and attended arguments and
trials before the Court of Appeals of Maryland, the Court of Special Appeals of Maryland,
the Circuit Court for Anne Arundel County, and the District Court for Anne Arundel
County. The heart of the United States government, Washington, D.C., is just one-half hour
away. Paralegal students have attended oral arguments before the United States Supreme
Court and toured the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) headquarters.

Legal Software
In the course, Law Office Practice and Technology, students have access to and learn to
operate new and current software used in legal offices. Gaining knowledge and skill in
these applications makes students more marketable and competent in tackling their first
internship, course assignment, or actual job. Software taught includes, among others: CT
Summation, TimeSlips, Case Map, Time Map, Concordance, Abacus Law, SASI-CALC,
Dragon Naturally 9, Microsoft Office Suite, Westlaw, and Lexis/Nexis.

Internship Program
Many Paralegal and Law & Jurisprudence students participate in the Internship course
where they are placed with regional law firms; county offices such as the State’s Attorney’s
Office, the Public Defender’s Office, the Circuit Court; private law offices; and governmental
agencies. Students are evaluated on their work and earn three credits toward their degree
or certificate. Paralegal students are encouraged to enroll in the Internship course in the last
semester prior to graduation as the internship experience can lead to salaried employment
or provides the necessary experience to gain employment immediately after graduation.

Legal Studies Club
Students enrolled in the Legal Studies Institute’s Paralegal Studies Program or Law &
Jurisprudence Program are eligible to join this student club. This is an active club, run by
students with a faculty advisor, that hosts guest speakers; travels to national and state
conferences; attends local legal dinners and events; takes trips to the Anne Arundel County
Detention Center, Anne Arundel County Circuit Court, Maryland Court of Appeals, Federal
Courts, U.S. Supreme Court; participates in the annual mock trial; conducts a raffle; and
holds social events.

Legal Forums and Speaker Series
Each fall and spring, students are able to enrich their traditional classroom experience by
attending several legal events. The Paralegal Forum is held each October. It features a panel
of Paralegal Studies graduates from various subject matter areas and legal offices speaking
on their careers. They offer advice to students on issues including the following: how to
land the perfect paralegal job, what employers are looking for, resume writing, practical
practice tips, etc. Also in the fall, students can attend a Speaker Series lecture. Last year,
Maryland Attorney General, Douglas F. Gansler spoke on legal issues and activities
pertinent to his office.
Each spring, students, faculty and the community attend the Legal Studies Institute’s
signature event, the Forum on the Judiciary. The chief judges from each level of the Maryland
Judiciary, a federal judge, and master sit on a panel to discuss their respective court, their
career, and a selected topic of interest. Past topics have included: ―Your Rights Under the
Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure,‖ ―Use of Technology in the Courtroom,‖ ―The
Exclusionary rule: Protecting the Guilty...and the Innocent.‖

The Legal Studies Institute offers CLE courses for attorneys, mediators, paralegals, and
other legal professionals in Maryland and the surrounding region. A variety of courses are
offered throughout the year, including such topics as: Family Law Legislative Update; E–
Discovery: Tips and Best Practices; Legal Research Refresher; Electronic Legal Refresher;
Resume and Interviewing Skills for Paralegals; Complaint and Answer Drafting. Courses
are offered in traditional classroom instruction, as well as online and podcasts; webinars are
planned for the future. All courses are taught by experienced attorneys and paralegals. For
more information on current CLE programs, visit

