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Persian Phrasebook

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					Persian phrasebook                                                                                                            1



    Persian phrasebook
    Persian is an ancient language of Indo-European family. You can find many grammatical similarities between
    Persian and the other languages of this family. However, Persian is similar more to its coeval languages like Latin
    than to relatively newer languages. For instance, both Latin and Persian have a SOV word order (they both have free
    word order, though), which is uncommon among most modern European languages (even the descendants of Latin).
    Today, Persian is mainly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Bahrain. It has official status in the
    first three countries but was once the official, court, or literary language of many more places ranging from Turkey
    through India. At this time, many Persian poets emerged from Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and the regions
    under the control of Ottoman Empire. It is still appreciated as a literary and prestigious language among the educated
    elite. Many people in Iran and neighboring countries know Persian fluently even though it's not their mother tongue.
    It's because Iran (formerly "Persia" until 1935) was historically much bigger before losing many territories,
    especially to its neighbor Russia (for more information, see Wikipedia: Greater Iran [1]). After the 1979 revolution,
    many Iranians migrated to the West and as a result, there are numerous Persian-speaking communities throughout
    the world, particularly in USA. Persian is the second language of Islam so in many Islamic countries you can find
    someone knowing Persian.
    The local name of the language is Farsi (officially, Fârsiyè Dari (Dari Persian), which means "Official/Court
    Persian"). The word Farsi has also entered English mainly because West-migrated Iranians didn't know about the
    native English name of their language (i.e. Persian) and began to use Farsi, which still prevails although somewhat
    decreased. Persian has three main dialects: Iranian Persian (Farsi), Afghan Persian (Dari) and Tajik Persian (Tajik).
    They are all mutually intelligible. The written form is the same for Farsi and Dari, both using the Arabic alphabet;
    Tajik is generally written with the Cyrillc alphabet.
    Note - The contents of this page are written in bookish Persian so that you can use them not only in Iran but also in
    Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other countries. See Dari phrasebook for Afghan Persian and Tajik phrasebook for that
    dialect.


    Pronunciation guide
    The Persian writing system derives from that of Arabic, extended with four letters to denote the sounds not found in
    Arabic. Persian writing system is not an alphabet but an abjad. An abjad has only characters for denoting consonant
    sounds. Vowels have no specific character; they are indicated either by certain diacritics or by certain consonant
    characters. Additionally, most letters change shape when they are followed by another letter.


    Vowels and diphthongs

                                           Transcription IPA             Sound

                                           a            æ      as a in ant

                                           â            ɒː     as aw in father

                                           e            e      as e in egg

                                           i            iː     as ea in eagle

                                           o            o      as o in boat, but shorter

                                           u            uː     as u in flute

                                           ow           oʊ     as ow in American English

                                           ey           eɪ     as ey in they
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                             2


    Regarding their indication in the Persian script:
    • The sounds a, e, o can be indicated with certain diacritics but they are practically only used in elementary-school
      books. The vowel o is sometimes denoted with the consonant ‫( ﻭ‬v).
    • The sounds â is always indicated: with ‫ ﺁ‬at word initial and with ‫ ﺍ‬elsewhere.
    • The sounds i and ey are indicated with ‫ ﺍﯼ‬at word initial and with the consonant ‫( ﯼ‬y) elsewhere.
    • The sounds u and ow are indicated with ‫ ﺍﻭ‬at word initial and with the consonant ‫( ﻭ‬v) elsewhere.


    Consonants

                     Character Transcription IPA                                      Sound

                     ‫ﺍ‬                             •   at word initial can denote: a, e, o; elsewhere: â
                                                   •   at word initial when followed by ‫ ﯼ‬can denote: i (mostly) and ey
                                                   •   at word initial when followed by ‫ ﻭ‬can denote: u (mostly), ow and ave

                     ‫ﺁ‬         â            ɒː     as o in hot

                     ‫ﺏ‬         b            b      as in bob

                     ‫ﭖ‬         p            p      as in put

                     ‫ﺕ‬         t            t      as in tea

                     ‫ﺙ‬         s            s      as in sad

                     ‫ﺝ‬         j            dʒ     as in job

                     ‫ﭺ‬         ch           tʃ     as in cheese

                     ‫ﺡ‬         h            h      as in head

                     ‫ﺥ‬         x            x      as ch in Scottish loch, German Buch

                     ‫ﺭ‬         r            r      similar to r in Spanish reloj

                     ‫ﺯ‬         z            z      as in zoo

                     ‫ﮊ‬         ž            ʒ      as s in vision, pleasure, French j in jardin

                     ‫ﺱ‬         s            s      as in sad

                     ‫ﺵ‬         š            ʃ      as in sheet

                     ‫ﺹ‬         s            s      as in sad

                     ‫ﺽ‬         z            z      as in zoo

                     ‫ﻁ‬         t            t      as in tea

                     ‫ﻅ‬         z            z      as in zoo

                     ‫ﻉ‬         ø            ʔ      glottal stop

                     ‫ﻍ‬         q            ɣ      similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben

                     ‫ﻑ‬         f            f      as in feet

                     ‫ﻕ‬         q            ɣ      similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben

                     ‫ﮎ‬         k            k      as in keep

                     ‫ﮒ‬         g            g      as in go

                     ‫ﻝ‬         l            l      as in leave

                     ‫ﻡ‬         m            m      as in moon

                     ‫ﻥ‬         n            n      as in noon

                     ‫ﻭ‬         v            v      as in van; also used to denote some vowel sounds

                     ‫ﯼ‬         y            j      as in yet; also used to denote some vowel sounds
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                          3


                     ‫ﻩ‬       h              h       as in head


    As you may note, there are characters that denote identical sounds e.g. ‫ ﺯ ,ﺽ, ﻅ‬are all pronounced z. It's because
    Persian has preserved the spelling of Arabic loanwords. Each of these characters has distinguished sounds in Arabic
    but they are all pronounced the same in Persian.


    Syllable
    Persian has the following syllable patterns (C = Consonant, V = Vowel):

                                         Pattern                          Examples

                                         CV         na, to, ke, mâ, xu, si, u

                                         CVC        kar, pol, del, kâr, mur, sir, az, in, âb

                                         CVCC       kard, goft, zešt, kârd, xošk, rixt, farš, ârd, abr


    These patterns can be encapsulated in CV(C)(C). According to the patterns:
    • A syllable always begins with a consonant sound. Please note that syllables which visually begin with a vowel
      sound, have a preceding glottal stop merged with their sound. For instance, u (he, she) is actually said øu and ârd
      (flour) is actually said øârd.
    • The second component of any syllable is a vowel sound.
    • Each syllable can only have one vowel sound. Therefore, each vowel indicates a syllable.
    As opposed to English and many other languages, Persian does not allow two or more consonants to begin a syllable.
    Therefore, loanwords with such a characteristic are always Persianized:

                                         Word                      Persian                     Pattern

                                    English: stadium estâdiyom (øes.tâ.di.yom) CVC.CV.CV.CVC

                                    English: traffic     terâfik (te.râ.fik)              CV.CV.CVC

                                    French: class        kelâs (ke.lâs)                   CV.CVC


    To help you understand it better, here are some basic words along with their syllabification:

                                                    Word      Syllabification        Meaning

                                                bimârestân bi.mâ.res.tân         hospital

                                                ketâbxâne     ke.tâb.xâ.ne       library

                                                dâruxâne      dâ.ru.xâ.ne        drug store

                                                širiniforuši ši.ri.ni.fo.ru.ši   confectionery

                                                xiyâbân       xi.yâ.bân          street

                                                otobus        øo.to.bus          bus

                                                metro         met.ro             subway
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                                4


    Stress
    The stress is on the last syllable. However, a few adverbs do not follow this regularity. In addition, Persian has a
    number of enclitics, which simply put, are unstressed endings (English example: 's in Peter's book). Enclitics do not
    change the stress position of the word to which they attach. Therefore, the stress position does not shift to the last
    syllable e.g. pedaram (my father): pe.dar + enclitic -am = pe.da.ram (rather than expected pe.da.ram)
    Note - As an aid to beginners, the grave accent can be placed on the first vowel of enclitics to make them
    distinguishable from suffixes and final letters of words. This method is used here for the genitive enclitic (è / yè),
    indefinite enclitic (ì / yì) and enclitic form of "and" (ò).


    Basic grammar
    Persian has a relatively easy and mostly regular grammar. Therefore, reading this grammar primer would help you
    learn much about Persian grammar and understand phrases better. You should also be able to memorize phrases
    easier.


    Gender
    Persian is a gender-neutral language. Such languages don't differentiate different grammatical genders (masculine,
    feminine and neuter) and have identical pronouns, adjectives, etc. for all of them. For example, Persian has one word
    for both English "he" and "she", "him" and "her", "his" and "her".


