1845 Jan. The French whalers_ Argo_ Salamandre_ Gustave and

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					                                      1845



Jan.      The French whalers, Argo, Salamandre, Gustave and Gange call at Akaroa near
          the beginning of January.

2 Jan.    Governor Fitzroy decides that Robinson should be recalled from Akaroa to
          Wellington until the Otago settlers arrive, and that all but one member of the
          Akaroa police force be discharged.

4 Jan.    The Rhin leaves Tahiti. Meryon writes to his father: nothing on Akaroa. The
          N.Z. Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian makes a detailed comparison of
          French (15 ships, 454 guns, 4290 men) and British (11 ships, 258 guns, 2233
          men) squadrons in the Pacific.

7 Jan.    The American whaler Logan, Captain Coffin?, anchors in Akaroa Harbour.

8 Jan.    The American whaler Ohio anchors in Akaroa Harbour. The liberty men of the
          Logan return from shore sober.

9 Jan.    The French whaler Espadon, Captain Désiré Ratau, arrives at Port Levy. The
          Orion, Gustave and Duc d’Orléans will also call there during its stay [CC5
          611]. Richmond writes to Robinson on the Governor’s direction to recall him
          and all but one of his police force from Akaroa. Robinson is to proceed to
          Wellington without delay to assist the Chief Police Magistrate until the New
          Edinburgh settlement is established.

10 Jan.   Grimstone writes to Hempelman saying that Watson cannot prevent trespassing
          on land that is not officially Hempelman’s [NM 10/3].

11 Jan.   The Saganse [Salamandre?] anchors in Akaroa Harbour. The N.Z. Spectator
          and Cook’s Straits Guardian reports that C.B. Robinson is to move from
          Akaroa to Wellington, and the Akaroa police establishment is to be given up.

13 Jan.   Birth of Théodore Libeau at Akaroa. Two ships arrive at Akaroa.

16 Jan.   The Logan leaves Akaroa in company with the Ohio.

19 Jan.   The Black Warrior, Captain Anderson, arrives at Wellington from Port Cooper
          with a cargo of sundries.

21 Jan.   The China, Captain Potter, anchors off the Kaik at 7 p.m.

22 Jan.   The China shifts anchorage to Frenchtown. The brigantine, Vanguard, Captain
          Pelford, leaves Wellington for Ikolaki.
23 Jan.   The French whaler Gustave, Captain Desclos, arrives at Akaroa [CC5 611]. The
          brigantine, Rover’s Bride, Captain Joss, arrives at Wellington from Akaroa.

25 Jan.   The American whalers, Columbia, Jefferson and Hibernia, and two French
          whalers, Argo and Salamandre, leave Akaroa for the North Pacific. The N.Z.
          Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian quotes a letter, written in Akaroa on 28
          January 1844 and published in the Journal des débats.

26 Jan.   The Gustave leaves Akaroa [CC5 611]. The Rhin arrives at the Bay of Islands.

27 Jan.   The American whaler, Charleston, Captain Baldwin, anchors at Akaroa at 10
          a.m. The American whaler, Chelsea, is in port. Bérard being ill, Pompallier
          came on board the Rhin where Bérard admits him as a chevalier of the Legion
          of Honour.

28 Jan.   The Rhin leaves the Bay of Islands. The French whaler, Manche, arrives at
          Akaroa.

29 Jan.   John Neyburg and Amos Green desert from the China.

30 Jan.   John Wilder, Robert Devoll and Lewis Bolt desert from the China. A
          blacksmith from Akaroa makes repairs on the Charleston.

31 Jan.   Captains Baldwin and Chester buy potatoes from a French farmer living in a
          hovel at the head of the bay. They see the bones of hundreds of Maori on
          Onawe peninsula.

1 Feb.    The deserters from the Charleston return on board.

4 Feb.    The Charleston gets potatoes from two Frenchmen living like hermits at the
          head of the bay. Nearby lives an Englishman with a woman he calls his wife.
          Mr and Mrs Turner spend the evening on board the Charleston.

5 Feb.    Three men and the only unmarried European woman in the bay visit the
          Charleston in the evening. A schooner owned by Charles Brown arrives at
          Akaroa.

7 Feb.    One Frenchman and two Englishmen join the crew of the China.

8 Feb.    The China and the Charleston leave Akaroa, with fond farewells from Mr and
          Mrs Turner, Mr Crawford and Mrs Elizabeth Pilchard. The Rhin arrives back at
          Akaroa. A schooner is beating about outside the entrance to the harbour. The
          Manche, Pallas and Cachalot are at Akaroa. The Espadon, Orion and Duc
          d’Orléans are at Port Levy. Bérard restores order among whaling crews,
          Robinson’s position as magistrate having been suppressed temporarily to save
          money and all the constables dismissed. Crops and gardens were thriving,
          wheat was harvested, there were some peaches and grapes.
10 Feb.   A boat from the Rhin searches unsuccessfully for an anchor left near Chaloupe
          Rock by the Cachalot.