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition

Significant Points                                    clients and witnesses, and handling other details
   About 26 percent of lawyers are self-             in preparation for a trial.
    employed, either as partners in law firms or
                                                      Lawyers may specialize in a number of areas,
    in solo practices.
                                                      such as bankruptcy, probate, international, elder,
   Formal requirements to become a lawyer            or environmental law. Those specializing in, for
    usually include a 4-year college degree, 3        example, environmental law may represent
    years of law school, and passing a written        interest groups, waste disposal companies, or
    bar examination; however, some                    construction firms in their dealings with the U.S.
    requirements may vary by State.                   Environmental Protection Agency and other
                                                      Federal and State agencies. These lawyers help
   Competition for admission to most law
                                                      clients prepare and file for licenses and applications
    schools is intense.
                                                      for approval before certain activities are permitted
   Competition for job openings should be keen       to occur. Some lawyers specialize in the growing
    because of the large number of students           field of intellectual property, helping to protect
    graduating from law school each year.             clients’ claims to copyrights, artwork under
                                                      contract, product designs, and computer programs.
Nature of the Work                                    Other lawyers advise insurance companies about
The legal system affects nearly every aspect of       the legality of insurance transactions, guiding the
our society, from buying a home to crossing the       company in writing insurance policies to conform
street. Lawyers form the backbone of this system,     to the law and to protect the companies from
linking it to society in numerous ways. They          unwarranted claims. When claims are filed against
hold positions of great responsibility and are        insurance companies, these attorneys review the
obligated to adhere to a strict code of ethics.       claims and represent the companies in court.

Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both           Most lawyers are in private practice, concentrating
advocates and advisors in our society. As             on criminal or civil law. In criminal law, lawyers
advocates, they represent one of the parties in       represent individuals who have been charged
criminal and civil trials by presenting evidence      with crimes and argue their cases in courts of
and arguing in court to support their client. As      law. Attorneys dealing with civil law assist
advisors, lawyers counsel their clients about         clients with litigation, wills, trusts, contracts,
their legal rights and obligations and suggest        mortgages, titles, and leases. Other lawyers
particular courses of action in business and          handle only public-interest cases—civil or
personal matters. Whether acting as an advocate       criminal—concentrating on particular causes and
or an advisor, all attorneys research the intent of   choosing cases that might have an impact on the
laws and judicial decisions and apply the law to      way law is applied. Lawyers sometimes are
the specific circumstances faced by their clients.    employed full time by a single client. If the client
                                                      is a corporation, the lawyer is known as ―house
The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job           counsel‖ and usually advises the company
depend upon his or her field of specialization        concerning legal issues related to its business
and position. Although all lawyers are licensed       activities. These issues might involve patents,
to represent parties in court, some appear in         government regulations, contracts with other
court more frequently than others. Trial lawyers      companies, property interests, or collective-
spend the majority of their time outside the          bargaining agreements with unions.
courtroom, conducting research, interviewing
A significant number of attorneys are employed           Lawyers often work long hours; of those who
at the various levels of government. Some work           work full time, about 33 percent work 50 or more
for State attorneys general, prosecutors, and            hours per week.
public defenders in criminal courts. At the
Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the       Training, Other Qualifications,
U.S. Department of Justice and other agencies.           and Advancement
Government lawyers also help develop
programs, draft and interpret laws and                   Formal requirements to become a lawyer usually
legislation, establish enforcement procedures,           include a 4-year college degree, 3 years of law
and argue civil and criminal cases on behalf of          school, and passing a written bar examination;
the government.                                          however, some requirements vary by State.
                                                         Competition for admission to most law schools is
Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—              intense. Federal courts and agencies set their own
private, nonprofit organizations established to          qualifications for those practicing before or in
serve disadvantaged people. These lawyers                them.
generally handle civil, rather than criminal, cases.
                                                         Education and training. Becoming a lawyer
Lawyers are increasingly using various forms of          usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high
technology to perform more efficiently. Although         school—4 years of undergraduate study,
all lawyers continue to use law libraries to prepare     followed by 3 years of law school. Law school
cases, most supplement conventional printed              applicants must have a bachelor’s degree to
sources with computer sources, such as the               qualify for admission. To meet the needs of
Internet and legal databases. Software is used to        students who can attend only part time, a
search this legal literature automatically and to        number of law schools have night or part-time
identify legal texts relevant to a specific case. In     divisions.
litigation involving many supporting documents,
lawyers may use computers to organize and index          Although there is no recommended ―prelaw‖
materials. Lawyers must be geographically mobile         undergraduate major, prospective lawyers
and able to reach their clients in a timely matter, so   should develop proficiency in writing and
they might use electronic filing, Web and                speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and
videoconferencing, mobile electronic devices, and        thinking logically—skills needed to succeed both
voice-recognition technology to share information        in law school and in the law. Regardless of
more effectively.                                        major, a multidisciplinary background is
                                                         recommended. Courses in English, foreign
Work environment. Lawyers do most of their               languages, public speaking, government,
work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms.          philosophy, history, economics, mathematics,
They sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places          and computer science, among others, are useful.
of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or         Students interested in a particular aspect of law
prisons. They may travel to attend meetings,             may find related courses helpful. For example,
gather evidence, and appear before courts,               prospective patent lawyers need a strong
legislative bodies, and other authorities. They          background in engineering or science, and future
also may face particularly heavy pressure when           tax lawyers must have extensive knowledge of
a case is being tried. Preparation for court             accounting.
includes understanding the latest laws and
judicial decisions.                                      Acceptance by most law schools depends on the
                                                         applicant’s ability to demonstrate an aptitude for
Salaried lawyers usually have structured work            the study of law, usually through undergraduate
schedules. Lawyers who are in private practice           grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT),
or those who work for large firms may work               the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate
irregular hours, including weekends, while               school, any prior work experience, and
conducting research, conferring with clients, or         sometimes, a personal interview. However, law
preparing briefs during non-office hours.

