Persian phrasebook 1
Persian is an ancient language of Indo-European family. You can find many grammatical similarities between
Persian and the other languages of this family. However, Persian is similar more to its coeval languages like Latin
than to relatively newer languages. For instance, both Latin and Persian have a SOV word order (they both have free
word order, though), which is uncommon among most modern European languages (even the descendants of Latin).
Today, Persian is mainly spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Bahrain. It has official status in the
first three countries but was once the official, court, or literary language of many more places ranging from Turkey
through India. At this time, many Persian poets emerged from Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and the regions
under the control of Ottoman Empire. It is still appreciated as a literary and prestigious language among the educated
elite. Many people in Iran and neighboring countries know Persian fluently even though it's not their mother tongue.
It's because Iran (formerly "Persia" until 1935) was historically much bigger before losing many territories,
especially to its neighbor Russia (for more information, see Wikipedia: Greater Iran ). After the 1979 revolution,
many Iranians migrated to the West and as a result, there are numerous Persian-speaking communities throughout
the world, particularly in USA. Persian is the second language of Islam so in many Islamic countries you can find
someone knowing Persian.
The local name of the language is Farsi (officially, Fârsiyè Dari (Dari Persian), which means "Official/Court
Persian"). The word Farsi has also entered English mainly because West-migrated Iranians didn't know about the
native English name of their language (i.e. Persian) and began to use Farsi, which still prevails although somewhat
decreased. Persian has three main dialects: Iranian Persian (Farsi), Afghan Persian (Dari) and Tajik Persian (Tajik).
They are all mutually intelligible. The written form is the same for Farsi and Dari, both using the Arabic alphabet;
Tajik is generally written with the Cyrillc alphabet.
Note - The contents of this page are written in bookish Persian so that you can use them not only in Iran but also in
Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other countries. See Dari phrasebook for Afghan Persian and Tajik phrasebook for that
The Persian writing system derives from that of Arabic, extended with four letters to denote the sounds not found in
Arabic. Persian writing system is not an alphabet but an abjad. An abjad has only characters for denoting consonant
sounds. Vowels have no specific character; they are indicated either by certain diacritics or by certain consonant
characters. Additionally, most letters change shape when they are followed by another letter.
Vowels and diphthongs
Transcription IPA Sound
a æ as a in ant
â ɒː as aw in father
e e as e in egg
i iː as ea in eagle
o o as o in boat, but shorter
u uː as u in flute
ow oʊ as ow in American English
ey eɪ as ey in they
Persian phrasebook 2
Regarding their indication in the Persian script:
• The sounds a, e, o can be indicated with certain diacritics but they are practically only used in elementary-school
books. The vowel o is sometimes denoted with the consonant ( ﻭv).
• The sounds â is always indicated: with ﺁat word initial and with ﺍelsewhere.
• The sounds i and ey are indicated with ﺍﯼat word initial and with the consonant ( ﯼy) elsewhere.
• The sounds u and ow are indicated with ﺍﻭat word initial and with the consonant ( ﻭv) elsewhere.
Character Transcription IPA Sound
ﺍ • at word initial can denote: a, e, o; elsewhere: â
• at word initial when followed by ﯼcan denote: i (mostly) and ey
• at word initial when followed by ﻭcan denote: u (mostly), ow and ave
ﺁ â ɒː as o in hot
ﺏ b b as in bob
ﭖ p p as in put
ﺕ t t as in tea
ﺙ s s as in sad
ﺝ j dʒ as in job
ﭺ ch tʃ as in cheese
ﺡ h h as in head
ﺥ x x as ch in Scottish loch, German Buch
ﺭ r r similar to r in Spanish reloj
ﺯ z z as in zoo
ﮊ ž ʒ as s in vision, pleasure, French j in jardin
ﺱ s s as in sad
ﺵ š ʃ as in sheet
ﺹ s s as in sad
ﺽ z z as in zoo
ﻁ t t as in tea
ﻅ z z as in zoo
ﻉ ø ʔ glottal stop
ﻍ q ɣ similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben
ﻑ f f as in feet
ﻕ q ɣ similar to r in French écrire, German schreiben
ﮎ k k as in keep
ﮒ g g as in go
ﻝ l l as in leave
ﻡ m m as in moon
ﻥ n n as in noon
ﻭ v v as in van; also used to denote some vowel sounds
ﯼ y j as in yet; also used to denote some vowel sounds
Persian phrasebook 3
ﻩ h h as in head
As you may note, there are characters that denote identical sounds e.g. ﺯ ,ﺽ, ﻅare all pronounced z. It's because
Persian has preserved the spelling of Arabic loanwords. Each of these characters has distinguished sounds in Arabic
but they are all pronounced the same in Persian.
Persian has the following syllable patterns (C = Consonant, V = Vowel):
CV na, to, ke, mâ, xu, si, u
CVC kar, pol, del, kâr, mur, sir, az, in, âb
CVCC kard, goft, zešt, kârd, xošk, rixt, farš, ârd, abr
These patterns can be encapsulated in CV(C)(C). According to the patterns:
• A syllable always begins with a consonant sound. Please note that syllables which visually begin with a vowel
sound, have a preceding glottal stop merged with their sound. For instance, u (he, she) is actually said øu and ârd
(flour) is actually said øârd.
• The second component of any syllable is a vowel sound.
• Each syllable can only have one vowel sound. Therefore, each vowel indicates a syllable.
As opposed to English and many other languages, Persian does not allow two or more consonants to begin a syllable.
Therefore, loanwords with such a characteristic are always Persianized:
Word Persian Pattern
English: stadium estâdiyom (øes.tâ.di.yom) CVC.CV.CV.CVC
English: traffic terâfik (te.râ.fik) CV.CV.CVC
French: class kelâs (ke.lâs) CV.CVC
To help you understand it better, here are some basic words along with their syllabification:
Word Syllabification Meaning
bimârestân bi.mâ.res.tân hospital
ketâbxâne ke.tâb.xâ.ne library
dâruxâne dâ.ru.xâ.ne drug store
širiniforuši ši.ri.ni.fo.ru.ši confectionery
xiyâbân xi.yâ.bân street
otobus øo.to.bus bus
metro met.ro subway
Persian phrasebook 4
The stress is on the last syllable. However, a few adverbs do not follow this regularity. In addition, Persian has a
number of enclitics, which simply put, are unstressed endings (English example: 's in Peter's book). Enclitics do not
change the stress position of the word to which they attach. Therefore, the stress position does not shift to the last
syllable e.g. pedaram (my father): pe.dar + enclitic -am = pe.da.ram (rather than expected pe.da.ram)
Note - As an aid to beginners, the grave accent can be placed on the first vowel of enclitics to make them
distinguishable from suffixes and final letters of words. This method is used here for the genitive enclitic (è / yè),
indefinite enclitic (ì / yì) and enclitic form of "and" (ò).