12 Feb.   The Eliza, Captain Brown, arrives at Wellington from Akaroa.

13 Feb.   4 men from the Pallas join the crew of the Rhin, and are replaced by Lacombe,
          Servié, Hermann and Vedel from the Rhin. The Pallas leaves Akaroa.

15 Feb.   Bérard learns that five men have deserted from the Duc d’Orléans (including
          Dorigny, Morand, Auguste and Savary) and four from the Orion (Morisse,
          Bellu, Mahé and Michel) at Port Levy, that they had been robbed by Maori and
          left wandering around the peninsula. 2 boats from the Rhin, with an officer and
          a doctor, go to Flea Bay and return in the evening. Michel died of tutu
          poisoning and was buried at Flea Bay, where an English family looked after
          them. The doctor from the Rhin saves two others. The French whaler Héva
          arrives at Akaroa, and one of its men is put in irons on the Rhin.

16 Feb.   The Duc d’Orléans moors at Maori Bay in the night and then moves on to
          anchor near the Rhin. A man from the Héva is brought on board the Rhin for
          punishment.

17 Feb.   Seven of the surviving deserters receive 12 lashes each. A man from the
          Cachalot is brought on board the Rhin for punishment.

18 Feb.   The Espadon leaves Port Levy for the NW coast of America [CC5 611]. The
          Sisters arrives at Wellington from Pigeon Bay, with cheese from the Deans’
          farm.

19 Feb.   A man from the Duc d’Orléans, another from the Cachalot, and the colonist
          Jules Véron are brought onto the Rhin for punishment. 12 Lashes are given to 2
          men from the Héva and 1 from the Duc d’Orléans. Two men from the Héva
          and one from the Manche are returned to their ships from the Rhin. The whaler
          Elisabeth arrives at Akaroa.

20 Feb.   2 men from the Héva and Jean Guillaume David, the son of a colonist, join the
          crew of the Rhin, the latter as cabin-boy. A man from the Manche is brought on
          board the Rhin, and is replaced by Dorigny. The man from the Héva and the
          harpooner from the Cachalot are returned to their ships after punishment on the
          Rhin. Men from the Rhin work on their whale.

21 Feb.   The Maori chief, Tehori, is given a blanket for having handed in the deserters’
          belongings. The lieutenant and a harpooner from the Cachalot are put in irons
          on the Rhin. The Eliza leaves Wellington for Akaroa.

22 Feb.   The colonists Désiré Heaulmé and Jules Véron return ashore from the Rhin
          after their punishment.
          The Vanguard, Captain Pelford, arrives at Wellington from Akaroa. The N.Z.
          Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian records shore whaling catches for the
          1844 season as: 28 tons of oil and 1 ton of bone at Port Cooper (Ames); 110
          and 5 tons at Ikolaki (Price); 85 and 4 tons at Goashore (Woods); 9 and 0.5 at
          Peraki (Hempleman).

          Richmond writes to Robinson, reversing the decision of 9 Jan. to recall
          Robinson and discharge all but one constable. Grimstone writes to Greenwood
          saying he cannot be granted the land he is squatting on as it is claimed by the
          Nanto-Bordelaise Co.

23 Feb.   A man from the Héva is put in irons on the Rhin.

24 Feb.   Men from the Rhin work on the church and the whale; others go fishing.

25 Feb.   The Manche leaves Akaroa. The head of the Rhin’s whale is transported to the
          store.

26 Feb.   An American whaler anchors at Maori Bay. The man from the Duc d’Orléans
          returns to his ship after punishment on the Rhin. The Maori chief, Mopu, is
          given a white woollen blanket. The Maori of Port Levy and Taumutu are given
          23 kg. of biscuit.

          The Sisters leaves Wellington for Akaroa.

27 Feb.   The Duc d’Orléans leaves Akaroa.

28 Feb.   Robinson leaves Akaroa for Pigeon Bay. Men from the Rhin go ashore to erect
          a tent for the Maori. The deserter, Morand, is embarked on the Cachalot. The
          Maori are given a barrel of flour (90.9 kg.).

1 March   C. Crawford begins work as a carpenter for Robinson. An American whaler
          arrives at Akaroa. A white blanket is given to Kikiwera. The Maori are given
          20 kg. of biscuit. The mounting of the Rhin’s mountain gun is loaded into a
          ship’s boat.

          The Colonial Gazette publishes an account of a visit to Akaroa: a lot of work
          has gone into a road, 40-50 acres are under cultivation by the 60 French and 20
          Germans, who also have numerous cows and poultry and live in comfort,
          bartering with visiting ships.

3 March   A sailor from the Héva is taken aboard the Rhin for punishment.

4 March   Mr Belligny pays the Port Levy Maori for the northern half of the peninsula,
          including Port Cooper, Port Levy and Pigeon Bay. At Pigeon Bay, Robinson
          receives a letter from the Governor telling him to reassume his powers as a
          magistrate and to re-establish the police force at Akaroa. A sailor from the
           Elisabeth is taken aboard the Rhin for punishment. The Maori are given 90.9
           kg. of flour.