schools vary in the weight they place on each of     teach. Some law students pursue joint degree
these and other factors.                             programs, which usually require an additional
                                                     semester or year of study. Joint degree programs
All law schools approved by the American Bar
                                                     are offered in a number of areas, including
Association (ABA) require applicants to take the
                                                     business administration or public
LSAT. As of June 2008, there were 200 ABA-
accredited law schools; others were approved by
State authorities only. Nearly all law schools       After graduation, lawyers must keep informed
require applicants to have certified transcripts     about legal and non-legal developments that
sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service,        affect their practices. In 2008, 46 States and
which then submits the applicants’ LSAT scores       jurisdictions required lawyers to participate in
and their standardized records of college grades     mandatory continuing legal education. Many
to the law schools of their choice. The Law          law schools and State and local bar associations
School Admission Council administers both this       provide continuing education courses that help
service and the LSAT. Competition for                lawyers stay abreast of recent developments.
admission to many law schools—especially the         Some States allow continuing education credits
most prestigious ones—is usually intense, with       to be obtained through participation in seminars
the number of applicants greatly exceeding the       on the Internet.
number that can be admitted.
                                                     Licensure. To practice law in the courts of any
During the first year or year and a half of law      State or other jurisdiction, a person must be
school, students usually study core courses, such    licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules
as constitutional law, contracts, property law,      established by the jurisdiction’s highest court.
torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the    All States require that applicants for admission
remaining time, they may choose specialized          to the bar pass a written bar examination; most
courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate   States also require applicants to pass a separate
law. Law students often gain practical               written ethics examination. Lawyers who have
experience by participating in school-sponsored      been admitted to the bar in one State
legal clinics; in the school’s moot court            occasionally may be admitted to the bar in
competitions, in which students conduct              another without taking another examination if
appellate arguments; in practice trials under the    they meet the latter jurisdiction’s standards of
supervision of experienced lawyers and judges;       good moral character and a specified period of
and through research and writing on legal issues     legal experience. In most cases, however,
for the school’s law journals.                       lawyers must pass the bar examination in each
                                                     State in which they plan to practice. Federal
A number of law schools have clinical programs
                                                     courts and agencies set their own qualifications
in which students gain legal experience through
                                                     for those practicing before or in them.
practice trials and projects under the supervision
of lawyers and law school faculty. Law school        To qualify for the bar examination in most States,
clinical programs might include work in, for         an applicant must earn a college degree and
example, legal-aid offices or on legislative         graduate from a law school accredited by the
committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in        ABA or the proper State authorities. ABA
law firms, government agencies, and corporate        accreditation signifies that the law school—
legal departments also provide valuable              particularly its library and faculty—meets certain
experience. Such training can lead directly to a     standards. With certain exceptions, graduates of
job after graduation and can help students           schools not approved by the ABA are restricted
decide what kind of practice best suits them.        to taking the bar examination and practicing in
Law school graduates receive the degree of juris     the State or other jurisdiction in which the school
doctor (J.D.), a first professional degree.          is located; most of these schools are in California.
Advanced law degrees may be desirable for            Although there is no nationwide bar examination,
those planning to specialize, perform research, or   48 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the

Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the             administrators; a growing number of these
Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar           lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields
Examination (MBE) as part of their overall bar             as well.
examination; the MBE is not required in Louisiana
or Washington. The MBE covers a broad range of             Some attorneys use their legal training in
issues, and sometimes a locally prepared State bar         administrative or managerial positions in
examination is given in addition to it. The 3-hour         various departments of large corporations. A
Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part         transfer from a corporation’s legal department to
of the bar examination in several States. States vary      another department is often viewed as a way to
in their use of MBE and MEE scores.                        gain administrative experience and rise in the
                                                           ranks of management.
Many States also require the Multistate Performance
Test to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers.    Employment
Requirements vary by State, although the test
                                                           Lawyers held about 759,200 jobs in 2008.
usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam
                                                           Approximately 26 percent of lawyers were self-
and is a one-time requirement.
                                                           employed, practicing either as partners in law
In 2008, law school graduates in 52 jurisdictions          firms or in solo practices. Most salaried lawyers
were required to pass the Multistate Professional          held positions in government, in law firms or
Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests             other corporations, or in nonprofit organizations.
their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional           Most government-employed lawyers worked at
responsibility and judicial conduct. In some               the local level. In the Federal Government,
States, the MPRE may be taken during law school,           lawyers worked for many different agencies, but
usually after completing a course on legal ethics.         were concentrated in the Departments of Justice,
                                                           Treasury, and Defense. Many salaried lawyers
Other qualifications. The practice of law involves         working outside of government were employed
a great deal of responsibility. Individuals planning       as house counsel by public utilities, banks,
careers in law should like to work with people             insurance companies, real-estate agencies,
and be able to win the respect and confidence of           manufacturing firms, and other business firms
their clients, associates, and the public. Perseverance,   and nonprofit organizations. Some also had part-
creativity, and reasoning ability also are essential       time independent practices, while others worked
to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases and            part time as lawyers and full time in another
handle new and unique legal problems.                      occupation.
Trial lawyers, who specialize in trial work, must          A relatively small number of trained attorneys
be able to think quickly and speak with ease and           work in law schools and are not included in the
authority. In addition, familiarity with                   employment estimate for lawyers. Most are
courtroom rules and strategy is particularly               faculty members who specialize in one or more
important in trial work.                                   subjects; however, some serve as administrators.
                                                           Others work full time in nonacademic settings
Advancement. Most beginning lawyers start in
                                                           and teach part time.
salaried positions. Newly hired attorneys
                                                           (For additional information, see the Handbook
usually start as associates and work with more
                                                           section on teachers—postsecondary.)
experienced lawyers or judges. After several
years, some lawyers are admitted to
                                                           Job Outlook
partnership in their firm, which means that
they are partial owners of the firm, or go into            About as fast as the average employment growth is
practice for themselves. Some experienced                  projected, but job competition is expected to be keen.
lawyers are nominated or elected to judgeships.
(See the section on judges, magistrates, and other         Employment change. Employment of lawyers is
judicial workers elsewhere in the Handbook.)               expected to grow 13 percent during the
Others become full-time law school faculty or              2008-18 decade, about as fast as the average for