Persian has a relatively easy and mostly regular grammar. Therefore, reading this grammar primer would help you
learn much about Persian grammar and understand phrases better. You should also be able to memorize phrases
Persian is a gender-neutral language. Such languages don't differentiate different grammatical genders (masculine,
feminine and neuter) and have identical pronouns, adjectives, etc. for all of them. For example, Persian has one word
for both English "he" and "she", "him" and "her", "his" and "her".
There is no definite article in Persian. A bare noun indicates a definite noun (which includes common and generic
nouns) e.g. mâšin dar pârking ast: the car is in the garage (literally: car, in garage, is); az mâr mitarsam: I'm afraid of
snakes (literally: from snake fear-I)
Indefiniteness is expressed with the enclitic -ì (or -yì after vowels). It is for both singular and plural nouns. English
does not have an exact equivalent for the Persian's plural indefinite article. It's often translated as "some" or "a few"
or is simply omitted. The indefinite enclitic is added to the end of the noun phrase: mâšinì (a car, some car),
mâšinhâyì (some cars)
Nouns are pluralized with the suffix -hâ. It's the only plural suffix used in spoken Persian. In written Persian, there's
another plural suffix -ân (-gân after the vowel e and -yân after other vowels) which can only be used for animates
and human beings in particular. It is especially useful to restrict the meaning to human beings. For example:
• sar means "head", sarhâ means "heads" and sarân means "chiefs, heads, leaders"
• gozašte means "past", gozaštehâ means "the past (events, etc.)" and gozaštegân means "the people of the past"
Arabic loanwords have usually brought their irregular plural forms (technically referred to as "broken plurals") into
Persian but they can be avoided and you can use -hâ to pluralize them. In spoken Persian, broken plurals are never
used except for very few cases where the broken plural has found an extended meaning. Regarding written Persian of
today, the use of broken plurals has greatly decreased and it's prevalent to pluralize words with -hâ.
Note - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when preceded by numbers because the number itself indicates quantity
e.g. yek ketâb (one/a book), do/se/panjâh ketâb (two/three/fifty books).
Persian phrasebook 5
In Persian, the genitive case relates two or more words to each other. The genitive case is marked with the enclitic -è
(or -yè after vowels). The genitive enclitic is added to all the words that are connected to the head word and
complement it. Look at the following examples:
To designate Persian English Template
possession pedarè Ali the father of Ali, Ali's father father-è Ali
mâdarè man my mother mother-è I
payâmbarè Eslâm the prophet of Islam prophet-è Islam
nâmè ketâb the name of the book, book's name name-è book
attribute dustè xub good friend friend-è good
Âmrikâyè jonubi South America America-yè south(ern)
other relations kešvarè Irân the country of Iran country-yè Iran
sâlè 2008 year 2008 year-è 2008
bâlâyè miz above table top-è table
šomâlè Tehrân north of Tehran north-è Tehran
The accusative case is indicated with the enclitic râ, added to the end of the noun phrase. Despite being an enclitic, it
is written apart from the host word in the Persian script. Examples: dar râ bastam (I closed the door), in filmè Hendi
râ qablan dide budam (I had already seen this Indian film).
Adjectives have only one form. They agree neither in gender nor in number with the noun they modify. They come
after the noun and are related to it with the genitive enclitic: pesarè xub: good boy (template: boy-è good),
doxtarhâyè xub: good girls (template: girl-hâ-yè good). As stated before, the indefinite article is added to the end of
the noun phrase, so: pesarè xubì (a/some good boy), doxtarhâyè xubì ((some) good girls).
The comparative form of an adjective is always made by adding the comparative suffix -tar to the end of the
adjective: bad (bad), badtar (worse); kam (little), kamtar (less); zibâ (beautiful), zibâtar (more beautiful).
The common pattern to compare A with B is: A + comparative + az (from) + B + verb
• [došmanè dânâ] [behtar] [az] [dustè nâdân] [ast]: a wise foe is better than a foolish friend (template: foe-yè wise,
good-tar, from, friend-è foolish, is). It's a Persian proverb.
Persian phrasebook 6
The superlative form of an adjective is always made by adding the superlative suffix -in to the comparative: bad
(bad), badtar (worse), badtarin (the worst). The superlative comes before the noun e.g. behtarin hotel (the best hotel),
behtarin hotelè in šahr (the best hotel of this city)
Demonstrative adjectives come before nouns and like other adjectives, they have only one form. In Persian, we don't
say "these books" but "this books". The plural form itself indicates that we are pointing to a plural noun. Basic
demonstrative adjectives are ân (distal: that, those) and in (proximal: this, these):
• When combined with jâ (place), they make adverbs: injâ (here) and ânjâ (there)
• When combined with chon (like), they make demonstratives: chonin (such, like this) and chonân (such, like that)
• When combined with ham (also; even), they make demonstratives: hamin (this/the same/one/very) and hamân
A pronoun (pro-noun) substitutes a noun phrase therefore the quantity (singular or plural) must be indicated.
Therefore, demonstrative pronouns agree in number with the noun phrase whose place they take: ân (that), ânhâ
(those), in (this), inhâ (these).
Demonstrative pronouns are also used as subjective pronouns. For example, the Persian word for "they" is ânhâ.
Distal pronouns (ân, ânhâ, hamân, hamânhâ) are either used neutrally (i.e. not denoting distance from the speaker) or
natively (i.e. indicating remoteness); but proximal pronouns (in, inhâ, hamin, haminhâ) are always used natively and
indicate proximity to the speaker. English doesn't have such a feature.
Personal pronouns have two forms. One is their normal form called free personal pronouns (free in the sense of
"not bound, separate") and the other is their enclitic form called bound personal pronouns. Subjective pronouns of
English: "I, you, he, she, etc." are analogous to free personal pronouns but English does not have any equivalent for
Persian's bound personal pronouns.
Persian has formal and informal 2nd and 3rd person. In addition, people of higher ranks like kings usually use 1st
person plural (we) rather than 1st person singular (I). So, plural forms can be considered as polite and formal forms
Persian English French Persian English French
1st man I je mâ we nous
2nd to thou, you (informal) tu šomâ you (formal, singular and vous
you (informal, plural)
3rd u he, she il, elle išân he, she (formal) il, elle
ân he, she, it il, elle, ça ânhâ they ils, elles, on
In spoken Persian, there is also šomâhâ used as the plural form of both informal and formal "you" (to and šomâ).
Persian phrasebook 7
Bound personal pronouns have various functions depending on the word class to which they attach. For example,
when they are added to the end of a noun (phrase), they express possession e.g. pedaram (my father). We'll learn
more about their functions.
Person Singular Plural
1st -am -emân
2nd -at -etân
3rd -aš -ešân
Direct object pronouns
Direct object pronouns are simply made by adding the accusative enclitic râ to subjective pronouns e.g. man râ (me),
u râ (him, her). man râ has developed a truncated form marâ (omission of n from manrâ), which is usually preferred
in bookish Persian.