5 March    The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. gives 5 acres to Isaac Leduc, and 5 acres to Jacques
           Michel Cébert. Tukutuku is given 25 kg. of gunpowder, Taiaroa 147.5 kg. [or
           7.5 kg.?] of flour. The schooner Sisters arrives at Akaroa.

6 March    The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. sells 1.5 acres to Isaac Leduc on German Hill. The
           Sisters moors at the Carenage. The prisoner from the Cachalot is sent back to
           his ship from the Rhin.

7 March    Carpenters from the Rhin work at German Bay. A blockhaus is transported by
           boat from German Bay to the colony.

8 March    An Englishman at Flea Bay is given 14 quarts of brandy, 5 kg. of sugar and 5
           kg. of coffee by the Rhin in appreciation for his hospitality to the French
           deserters from the Duc d’Orléans. Carpenters from the Rhin go to the colony to
           erect the blockhaus.

9 March    The Cachalot, the Héva and an American whaler leave Akaroa. The Rhin gives
           6 ash oars and 110 metres of cloth to the Elisabeth which goes to moor near the
           harbour entrance.

11 March   The Elisabeth leaves Akaroa.

12 March   The American whaler Statira, Captain J. S. Adams, anchors off the Maori
           settlement in Akaroa Harbour.

           Robinson’s report: The French settlers of Akaroa, supported by Belligny and
           Bérard, do not intend to pay their rates, totalling £30, on the grounds that they
           have not received Crown title.

13 March   The Statira is towed to French Bay and is visited by boats from the shore. Men
           from the Rhin paint the church.

           Robinson’s report: About 400 Maori assembled in Akaroa to receive payment
           for the land they have sold to the French. Those from Akaroa are holding out,
           asking for cash, not goods. Some chiefs have asked William Green, owner of
           the Victoria Inn, for payment for his land, and they intend asking everyone else.
           The Port Levy Maori took the boat and possessions of 8 men from a French
           whaler. One of the Frenchmen subsequently died from eating tutu berries.
           Bérard has ordered three blockhouses to be built, one of which he offered to
           Robinson as a prison. Bérard has arrested a French colonist, Rousselot, thereby
           going against his promise not to interfere.

14 March   Captain Adams of the Statira goes ashore. The cutter Levin arrives at Akaroa.
           The Scotia anchors in Maori Bay.
15 March   The Statira sends a boat ashore for fresh water.

16 March   The Scotia leaves Akaroa.

18 March   Some crew from the Statira go ashore to dig potatoes. They also buy onions
           and cabbages.

19 March   A boat from the Rhin fetches sheep from the peninsula [Onawe?] to give to
           Rhodes in exchange for an ox, and brings sheep and straw to the colony. The
           Sisters arrives at Wellington from Akaroa with wool and sundries (or 22nd?).

20 March   The Statira gets potatoes and recruits from on shore.

21 March   The Statira gets wood from ashore. The Sisters leaves Wellington for Kaikoura
           with a cargo of sundries.

22 March   The Statira gets potatoes, wood and recruits from on shore. The French whaler
           Pallas arrives at Akaroa. The Sisters arrives at Wellington from Akaroa, with
           wool and sundries (or 19th?). Richmond writes to Robinson to give notice of
           default to French colonists who do not pay their rates, but not to enforce
           penalties until the Governor makes a decision on the matter. A Return laid
           before the Legislative Council gives the population of Akaroa in 1844 as 166.

24 March   Carpenters from the Rhin start working on the Pallas. The Statira gets more
           wood from on shore.

25 March   The Statira takes potatoes and recruits on board.

26 March   The Statira’s cook, James Jackson, deserts.

27 March   John Curtis and Lewis are shipped on the Statira. A boat from the Rhin takes
           sheep from the [Onawe] peninsula to the colony. The Maori are given 90.9 kg.
           of flour by the Rhin.

28 March   The Statira leaves Akaroa. Men from the Rhin erect a tent for the Maori. A man
           from the Pallas is taken on board the Rhin.

29 March   The French whaler Courrier des Indes arrives at Akaroa.

30 March   A sailor from the Courrier des Indes is taken on board the Rhin. Colonists
           attend a theatrical performance on the Rhin.

31 March   The sale of the southern half of Banks Peninsula is completed. Only Akaloa, Te
           Ruaparae and Mautai refuse to sign the agreement. 13 kg. of gunpowder and 10
           cartridges for a 24 gun are given to the Maori by the Rhin. A boat from the Rhin
           goes to German Bay to get platforms (‘plateaux’) for the English blockhaus.
           The sailor from the Courrier des Indes receives 12 lashes.
          Robinson’s report: Belligny will leave for France and London in a French
          whaler (the Pallas) in a few days. The Rhin will leave in 2 months to visit the
          Navigator, Wallis and other islands. The Blockhouses are nearly completed.

          A Legislative Council Return gives the European population of Akaroa as 221
          (1843), 166 (1844); cf. Nelson 2942, 2915 [Nelson Examiner].