    Articles
    There is no definite article in Persian. A bare noun indicates a definite noun (which includes common and generic
    nouns) e.g. mâšin dar pârking ast: the car is in the garage (literally: car, in garage, is); az mâr mitarsam: I'm afraid of
    snakes (literally: from snake fear-I)
    Indefiniteness is expressed with the enclitic -ì (or -yì after vowels). It is for both singular and plural nouns. English
    does not have an exact equivalent for the Persian's plural indefinite article. It's often translated as "some" or "a few"
    or is simply omitted. The indefinite enclitic is added to the end of the noun phrase: mâšinì (a car, some car),
    mâšinhâyì (some cars)


    Plural
    Nouns are pluralized with the suffix -hâ. It's the only plural suffix used in spoken Persian. In written Persian, there's
    another plural suffix -ân (-gân after the vowel e and -yân after other vowels) which can only be used for animates
    and human beings in particular. It is especially useful to restrict the meaning to human beings. For example:
    • sar means "head", sarhâ means "heads" and sarân means "chiefs, heads, leaders"
    • gozašte means "past", gozaštehâ means "the past (events, etc.)" and gozaštegân means "the people of the past"
    Arabic loanwords have usually brought their irregular plural forms (technically referred to as "broken plurals") into
    Persian but they can be avoided and you can use -hâ to pluralize them. In spoken Persian, broken plurals are never
    used except for very few cases where the broken plural has found an extended meaning. Regarding written Persian of
    today, the use of broken plurals has greatly decreased and it's prevalent to pluralize words with -hâ.
    Note - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when preceded by numbers because the number itself indicates quantity
    e.g. yek ketâb (one/a book), do/se/panjâh ketâb (two/three/fifty books).
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                              5


    Genitive case
    In Persian, the genitive case relates two or more words to each other. The genitive case is marked with the enclitic -è
    (or -yè after vowels). The genitive enclitic is added to all the words that are connected to the head word and
    complement it. Look at the following examples:

                         To designate        Persian                    English                   Template

                         possession     pedarè Ali        the father of Ali, Ali's father   father-è Ali

                                        mâdarè man        my mother                         mother-è I

                                        payâmbarè Eslâm the prophet of Islam                prophet-è Islam

                                        nâmè ketâb        the name of the book, book's name name-è book

                         attribute      dustè xub         good friend                       friend-è good

                                        Âmrikâyè jonubi   South America                     America-yè south(ern)

                         other relations kešvarè Irân     the country of Iran               country-yè Iran

                                        sâlè 2008         year 2008                         year-è 2008

                                        bâlâyè miz        above table                       top-è table

                                        šomâlè Tehrân     north of Tehran                   north-è Tehran



    Accusative case
    The accusative case is indicated with the enclitic râ, added to the end of the noun phrase. Despite being an enclitic, it
    is written apart from the host word in the Persian script. Examples: dar râ bastam (I closed the door), in filmè Hendi
    râ qablan dide budam (I had already seen this Indian film).


    Adjective
    Adjectives have only one form. They agree neither in gender nor in number with the noun they modify. They come
    after the noun and are related to it with the genitive enclitic: pesarè xub: good boy (template: boy-è good),
    doxtarhâyè xub: good girls (template: girl-hâ-yè good). As stated before, the indefinite article is added to the end of
    the noun phrase, so: pesarè xubì (a/some good boy), doxtarhâyè xubì ((some) good girls).

    Comparative
    The comparative form of an adjective is always made by adding the comparative suffix -tar to the end of the
    adjective: bad (bad), badtar (worse); kam (little), kamtar (less); zibâ (beautiful), zibâtar (more beautiful).
    The common pattern to compare A with B is: A + comparative + az (from) + B + verb
    • [došmanè dânâ] [behtar] [az] [dustè nâdân] [ast]: a wise foe is better than a foolish friend (template: foe-yè wise,
      good-tar, from, friend-è foolish, is). It's a Persian proverb.
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                             6


    Superlative
    The superlative form of an adjective is always made by adding the superlative suffix -in to the comparative: bad
    (bad), badtar (worse), badtarin (the worst). The superlative comes before the noun e.g. behtarin hotel (the best hotel),
    behtarin hotelè in šahr (the best hotel of this city)


    Demonstratives
    Demonstrative adjectives come before nouns and like other adjectives, they have only one form. In Persian, we don't
    say "these books" but "this books". The plural form itself indicates that we are pointing to a plural noun. Basic
    demonstrative adjectives are ân (distal: that, those) and in (proximal: this, these):
    • When combined with jâ (place), they make adverbs: injâ (here) and ânjâ (there)
    • When combined with chon (like), they make demonstratives: chonin (such, like this) and chonân (such, like that)
    • When combined with ham (also; even), they make demonstratives: hamin (this/the same/one/very) and hamân
      (that/the same/one/very)
    A pronoun (pro-noun) substitutes a noun phrase therefore the quantity (singular or plural) must be indicated.
    Therefore, demonstrative pronouns agree in number with the noun phrase whose place they take: ân (that), ânhâ
    (those), in (this), inhâ (these).
    Demonstrative pronouns are also used as subjective pronouns. For example, the Persian word for "they" is ânhâ.
    Distal pronouns (ân, ânhâ, hamân, hamânhâ) are either used neutrally (i.e. not denoting distance from the speaker) or
    natively (i.e. indicating remoteness); but proximal pronouns (in, inhâ, hamin, haminhâ) are always used natively and
    indicate proximity to the speaker. English doesn't have such a feature.


    Personal pronouns
    Personal pronouns have two forms. One is their normal form called free personal pronouns (free in the sense of
    "not bound, separate") and the other is their enclitic form called bound personal pronouns. Subjective pronouns of
    English: "I, you, he, she, etc." are analogous to free personal pronouns but English does not have any equivalent for
    Persian's bound personal pronouns.
    Persian has formal and informal 2nd and 3rd person. In addition, people of higher ranks like kings usually use 1st
    person plural (we) rather than 1st person singular (I). So, plural forms can be considered as polite and formal forms
    of singulars.

    Free

                                          Singular                                          Plural

                         Persian          English        French     Persian               English           French

                     1st man       I                    je          mâ        we                          nous

                     2nd to        thou, you (informal) tu          šomâ      you (formal, singular and   vous
                                                                              plural)
                                                                              you (informal, plural)

                     3rd u         he, she              il, elle    išân      he, she (formal)            il, elle

                         ân        he, she, it          il, elle, ça ânhâ     they                        ils, elles, on


    In spoken Persian, there is also šomâhâ used as the plural form of both informal and formal "you" (to and šomâ).
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                           7


    Bound
    Bound personal pronouns have various functions depending on the word class to which they attach. For example,
    when they are added to the end of a noun (phrase), they express possession e.g. pedaram (my father). We'll learn
    more about their functions.

                                                    Person Singular Plural

                                                     1st   -am      -emân

                                                     2nd   -at      -etân

                                                     3rd   -aš      -ešân



    Direct object pronouns
    Direct object pronouns are simply made by adding the accusative enclitic râ to subjective pronouns e.g. man râ (me),
    u râ (him, her). man râ has developed a truncated form marâ (omission of n from manrâ), which is usually preferred
    in bookish Persian.


    Indirect object pronouns
    Although Persian has lost the declination system of Old Persian but it does mark different cases with technically
    called ad-positions (post/pre-positions). That's why Persian has been able to preserve the free word order feature:
    • As we learned, the accusative case is marked with the enclitic râ (a post-position).
    • The dative case is marked with the pre-position be (to).
    • The ablative case is marked with the pre-position az (from).
    English marks none of these cases. For example, if you change the word order of "the father kissed the daughter"
    (accusative) to e.g. "the daughter kissed the father", the meaning completely changes. The same applies to "the father
    helped the daughter" (dative) and "the father asked the daughter" (ablative). As with Latin, by changing the word
    order, just the emphasis changes and the basic meaning is preserved:
    • accusative: pedar doxtar râ busid, doxtar râ pedar busid
    • dative: pedar be doxtar komak kard, be doxtar pedar komak kard
    • ablative: pedar az doxtar porsid, az doxtar pedar porsid
    Hence, Persian has three different sets of "object pronouns" as per the case. They are made from the adposition of the
    case and subjective pronouns e.g. mâ râ busid (s/he kised us, accusative), be mâ komak kard (s/he helped us, dative),
    az mâ porsid (s/he asked us, ablative).