Indirect object pronouns
Although Persian has lost the declination system of Old Persian but it does mark different cases with technically
called ad-positions (post/pre-positions). That's why Persian has been able to preserve the free word order feature:
• As we learned, the accusative case is marked with the enclitic râ (a post-position).
• The dative case is marked with the pre-position be (to).
• The ablative case is marked with the pre-position az (from).
English marks none of these cases. For example, if you change the word order of "the father kissed the daughter"
(accusative) to e.g. "the daughter kissed the father", the meaning completely changes. The same applies to "the father
helped the daughter" (dative) and "the father asked the daughter" (ablative). As with Latin, by changing the word
order, just the emphasis changes and the basic meaning is preserved:
• accusative: pedar doxtar râ busid, doxtar râ pedar busid
• dative: pedar be doxtar komak kard, be doxtar pedar komak kard
• ablative: pedar az doxtar porsid, az doxtar pedar porsid
Hence, Persian has three different sets of "object pronouns" as per the case. They are made from the adposition of the
case and subjective pronouns e.g. mâ râ busid (s/he kised us, accusative), be mâ komak kard (s/he helped us, dative),
az mâ porsid (s/he asked us, ablative).
Persian does not have possessive adjectives as is found in English. In Persian, possession is expressed by adding
"bound personal pronouns" to the end of the noun phrase (NP):
• dustam: my friend (template: friend-am)
• dustè xubam: my good friend (template: friend-è good-am). Please note that English's possessive adjectives also
function on the whole NP. The difference is that in English, the possessive precedes NP. Compare [dustè xub]am
with my [good friend].
Possession can also be expressed using the genitive case and subjective pronouns. This form is usually used for
emphasis and doesn't have an equivalent in English:
• dustè man: my friend (template: dust-è I)
• dustè xubè man: my good friend (template: friend-è good-è I).
Persian phrasebook 8
As for possessive pronouns, they are formed by relating mâl (property) to subjective pronouns with the genitive
enclitic e.g. mâlè man (mine), in ketâb mâlè man ast, na mâlè to (this book is mine, not yours)
Learning verb conjugation of Persian is quite easy. The infinitive always ends in -an e.g. budan (to be), dâštan (to
have). Each verb has two stems: past and present. The past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an from the
infinitive e.g. raftan (to go) = raft. There isn't such a rule for obtaining the present stem of verbs but they can be
classified into subgroups whose present stem is obtained according to a regular pattern with no or few exceptions.
However, a verb whether regular or irregular has one and only one present stem for all persons. Therefore, as
opposed to languages like French, Italian and Spanish, Persian does not have irregular verb conjugations. The past
participle forms by replacing the infinitive suffix (-an) with -e. In other words, by adding -e to the past stem e.g.
raftan = rafte.
To conjugate verbs in different tenses, conjugative enclitics attach to stems and participles. They only differ in 3rd
Past Present Past Present
1st -am -am -im -im
2nd -i -i -id -id
3rd - -ad -and -and
Note - Subjective pronouns (I, you, etc.) are not normally used in Persian because each person has a unique
conjugative enclitic, which suffices to indicate the person of the verb. For example, in raftim it is evident that the
person of the verb is 1st person plural and therefore, we do not normally say mâ raftim. So, Persian is a "pro-drop"
Formula: past stem + past enclitic. Examples:
• didan (to see): didam (I saw), didi (you /informal/ saw) , did (s/he saw); didim, didid, didand
• raftan (to go): raftam, rafti, raft; raftim (we went), raftid (you went), raftand (they went; s/he /formal/ went)
• budan (to be): budam, budi, bud, budim, budid, budand
• dâštan (to have): dâštam, dâšti, dâšt, dâštim, dâštid, dâštand
To negate verbs just add the negation prefix na to the stem: naraftam (I didn't go), nadid (s/he didn't see), nadâštand
(they didn't have). The negation prefix take the primary stress.
English does not have a grammatical form that corresponds exactly to this aspect. As an example, in languages
having imperfective aspect, "I ran five miles yesterday" would use past simple form, whereas "I ran five miles every
morning" would use past imperfective form. Romance languages like French, Spanish and Italian have only one
imperfective tense, which from the viewpoint of Persian, is the counterpart of "past simple". In contrast, each "past
simple", "present perfect", "past perfect", "present simple", etc. have an imperfective tense that are simply made by
prefixing "mi" to the stem or participle (depending on the formation of the tense). None of these imperfective tenses
has an equivalent in English, though and Romance languages have only an equivalent for the Persian's past
Persian phrasebook 9
Formula: mi + past simple (i.e. past stem + past enclitic).
• raftan (to go): miraftam, mirafti, miraft; miraftim, miraftid, miraftand
• xâstan (to want): mixâstam, mixâsti, mixâst; mixâstim, mixâstid, mixâstand
The past imperfective is also used in conditional tenses and as with "conditionnel" of French, it is used to make
polite expressions (that's why this tense has been mentioned in the primer): yek livân âb mixâstam (French: je
voudrais un verre d'eau, English: I'd like a glass of water).
Note - Because of a vowel harmony, the negation prefix "na" becomes "ne" before "mi". Therefore, we say
nemiraftam rather than expected namiraftam. However, in Afghanistani and Tajikistani Persian, this change hasn't
occurred and they still say namiraftam.
Formula: present stem + present enclitic. Regarding usage, the present imperfective has taken the place of this tense.
The only exception is dâštan (to have), which is not normally conjugated in the imperfective aspect due to its
meaning ("having" something cannot be "imperfective"; you either "have" or "don't have" something). The present
stem of dâštan is dâr. Now, its conjugation: dâram (I have), dâri (you /informal/ have), dârad (s/he has), dârim (we
have), dârid (you have), dârand (they have; s/he /formal/ has).
The verb budan (to be) has two forms in present simple:
• The full form (or free form) is: hastam (I am), hasti (you /informal/ are), (h)ast (he, she, it is); hastim (we are),
hastid (you are), hastand (they are; s/he /formal/ is).
• The enclitic form (or bound form) is: -am, -i, -ast; -im, -id, -and.
The free form is usually for emphasis and it is the bound form, which is normally used e.g. xubam (I am fine), xubi?
(Are you fine?; used in greetings).
Formula: imperfective prefix mi + present simple (present stem + present enclitic). Present stems are placed within
slashes / /.
• neveštan /nevis/ (to write): minevisam (I write), minevisi (you /informal/ write), minevisad (s/he writes);
minevisim, minevisid, minevisand
• didan /bin/ (to see): mibinam, mibini, mibinad; mibinim (we see), mibinid (you see), mibinand (they see; s/he
• raftan /rav/ (to go): miravam, miravi, miravad; miravim, miravid, miravand
As you see, although the stem is irregular but the conjugation is still regular.
Persian has a "future simple" tense but it is not used in spoken Persian. In spoken Persian, "future simple" is
expressed with present imperfective accompanied by a "future" adverb like fardâ (tomorrow), baødan (later).
Example: fardâ sobh be muze miravim (We'll go to the museum tomorrow morning).