2 April   Bérard gives Robinson a letter for the Governor detailing the payment for
          Banks Peninsula negotiated with the Maori. The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. gives 5
          acres to Joseph Libeau. Meryon writes a letter to his father: the Maori of Banks
          Peninsula are now relatively happy and have returned home after gathering in
          Akaroa and making something of a fuss about the purchase of their land.
          Akaroa is growing slowly, thanks mainly to the British.

3 April   A boat from the Rhin goes to German Bay to transport a mast and a yard for the
          Pallas and a yard for the Rhin to the water’s edge. Jean François Langlois gives
          power of attorney to Maillères.

          A Legislative Council Return gives the Maori population of the South Island as
          4700 [Nelson Examiner].

4 April   The mast and yards are brought to the Rhin by boat.

          Bérard’s dispatch: Belligny is returning to France on the Pallas to help in the
          negotiations between the Nanto-Bordelaise Co. and the N.Z. Co. During March
          he made the final payment for Banks Peninsula to the Maori, about 15,000
          francs in goods for the northern half, and 23,000 francs for the southern half.
          Belligny would be an excellent French consul in N.Z.

5 April   The cutter Levin leaves Akaroa. 5 carpenters and a blacksmith from the Rhin
          continue to work on the Pallas. Boats from the Rhin transport a mast and yard
          to the Pallas, and its own new yard to the colony. A spar is brought round from
          German Bay to the colony.

6 April   The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. gives 5 acres to Jules Veron, Benjamin Guindon,
          Pierre Bernard, Émeri Malmanche, Alfred Michel, Guillaume David, Pierre
          Gendrot, Hippolyte Gendrot, Pierre Benoît, Georges Fleuret, Élie Bauriaud,
          Peter Walter, François Rousselot and Nicolas Gourtner; 7.5 acres to Johannes
          Breitmeyer and his son, Johannes; and 256 sq. metres to Adolphe François. It
          also sells 1 acre in Children’s Bay to Jean-Baptiste Éteveneaux.

          The Rhin supplies the Pallas with a barrel of wine. Colonists are invited to a
          theatrical evening on the Rhin.

7 April   The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. gives 7.5 acres to Jean-Pierre Éteveneaux and his
          son Jean-Baptiste. A boat from the Rhin fetches potatoes from the Farm. The
          Sisters arrives at Wellington from Pigeon Bay. Belligny writes to the Muséum
          d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, saying that he is sending a box of plants (Banks
           Peninsula trees) on the Pallas. Bérard has sent a similar consignment on the
           Georges.

8 April    A man from the Courrier des Indes is embarked on the Rhin. The officer from
           the Pallas is embarked on the Courrier des Indes. The Rhin supplies the Pallas
           with 100 litres of brandy.

9 April    3 cases of arms are brought onto the Rhin from on shore. The Courrier des
           Indes tries unsuccessfully to set sail. The Levin, Captain Popplewell, arrives at
           Wellington from Akaroa. The Rover’s Bride, Captain Joss, arrives at
           Wellington with a cargo of greenstone from the Middle Island.

10 April   The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. gives 5 acres to François Malmanche, sells 21,288
           sq. metres to Jean Joseph Raymond and 13,487 sq. metres to François Lelièvre.
           The Courrier des Indes leaves Akaroa. An American whaler arrives at Akaroa.
           7 sacks are lent to the Maori.

           Grimstone writes to Robinson: Ignore Belligny’s payments to the Maori. The
           blockhouses should be placed in Robinson’s care. If a French settler claims
           Robinson’s protection from Bérard, Robinson should give it. A flag, as
           requested, accompanies the letter.

11 April   Belligny informs Robinson that the prison blockhouse is complete. The Nanto-
           Bordelaise Co. sells 150 acres in Pigeon Bay to Francis Sinclair, receiving the
           schooner, Sisters, as part payment; 5394 sq. metres in Akaroa to George
           Fleuret; 1200 sq. metres to Émery Malmanche, and the 10 acres of
           Moutonniers’ Wood on German Hill to Étienne Vidal.

12 April   The cook from the Cachalot and the harpooner from the Manche embark on the
           Pallas. 2 men from the Pallas embark on the Rhin. The Pallas gives the Rhin a
           whale-boat and oars. Robinson thanks Belligny for the blockhouse.

13 April   The Levin leaves Wellington for Akaroa.

14 April   Francis Sinclair writes to his brother William, expressing his gratitude for
           French protection and company, and describing how his schooner was part of
           the payment to the French Company for his land at Pigeon Bay. He also reports
           that one of the French settlers, who arrived with nothing, has started a whaling
           party that will cost some hundreds of pounds. Richmond writes to Robinson
           about complaints from Maori that he threatened to imprison them if they did not
           comply with Belligny’s terms.