    Possessives
    Persian does not have possessive adjectives as is found in English. In Persian, possession is expressed by adding
    "bound personal pronouns" to the end of the noun phrase (NP):
    • dustam: my friend (template: friend-am)
    • dustè xubam: my good friend (template: friend-è good-am). Please note that English's possessive adjectives also
      function on the whole NP. The difference is that in English, the possessive precedes NP. Compare [dustè xub]am
      with my [good friend].
    Possession can also be expressed using the genitive case and subjective pronouns. This form is usually used for
    emphasis and doesn't have an equivalent in English:
    • dustè man: my friend (template: dust-è I)
    • dustè xubè man: my good friend (template: friend-è good-è I).
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                            8


    As for possessive pronouns, they are formed by relating mâl (property) to subjective pronouns with the genitive
    enclitic e.g. mâlè man (mine), in ketâb mâlè man ast, na mâlè to (this book is mine, not yours)


    Verb
    Learning verb conjugation of Persian is quite easy. The infinitive always ends in -an e.g. budan (to be), dâštan (to
    have). Each verb has two stems: past and present. The past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an from the
    infinitive e.g. raftan (to go) = raft. There isn't such a rule for obtaining the present stem of verbs but they can be
    classified into subgroups whose present stem is obtained according to a regular pattern with no or few exceptions.
    However, a verb whether regular or irregular has one and only one present stem for all persons. Therefore, as
    opposed to languages like French, Italian and Spanish, Persian does not have irregular verb conjugations. The past
    participle forms by replacing the infinitive suffix (-an) with -e. In other words, by adding -e to the past stem e.g.
    raftan = rafte.

    Conjugative enclitics
    To conjugate verbs in different tenses, conjugative enclitics attach to stems and participles. They only differ in 3rd
    person singular:

                                                            Singular         Plural

                                                        Past Present Past Present

                                                   1st -am     -am     -im     -im

                                                   2nd -i      -i      -id     -id

                                                   3rd -       -ad     -and -and


    Note - Subjective pronouns (I, you, etc.) are not normally used in Persian because each person has a unique
    conjugative enclitic, which suffices to indicate the person of the verb. For example, in raftim it is evident that the
    person of the verb is 1st person plural and therefore, we do not normally say mâ raftim. So, Persian is a "pro-drop"
    language.

    Past simple
    Formula: past stem + past enclitic. Examples:
    •   didan (to see): didam (I saw), didi (you /informal/ saw) , did (s/he saw); didim, didid, didand
    •   raftan (to go): raftam, rafti, raft; raftim (we went), raftid (you went), raftand (they went; s/he /formal/ went)
    •   budan (to be): budam, budi, bud, budim, budid, budand
    •   dâštan (to have): dâštam, dâšti, dâšt, dâštim, dâštid, dâštand
    To negate verbs just add the negation prefix na to the stem: naraftam (I didn't go), nadid (s/he didn't see), nadâštand
    (they didn't have). The negation prefix take the primary stress.

    Past imperfective
    English does not have a grammatical form that corresponds exactly to this aspect. As an example, in languages
    having imperfective aspect, "I ran five miles yesterday" would use past simple form, whereas "I ran five miles every
    morning" would use past imperfective form. Romance languages like French, Spanish and Italian have only one
    imperfective tense, which from the viewpoint of Persian, is the counterpart of "past simple". In contrast, each "past
    simple", "present perfect", "past perfect", "present simple", etc. have an imperfective tense that are simply made by
    prefixing "mi" to the stem or participle (depending on the formation of the tense). None of these imperfective tenses
    has an equivalent in English, though and Romance languages have only an equivalent for the Persian's past
    imperfective.
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                            9


    Formula: mi + past simple (i.e. past stem + past enclitic).
    • raftan (to go): miraftam, mirafti, miraft; miraftim, miraftid, miraftand
    • xâstan (to want): mixâstam, mixâsti, mixâst; mixâstim, mixâstid, mixâstand
    The past imperfective is also used in conditional tenses and as with "conditionnel" of French, it is used to make
    polite expressions (that's why this tense has been mentioned in the primer): yek livân âb mixâstam (French: je
    voudrais un verre d'eau, English: I'd like a glass of water).
    Note - Because of a vowel harmony, the negation prefix "na" becomes "ne" before "mi". Therefore, we say
    nemiraftam rather than expected namiraftam. However, in Afghanistani and Tajikistani Persian, this change hasn't
    occurred and they still say namiraftam.

    Present simple
    Formula: present stem + present enclitic. Regarding usage, the present imperfective has taken the place of this tense.
    The only exception is dâštan (to have), which is not normally conjugated in the imperfective aspect due to its
    meaning ("having" something cannot be "imperfective"; you either "have" or "don't have" something). The present
    stem of dâštan is dâr. Now, its conjugation: dâram (I have), dâri (you /informal/ have), dârad (s/he has), dârim (we
    have), dârid (you have), dârand (they have; s/he /formal/ has).
    The verb budan (to be) has two forms in present simple:
    • The full form (or free form) is: hastam (I am), hasti (you /informal/ are), (h)ast (he, she, it is); hastim (we are),
      hastid (you are), hastand (they are; s/he /formal/ is).
    • The enclitic form (or bound form) is: -am, -i, -ast; -im, -id, -and.
    The free form is usually for emphasis and it is the bound form, which is normally used e.g. xubam (I am fine), xubi?
    (Are you fine?; used in greetings).

    Present imperfective
    Formula: imperfective prefix mi + present simple (present stem + present enclitic). Present stems are placed within
    slashes / /.
    • neveštan /nevis/ (to write): minevisam (I write), minevisi (you /informal/ write), minevisad (s/he writes);
      minevisim, minevisid, minevisand
    • didan /bin/ (to see): mibinam, mibini, mibinad; mibinim (we see), mibinid (you see), mibinand (they see; s/he
      /formal/ sees)
    • raftan /rav/ (to go): miravam, miravi, miravad; miravim, miravid, miravand
    As you see, although the stem is irregular but the conjugation is still regular.
    Persian has a "future simple" tense but it is not used in spoken Persian. In spoken Persian, "future simple" is
    expressed with present imperfective accompanied by a "future" adverb like fardâ (tomorrow), baødan (later).
    Example: fardâ sobh be muze miravim (We'll go to the museum tomorrow morning).

    Present progressive
    An imperfective tense can also express a progressive (continuous) action because a progressive action is incomplete
    (imperfect). Therefore, for example "minevisam", which is in "present imperfective", besides "I write", can also
    mean, "I am writing" depending on the context. On this very basis, there is no progressive tense in written Persian
    but spoken Persian has developed a full set of progressive tenses built upon the imperfetive tenses with the help of
    the auxiliary dâštan (to have).
    Formula: auxiliary dâštan in present simple + verb in present imperfective. Examples: dâram minevisam (I am
    writing), dârad minevisad (s/he is writing).
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                            10


    Progressive tenses only appear in affirmative sentences and they have no negative form. For negation, the
    imperfective form of the verb is used. Example: "I'm writing" (dâram minevisam), "I'm not writing" (neminevisam,
    not: dâram neminevisam).

    Present perfect
    Formula: past participle + auxiliary budan (to be) in present simple and in its bound form. Examples:
    • didan (to see): dideam (I have seen), didei (you /informal/ have seen) , dideast (s/he has seen); dideim, dideid,
      dideand
    • raftan (to go): rafteam, raftei, rafteast; rafteim (we have gone), rafteid (you have gone), rafteand (they have gone;
      s/he /formal/ has gone)
    It'd be interesting to speakers of French (and other Romance languages) to know that rafteam is exactly equivalent to
    "je suis allé" (literally: I'm gone). The difference is that in Persian the auxiliary verb is always "être" (budan) and
    never "avoir" (dâštan).
    As stated before, the negative conjugation is formed with the prefix na: narafteam (I haven't gone).

    Past perfect
    Formula: past participle + auxiliary budan (to be) in past simple. Examples:
    • didan (to see): dide budam (I had seen), dide budi (you /informal/ had seen), dide bud (s/he had seen); dide
      budim, dide budid, dide budand
    • raftan (to go): rafte budam, rafte budi, rafte bud; rafte budim (we had gone), rafte budid (you had gone), rafte
      budand (they have gone; s/he /formal/ had gone)
    The negative conjugation is formed with the prefix na: narafte budam (I hadn't gone).
    As with "present perfect", rafte budam literally means "I was gone". If you consider "gone" as an "adjective" rather
    than a "past participle", you should be able to understand this construction and its meaning.