all occupations. Growth in the population and in       are expected to continue to arise in these
the level of business activity is expected to create   organizations at a growing rate.
more legal transactions, civil disputes, and
criminal cases. Job growth among lawyers also          As in the past, some graduates may have to
will result from increasing demand for legal           accept positions outside of their field of interest
services in such areas as healthcare, intellectual     or for which they feel overqualified. Some recent
property, bankruptcy, corporate and security           law school graduates who have been unable to
litigation, antitrust law, and environmental law.      find permanent positions are turning to the
In addition, the wider availability and                growing number of temporary staffing firms that
affordability of legal clinics should result in        place attorneys in short-term jobs. This service
increased use of legal services by middle-income       allows companies to hire lawyers on an ―as-
people. However, growth in demand for lawyers          needed‖ basis and permits beginning lawyers to
will be constrained as businesses increasingly         develop practical skills.
use large accounting firms and paralegals to
                                                       Because of the keen competition for jobs, a law
perform some of the same functions that lawyers
                                                       graduate’s geographic mobility and work
do. For example, accounting firms may provide
                                                       experience are assuming greater importance.
employee-benefit counseling, process
                                                       Willingness to relocate may be an advantage
documents, or handle various other services
                                                       in getting a job, but to be licensed in another
previously performed by a law firm. Also,
                                                       State, a lawyer may have to take an additional
mediation and dispute resolution are increasingly
                                                       State bar examination. In addition, employers
being used as alternatives to litigation.
                                                       increasingly are seeking graduates who have
Job growth for lawyers will continue to be             advanced law degrees and experience in a
concentrated in salaried jobs as businesses and        specialty, such as tax, patent, or admiralty law.
all levels of government employ a growing
number of staff attorneys. Most salaried               Job opportunities often are adversely affected by
positions are in urban areas where government          cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions,
agencies, law firms, and big corporations are          demand declines for some discretionary legal
concentrated. The number of self-employed              services, such as planning estates, drafting
lawyers is expected to grow slowly, reflecting the     wills, and handling real estate transactions.
difficulty of establishing a profitable new practice   Also, corporations are less likely to litigate
in the face of competition from larger, established    cases when declining sales and profits restrict
law firms. Moreover, the growing complexity of         their budgets. Some corporations and law firms
the law, which encourages specialization, along        will not hire new attorneys until business
with the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal          improves, and these establishments may even
research materials, favors larger firms.               cut staff to contain costs. Several factors,
                                                       however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions
Job prospects. Competition for job openings            on lawyers; during recessions, for example,
should continue to be keen because of the large        individuals and corporations face other legal
number of students graduating from law school          problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures,
each year. Graduates with superior academic            and divorces—all requiring legal action.
records from highly regarded law schools will
have the best job opportunities. Perhaps as a          For lawyers who wish to work independently,
result of competition for attorney positions,          establishing a new practice will probably be easiest
lawyers are increasingly finding work in less          in small towns and expanding suburban areas. In
traditional areas for which legal training is an       such communities, competition from larger,
asset, but not normally a requirement—for              established law firms is likely to be less than in big
example, administrative, managerial, and               cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to
business positions in banks, insurance firms, real     establish a reputation among potential clients.
estate companies, government agencies, and
other organizations. Employment opportunities
Projections Data
Projections data from the National Employment Matrix
Occupational Title                               SOC      Employment    Projected              Change
                                                 Code                  Employment             2008-2018

                                                             2008           2018       Number        Percent

Lawyers                                         23-2011     759,200       857,700       98,500            13

(NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook
introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.