15 April   The Nanto-Bordelaise Co. sells 5 acres to Jean Joseph Raymond, master
           gunner. A boat from the Rhin goes to German Bay to get building timber. The
           Sisters, Captain Sinclair, leaves Wellington for Pigeon Bay, Port Cooper and
           Akaroa.
           Bérard’s dispatch (via the Pallas): The Akaroa colonists find it difficult to sell
           their crops. Two colonists have sold their properties to whaling captains, Cébert
           to the captain of the Héva, Leduc to the captain of the Pallas. Two of the three
           blockhouses are built under the direction of Lieutenant Reynaud, the Nanto-
           Bordelaise Co. paying for the timber. Dr Arnoux is providing free medical
           services to the French and English colonists and to visiting whalers. The Pallas
           is expecting to leave on 16 April. Bérard has had no official dispatches from
           France since his arrival.

16 April   The Rhin gives Belligny 96 litres of wine that he advanced to colonists when
           the Rhin was not at Akaroa.

18 April   Belligny issues a receipt to Charles François Lemonnier for 3 acres of land in
           German Bay, sells 1 acre to Joseph Dulac and 3 acres to Pierre Benoît. A boat
           from the Rhin takes materials to the English settlement for covering the
           blockhouse. Letters written by the crew of the Rhin are taken aboard the Pallas.

19 April   The Pallas, Captain Munroe, leaves Akaroa to return to France [CC5 611].

20 April   The sloop Levin arrives at Akaroa.

23 April   Robinson’s report: Belligny’s motives in paying the Maori were to keep a
           promise and to ensure the safety of the colonists during his absence. Payment
           included a schooner [the Sisters], cattle, tools, etc., to the value of £1485, with a
           further £100 per year payable for 2 years and £50 a year for 5 years. Akaloa,
           Ruaparae and Mautai were the only Maori not to agree. Despite the news,
           brought by the Levin, of problems in the Bay of Islands, Robinson sees no
           prospect of violence from the Maori of Banks Peninsula.

24 April   The American whaler Hannibal and the Levin leave Akaroa.

25 April   Francis Sinclair’s schooner arrives at Akaroa.

29 April   The Levin arrives at Wellington from Akaroa.

30 April   Birth of Louis Philippe François at Akaroa. A boat from the Rhin brings spars
           on board from the colony.

1 May      The Rhin celebrates the Fête du Roi with a gun salute and a theatrical
           performance.

           Robinson’s report: William Green (Victoria Inn), James Bruce (Bruce’s Hotel)
           and Adolphe François (French Hotel) require renewal of their publicans’
           licenses.

2 May      A boat from the Rhin takes wood from German Bay to the colony.

3 May      A boat from the Rhin fetches 1663 kg. of vegetables bought from the colonists.
5 May    A boat from the Rhin brings potatoes from the Farm.

7 May    Coal from the Farm is stowed in the hold of the Rhin. A boat from the Rhin
         goes to German Bay to get wood and bricks.

8 May    A boat from the Rhin takes provisions ashore for the men who will stay at
         Akaroa while the Rhin is away, and brings back bundles of hay. Grimstone
         writes to Robinson saying Richmond regrets he cannot come to Akaroa because
         of the Hutt problem. Europeans and Maori must not be dispossessed of land
         against their will.

10 May   Robinson employs C. Crawford as a police boatman.

11 May   The last of the three blockhouses (German Bay, French Town, English Town)
         is finished and armed. The remaining guns are transported from the store to the
         Rhin. The Rhin takes some animals on board.

12 May   The Rhin leaves Akaroa for the Bay of Islands, leaving seven men, under
         Second Master Lambert, to look after the farm, gardens and animals, and to
         assist Robinson. An ox killed on board gives 280 kg. of meat. The Akaroa
         Maori seemed peacefully disposed.

14 May   Robinson’s report: Before his departure, Bérard handed the 3 blockhouses over
         to Robinson and placed six men and a Petty Officer under Robinson’s orders.
         Robinson tenders his resignation to the Governor on financial and health
         grounds.

17 May   The schooner Black Warrior, Captain Anderson, arrives at Wellington from
         “Port Cooper Island”.

19 May   Robinson’s report: The constables and boatmen erected a totara fence round the
         blockhouse used as a prison, with the help of boats and men from the Rhin.
         Crawford and Turner were given notice for shoddy work, and Constable Webb
         was dismissed for insolence.

20 May   Robinson’s report: W.A. Cooper, late Sub Collector of Customs at Akaroa, has
         left articles in Robinson’s care.

23 May   The Rhin arrives at the Bay of Islands to offer assistance to Pompallier.

25 May   The schooner, Black Warrior, Captain Anderson, leaves Wellington for Akaroa,
         Port Cooper and Otago with Mr and Mrs Heaphy and four children, Mr Riley
         and 2 lads as passengers, and a cargo of shooks and sundries.

29 May   The Rhin leaves the Bay of Islands.
30 May    Grimstone to Robinson: The Superintendent approves of Robinson’s actions in
          regard to the French land purchases. A vessel of war will visit Akaroa at the
          first opportunity.

2 June    Birth of Margaret Woods.

3 June    Grimstone writes to Robinson refusing payment for the copy of Burn’s Justice
          which Robinson gave to Hobson [NM 10/3].