    Present subjunctive
    Formula: subjunctive prefix be + present simple (present stem + present enclitic). English doesn't practically have
    any subjunctive tenses and therefore, Persian's subjunctive tenses cannot be exactly translated into English.
    Therefore, translations are given in French. Examples:
    • neveštan /nevis/ (to write): benevisam (que j'écrive), benevisi (que tu écrives), benevisad (qu'il/elle écrive);
      benevisim, benevisid, benevisand
    • didan /bin/ (to see): bebinam, bebini, bebinad; bebinim (que nous voyions), bebinid (que vous voyiez), bebinand
      (qu'ils/elles voient)
    • raftan /rav/ (to go): beravam, beravi, beravad; beravim, beravid, beravand
    In English we say "I want to go" but in Persian "to go" does not appear in "infinitive" but in present subjunctive:
    mixâham beravam. We can assume that there is a relative pronoun ke (that) after "I want" that causes the second verb
    to appear in the subjunctive (similar to French que) i.e. mixâham [ke] beravam (French: je veux qu'aille). In any
    case, this construction is used very much and you should learn it well. Another example: mitavânam bebinam (I can
    see).
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                            11


    Wrapping up
    • Persian has a limited number of simple (single-word, light) verbs (about 100, in common use). The majority of
      Persian verbs are non-simple verbs made with these simple verbs. For example, kardan /kon/, which is equivalent
      to French "faire" both in usage (making new verbs: faire attention, faire un voyage, etc.) and in basic meaning (to
      do, to make), has been used to make thousands of verbs from nouns, adjectives and loanwords. Examples: rang
      kardan (to dye; rang: color), bâz kardan (to open; bâz: open), sefid kardan (to whiten; sefid: white), dânlod kardan
      (to download; dânlod: download). Therefore, by just knowing the present stem of kardan (/kon/) you can
      conjugate a countless ever-growing number of verbs. Some useful verbs: telefon kardan (to phone), kopi kardan
      (to copy), safar kardan (to travel), negâh kardan (to look, to watch), guš kardan (to listen), pârk kardan (to park),
      komak kardan (to help), tamiz kardan (to clean).
      Important note: Although kardan basically means "to do, to make" and is so useful, but be careful not to use it
      alone because when used alone, it has a very bad meaning (vulgar: to have sexual intercourse) in the common
      language. For "to do", we say "anjâm dâdan" and for "to make" we say "sâxtan". The present stem of dâdan is
      /deh/, and that of sâxtan is /sâz/.
    • The non-verbal part of a non-simple verb is called preverb (e.g. "telefon" in "telefon kardan"). When conjugating
      non-simple verbs, the preverb sits aside and the conjugational elements are added to the verbal part (you should
      find it quite logical). Example: telefon mikonam (I phone), telefon nemikonam (I don't phone), telefon kardam (I
      phoned), telefon nakardam (I didn't phone).
    • Bound personal pronouns can substitute direct object pronouns. They attach to the end of the verb e.g. "I saw
      you": to râ didam versus didamat. In fact, it's the normal way and full (free) forms like to râ didam are used for
      emphasis.
    • To make a question, just change the tone of your voice e.g. didi (you saw), didi? (did you see?), raftei (you have
      gone), raftei? (have you gone?).


    Phrase list

    Basics
    Hello, Hi
          Salâm (‫)ﺳَﻼﻡ‬
    How are you?
          Hâlè šomâ chetor ast? (‫ ,)ﺣﺎﻝِ ﺷﻤﺎ ﭼﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‬less formal: chetorid? (‫ ,)ﭼﻄﻮﺭﯾﺪ‬xubid? (‫)ﺧﻮﺑﯿﺪ‬
    Fine, thank you.
          xubam, xeyli mamnun (‫)ﺧﻮﺑﻢ، ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻥ‬
    What is your name?
          esmetân chi'st? (‫)ﺍﺳﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ‬
    My name is ~ .
          esmam ~ ast (‫)ﺍﺳﺖ ~ ﺍﺳﻤﻢ‬
    Nice to meet you.
          xošbaxtam (‫)ﺧﻮﺷﺒﺨﺘﻢ‬
    Please.
          lotfan (‫)ﻟﻄﻔﺎ‬
    Thank you.
          xeyli mamnun (‫ ,)ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻥ‬mersi (‫)ﻣﺮﺳﯽ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                                                            12


            Note - xeyli mamnun literally means "many thanks" but it's the common way of saying "thank you"
    You're welcome.
            xâheš mikonam (‫)ﮐﻨﻢﺧﻮﺍﻫﺶ ﻣﯽ‬
    Yes.
            bale (‫ ,)ﺑﻠﻪ‬areh (‫)ﺁﺭﻩ‬
    No.
            na (‫)ﻧَﻪ‬
    Excuse me (getting attention or begging pardon)
            bebaxšid (‫ ,)ﺑﺒﺨﺸﯿﺪ‬maøzerat mixâham (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﻣﻌﺬﺭﺕ ﻣﯽ‬
    I'm sorry.
            bebaxšid (‫ ,)ﺑِﺒَﺨﺸﯿﺪ‬maøzerat mixâham (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﻣﻌﺬﺭﺕ ﻣﯽ‬
    Goodbye
            xodâhâfez (‫)ﺧﺪﺍﺣﺎﻓﻆ‬
    See you
            formal: mibinametân (‫ ,)ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺘﺎﻥﻣﯽ‬informal: mibinamet (‫)ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺖﻣﯽ‬
    I can't speak Persian [well].
            Nemitavânam [xub] Fârsi harf bezanam (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﺧﻮﺏ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﻢﻧﻤﯽ‬
    Do you speak English?
            Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﯿﺪ؟ﻣﯽ‬
    Is there someone here who speaks English?
            Injâ kasi Engelisi midânad? (‫)ﺩﺍﻧﺪﺍﯾﻨﺠﺎ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﻣﯽ‬
    Help!
            komak! (‫)ﮐُﻤَﮏ‬
    Look out
            formal: Movâzeb bâšid (‫ ,)ﻣﻮﺍﻇﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ‬informal: Movâzeb bâš (‫)ﻣﻮﺍﻇﺐ ﺑﺎﺵ‬
    Good morning.
            sobh bexeyr (‫)ﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﺨﯿﺮ‬
    Good evening.
            asr bexeyr (‫)ﻋﺼﺮ ﺑﺨﯿﺮ‬
    Good night.
            šab bexeyr (‫)ﺷﺐ ﺑﺨﯿﺮ‬
    I don't understand.
            nemifahmam (‫ ,)ﻓﻬﻤﻢﻧﻤﯽ‬motevajjeh nemišavam (‫)ﺷﻮﻡﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ‬
    Where is the toilet?
            dastšuyi kojâ'st? (‫)ﺩﺳﺘﺸﻮﯾﯽ ﮐﺠﺎﺳﺖ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                                13


    Problems
    Leave me alone.
           Rahâyam konid (‫ ,)ﺭﻫﺎﯾﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‬informal: Velam konid (‫)ﻭﻟﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‬
    Don't touch me!
           Be man dast nazanid (‫)ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﺰﻧﯿﺪ‬
    I'll call the police.
           Polis râ xabar mikonam (‫)ﮐﻨﻢﭘﻠﯿﺲ ﺭﺍ ﺧﺒﺮ ﻣﯽ‬
    Police!
           Polis (‫)ﭘﻠﯿﺲ‬
    Stop! Thief!
           Âhây dozd! (‫)ﺁﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺯﺩ‬
    I need your help.
           Be komaketân niyâz dâram (‫)ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮑﺘﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻡ‬
    It's an emergency.
           Ezterâri'st (‫)ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭﯾﺴﺖ‬
    I'm lost.
           Gom šodeam (‫)ﺍﻡﮔﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
    Go away!
           Boro kenâr! (‫)ﺑﺮﻭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ‬
    I lost my bag.
           Sâkam râ gom kardeam (‫)ﺍﻡﺳﺎﮐﻢ ﺭﺍ ﮔﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‬
    I lost my wallet.
           Kifam râ gom kardeam (‫)ﺍﻡﮐﯿﻔﻢ ﺭﺍ ﮔﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‬
    I'm sick.
           Hâlam bad ast (‫)ﺣﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
    I've been injured.
           Zaxmi šodeam (‫)ﺍﻡﺯﺧﻤﯽ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
    I need a doctor.
           Doktor mixâham (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﺩﮐﺘﺮ ﻣﯽ‬
    Can I use your phone?
           Mišavad az telefonetân estefâde konam (‫)ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻠﻔﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                                                      14


    Numbers
    The Persian number system is very similar to that used in Arabic, exceptions being the symbols for four and five.
    Confusingly, the numerals used in Latin derived languages are called Arabic numerals and those used by in Arabic
    and Persian languages are called Indian numerals. Persian numerals are written from left to right unlike their
    alphabetic script.
    Note - There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic ò (or yò after vowels) and the other is
    with the word va. The enclitic ò is the common way (and the sole way in spoken Persian).

