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					Nuclear Power

  By Riddhi Lodhia
        And
Rea – Grace Maamari
        10th
               Atoms and Isotopes
The nuclear model
  Atoms contain three sub-atomic particles called protons, neutrons and
  electrons. The protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus at the centre
  of the atom, and the electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells around
  the nucleus.





   Isotopes
    All the atoms of a given element have the same number of protons and
    electrons. However, the number of neutrons can vary. Atoms of the same
    element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes of that
    element. The diagram shows three hydrogen isotopes.
    How does Nuclear Power Work?
   Uranium and plutonium
   The main nuclear fuels are
    uranium and plutonium. These
    are radioactive metals. Nuclear
    fuels are not burnt to release
    energy. Instead, the fuels are
    involved in nuclear reactions in
    the nuclear reactor, which
    leads to heat being released.

   The rest of the process
    process using fossil fuels. The
    heat of generating electricity is
    then identical to the energy is
    used to boil water. The kinetic
    energy in the expanding steam
    spins turbines, which then
    drive generators to produce
    electricity.
Advantages and Disadvantages
                 Advantages
                 Unlike fossil fuels, nuclear
                  fuels do not produce carbon
                  dioxide or sulfur dioxide.

                 Disadvantages
                 Like fossil fuels, nuclear fuels
                  are non-renewable energy
                  resources. If there is an
                  accident, large amounts of
                  radioactive material could be
                  released into the environment.
                  In addition, nuclear waste
                  remains radioactive and is
                  hazardous to health for
                  thousands of years. It must be
                  stored safely.
                              Radiation
   There are three main types of radiation, called alpha, beta and gamma
    radiation, which all have different properties. Radiation can damage cells
    and make them cancerous. Very high doses of radiation can kill cells. It can
    be detected using photographic film or a Geiger-Muller tube. Radiation
    badges are used to monitor the level of radiation that people who work with
    radioactive sources are exposed to.

   Alpha radiation
   Alpha radiation consists of alpha particles. An alpha particle is identical to
    the nucleus of a helium atom, which comprises two protons and two
    neutrons.

   Beta radiation
   Beta radiation consists of high energy electrons emitted from the nucleus.
    These electrons have not come from the electron shells or energy levels
    around the nucleus. Instead, they form when a neutron splits into a proton
    and an electron. The electron then shoots out of the nucleus at high speed.

   Gamma radiation
   Gamma radiation is very short wavelength (high frequency) electromagnetic
    radiation. This is similar to other types of electromagnetic radiation such as
    visible light and X-rays, which can travel long distances.

				
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posted:2/11/2013
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