6 June    All hands of the Island Bay fishery are lost at sea (W. Hall, W. Watchorn, J.
          Gray, F. Riley, J. Leman, H. Dorsland, C. Akean, L. Lewin). Birth of Henriette
          Hampson.

8 June    The Rhin arrives at Tonga to visit the Marist mission.

10 June   Richmond to Sub-Treasurer, Wellington: Thomas Sweeny was overpaid £4 for
          his passage to Akaroa on the Eliza in 1844. This should be taken from his pay,
          as should £11-5-0 from Crawford for fencing he removed [NM 10/5].

12 June   Richmond gives Robinson permission to grant publicans’ licenses (for £30)
          without endorsement by another magistrate [NM 10/3].

14 June   The Rhin leaves Tonga.

15 June   A number of Akaroa Maori seek Robinson’s protection from what they take to
          be a Ngati Toa war party in conjunction with Taiaroa and Patuki. Robinson
          supplies the colonists with arms.

16 June   Robinson tells everyone it is a false alarm and withdraws the arms he has
          issued.

          The brigantine Rover’s Bride, Captain Joss, leaves Wellington for Tahiti with 7
          cabin and 18 steerage passengers.

          Robinson’s report: The Maori are building pas, buying powder and cleaning
          their arms. Te Rauparaha has announced an approaching visit to obtain
          payment for Banks Peninsula which he claims by conquest.

18 June   The Rhin arrives at Wallis to visit the Marist mission.

19 June   Bérard gives the Marist mission in Wallis, among other things, timber and
          seeds from Akaroa. James Bruce is among the passengers on the Mary Ann
          which arrives at Wellington from Sydney.

21 June   The N.Z. Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian reports [falsely] that the Rhin
          has sailed for Tahiti and France and has not yet been replaced. The Wellington
          Independent reports that the brig Bee is being repaired in Sydney prior to taking
          in cattle for Akaroa.
24 June   The French Ambassador in London writes to the British Foreign Office,
          requesting the necessary titles for the Nanto-Bordelaise Co. to secure
          possession of the land it has purchased.

28 June   Superintendent to Robinson: The Governor says not to enforce the payment of
          rates by the French.

30 June   Robinson’s report: A war party of about 100 Maori from Port Levy came to
          Akaroa to claim Robinson’s protection, but he reassured them and sent them
          home. The Maori would like the Governor to purchase the north of the South
          Island and place settlers there. They see this as a protection against Te
          Rauparaha and are willing to sell cheaply.

          Robinson writes to the Collector of Rates, Wellington: the inhabitants of
          Akaroa have asked for a refund of the third quarter’s rates. Rates of £1 to £4
          have been paid by Benoît, Bernard, Bauriaud, Breitmeyer, Courtner, David,
          Éteveneaux, Fleuret, Guindon, P. Gendrot, Lelièvre, Libeau, MacKinnon, F.
          and E. Malmanche, Michel, Rousselot, Veron, Waeckerle and Woods.

4 July    American Independence Day is celebrated at Mrs Turner’s in Akaroa.

7 July    Lord Stanley writes to Governor Grey that Maillères has established to the
          satisfaction of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners an
          expenditure of £11,685 on their Banks Peninsula colony. Grey is to send
          someone to Akaroa to make final arrangements for the granting of up to 30,000
          acres [BPP/NZ5].

10 July   The British Under-Secretary for the Colonies writes to Maillères, representing
          the Nanto-Bordelaise Co., telling of the instructions he has given Governor
          Grey to secure 30,000 acres of Banks Peninsula to the Nanto-Bordelaise Co.
          and enclosing copies of his letter to Godfrey, Godfrey’s report and Stanley’s
          despatch to Grey [BPP/NZ5].

11 July   The brig Bee, Captain Unthank, leaves Wellington for Akaroa with sheep.

14 July   Eugène Maillères writes to Hope, the British Under-Secretary for the Colonies,
          thanking him for the good news in his letter of the 10 July and indicating that
          Belligny, to whom he has communicated the British decision, represents the N-
          B Co’s interests on Banks Peninsula [BPP/NZ5].

15 July   The schooner Black Warrior, Captain Anderson, arrives at Wellington from
          Akaroa with oil and bone, reporting that the China is at Akaroa, and the
          Highlander, Cheviot and Favourite in Pigeon Bay. Maillères leaves London for
          France [BPP/NZ5].

16 July   The Bee arrives at Akaroa from Port Nicholson with sheep and provisions. The
          Wellington Independent reports in detail the alarm amongst Akaroa settlers and
          Maori at the arrival of armed Otago Maori (17-20 June) at Akaroa in the
          absence of the Rhin.

20 July   The 10-ton Wellington schooner, Henry, arrives at Akaroa from Port Nicholson
          with flour.

24 July   Grimstone writes to Robinson, saying that there is no danger of Te Rauparaha
          attacking Banks Peninsula Maori. Maori letters can be sent with official returns.

26 July   The Bee leaves Akaroa for Port Nicholson with oil and bone.

30 July   The Colonial Secretary writes to Frederick Marshall of Nelson, appointing him
          Resident Magistrate at Akaroa.