                                                         Persian ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹

                                                             Latin   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9



                Persian                    Persian                                    Persian                                     Persian

     0     sefr (‫)ﺻﻔﺮ‬        15 pânzdah (‫)ﭘﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ‬                66   šastò šeš (‫)ﺷﺼﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺶ‬               600            šešsad (‫)ﺷﺸﺼﺪ‬

     1     yek (‫)ﯾﮏ‬          16 šânzdah (‫)ﺷﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ‬                70   haftâd (‫)ﻫﻔﺘﺎﺩ‬                     700            haftsad (‫)ﻫﻔﺘﺼﺪ‬

     2     do (‫)ﺩﻭ‬           17 hefdah (‫)ﻫﻔﺪﻩ‬                   77   haftâdò haft (‫)ﻫﻔﺘﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻔﺖ‬         800            haštsad (‫)ﻫﺸﺘﺼﺪ‬

     3     se (‫)ﺳﻪ‬           18 hejdah (‫)ﻫﺠﺪﻩ‬                   80   haštâd (‫)ﻫﺸﺘﺎﺩ‬                     900            nohsad (‫)ﻧﻬﺼﺪ‬

     4     chahâr (‫)ﭼﻬﺎﺭ‬     19 nuzdah (‫)ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻩ‬                  88   haštâdò hašt (‫)ﻫﺸﺘﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻫﺸﺖ‬         1,000          hezâr (‫)ﻫﺰﺍﺭ‬

     5     panj (‫)ﭘﻨﺞ‬        20 bist (‫)ﺑﯿﺴﺖ‬                     90   navad (‫)ﻧﻮﺩ‬                        1,001          hezârò yek (‫)ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﯾﮏ‬

     6     šeš (‫)ﺷﺶ‬          21 bistò yek (‫)ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻭ ﯾﮏ‬           99   navadò noh (‫)ﻧﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻪ‬              1,100          hezârò sad (‫)ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺻﺪ‬

     7     haft (‫)ﻫﻔﺖ‬        22 bistò do (‫)ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻭ‬            100 sad (‫)ﺻﺪ‬                            2,000          do hezâr (‫)ﺩﻭ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ‬

     8     hašt (‫)ﻫﺸﺖ‬        30 si (‫)ﺳﯽ‬                         110 sadò dah (‫)ﺻﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻩ‬                  2,008          do hezârò hašt (‫)ﺩﻭ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻫﺸﺖ‬

     9     noh (‫)ﻧﻪ‬          33 siyò se (‫)ﺳﯽ ﻭ ﺳﻪ‬               200 devist (‫)ﺩﻭﯾﺴﺖ‬                      10,000         dah hezâr (‫)ﺩﻩ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ‬

     10 dah (‫)ﺩﻩ‬             40 chehel (‫)ﭼﻬﻞ‬                    222 devistò bistò do (‫000,02 )ﺩﻭﯾﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻭ‬        bist hezâr (‫)ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ‬

     11 yâzdah (‫)ﯾﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬       44 chehelò chahâr (‫ 003 )ﭼﻬﻞ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ‬sisad (‫)ﺳﯿﺼﺪ‬                            100,000        sad hezâr (‫)ﺻﺪ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ‬

     12 davâzdah (‫)ﺩﻭﺍﺯﺩﻩ‬    50 panjâh (‫)ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ‬                  333 sisadò siyò se (‫)ﺳﯿﺼﺪ ﻭ ﺳﯽ ﻭ ﺳﻪ‬     1,000,000      yek milyun (‫)ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ‬

     13 sizdah (‫)ﺳﯿﺰﺩﻩ‬       55 panjâhò panj (‫)ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﻭ ﭘﻨﺞ‬      400 chahârsad (‫)ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺻﺪ‬                  2,000,000      do milyun (‫)ﺩﻭ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ‬

     14 chahârdah (‫ 06 )ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺩﻩ‬šast (‫)ﺷﺼﺖ‬                        500 pânsad (‫)ﭘﺎﻧﺼﺪ‬                      1,000,000,000 yek milyârd (‫)ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩ‬


    number ~ (train, bus, etc.)
            šomâreye ~ (‫)~ ﯼﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ‬
    half
            nesf (‫)ﻧﺼﻒ‬
    less
            kamtar (‫)ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‬
    more
            bištar (‫)ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ‬
Persian phrasebook                            15


    Time
    now
            aløân (‫)ﺍﻵﻥ‬
    later
            baødan (‫)ﺑﻌﺪﺍ‬
    before
            qablan (‫)ﻗﺒﻼ‬
    morning
            sobh (‫)ﺻﺒﺢ‬
    afternoon
            baød-az-zohr (‫)ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯﻇﻬﺮ‬
    evening
            qorub (‫)ﻏﺮﻭﺏ‬
    night
            šab (‫)ﺷﺐ‬

    Clock time
    one o'clock AM
            yekè sobh (‫)ﯾﮏ ﺻﺒﺢ‬
    two o'clock AM
            doè sobh (‫)ﺩﻭ ﺻﺒﺢ‬
    noon
            zohr (‫)ﻇﻬﺮ‬
    one o'clock PM
            yekè baød-az-zohr (‫)ﯾﮏ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯﻇﻬﺮ‬
    two o'clock PM
            doè baød-az-zohr (‫)ﺩﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯﻇﻬﺮ‬
    midnight
            nimešab (‫)ﺷﺐﻧﯿﻤﻪ‬

    Duration
    ~ minute(s)
            daqiqe(hâ) (‫))ﻫﺎﺩﻗﯿﻘﻪ‬
    ~ hour(s)
            sâat(hâ) (‫)ﻫﺎﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬
    ~ day(s)
            ruz(hâ) (‫)ﺭﻭﺯﻫﺎ‬
    ~ week(s)
            hafte(hâ) (‫)ﻫﺎﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬
    ~ month(s)
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                         16


            mâh(hâ) (‫)ﻫﺎﻣﺎﻩ‬
    ~ season(s)
            fasl(hâ) (‫)ﻫﺎﻓﺼﻞ‬
    ~ year(s)
            sâl(hâ) (‫)ﻫﺎﺳﺎﻝ‬
    Tip - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when a number precedes them. The plurality is clear from the "number".
    Therefore, we say, for example:
    • one/three/fifty day: yek/se/panjâh ruz (‫)ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﺭﻭﺯ/ﺳﻪ/ﯾﮏ‬
    • three to five week: se tâ panj hafte (‫)ﺳﻪ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻨﺞ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬

    Days
    today
            emruz (‫)ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ‬
    yesterday
            diruz (‫)ﺩﯾﺮﻭﺯ‬
    tomorrow
            fardâ (‫)ﻓﺮﺩﺍ‬
    this week
            in hafte (‫)ﺍﯾﻦ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬
    last week
            hafteyè gozašte (‫)ﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬
    next week
            hafteyè âyande (‫)ﯼ ﺁﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬
    Sunday
            yekšanbe (‫)ﯾﮑﺸﻨﺒﻪ‬
    Monday
            došanbe (‫)ﺩﻭﺷﻨﺒﻪ‬
    Tuesday
            sešanbe (‫)ﺷﻨﺒﻪﺳﻪ‬
    Wednesday
            chahâršanbe (‫)ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺷﻨﺒﻪ‬
    Thursday
            panjšanbe (‫)ﭘﻨﺠﺸﻨﺒﻪ‬
    Friday
            jomøe (‫)ﺟﻤﻌﻪ‬
    Saturday
            šanbe (‫)ﺷﻨﺒﻪ‬
    Tip - In Iran, weeks begin with "Saturday" and end with "Friday". So, the holiday is "Friday" and the weekend starts
    from "Thursday".
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                            17


    Months
    Iran uses a solar calendar with the New Year on the vernal equinox (March 21 on the Gregorian calendar). Years
    begin with "spring" and end with "winter". The first six months have 31 days, and the last five have 30 days each.
    The final month has 29 or 30 depending on whether or not it is a leap year. Leap years are not as simply calculated as
    in the Gregorian calendar, but typically there is a five year leap period after every 7 four-year cycles. Year 0 of the
    calendar corresponds to 621 in Gregorian.

                                               Persian         Transcription           English

                                                     ‫ﺑﻬﺎﺭ‬          bahâr               spring

                                               ‫ﻓﺮﻭﺭﺩﯾﻦ‬      Farvardin (31 days)   21 Mar. – 20 Apr.

                                               ‫ ﺍﺭﺩﯾﺒﻬﺸﺖ‬Ordibehešt (31 days) 21 Apr. – 21 May

                                               ‫ﺧﺮﺩﺍﺩ‬        Xordâd (31 days)      22 May – 21 June

                                               ‫ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬           tâbestân             summer

                                               ‫ﺗﯿﺮ‬          Tir (31 days)         22 June – 22 July

                                               ‫ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺩ‬        Mordâd (31 days)      23 July – 22 Aug.

                                               ‫ﺷﻬﺮﯾﻮﺭ‬       Šahrivar (31 days)    23 Aug. – 22 Sep.

                                                 ‫ﭘﺎﯾﯿﺰ‬             pâyiz              autumn

                                               ‫ﻣﻬﺮ‬          Mehr (30 days)        23 Sep.– 22 Oct.

                                               ‫ﺁﺑﺎﻥ‬         Âbân (30 days)        23 Oct.– 21 Nov.

                                               ‫ﺁﺫﺭ‬          Âzar (30 days)        22 Nov.– 21 Dec.

                                               ‫ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬            zemestân              winter

                                               ‫ﺩﯼ‬           Dey (30 days)         22 Dec.– 19 Jan.