An imperfective tense can also express a progressive (continuous) action because a progressive action is incomplete
(imperfect). Therefore, for example "minevisam", which is in "present imperfective", besides "I write", can also
mean, "I am writing" depending on the context. On this very basis, there is no progressive tense in written Persian
but spoken Persian has developed a full set of progressive tenses built upon the imperfetive tenses with the help of
the auxiliary dâštan (to have).
Formula: auxiliary dâštan in present simple + verb in present imperfective. Examples: dâram minevisam (I am
writing), dârad minevisad (s/he is writing).
Persian phrasebook 10
Progressive tenses only appear in affirmative sentences and they have no negative form. For negation, the
imperfective form of the verb is used. Example: "I'm writing" (dâram minevisam), "I'm not writing" (neminevisam,
not: dâram neminevisam).
Formula: past participle + auxiliary budan (to be) in present simple and in its bound form. Examples:
• didan (to see): dideam (I have seen), didei (you /informal/ have seen) , dideast (s/he has seen); dideim, dideid,
• raftan (to go): rafteam, raftei, rafteast; rafteim (we have gone), rafteid (you have gone), rafteand (they have gone;
s/he /formal/ has gone)
It'd be interesting to speakers of French (and other Romance languages) to know that rafteam is exactly equivalent to
"je suis allé" (literally: I'm gone). The difference is that in Persian the auxiliary verb is always "être" (budan) and
never "avoir" (dâštan).
As stated before, the negative conjugation is formed with the prefix na: narafteam (I haven't gone).
Formula: past participle + auxiliary budan (to be) in past simple. Examples:
• didan (to see): dide budam (I had seen), dide budi (you /informal/ had seen), dide bud (s/he had seen); dide
budim, dide budid, dide budand
• raftan (to go): rafte budam, rafte budi, rafte bud; rafte budim (we had gone), rafte budid (you had gone), rafte
budand (they have gone; s/he /formal/ had gone)
The negative conjugation is formed with the prefix na: narafte budam (I hadn't gone).
As with "present perfect", rafte budam literally means "I was gone". If you consider "gone" as an "adjective" rather
than a "past participle", you should be able to understand this construction and its meaning.
Formula: subjunctive prefix be + present simple (present stem + present enclitic). English doesn't practically have
any subjunctive tenses and therefore, Persian's subjunctive tenses cannot be exactly translated into English.
Therefore, translations are given in French. Examples:
• neveštan /nevis/ (to write): benevisam (que j'écrive), benevisi (que tu écrives), benevisad (qu'il/elle écrive);
benevisim, benevisid, benevisand
• didan /bin/ (to see): bebinam, bebini, bebinad; bebinim (que nous voyions), bebinid (que vous voyiez), bebinand
• raftan /rav/ (to go): beravam, beravi, beravad; beravim, beravid, beravand
In English we say "I want to go" but in Persian "to go" does not appear in "infinitive" but in present subjunctive:
mixâham beravam. We can assume that there is a relative pronoun ke (that) after "I want" that causes the second verb
to appear in the subjunctive (similar to French que) i.e. mixâham [ke] beravam (French: je veux qu'aille). In any
case, this construction is used very much and you should learn it well. Another example: mitavânam bebinam (I can
Persian phrasebook 11
• Persian has a limited number of simple (single-word, light) verbs (about 100, in common use). The majority of
Persian verbs are non-simple verbs made with these simple verbs. For example, kardan /kon/, which is equivalent
to French "faire" both in usage (making new verbs: faire attention, faire un voyage, etc.) and in basic meaning (to
do, to make), has been used to make thousands of verbs from nouns, adjectives and loanwords. Examples: rang
kardan (to dye; rang: color), bâz kardan (to open; bâz: open), sefid kardan (to whiten; sefid: white), dânlod kardan
(to download; dânlod: download). Therefore, by just knowing the present stem of kardan (/kon/) you can
conjugate a countless ever-growing number of verbs. Some useful verbs: telefon kardan (to phone), kopi kardan
(to copy), safar kardan (to travel), negâh kardan (to look, to watch), guš kardan (to listen), pârk kardan (to park),
komak kardan (to help), tamiz kardan (to clean).
Important note: Although kardan basically means "to do, to make" and is so useful, but be careful not to use it
alone because when used alone, it has a very bad meaning (vulgar: to have sexual intercourse) in the common
language. For "to do", we say "anjâm dâdan" and for "to make" we say "sâxtan". The present stem of dâdan is
/deh/, and that of sâxtan is /sâz/.
• The non-verbal part of a non-simple verb is called preverb (e.g. "telefon" in "telefon kardan"). When conjugating
non-simple verbs, the preverb sits aside and the conjugational elements are added to the verbal part (you should
find it quite logical). Example: telefon mikonam (I phone), telefon nemikonam (I don't phone), telefon kardam (I
phoned), telefon nakardam (I didn't phone).
• Bound personal pronouns can substitute direct object pronouns. They attach to the end of the verb e.g. "I saw
you": to râ didam versus didamat. In fact, it's the normal way and full (free) forms like to râ didam are used for
• To make a question, just change the tone of your voice e.g. didi (you saw), didi? (did you see?), raftei (you have
gone), raftei? (have you gone?).
How are you?
Hâlè šomâ chetor ast? ( ,)ﺣﺎﻝِ ﺷﻤﺎ ﭼﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖless formal: chetorid? ( ,)ﭼﻄﻮﺭﯾﺪxubid? ()ﺧﻮﺑﯿﺪ
Fine, thank you.
xubam, xeyli mamnun ()ﺧﻮﺑﻢ، ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻥ
What is your name?
esmetân chi'st? ()ﺍﺳﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ
My name is ~ .
esmam ~ ast ()ﺍﺳﺖ ~ ﺍﺳﻤﻢ
Nice to meet you.
xeyli mamnun ( ,)ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻥmersi ()ﻣﺮﺳﯽ
Persian phrasebook 12
Note - xeyli mamnun literally means "many thanks" but it's the common way of saying "thank you"
xâheš mikonam ()ﮐﻨﻢﺧﻮﺍﻫﺶ ﻣﯽ
bale ( ,)ﺑﻠﻪareh ()ﺁﺭﻩ
Excuse me (getting attention or begging pardon)
bebaxšid ( ,)ﺑﺒﺨﺸﯿﺪmaøzerat mixâham ()ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﻣﻌﺬﺭﺕ ﻣﯽ
bebaxšid ( ,)ﺑِﺒَﺨﺸﯿﺪmaøzerat mixâham ()ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﻣﻌﺬﺭﺕ ﻣﯽ
formal: mibinametân ( ,)ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺘﺎﻥﻣﯽinformal: mibinamet ()ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺖﻣﯽ
I can't speak Persian [well].
Nemitavânam [xub] Fârsi harf bezanam ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﺧﻮﺏ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﻢﻧﻤﯽ
Do you speak English?
Mitavânid Engelisi harf bezanid? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﯿﺪ؟ﻣﯽ
Is there someone here who speaks English?