1 Aug.    The police establishment is reduced to 1 magistrate, 1 chief constable and 1
          ordinary constable. One constable and two boats crew are no longer employed.

2 Aug.    The N.Z. Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian publishes an advertisement for
          a stout active boy to be an assistant shepherd on Banks Peninsula.

6 Aug.    Robinson’s report: Taiaroa, Te Hikaoteraki, Pukenui, Etau, Pokaka, Korehe,
          Paetai, Koperu and Kautuanui are about to visit Wellington in Karetai’s
          schooner [the Perseverance] to ask Bishop Selwyn for a Protestant minister for
          Banks Peninsula. Another Maori schooner with the principal Akaroa Maori
          accompanies them. They are also concerned about the late Tuhawaiki’s
          possessions.

12 Aug.   The Perseverance arrives at Wellington from Port Levy (where she spent 11
          days) and Otakou with Taiaroa on board. Taiaroa reports that the Bee is at
          Peraki.

13 Aug.   Frederick Marshall of Nelson turns down the invitation to be Resident
          Magistrate at Akaroa. Joseph Libeau is fined £3 for cattle trespass on the
          complaint of Émeri de Malmanche.

15 Aug.   The Henry leaves Akaroa for Pigeon Bay with flour. Charles Crawford
          complains to Superintendent Richmond about Robinson. Stanley forwards to
          Governor Grey Maillères’s letter of 14 July [BPP/NZ5].

16 Aug.   Death of Thomas Knight at Akaroa after heavy drinking in an Akaroa coffee
          house.

18 Aug.   Depositions are taken concerning the death of Thomas Knight.

19 Aug.   The brig, Bee, Captain Unthank, arrives at Wellington from Akaroa with oil,
          reporting that the Island Bay fishery was abandoned early in the season after all
          the hands were lost at sea on 6 June, and that Price’s fishery at Ikolaki has 27
          tuns, Woods’s at Hoiho 29, and Rhodes’s at Peraki 28.
21 Aug.    Puki, a Maori woman, complains that William Myers is guilty of pig stealing.
           The matter is settled out of court.

22 Aug.    The Rhin undertakes a punitive expedition in the Mulgrave Islands. Birth of
           Georges Anne Marie Fleuret at Akaroa.

25 Aug.    The French Minister of the Navy writes to Bérard (via the Seine), telling him
           that Captain Leconte will take over his post at Akaroa and that Bérard may
           bring back to France any colonists who wish to return.

27 Aug.    The Perseverance leaves Wellington for Port Levy and Otakou with Taiaroa
           and his suite.

3 Sept.    The schooner, Henry, Captain Daymond, arrives at Wellington from Akaroa.

6 Sept.    The Perseverance arrives at Akaroa from Port Nicholson with provisions.

7 Sept.    The French whaler Vaillant, Vannier, arrives at Akaroa from Rio Janeiro.

9 Sept.    The Perseverance leaves Akaroa for Otago with provisions.

           Grimstone to Robinson: Crawford’s complaint will be considered after the
           receipt of Robinson’s report.

11 Sept.   The Henry leaves Wellington for Akaroa with a cargo of sundries.

13 Sept.   The N.Z. Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian reports that the Rhin has left
           Tongataboo for Wallis Island, and will go on to New Caledonia and Sydney.
           The paper defends the French Catholic missionaries against Fitzroy’s
           accusations that they are emissaries of the French government.

15 Sept.   The Henry arrives in Akaroa from Port Nicholson with provisions and bringing
           Robinson a copy of Charles Crawford’s complaint against him.

17 Sept.   Birth of Marie Cécile Breitmeyer at Akaroa.

20 Sept.   Depositions are taken on the death of Jacques Aristide Le Marchant, a sailor
           from the French whaler, Vaillant.

           Robinson’s report: Crawford’s complaint is completely false. Crawford wished
           to open a bawdy house in Akaroa. He is guilty of a number of thefts. After
           quarrelling with his partner, he is no longer proprietor of the Commercial
           Coffee House.

26 Sept.   Rev. Charles Creed arrives at Onuku from Otago on the schooner,
           Perseverance (in ballast), belonging to the Maori. He visits Robinson. The
           Henry leaves Akaroa for Port Nicholson with bone.
27 Sept.   Creed preaches to the Maori and dines with Robinson: he sees the European
           settlement as “not advancing very rapidly”. The Rhin arrives at Balade, New
           Caledonia.

28 Sept.   Creed marries a European man to a Maori woman and baptises their three
           children.

29 Sept.   Creed preaches to the Maori and marries a couple before leaving Akaroa for
           Pigeon Bay and Port Levy.

1 Oct.     Governor Fitzroy receives his recall to England.

6 Oct.     Creed records that, at Port Levy, the Catholic cause “has nearly dwindled into
           nothing”. The Rhin leaves New Caledonia.