                                               ‫ﺑﻬﻤﻦ‬         Bahman (30 days)      20 Jan. – 18 Feb.

                                               ‫ﺍﺳﻔﻨﺪ‬        Esfand (29/30 days)   19 Feb. – 20 Mar.


    Gregorian month names are borrowed from French.
    January
            Žânviye (‫)ﮊﺍﻧﻮﯾﻪ‬
    February
            Fevriye (‫)ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ‬
    March
            Mârs (‫)ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬
    April
            Âvril (‫)ﺁﻭﺭﯾﻞ‬
    May
            Me (‫ ,)ﻣﻪ‬also Mey (‫)ﻣﯽ‬
    June
            Žuan (‫)ﮊﻭﺋﻦ‬
    July
            Žuiye (‫ ,)ﮊﻭﺋﯿﻪ‬also Julây (‫)ﺟﻮﻻﯼ‬
    August
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                    18


            Ut (‫ ,)ﺍﻭﺕ‬also Âgust (‫)ﺁﮔﻮﺳﺖ‬
    September
            Septâm(b)r (‫)ﺳﭙﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ‬
    October
            Oktobr (‫)ﺍﮐﺘﺒﺮ‬
    November
            Novâm(b)r (‫)ﻧﻮﺍﻣﺒﺮ‬
    December
            Desâm(b)r (‫)ﺩﺳﺎﻣﺒﺮ‬

    Writing time and date
    The staring point of the Iranian solar calendar is Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. Short date
    format is yyyy/mm/dd (or yy/mm/dd) and the long date format is dddd, dd MMMM yyyy. For example, today
    (Monday, August 11, 2008) is:
    • short date format: 1387/05/21 (or 87/05/21)
    • long date format: došanbe, 21 Mordâd 1387
    Time is written like English e.g. 8:34 (۸:۳۴).


    Colors
    black
            siyâh (‫ ,)ﺳﯿﺎﻩ‬also meški (‫)ﻣﺸﮑﯽ‬
    white
            sefid (‫)ﺳﻔﯿﺪ‬
    gray
            xâkestari (‫)ﺧﺎﮐﺴﺘﺮﯼ‬
    red
            qermez (‫ ,)ﻗﺮﻣﺰ‬also sorx (‫)ﺳﺮﺥ‬
    blue
            âbi (‫)ﺁﺑﯽ‬
    yellow
            zard (‫)ﺯﺭﺩ‬
    green
            sabz (‫)ﺳﺒﺰ‬
    orange
            nârenji (‫)ﻧﺎﺭﻧﺠﯽ‬
    purple
            banafŝ(‫,)ﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬arqavâni (‫)ﺍﺭﻏﻮﺍﻧﯽ‬
    brown
            qahvei (‫)ﺍﯼﻗﻬﻮﻩ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                                                19


    Transportation

    Bus and train
    How much is a ticket to ~?
           belitè ~ cheqadr ast? (‫)ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ~ ﺑﻠﯿﻂ‬
    One ticket to ~, please.
           lotfan yek belit barâye ~ (‫) ~ ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﯾﮏ ﺑﻠﯿﻂ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬
    Where does this train/bus go?
           in qatâr/otobus kojấ miravad? (‫)ﺭﻭﺩﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ/ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬
    Where is the train/bus to ~?
           qatârè/otobusè ~ kodấm ast? (‫)ﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ/ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬
    Does this train/bus stop in ~?
           in qatâr/otobus dar ~ míistad? (‫)ﺍﯾﺴﺘﺪﻣﯽ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ/ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬
    When does the train/bus for ~ leave?
           qatârè/otobusè ~ kéy harekat mikonad? (‫)ﮐﻨﺪﮐﯽ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ/ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬
    When will this train/bus arrive in ~?
           in qatâr/otobus kéy be ~ miresad? (‫)ﺭﺳﺪﻣﯽ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﮐﯽ ﺑﻪ/ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬

    Directions
    How do I get to ~ ?
           chetór beravam be ~ (‫)ﭼﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﻭﻡ ﺑﻪ‬
    ...the train station?
           istgâhè qatâr (‫)ﺍﯾﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬
    ...the bus station?
           istgâhè otobus (‫)ﺍﯾﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ‬
    ...the airport?
           forudgâh (‫)ﻓﺮﻭﺩﮔﺎﻩ‬
    ...downtown?
           markazè šahr (‫)ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺷﻬﺮ‬
    ...the youth hostel?
           mehmânxâne (‫)ﺧﺎﻧﻪﻣﻬﻤﺎﻥ‬
    ...the ~ hotel?
           hotel (‫)ﻫﺘﻞ‬
    ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?
           sefâratè Âmrikâ/Kânâdâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelestân (‫)ﺍﻧﮕﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ/ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺕ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬
    Where are there a lot of...
           kojâ ~ ziyâd peydâ mišavad? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﻣﯽ ~ ﮐﺠﺎ‬
    ...hotels?
           hotelhâ (‫)ﻫﺎﻫﺘﻞ‬
    ...restaurants?
           resturânhâ (‫)ﻫﺎﺭﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻥ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                           20


    ...bars?
             NOT FOUND IN IRAN
    ...sites to see?
             jâyè didani (‫)ﺟﺎﯼ ﺩﯾﺪﻧﯽ‬
    Can you show me on the map?
             mišavad ruyè naqše nešân bedahid? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪﻣﯽ‬
    street
             xiyâbân (‫)ﺧﯿﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬
    Turn left.
             bepichid dastè chap (‫)ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﭼﭗ‬
    Turn right.
             bepichid dastè râst (‫)ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺭﺍﺳﺖ‬
    left
             chap (‫)ﭼﭗ‬
    right
             râst (‫)ﺭﺍﺳﺖ‬
    straight ahead
             mostaqim (‫)ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬
    towards the ~
             be tarafè (‫)ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ‬
    past the ~
             baød az (‫)ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ‬
    before the ~
             qabl az (‫)ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ‬
    Watch for the ~.
             donbâlè ~ begardid (‫)ﺑﮕﺮﺩﯾﺪ ~ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ‬
    intersection
             chahârrâh (‫)ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺭﺍﻩ‬
    north
             šomâl (‫)ﺷﻤﺎﻝ‬
    south
             jonub (‫)ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬
    east
             šarq (‫)ﺷﺮﻕ‬
    west
             qarb (‫)ﻏﺮﺏ‬
    uphill
             sarbâlâyi (‫)ﺳﺮﺑﺎﻻﯾﯽ‬
    downhill
Persian phrasebook                                                                    21


            sarpâyini (‫)ﺳﺮﭘﺎﯾﯿﻨﯽ‬

    Taxi
    Taxi!
            tâksi (‫)ﺗﺎﮐﺴﯽ‬
    Take me to ~, please.
            lotfan marâ bebar ~ (‫)~ ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﻣﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﺮ‬
    How much does it cost to get to ~?
            tâ ~ cheqadr mišavad? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﯽ ~ ﺗﺎ‬
    Take me there, please.
            lotfan marâ bebar ânjâ (‫)ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﻣﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﺮ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬


    Lodging
    Do you have any rooms available?
            otâqè xâli dârid? (‫)ﺍُﺗﺎﻕِ ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    How much is a room for one person/two people?
            otâq barâye yek/do nafar chand ast? (‫)ﺩﻭ ﻧَﻔَﺮ ﭼَﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ/ﺍُﺗﺎﻕ ﺑﺮﺍﯼِ ﯾِﮏ‬
    Does the room come with ~
            otâq ~ dârad? (‫)ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ~ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ‬
    ~ bedsheets?
            malâfe (‫)ﻣَﻼﻓﻪ‬
    ~ a bathroom?
            hammâm (‫)ﺣَﻤﺎﻡ‬
    ~ a telephone?
            telefon (‫)ﺗِﻠِﻔُﻦ‬
    ~ a TV?
            televizyun (‫)ﺗِﻠِﻮﯾﺰﯾﻮﻥ‬
    May I see the room first?
            mišavad avval otâq râ bebinam? (‫)ﺷَﻮَﺩ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬
    Do you have anything quieter?
            jâyè ârâmtarì dârid? (‫)ﺟﺎﯼ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    ~ bigger?
            bozorgtar (‫)ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮ‬
    ~ cleaner?
            tamiztar (‫)ﺗﻤﯿﺰﺗَﺮ‬
    ~ cheaper?
            arzântar (‫)ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻧﺘَﺮ‬
    OK, I'll take it.
            bâše, hamin râ migiram. (‫)ﮔﯿﺮَﻡﺑﺎﺷﻪ، ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽ‬
    I will stay for ~ night(s).
Persian phrasebook                                                                                  22