Injâ kasi Engelisi midânad? ()ﺩﺍﻧﺪﺍﯾﻨﺠﺎ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﻣﯽ
formal: Movâzeb bâšid ( ,)ﻣﻮﺍﻇﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪinformal: Movâzeb bâš ()ﻣﻮﺍﻇﺐ ﺑﺎﺵ
sobh bexeyr ()ﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﺨﯿﺮ
asr bexeyr ()ﻋﺼﺮ ﺑﺨﯿﺮ
šab bexeyr ()ﺷﺐ ﺑﺨﯿﺮ
I don't understand.
nemifahmam ( ,)ﻓﻬﻤﻢﻧﻤﯽmotevajjeh nemišavam ()ﺷﻮﻡﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﯽ
Where is the toilet?
dastšuyi kojâ'st? ()ﺩﺳﺘﺸﻮﯾﯽ ﮐﺠﺎﺳﺖ
Persian phrasebook 13
Leave me alone.
Rahâyam konid ( ,)ﺭﻫﺎﯾﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪinformal: Velam konid ()ﻭﻟﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ
Don't touch me!
Be man dast nazanid ()ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﺰﻧﯿﺪ
I'll call the police.
Polis râ xabar mikonam ()ﮐﻨﻢﭘﻠﯿﺲ ﺭﺍ ﺧﺒﺮ ﻣﯽ
Âhây dozd! ()ﺁﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺯﺩ
I need your help.
Be komaketân niyâz dâram ()ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮑﺘﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻡ
It's an emergency.
Gom šodeam ()ﺍﻡﮔﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ
Boro kenâr! ()ﺑﺮﻭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ
I lost my bag.
Sâkam râ gom kardeam ()ﺍﻡﺳﺎﮐﻢ ﺭﺍ ﮔﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ
I lost my wallet.
Kifam râ gom kardeam ()ﺍﻡﮐﯿﻔﻢ ﺭﺍ ﮔﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ
Hâlam bad ast ()ﺣﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ
I've been injured.
Zaxmi šodeam ()ﺍﻡﺯﺧﻤﯽ ﺷﺪﻩ
I need a doctor.
Doktor mixâham ()ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﺩﮐﺘﺮ ﻣﯽ
Can I use your phone?
Mišavad az telefonetân estefâde konam ()ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻠﻔﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ
Persian phrasebook 14
The Persian number system is very similar to that used in Arabic, exceptions being the symbols for four and five.
Confusingly, the numerals used in Latin derived languages are called Arabic numerals and those used by in Arabic
and Persian languages are called Indian numerals. Persian numerals are written from left to right unlike their
Note - There are two ways to express "and" in Persian. One is with the enclitic ò (or yò after vowels) and the other is
with the word va. The enclitic ò is the common way (and the sole way in spoken Persian).
Persian ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹
Latin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Persian Persian Persian Persian
0 sefr ()ﺻﻔﺮ 15 pânzdah ()ﭘﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ 66 šastò šeš ()ﺷﺼﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺶ 600 šešsad ()ﺷﺸﺼﺪ
1 yek ()ﯾﮏ 16 šânzdah ()ﺷﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ 70 haftâd ()ﻫﻔﺘﺎﺩ 700 haftsad ()ﻫﻔﺘﺼﺪ
2 do ()ﺩﻭ 17 hefdah ()ﻫﻔﺪﻩ 77 haftâdò haft ()ﻫﻔﺘﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻔﺖ 800 haštsad ()ﻫﺸﺘﺼﺪ
3 se ()ﺳﻪ 18 hejdah ()ﻫﺠﺪﻩ 80 haštâd ()ﻫﺸﺘﺎﺩ 900 nohsad ()ﻧﻬﺼﺪ
4 chahâr ()ﭼﻬﺎﺭ 19 nuzdah ()ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻩ 88 haštâdò hašt ()ﻫﺸﺘﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻫﺸﺖ 1,000 hezâr ()ﻫﺰﺍﺭ
5 panj ()ﭘﻨﺞ 20 bist ()ﺑﯿﺴﺖ 90 navad ()ﻧﻮﺩ 1,001 hezârò yek ()ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﯾﮏ
6 šeš ()ﺷﺶ 21 bistò yek ()ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻭ ﯾﮏ 99 navadò noh ()ﻧﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻪ 1,100 hezârò sad ()ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺻﺪ
7 haft ()ﻫﻔﺖ 22 bistò do ()ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻭ 100 sad ()ﺻﺪ 2,000 do hezâr ()ﺩﻭ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ
8 hašt ()ﻫﺸﺖ 30 si ()ﺳﯽ 110 sadò dah ()ﺻﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻩ 2,008 do hezârò hašt ()ﺩﻭ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻫﺸﺖ
9 noh ()ﻧﻪ 33 siyò se ()ﺳﯽ ﻭ ﺳﻪ 200 devist ()ﺩﻭﯾﺴﺖ 10,000 dah hezâr ()ﺩﻩ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ
10 dah ()ﺩﻩ 40 chehel ()ﭼﻬﻞ 222 devistò bistò do (000,02 )ﺩﻭﯾﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻭ bist hezâr ()ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ
11 yâzdah ()ﯾﺎﺯﺩﻩ 44 chehelò chahâr ( 003 )ﭼﻬﻞ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭsisad ()ﺳﯿﺼﺪ 100,000 sad hezâr ()ﺻﺪ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ
12 davâzdah ()ﺩﻭﺍﺯﺩﻩ 50 panjâh ()ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ 333 sisadò siyò se ()ﺳﯿﺼﺪ ﻭ ﺳﯽ ﻭ ﺳﻪ 1,000,000 yek milyun ()ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ
13 sizdah ()ﺳﯿﺰﺩﻩ 55 panjâhò panj ()ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﻭ ﭘﻨﺞ 400 chahârsad ()ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺻﺪ 2,000,000 do milyun ()ﺩﻭ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ
14 chahârdah ( 06 )ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺩﻩšast ()ﺷﺼﺖ 500 pânsad ()ﭘﺎﻧﺼﺪ 1,000,000,000 yek milyârd ()ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩ
number ~ (train, bus, etc.)
šomâreye ~ ()~ ﯼﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ
Persian phrasebook 15
one o'clock AM
yekè sobh ()ﯾﮏ ﺻﺒﺢ
two o'clock AM
doè sobh ()ﺩﻭ ﺻﺒﺢ
one o'clock PM
yekè baød-az-zohr ()ﯾﮏ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯﻇﻬﺮ
two o'clock PM
doè baød-az-zohr ()ﺩﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯﻇﻬﺮ
Persian phrasebook 16
Tip - In Persian, nouns are not pluralized when a number precedes them. The plurality is clear from the "number".