13 Oct.    Sarah Ann Black is arrested for drunkenness.

14 Oct.    Henry Turpin is arrested for drunkenness.

15 Oct.    The Henry arrives at Wellington from Akaroa with bone and wheat.

16 Oct.    The Sisters, Captain Moore, arrives at Wellington from Port Cooper in ballast.

17 Oct.    Between Timaru and the Waitaki River, Creed meets seven European whalers
           travelling to Akaroa.

18 Oct.    The N.Z. Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian quotes an estimate in the New
           Zealander that there are 3000 Maori on Banks Peninsula, but sees this as too
           high a figure.

20 Oct.    Grimstone to Robinson: Crawford’s complaint is not accepted by the
           Superintendent.

25 Oct.    The N.Z. Journal publishes Sinclair’s letter of 14 April 1845.

27 Oct.    The Sisters, Captain To Ura, leaves Wellington for Akaroa with a cargo of
           sundries. Governor Fitzroy orders the appointment of John Watson as Police
           Magistrate at Akaroa.

29 Oct.    The Rhin arrives in Sydney where it is careened.

8 Nov.     The Gipsey arrives at Akaroa from Pigeon Bay in ballast.

13 Nov.    The government brig, Victoria, arrives at Wellington from Auckland with John
           Watson as passenger. The Sisters arrives at Akaroa from Port Nicholson with
           provisions.

17 Nov.    Birth of Joseph Knight at Akaroa.
18 Nov.   Grey assumes office as Governor of N.Z.

22 Nov.   The Colonial Gazette publishes whaling statistics for 1844, including Port
          Cooper, Ames, 4 boats, 30 men, 28 tons oil, 1 ton bone; Ekolaki, Price, 3 boats,
          30 men, 110 tons oil, 5 tons bone; Goashore, Woods, 4 boats, 35 men, 85 tons
          oil, 4 tons bone; Peraki, Hempleman, 1 boat, 8 men, 9 tons oil, 0.5 tons bone.

23 Nov.   The Gipsey leaves Akaroa for Port Nicholson in ballast.

27 Nov.   Grimstone to Robinson: The Governor says no steps can be taken at present in
          Hempleman’s land claim.

2 Dec.    The Perseverance arrives at Akaroa from Otago in ballast.

4 Dec.    The Sisters leaves Akaroa for Port Nicholson in ballast.

5 Dec.    The Perseverance leaves Akaroa for Port Levy in ballast.

6 Dec.    The N.Z. Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian gives whaling figures for the
          season ended on 31 October 1845: 30 tuns of black and 1 tun of bone at Ikolaki
          (Price, 3 boats, 33 men); 28 and 1 tun at Peraki (Wetherall, 2 boats, 14 men)
          and at Goashore (Woods, 3 boats, 30 men); 18 and 1 at Port Cooper (Ames, 2
          boats, 14 men).

9 Dec.    John Watson arrives in Akaroa on the Mana (general cargo) from Port
          Nicholson. The American whaler, Brandt, arrives at Akaroa from Port Philip
          with oil and bone.

12 Dec.   The Brandt leaves Akaroa to go whaling and the Mana leaves with general
          cargo for Moeraki.

13 Dec.   Father Comte baptises Théodore Libeau, Georges Anne Marie Fleuret, Joseph
          Knight and Marie Cécile Breitmeyer at Akaroa.

14 Dec.   Father Comte baptises Louis Philippe François and Agnes Turner at Akaroa.

15 Dec.   The American whaler Brandt, Captain Samson, arrives in Wellington from the
          south seas and Akaroa.

16 Dec.   The schooner Sisters, with a Maori master, arrives at Wellington from Port
          Cooper.

17 Dec.   The Wellington Independent reports that the Seine has left France with 200
          troops for Tahiti, from where it will come on to N.Z.

20 Dec.   The Wellington Independent publishes a report from the Sydney Morning
          Herald about the extensive repairs made to the Rhin at Moore’s Wharf, Port
          Jackson.
23 Dec.   Father Comte baptises Margaret Woods at Ikolaki.

25 Dec.   Father Comte baptises John Malcolm, William Wright, Henrietta and Ann
          Hampson at Akaroa.

26 Dec.   The Sisters leaves Wellington for Akaroa.

28 Dec.   Father Comte baptises Hoani Tukutuku, Ruta Tapu, Philip Ryan and Catherine
          Green at Port Levy.

31 Dec.   Robinson’s report: depositions on the deaths of Thomas Knight and Jacques
          Aristide Le Marchant; returns for shipping, police cases, receipts and expenses.

          1845 population: 139 male, 62 female whites; 239 male, 214 female coloured;
          66 aliens. 233 employed in agriculture, 6 in commerce. 24 births, 4 marriages,
          52 deaths. Akaroa parish population: 654. Akaroa Catholic chapel holds 200
          persons, visited by a Wellington priest. 197 acres in crops; 156,000 acres
          uncultivated. Wheat 8/-, potatoes £3, 2589 stock units. Wages: domestic with
          board and lodging £20; predial? 3/6 per diem; trades 6/-. Fisheries: 2 ships, 25
          boats, 38 whales, £4468 (New Munster except Cook Strait). Robinson, police
          magistrate, sub-treasurer, postmaster and harbourmaster.

				
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