          ~ šab mimânam (~ ‫)ﻣﺎﻧﻢﺷﺐ ﻣﯽ‬
    Can you suggest another hotel?
          mišavad hotelè digarì râ pišnahâd konid? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩ ﻫﺘﻞ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﯽ‬
    Do you have a safe?
          sandoqè amânât dârid? (‫)ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻣﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    ~ lockers?
          komodè qofldâr? (‫)ﮐﻤﺪ ﻗﻔﻠﺪﺍﺭ‬
    Is breakfast/supper included?
          hazine šâmelè sobhâne/šâm ham mišavad? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩﺷﺎﻡ ﻫﻢ ﻣﯽ/ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺻﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
    What time is breakfast/supper?
          sobhâne/šâm che sâatì ast? (‫)ﺷﺎﻡ ﭼﻪ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ/ﺻﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
    Please clean my room.
          lotfan otâqam râ tamiz konid (‫)ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﺍﺗﺎﻗﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻤﯿﺰ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‬
    Can you wake me at ~?
          mišavad marâ sâatè ~ bidâr konid? (‫)ﺑﯿﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ~ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺮﺍ ﺳﺎﻋﺖﻣﯽ‬
    I want to check out.
          mixâham tasviye konam (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺗﺴﻮﯾﻪ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬


    Money
    Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?
          Dolârè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Kânâdâ qabul mikonid? (‫)ﮐﻨﯿﺪﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﯽ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﺩﻻﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬
    Do you accept British pounds?
          Pondè Engelis qabul mikonid? (‫)ﮐﻨﯿﺪﭘﻮﻧﺪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺲ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﯽ‬
    Do you accept credit cards?
          kârtè eøtebâri qabul mikonid? (‫)ﮐﻨﯿﺪﮐﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﯼ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﯽ‬
    Can you change money for me?
          mitavânid pulam râ cheynj konid? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﭘﻮﻟﻢ ﺭﺍ ﭼﯿﻨﺞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﯽ‬
    Where can I get money changed?
          Kojâ mitavânam pulam râ cheynj konam? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﭘﻮﻟﻢ ﺭﺍ ﭼﯿﻨﺞ ﮐﻨﻢﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ‬
    Can you change a traveler's check for me?
          mitavânid terâvel râ barâyam naqd konid? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯾﻢ ﻧﻘﺪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﯽ‬
    Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
          Kojâ mitavân terâvel naqd kard? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﻝ ﻧﻘﺪ ﮐﺮﺩﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ‬
    What is the exchange rate?
          nerxè arz cheqadr ast? (‫)ﻧﺮﺥ ﺍﺭﺯ ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
    Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
          âberbânk kojâ'st? (‫)ﻋﺎﺑﺮﺑﺎﻧﮏ ﮐﺠﺎﺳﺖ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                            23


    Eating
    A table for one person/two people, please.
            Yek miz barâyè yek/do nafar, lotfan. (‫)ﺩﻭ ﻧﻔﺮ/ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﯾﮏ‬
    Can I look at the menu, please?
            mitavânam menu râ bebinam? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﻣﻨﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬
    Can I look in the kitchen?
            mitavânam âšpazxâne râ bebinam? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩ ﺁﺷﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬
    Is there a house specialty?
            qazâyè xânegi dârid? (‫)ﻏﺬﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    Is there a local specialty?
            qazâyè mahalli dârid? (‫)ﻏﺬﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    I'm a vegetarian.
            giyâhxâr hastam. (‫)ﮔﯿﺎﻫﺨﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻢ‬
    I don't eat pork.
            guštè xuk nemixoram. (‫)ﺧﻮﺭﻡﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﺧﻮﮎ ﻧﻤﯽ‬
    I don't eat beef.
            guštè gâv nemixoram. (‫)ﺧﻮﺭﻡﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﮔﺎﻭ ﻧﻤﯽ‬
    I only eat halal food.
            faqat guštè halâl mixoram. (‫)ﺧﻮﺭﻡﻓﻘﻂ ﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻣﯽ‬
    Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
            mišavad kamcharbaš konid? (‫)ﭼﺮﺑﺶ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻢﻣﯽ‬
    fixed-price meal
            qazâ bâ qeymatè sâbet (‫)ﻏﺬﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬
    à la carte
            qazâ bâ qeymatè jodâ jodâ (‫)ﻏﺬﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺟُﺪﺍ ﺟُﺪﺍ‬
    breakfast
            sobhâne (‫)ﺻُﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
    lunch
            nâhâr (‫)ﻧﺎﻫﺎﺭ‬
    tea (meal)
            asrâne (‫)ﻋﺼﺮﺍﻧﻪ‬
    supper
            šâm (‫)ﺷﺎﻡ‬
    I want ~ .
            ~ mixâham (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﻣﯽ‬
    I want a dish containing ~ .
            qazâyì mixâham ke ~ dâšte bâšad (‫)ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ~ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐﻪﻏﺬﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﯽ‬
    chicken
            morq (‫)ﻣﺮﻍ‬
Persian phrasebook                                          24


    beef
             guštè gâv (‫)ﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﮔﺎﻭ‬
    fish
             mâhi (‫)ﻣﺎﻫﯽ‬
    ham
             žâmbonè xuk (‫)ﮊﺍﻣﺒﻮﻥ ﺧﻮﮎ‬
    sausage
             sosis (‫)ﺳﻮﺳﯿﺲ‬
    cheese
             panir (‫)ﭘﻨﯿﺮ‬
    eggs
             toxmè morq (‫)ﺗﺨﻢ ﻣﺮﻍ‬
    salad
             sâlâd (‫)ﺳﺎﻻﺩ‬
    (fresh) vegetables
             sabziyè tâze (‫)ﺳﺒﺰﯼ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ‬
    (fresh) fruit
             miveyè tâze (‫)ﯼ ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻣﯿﻮﻩ‬
    bread
             nân (‫)ﻧﺎﻥ‬
    toast
             nânè tost (‫)ﻧﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﺖ‬
    noodles
             rešte (‫)ﺭﺷﺘﻪ‬
    rice
             berenj (‫)ﺑﺮﻧﺞ‬
    beans
             lubiyâ (‫)ﻟﻮﺑﯿﺎ‬
    May I have a glass of ~ ?
             yek livân ~ mixâstam. (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﯾﮏ ﻟﯿﻮﺍﻥ‬
    May I have a cup of ~ ?
             yek fenjân ~ mixâstam. (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﯾﮏ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ‬
    May I have a bottle of ~ ?
             yek šiše ~ mixâstam. (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ‬
    coffee
             qahve (‫)ﻗﻬﻮﻩ‬
    tea (drink)
             chây (‫)ﭼﺎﯼ‬
    juice
Persian phrasebook                                                                                 25


             âbmive (‫)ﺁﺑﻤﯿﻮﻩ‬
    (bubbly) water
             âbè maødani(yè gâzdâr) (‫))ﮔﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭ( ﺁﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﯽ‬
    water
             âb (‫)ﺁﺏ‬
    beer
             âbjo (‫( )ﺁﺑﺠﻮ‬NOTE: There is no alcohol beer in restaurants)
    red/white wine
             šarâbè sorx/sefid (‫( )ﺳﻔﯿﺪ/ﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺥ‬NOTE: There is no alcohol wine in restaurants)
    May I have some ~ ?
             kamì ~ mixâstam. (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﮐﻤﯽ‬
    salt
             namak (‫)ﻧﻤﮏ‬
    black pepper
             felfelè siyâh (‫)ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ﺳﯿﺎﻩ‬
    butter
             kare (‫)ﮐﺮﻩ‬
    Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
             bebaxšid (‫)ﺑﺒﺨﺸﯿﺪ‬
    I'm finished.
             xordanam tamâm šod. (‫)ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻧﻢ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺷﺪ‬
    It was delicious.
             xošmazze bud. (‫)ﺧﻮﺷﻤﺰﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‬
    Please clear the plates.
             lotfan, bošqâbhâ râ tamiz konid. (‫)ﻟُﻄﻔﺎً ﺑُﺸﻘﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻤﯿﺰ ﮐُﻨﯿﺪ‬
    The check, please.
             surat-hesâb, lotfan. (ً‫)ﺣِﺴﺎﺏ ﻟُﻄﻔﺎَﺻﻮﺭَﺕ‬


    Bars
    Remember that the possession, sale and service of alcohol in Iran is illegal.
    Do you serve alcohol?
             mašrub serv mikonid? (‫)ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﺸﺮﻭﺏ ﺳﺮﻭ ﻣﯽ‬
    Is there table service?
             lavâzemè miz (kârd, qâšoq, changâl, etc.) ham vojud dârad? (‫)ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﻣﯿﺰ ﻫﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬
    A beer/two beers, please.
             yek/do tâ âbjo, lotfan. (‫)ﺩﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺁﺑﺠﻮ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ/ﯾﮏ‬
    A glass of red/white wine, please.
             yek gilâs šarâbè sorx/sefid, lotfan. (‫)ﺳﻔﯿﺪ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ/ﯾﮏ ﮔﯿﻼﺱ ﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺥ‬
    A pint, please.
             yek livân, lotfan. (‫)ﯾﮏ ﻟﯿﻮﺍﻥ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                26