Therefore, we say, for example:
• one/three/fifty day: yek/se/panjâh ruz ()ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﺭﻭﺯ/ﺳﻪ/ﯾﮏ
• three to five week: se tâ panj hafte ()ﺳﻪ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻨﺞ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ
in hafte ()ﺍﯾﻦ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ
hafteyè gozašte ()ﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪﻫﻔﺘﻪ
hafteyè âyande ()ﯼ ﺁﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫﻔﺘﻪ
Tip - In Iran, weeks begin with "Saturday" and end with "Friday". So, the holiday is "Friday" and the weekend starts
Persian phrasebook 17
Iran uses a solar calendar with the New Year on the vernal equinox (March 21 on the Gregorian calendar). Years
begin with "spring" and end with "winter". The first six months have 31 days, and the last five have 30 days each.
The final month has 29 or 30 depending on whether or not it is a leap year. Leap years are not as simply calculated as
in the Gregorian calendar, but typically there is a five year leap period after every 7 four-year cycles. Year 0 of the
calendar corresponds to 621 in Gregorian.
Persian Transcription English
ﺑﻬﺎﺭ bahâr spring
ﻓﺮﻭﺭﺩﯾﻦ Farvardin (31 days) 21 Mar. – 20 Apr.
ﺍﺭﺩﯾﺒﻬﺸﺖOrdibehešt (31 days) 21 Apr. – 21 May
ﺧﺮﺩﺍﺩ Xordâd (31 days) 22 May – 21 June
ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ tâbestân summer
ﺗﯿﺮ Tir (31 days) 22 June – 22 July
ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺩ Mordâd (31 days) 23 July – 22 Aug.
ﺷﻬﺮﯾﻮﺭ Šahrivar (31 days) 23 Aug. – 22 Sep.
ﭘﺎﯾﯿﺰ pâyiz autumn
ﻣﻬﺮ Mehr (30 days) 23 Sep.– 22 Oct.
ﺁﺑﺎﻥ Âbân (30 days) 23 Oct.– 21 Nov.
ﺁﺫﺭ Âzar (30 days) 22 Nov.– 21 Dec.
ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ zemestân winter
ﺩﯼ Dey (30 days) 22 Dec.– 19 Jan.
ﺑﻬﻤﻦ Bahman (30 days) 20 Jan. – 18 Feb.
ﺍﺳﻔﻨﺪ Esfand (29/30 days) 19 Feb. – 20 Mar.
Gregorian month names are borrowed from French.
Me ( ,)ﻣﻪalso Mey ()ﻣﯽ
Žuiye ( ,)ﮊﻭﺋﯿﻪalso Julây ()ﺟﻮﻻﯼ
Persian phrasebook 18
Ut ( ,)ﺍﻭﺕalso Âgust ()ﺁﮔﻮﺳﺖ
Writing time and date
The staring point of the Iranian solar calendar is Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. Short date
format is yyyy/mm/dd (or yy/mm/dd) and the long date format is dddd, dd MMMM yyyy. For example, today
(Monday, August 11, 2008) is:
• short date format: 1387/05/21 (or 87/05/21)
• long date format: došanbe, 21 Mordâd 1387
Time is written like English e.g. 8:34 (۸:۳۴).
siyâh ( ,)ﺳﯿﺎﻩalso meški ()ﻣﺸﮑﯽ
qermez ( ,)ﻗﺮﻣﺰalso sorx ()ﺳﺮﺥ
Persian phrasebook 19
Bus and train
How much is a ticket to ~?
belitè ~ cheqadr ast? ()ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ~ ﺑﻠﯿﻂ
One ticket to ~, please.
lotfan yek belit barâye ~ () ~ ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﯾﮏ ﺑﻠﯿﻂ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ
Where does this train/bus go?
in qatâr/otobus kojấ miravad? ()ﺭﻭﺩﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ/ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ
Where is the train/bus to ~?
qatârè/otobusè ~ kodấm ast? ()ﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ/ﻗﻄﺎﺭ
Does this train/bus stop in ~?
in qatâr/otobus dar ~ míistad? ()ﺍﯾﺴﺘﺪﻣﯽ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ/ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ
When does the train/bus for ~ leave?
qatârè/otobusè ~ kéy harekat mikonad? ()ﮐﻨﺪﮐﯽ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ/ﻗﻄﺎﺭ
When will this train/bus arrive in ~?
in qatâr/otobus kéy be ~ miresad? ()ﺭﺳﺪﻣﯽ ~ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﮐﯽ ﺑﻪ/ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ
How do I get to ~ ?
chetór beravam be ~ ()ﭼﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﻭﻡ ﺑﻪ
...the train station?
istgâhè qatâr ()ﺍﯾﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ
...the bus station?
istgâhè otobus ()ﺍﯾﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ
markazè šahr ()ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺷﻬﺮ
...the youth hostel?
...the ~ hotel?
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?
sefâratè Âmrikâ/Kânâdâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelestân ()ﺍﻧﮕﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ/ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺕ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ
Where are there a lot of...
kojâ ~ ziyâd peydâ mišavad? ()ﺷﻮﺩﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﻣﯽ ~ ﮐﺠﺎ
Persian phrasebook 20
NOT FOUND IN IRAN
...sites to see?
jâyè didani ()ﺟﺎﯼ ﺩﯾﺪﻧﯽ
Can you show me on the map?
mišavad ruyè naqše nešân bedahid? ()ﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪﻣﯽ
bepichid dastè chap ()ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﭼﭗ
bepichid dastè râst ()ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺭﺍﺳﺖ
towards the ~
be tarafè ()ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ
past the ~
baød az ()ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ
before the ~
qabl az ()ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ
Watch for the ~.
donbâlè ~ begardid ()ﺑﮕﺮﺩﯾﺪ ~ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ
Persian phrasebook 21
Take me to ~, please.
lotfan marâ bebar ~ ()~ ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﻣﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﺮ
How much does it cost to get to ~?
tâ ~ cheqadr mišavad? ()ﺷﻮﺩﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﯽ ~ ﺗﺎ
Take me there, please.
lotfan marâ bebar ânjâ ()ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﻣﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﺮ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ
Do you have any rooms available?
otâqè xâli dârid? ()ﺍُﺗﺎﻕِ ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
How much is a room for one person/two people?
otâq barâye yek/do nafar chand ast? ()ﺩﻭ ﻧَﻔَﺮ ﭼَﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ/ﺍُﺗﺎﻕ ﺑﺮﺍﯼِ ﯾِﮏ
Does the room come with ~
otâq ~ dârad? ()ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ~ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ
~ a bathroom?
~ a telephone?
~ a TV?
May I see the room first?
mišavad avval otâq râ bebinam? ()ﺷَﻮَﺩ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢﻣﯽ
Do you have anything quieter?
jâyè ârâmtarì dârid? ()ﺟﺎﯼ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
OK, I'll take it.
bâše, hamin râ migiram. ()ﮔﯿﺮَﻡﺑﺎﺷﻪ، ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽ
I will stay for ~ night(s).