In May 2008, the median annual wages of all                  Salaries of experienced attorneys vary widely
wage-and-salaried lawyers were $110,590. The                 according to the type, size, and location of their
middle half of the occupation earned between                 employer. Lawyers who own their own practices
$74,980 and $163,320. Median annual wages in                 usually earn less than those who are partners in
the industries employing the largest numbers of              law firms. Lawyers starting their own practice
lawyers in May 2008 were:                                    may need to work part time in other occupations
                                                             to supplement their income until their practice is
Management of companies & enterprises      $145,770          well established.
Federal Executive Branch                   126,080
Legal Services                             116,550           Median salaries of lawyers 9 months after
Local Government                            82,590           graduation from law school in 2007 varied by
State Government                            78,540           type of work, as indicated in table 1.

Table 1. Median salaries, 9 months after graduation

Employer                                                                                            Salary
All graduates                                                                                       $68,500
Private practice                                                                                    108,500
Business                                                                                             69,100
Government                                                                                           50,000
Academic/judicial clerkships                                                                         48,000
SOURCE: National Association of Law Placement

Most salaried lawyers are provided health and life insurance, and contributions are made to retirement plans
on their behalf. Lawyers who practice independently are covered only if they arrange and pay for such
benefits themselves.

For the latest wage information: The above wage data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)
survey program, unless otherwise noted. For the latest National, State, and local earnings data, visit the
following pages ;

      lawyers

Related Occupations                                     Government,‖ online at
Legal training is necessary in many other               opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf.
occupations, including:                                 The requirements for admission to the bar in a
 Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers       particular State or other jurisdiction may be
                                                        obtained at the State capital, from the clerk of the
 Law clerks
                                                        Supreme Court, or from the administrator of the
 Paralegals and legal assistants                       State Board of Bar Examiners.
 Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

Sources of Additional Information                       O*NET-SOC Code Coverage
Disclaimer:                                             Get more information from O*NET-
Links to non-BLS Internet sites are provided for your   the Occupational Information Network:
convenience and do not constitute endorsement.
                                                        O*NET provides comprehensive information on
Information on law schools and a career in law          key characteristics of workers and occupations.
may be obtained from the following                      For more information on a specific occupation,
organizations:                                          select the appropriate link below. For more infor-
   American Bar Association                            mation on O*NET, visit their homepage.
    321 North Clark St.
    Chicago, IL 60654.                                    Lawyers (23-1011.00)
    Internet:                Suggested citation: Bureau of Labor Statistics,
                                                        U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook
   National Association for Law Placement,
                                                        Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Lawyers, on the Inter-
    1025 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 1110,
                                                        net at
    Washington, DC 20036.
                                                        (visited April 20, 2011)
Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data            Last Modified Date: June 7, 2011
Assembly Service, the law school application
                                                        U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
process, and financial aid available to law
                                                        Office of Occupational Statistics and
students may be obtained from:
                                                        Employment Projections, PSB Suite 2135
  Law School Admission Council                         2 Massachusetts Avenue
   662 Penn St., Newtown                                NE Washington, DC 20212-0001
   PA 18940.                                  
   Internet:                        Telephone: 1-202-691-5700

Information on obtaining positions as lawyers
with the Federal Government is available from
the Office of Personnel Management through
USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official
employment information system. This resource
for locating and applying for job opportunities
can be accessed through the Internet at or through an
interactive voice response telephone system at
(703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These
numbers are not toll free, and charges may
For advice on how to find and apply for Federal
jobs, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly
article ―How to get a job in the Federal

                                   AACC VISION
     Anne Arundel Community College is a premier learning community whose
     students and graduates are among the best-prepared citizens and workers of
     the world.

     The college discussed, developed and adopted this statement in light of
     continuing national discussions on civility in American society. We work
     hard to promote the spirit of community here at AACC. Our Spirit of
     Community statement follows:

            Anne Arundel Community College is built on our commitment to
             excellence, engagement in the learning process and mutual respect and
            As a member of the Anne Arundel Community College community, I
             have the obligation to accept responsibility for my conduct. I will:

                 Respect the rights and property of all members of the campus community
                 Uphold personal and academic integrity
                 Practice honesty in communication
                 Listen to others’ viewpoints
                 Recognize the strength of diversity
                 Oppose bigotry
                 Work with others to uphold these standards


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