    A bottle, please.
            yek šiše, lotafn. (‫)ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ‬
    ~ (hard liquor) and ~ (mixer), please.
            likorè ~ bâ ~, lotfan. (‫)ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ،~ ﺑﺎ ~ ﻟﯿﮑﻮﺭ‬
    whiskey
            viski (‫)ﻭﯾﺴﮑﯽ‬
    vodka
            vodkâ (‫)ﻭﺩﮐﺎ‬
    rum
            râm (‫)ﺭﺍﻡ‬
    water
            âb (‫)ﺁﺏ‬
    club soda
            limunâdè gâzdâr (‫)ﻟﯿﻤﻮﻧﺎﺩ ﮔﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭ‬
    tonic water
            sevenâp (‫)ﺁﭖﺳﻮﻥ‬
    orange juice
            âbporteqâl (‫)ﭘﺮﺗﻘﺎﻝﺁﺏ‬
    Coke (soda)
            nušâbe (‫)ﻧﻮﺷﺎﺑﻪ‬
    Do you have any bar snacks?
            mazze dârid? (‫)ﻣﺰﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    One more, please.
            yekì digar, lotfan. (‫)ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ‬
    Another round, please.
            yek dorè digar, lofan. (‫)ﯾﮏ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ‬
    When is closing time?
            sâatè chand mibandid? (‫)ﺑﻨﺪﯾﺪﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﯽ‬


    Shopping
    Do you have this in my size?
            az in andâzeyè man dârid? (‫)ﯼ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬
    How much is this?
            chand ast? (‫)ﭼﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
    That's too expensive.
            xeyli gerân ast. (‫)ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
    Would you take ~?
            ~ mipasandid? ()
    expensive
            gerân (‫)ﮔﺮﺍﻥ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                  27


    cheap
            arzân (‫)ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻥ‬
    I can't afford it.
            pulaš râ nadâram. (‫)ﭘﻮﻟﺶ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻡ‬
    I don't want it.
            nemixâhamaš. (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻤﺶﻧﻤﯽ‬
    You're cheating me.
            dârid be man kalak mizanid. (‫)ﺯﻧﯿﺪﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﮐﻠﮏ ﻣﯽ‬
    I'm not interested.
            xošam nemiâyad. (‫)ﺁﯾﺪﺧﻮﺷﻢ ﻧﻤﯽ‬
    OK, I'll take it.
            bâše, in râ barmidâram. (‫)ﺩﺍﺭﻡﺑﺎﺷﻪ، ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻣﯽ‬
    Can I have a bag?
            kise dârid? (‫)ﮐﯿﺴﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬
    Do you ship (overseas)?
            be xârej post mikonid? (‫)ﮐﻨﯿﺪﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﭘﺴﺖ ﻣﯽ‬
    I need ~
            ~ mixâstam (~ ‫)ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ‬
    ~ toothpaste.
            xamirdandân ~. (‫)ﺧﻤﯿﺮﺩﻧﺪﺍﻥ‬
    ~ a toothbrush.
            mesvâk ~. (‫)ﻣﺴﻮﺍﮎ‬
    ~ tampons.
            tâmpon ~. (‫ ,)ﺗﺎﻣﭙﻮﻥ‬navârè behdâšti ~. (‫)ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﯽ‬
    ~ soap.
            sâbun ~. (‫)ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻥ‬
    ~ shampoo.
            šâmpu ~. (‫)ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ‬
    ~ pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)
            mosakken ~. (‫)ﻣﺴﮑﻦ‬
    ~ cold medicine.
            ~ dâruyè sarmâxordegi. (‫)ﺩﺍﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﺧﻮﺭﺩﮔﯽ‬
    ~ stomach medicine.
            ~ dâruyè deldard. (‫)ﺩﺭﺩﺩﺍﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﻝ‬
    ~ a razor.
            tiq ~. (‫)ﺗﯿﻎ‬
    ~ an umbrella.
            chatr ~. (‫)ﭼﺘﺮ‬
    ~ sunblock lotion.
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                             28


            zeddè âftâb ~. (‫)ﺿﺪﺁﻓﺘﺎﺏ‬
    ~ a postcard.
            kârt-postâl ~. (‫)ﭘﺴﺘﺎﻝﮐﺎﺭﺕ‬
    ~ postage stamps.
            tamr ~. (‫)ﺗﻤﺒﺮ‬
    ~ batteries.
            bâtri ~. (‫)ﺑﺎﺗﺮﯼ‬
    ~ writing paper.
            kâqaz ~. (‫)ﮐﺎﻏﺬ‬
    ~ a pen.
            xodkâr ~. (‫)ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ‬
    ~ English-language books.
            ketâbè Engelisi-zabân ~ (‫)ﺯﺑﺎﻥﮐﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ‬
    ~ English-language magazines.
            majalleyè Engelisi-zabân ~ (‫)ﺯﺑﺎﻥﯼ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽﻣﺠﻠﻪ‬
    ~ an English-language newspaper.
            ruznâmeyè Engelisi-zabân ~. (‫)ﺯﺑﺎﻥﯼ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽﺭﻭﺯﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬
    ~ an English-English dictionary.
            Farhangè Engelisi be Engelisi ~. (‫)ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ‬


    Driving
    Notice - In Iran, there are no car rental agencies. Most of the time, you would need to rent a car with a driver from an
    "âžâns" (taxi agency) who will drive you around. The agencies often have set daily/weekly rental prices which you
    should make sure to ask for!
    I want to rent a car.
            mixâstam yek mâšin kerâye konam (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺎﺷﯿﻦ ﮐﺮﺍﯾﻪ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬
    Can I get insurance?
            mitavânam bime begiram? (‫)ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﺑﯿﻤﻪ ﺑﮕﯿﺮﻡﻣﯽ‬
    stop (on a street sign)
            ist (‫)ﺍﯾﺴﺖ‬
    one way
            yektarafe (‫)ﻳﮏ ﻃﺮﻓﻪ‬
    yield
            râh bedahid (‫ ,)ﺭﺍﻩ ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪ‬ejâzeyè obur bedahid (‫)ﯼ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ‬
    no parking
            pârk mamnuø (‫)ﭘﺎﺭﮎ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻉ‬
    speed limit
            sorøatè mojâz (‫)ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ‬
    gas (petrol) station
            pompè benzin (‫)ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬
Persian phrasebook                                                                                                                                        29


    petrol
             benzin (‫)ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬
    diesel
             gâzoil (‫)ﮔﺎﺯﻭﺋﯿﻞ‬


    Authority
    I haven't done anything wrong.
             kârì nakardeam. (‫)ﺍﻡﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻧﮑﺮﺩﻩ‬
    It was a misunderstanding.
             suè tafâhom bud. (‫)ﺳﻮء ﺗﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻮﺩ‬
    Where are you taking me?
             marâ kojâ mibarid? (‫)ﺑﺮﯾﺪﻣﺮﺍ ﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ‬
    Am I under arrest?
             bâzdâšt hastam? (‫)ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻢ‬
    I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
             šahrvandè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelis/Kânâdâ hastam. (‫)ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﻫﺴﺘﻢ/ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺲ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﺷﻬﺮﻭﻧﺪ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬
    I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
             mikhâham bâ sefâratè/konsulgariyè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelis/Kânâdâ                                 tamâs     begiram.      (‫ﺑﺎﻣﯽ‬    ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ‬
             ‫)ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺑﮕﯿﺮﻡ/ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺲ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﮐﻨﺴﻮﻟﮕﺮﯼ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ/ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺕ‬
    I want to talk to a lawyer.
             mixâham bâ yek vakil harf bezanam. (‫)ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻭﮐﯿﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﻢﻣﯽ‬
    Can I just pay a fine now?
             mišavad jarime râ naqdan pardâxt konam? (‫)ﺷﻮﺩ ﺟﺮﯾﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻘﺪﺍ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ‬

   This is a guide phrasebook. It covers all the major topics for traveling without resorting to English. But please Plunge forward and help us make it
   a star!




    Learning more
    • Persian lessons at Wikiotics [2]


    References
    [1] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Greater_Iran
    [2] http:/ / wikiotics. org/ en/ Persian_lessons
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                       30



    Article Sources and Contributors
    Persian phrasebook  Source: http://en.wikivoyage.org/w/index.php?oldid=2083759  Contributors: (WT-en) Alijsh, (WT-en) Allyak, (WT-en) Dguillaime, (WT-en) Gedran, (WT-en) Guaka,
    (WT-en) Inas, (WT-en) Javidjamae, (WT-en) Jaytan, (WT-en) MrStew, (WT-en) Nzpcmad, (WT-en) Oules, (WT-en) Pashley, (WT-en) PierreAbbat, (WT-en) Smalek, ChubbyWimbus,
    Peterfitzgerald, Wrh2, ZxxZxxZ, 93 anonymous edits




    License
    Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
    //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

				
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