Persian phrasebook 22
~ šab mimânam (~ )ﻣﺎﻧﻢﺷﺐ ﻣﯽ
Can you suggest another hotel?
mišavad hotelè digarì râ pišnahâd konid? ()ﺷﻮﺩ ﻫﺘﻞ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﯽ
Do you have a safe?
sandoqè amânât dârid? ()ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻣﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
komodè qofldâr? ()ﮐﻤﺪ ﻗﻔﻠﺪﺍﺭ
Is breakfast/supper included?
hazine šâmelè sobhâne/šâm ham mišavad? ()ﺷﻮﺩﺷﺎﻡ ﻫﻢ ﻣﯽ/ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺻﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ
What time is breakfast/supper?
sobhâne/šâm che sâatì ast? ()ﺷﺎﻡ ﭼﻪ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ/ﺻﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ
Please clean my room.
lotfan otâqam râ tamiz konid ()ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ﺍﺗﺎﻗﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻤﯿﺰ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ
Can you wake me at ~?
mišavad marâ sâatè ~ bidâr konid? ()ﺑﯿﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ~ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺮﺍ ﺳﺎﻋﺖﻣﯽ
I want to check out.
mixâham tasviye konam ()ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺗﺴﻮﯾﻪ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?
Dolârè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Kânâdâ qabul mikonid? ()ﮐﻨﯿﺪﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﯽ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﺩﻻﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ
Do you accept British pounds?
Pondè Engelis qabul mikonid? ()ﮐﻨﯿﺪﭘﻮﻧﺪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺲ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﯽ
Do you accept credit cards?
kârtè eøtebâri qabul mikonid? ()ﮐﻨﯿﺪﮐﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﯼ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﯽ
Can you change money for me?
mitavânid pulam râ cheynj konid? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﭘﻮﻟﻢ ﺭﺍ ﭼﯿﻨﺞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﯽ
Where can I get money changed?
Kojâ mitavânam pulam râ cheynj konam? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﭘﻮﻟﻢ ﺭﺍ ﭼﯿﻨﺞ ﮐﻨﻢﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ
Can you change a traveler's check for me?
mitavânid terâvel râ barâyam naqd konid? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯾﻢ ﻧﻘﺪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﯽ
Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
Kojâ mitavân terâvel naqd kard? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﻝ ﻧﻘﺪ ﮐﺮﺩﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ
What is the exchange rate?
nerxè arz cheqadr ast? ()ﻧﺮﺥ ﺍﺭﺯ ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
âberbânk kojâ'st? ()ﻋﺎﺑﺮﺑﺎﻧﮏ ﮐﺠﺎﺳﺖ
Persian phrasebook 23
A table for one person/two people, please.
Yek miz barâyè yek/do nafar, lotfan. ()ﺩﻭ ﻧﻔﺮ/ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﯾﮏ
Can I look at the menu, please?
mitavânam menu râ bebinam? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﻣﻨﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢﻣﯽ
Can I look in the kitchen?
mitavânam âšpazxâne râ bebinam? ()ﺷﻮﺩ ﺁﺷﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢﻣﯽ
Is there a house specialty?
qazâyè xânegi dârid? ()ﻏﺬﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
Is there a local specialty?
qazâyè mahalli dârid? ()ﻏﺬﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
I'm a vegetarian.
giyâhxâr hastam. ()ﮔﯿﺎﻫﺨﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻢ
I don't eat pork.
guštè xuk nemixoram. ()ﺧﻮﺭﻡﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﺧﻮﮎ ﻧﻤﯽ
I don't eat beef.
guštè gâv nemixoram. ()ﺧﻮﺭﻡﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﮔﺎﻭ ﻧﻤﯽ
I only eat halal food.
faqat guštè halâl mixoram. ()ﺧﻮﺭﻡﻓﻘﻂ ﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻣﯽ
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
mišavad kamcharbaš konid? ()ﭼﺮﺑﺶ ﮐﻨﯿﺪﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻢﻣﯽ
qazâ bâ qeymatè sâbet ()ﻏﺬﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ
à la carte
qazâ bâ qeymatè jodâ jodâ ()ﻏﺬﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺟُﺪﺍ ﺟُﺪﺍ
I want ~ .
~ mixâham ()ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢﻣﯽ
I want a dish containing ~ .
qazâyì mixâham ke ~ dâšte bâšad ()ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ~ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐﻪﻏﺬﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﯽ
Persian phrasebook 24
guštè gâv ()ﮔﻮﺷﺖ ﮔﺎﻭ
žâmbonè xuk ()ﮊﺍﻣﺒﻮﻥ ﺧﻮﮎ
toxmè morq ()ﺗﺨﻢ ﻣﺮﻍ
sabziyè tâze ()ﺳﺒﺰﯼ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ
miveyè tâze ()ﯼ ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻣﯿﻮﻩ
nânè tost ()ﻧﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﺖ
May I have a glass of ~ ?
yek livân ~ mixâstam. ()ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﯾﮏ ﻟﯿﻮﺍﻥ
May I have a cup of ~ ?
yek fenjân ~ mixâstam. ()ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﯾﮏ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ
May I have a bottle of ~ ?
yek šiše ~ mixâstam. ()ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ
Persian phrasebook 25
âbè maødani(yè gâzdâr) ())ﮔﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭ( ﺁﺏ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﯽ
âbjo (( )ﺁﺑﺠﻮNOTE: There is no alcohol beer in restaurants)
šarâbè sorx/sefid (( )ﺳﻔﯿﺪ/ﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺥNOTE: There is no alcohol wine in restaurants)
May I have some ~ ?
kamì ~ mixâstam. ()ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ ~ ﮐﻤﯽ
felfelè siyâh ()ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ﺳﯿﺎﻩ
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
xordanam tamâm šod. ()ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻧﻢ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺷﺪ
It was delicious.
xošmazze bud. ()ﺧﻮﺷﻤﺰﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ
Please clear the plates.
lotfan, bošqâbhâ râ tamiz konid. ()ﻟُﻄﻔﺎً ﺑُﺸﻘﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻤﯿﺰ ﮐُﻨﯿﺪ
The check, please.
surat-hesâb, lotfan. (ً)ﺣِﺴﺎﺏ ﻟُﻄﻔﺎَﺻﻮﺭَﺕ
Remember that the possession, sale and service of alcohol in Iran is illegal.
Do you serve alcohol?
mašrub serv mikonid? ()ﮐﻨﯿﺪﻣﺸﺮﻭﺏ ﺳﺮﻭ ﻣﯽ
Is there table service?
lavâzemè miz (kârd, qâšoq, changâl, etc.) ham vojud dârad? ()ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﻣﯿﺰ ﻫﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ
A beer/two beers, please.
yek/do tâ âbjo, lotfan. ()ﺩﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺁﺑﺠﻮ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ/ﯾﮏ
A glass of red/white wine, please.
yek gilâs šarâbè sorx/sefid, lotfan. ()ﺳﻔﯿﺪ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ/ﯾﮏ ﮔﯿﻼﺱ ﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺥ
A pint, please.
yek livân, lotfan. ()ﯾﮏ ﻟﯿﻮﺍﻥ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ
Persian phrasebook 26
A bottle, please.
yek šiše, lotafn. ()ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ
~ (hard liquor) and ~ (mixer), please.
likorè ~ bâ ~, lotfan. ()ﻟﻄﻔﺎ ،~ ﺑﺎ ~ ﻟﯿﮑﻮﺭ
limunâdè gâzdâr ()ﻟﯿﻤﻮﻧﺎﺩ ﮔﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭ
Do you have any bar snacks?
mazze dârid? ()ﻣﺰﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
One more, please.
yekì digar, lotfan. ()ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ
Another round, please.
yek dorè digar, lofan. ()ﯾﮏ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ، ﻟﻄﻔﺎ
When is closing time?
sâatè chand mibandid? ()ﺑﻨﺪﯾﺪﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﯽ
Do you have this in my size?
az in andâzeyè man dârid? ()ﯼ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ
How much is this?
chand ast? ()ﭼﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ
That's too expensive.
xeyli gerân ast. ()ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ
Would you take ~?
~ mipasandid? ()
Persian phrasebook 27
I can't afford it.
pulaš râ nadâram. ()ﭘﻮﻟﺶ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻡ
I don't want it.
You're cheating me.
dârid be man kalak mizanid. ()ﺯﻧﯿﺪﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﮐﻠﮏ ﻣﯽ
I'm not interested.
xošam nemiâyad. ()ﺁﯾﺪﺧﻮﺷﻢ ﻧﻤﯽ
OK, I'll take it.
bâše, in râ barmidâram. ()ﺩﺍﺭﻡﺑﺎﺷﻪ، ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻣﯽ
Can I have a bag?
kise dârid? ()ﮐﯿﺴﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ
Do you ship (overseas)?
be xârej post mikonid? ()ﮐﻨﯿﺪﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﭘﺴﺖ ﻣﯽ
I need ~
~ mixâstam (~ )ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢﻣﯽ
xamirdandân ~. ()ﺧﻤﯿﺮﺩﻧﺪﺍﻥ
~ a toothbrush.
mesvâk ~. ()ﻣﺴﻮﺍﮎ
tâmpon ~. ( ,)ﺗﺎﻣﭙﻮﻥnavârè behdâšti ~. ()ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﯽ
sâbun ~. ()ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻥ
šâmpu ~. ()ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ
~ pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)
mosakken ~. ()ﻣﺴﮑﻦ
~ cold medicine.
~ dâruyè sarmâxordegi. ()ﺩﺍﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﺧﻮﺭﺩﮔﯽ
~ stomach medicine.
~ dâruyè deldard. ()ﺩﺭﺩﺩﺍﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﻝ
~ a razor.
tiq ~. ()ﺗﯿﻎ
~ an umbrella.
chatr ~. ()ﭼﺘﺮ
~ sunblock lotion.
Persian phrasebook 28
zeddè âftâb ~. ()ﺿﺪﺁﻓﺘﺎﺏ
~ a postcard.
kârt-postâl ~. ()ﭘﺴﺘﺎﻝﮐﺎﺭﺕ
~ postage stamps.
tamr ~. ()ﺗﻤﺒﺮ
bâtri ~. ()ﺑﺎﺗﺮﯼ
~ writing paper.
kâqaz ~. ()ﮐﺎﻏﺬ
~ a pen.
xodkâr ~. ()ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ
~ English-language books.
ketâbè Engelisi-zabân ~ ()ﺯﺑﺎﻥﮐﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ
~ English-language magazines.
majalleyè Engelisi-zabân ~ ()ﺯﺑﺎﻥﯼ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽﻣﺠﻠﻪ
~ an English-language newspaper.
ruznâmeyè Engelisi-zabân ~. ()ﺯﺑﺎﻥﯼ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽﺭﻭﺯﻧﺎﻣﻪ
~ an English-English dictionary.
Farhangè Engelisi be Engelisi ~. ()ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ
Notice - In Iran, there are no car rental agencies. Most of the time, you would need to rent a car with a driver from an
"âžâns" (taxi agency) who will drive you around. The agencies often have set daily/weekly rental prices which you
should make sure to ask for!
I want to rent a car.
mixâstam yek mâšin kerâye konam ()ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻢ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺎﺷﯿﻦ ﮐﺮﺍﯾﻪ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ
Can I get insurance?
mitavânam bime begiram? ()ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻢ ﺑﯿﻤﻪ ﺑﮕﯿﺮﻡﻣﯽ
stop (on a street sign)
yektarafe ()ﻳﮏ ﻃﺮﻓﻪ
râh bedahid ( ,)ﺭﺍﻩ ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪejâzeyè obur bedahid ()ﯼ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ
pârk mamnuø ()ﭘﺎﺭﮎ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻉ
sorøatè mojâz ()ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ
gas (petrol) station
pompè benzin ()ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ
Persian phrasebook 29
I haven't done anything wrong.
kârì nakardeam. ()ﺍﻡﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻧﮑﺮﺩﻩ
It was a misunderstanding.
suè tafâhom bud. ()ﺳﻮء ﺗﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻮﺩ
Where are you taking me?
marâ kojâ mibarid? ()ﺑﺮﯾﺪﻣﺮﺍ ﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﯽ
Am I under arrest?
bâzdâšt hastam? ()ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻢ
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
šahrvandè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelis/Kânâdâ hastam. ()ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﻫﺴﺘﻢ/ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺲ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﺷﻬﺮﻭﻧﺪ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
mikhâham bâ sefâratè/konsulgariyè Âmrikâ/Ostorâliyâ/Engelis/Kânâdâ tamâs begiram. (ﺑﺎﻣﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ
)ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺑﮕﯿﺮﻡ/ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺲ/ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﯿﺎ/ﮐﻨﺴﻮﻟﮕﺮﯼ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ/ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺕ
I want to talk to a lawyer.
mixâham bâ yek vakil harf bezanam. ()ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻭﮐﯿﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺑﺰﻧﻢﻣﯽ
Can I just pay a fine now?
mišavad jarime râ naqdan pardâxt konam? ()ﺷﻮﺩ ﺟﺮﯾﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻘﺪﺍ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﮐﻨﻢﻣﯽ
This is a guide phrasebook. It covers all the major topics for traveling without resorting to English. But please Plunge forward and help us make it
• Persian lessons at Wikiotics 
 http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Greater_Iran
 http:/ / wikiotics. org/ en/ Persian_lessons
Article Sources and Contributors 30
Article Sources and Contributors
Persian phrasebook Source: http://en.wikivoyage.org/w/index.php?oldid=2083759 Contributors: (WT-en) Alijsh, (WT-en) Allyak, (WT-en) Dguillaime, (WT-en) Gedran, (WT-en) Guaka,
(WT-en) Inas, (WT-en) Javidjamae, (WT-en) Jaytan, (WT-en) MrStew, (WT-en) Nzpcmad, (WT-en) Oules, (WT-en) Pashley, (WT-en) PierreAbbat, (WT-en) Smalek, ChubbyWimbus,
Peterfitzgerald, Wrh2, ZxxZxxZ, 93 anonymous edits
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