New York City by mohamedazizHaddad


									New York City
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"NYC" and "New York, New York" redirect here. For other uses, see NYC
(disambiguation) and New York, New York (disambiguation).

This article is about the city. For other uses, see New York City (disambiguation).

                               New York City

                                    — City —

                                City of New York

      Clockwise from top: Midtown Manhattan, the United Nations Headquarters,
      the Statue of Liberty, the Brooklyn Bridge, Central Park, Times Square, and
                               the Unisphere inQueens


       Nickname(s): "The Big Apple", "Gotham", "The Center of the
      Universe", "The City That Never Sleeps",[1] "The Capital of the

                     Location in New York State

                                                          New York

                     Location in the United States

      Coordinates:         ′51″N      ′19″W
                     40°39′51″N 73°56′19″W Coordinates:
                     40°39′51″N 73°56′19″W [5]

      Country          United States of America
          State        New York
   Historic colony     Colony of New York
      Counties         Bronx, Kings, New York,Queens, Richmond

          Settled      1624
    Incorporated       1898

          • Type       Mayor–Council
          • Body       New York City Council
       • Mayor         Michael Bloomberg (I)

          • Total      468.5 sq mi (1,213 km2)
          • Land       302.6 sq mi (784 km2)
          • Water      165.8 sq mi (429 km2)

Elevation[7]           33 ft (10 m)
   Population [8]
   • Estimate (2011)       8,244,910
          • Rank           1st
   • Density               27,012.5/sq mi (10,429.6/km2)
   • Metro                 18,897,109 (1st)
           • CSA           22,085,649 (1st)

   Demonym                 New Yorker

        Time zone          Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
     • Summer (DST)        EDT (UTC-4)

       ZIP code(s)         100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx,
       Area code(s)        212, 347, 646, 718, 917, 929

        FIPS code          36-51000
     GNIS feature ID       975772


New York is the most populous city in the United States[9] and the center of the New York
Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.[10][11][12]The city is
referred to as New York City or the City of New York[13] to distinguish it from the State of New
York, of which it is a part.[14] A global power city,[15] New York exerts a significant impact upon
commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The
home of the United Nations Headquarters,[16] New York is an important center for international
diplomacy[17] and has been described as the cultural capital of the world.[18]

Located on one of the world's largest natural harbors,[19] New York City consists of five boroughs,
each of which is a state county.[20] The five boroughs—The Bronx, Brooklyn,Manhattan, Queens,
and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. [21][22] With a Census-estimated
2011 population of 8,244,910[23] distributed over a land area of just 302.64 square miles
(783.8 km2),[24][25][26] New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[27] As
many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in
the world.[28] The New York City Metropolitan Area's population is the United States' largest, with
18.9 million people distributed over 6,720 square miles (17,400 km2),[29][30] and is also part of the
most populous combined statistical area in the United States, containing 22.1 million people as of
the 2010 Census.[31]

New York traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic,
and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.[32] The city and its surroundings came
under English control in 1664[32][33] and were renamed New York after King Charles II of
England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[34][35] New York served as thecapital of
the United States from 1785 until 1790.[36] It has been the country's largest city since
    1790.[37] The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in
    the late 19th and early 20th centuries [38] and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States
    and its democracy.[39]

    Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 50
    million annual visitors.[40][41][42] Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the
    World",[43][44][45][46][47] is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theater district,[48] one of the
    world's busiest pedestrian intersections,[49][50] and a major center of the world'sentertainment
    industry.[51] The city hosts many world renowned bridges, skyscrapers,[52] and parks. New York
    City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, functions as the financial
    capital of the world[53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's
    largest stock exchange by total market capitalizationof its listed companies.[61] Manhattan's real
    estate market is among the most expensive in the world. [62] Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates
    the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[63][64][65][66] Providing
    continuous 24/7 service,[67] the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive rapid
    transit systems worldwide. Numerous colleges and universities are located in New
    York,[68] including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which are
    ranked among the top 50 in the world. [69]


   1 History

     o    1.1 Early history

     o    1.2 Modern history

   2 Geography

     o    2.1 Climate

   3 Demographics

   4 Cityscape

     o    4.1 Architecture

     o    4.2 Parks

                 4.2.1 National Park System units within city limits

                 4.2.2 New York State Parks

                 4.2.3 New York City Department of Parks and Recreation

     o    4.3 Boroughs

   5 Culture and contemporary life

     o    5.1 Entertainment and performing arts

     o    5.2 Tourism
     o    5.3 Media

     o    5.4 Cuisine

     o    5.5 Accent

     o    5.6 Sports

   6 Economy

     o    6.1 Wall Street

   7 Law and government

     o    7.1 City planning

     o    7.2 Crime

   8 Education

   9 Transportation

   10 Military

   11 Global outreach

     o    11.1 Historic sister cities

     o    11.2 New York City Global Partners network

   12 See also

   13 References

   14 Further reading

   15 External links


    Main article: History of New York City

    Peter Minuit, early 1600s.
New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the yearEngland took control and
renamed it "New York".

The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.

Broadway, circa 1840.

Bird's eye panoramic view print of Manhattan in 1873. The Brooklyn Bridge was under construction from 1870
until 1883.
A construction worker on top of theEmpire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is
below and behind him.

The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated National Historic Landmark as the site of the
1969 Stonewall Rebellion.[70]

United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the former World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
A flooded Avenue C in Manhattan just moments before the explosion at anelectrical substation caused
by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.[71]

Early history
In the precolonial era the area of present day New York City was inhabited by various bands
of Algonquian tribes of Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known
as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island, the western portion of Long Island (including the area
that would become Brooklyn and Queens), Manhattan, and the Lower Hudson Valley, including
The Bronx.[72]

The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano,
a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown, who sailed his ship La Dauphine into New
York Harbor, where he spent one night aboard ship and sailed out the next day. He claimed the
area for France and named it "Nouvelle Angoulême" (New Angoulême).[73] In January a year
later, Esteban Gomez, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V of Spain, entered New York
Harbor and charted the mouth of the Hudson river which he named Rio de San Antonio. Heavy ice
kept him from further exploration.[74]

In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson re-discovered the region when he sailed his ship
the Halve Maen (Half Moon) into New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passageto
the Orient for his employer the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what he
named the North River, also called the Mauritis River, and now known as the Hudson River, to the
site of the present-day New York State capital of Albany in the belief that it might represent an
oceanic tributary. When the river narrowed and was no longer saline, he realized it wasn't a sea
passage and sailed back downriver. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the
region for his employer. In 1614 the area between Cape Codand Delaware Bay would be claimed
by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of
a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625 construction was started on a citadel
and a Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw
Amsterdam).[75][76] The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually
become Lower Manhattan. The location of Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased
the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small band of the Lenape, [77] in 1626 for a value of
60 guilders[78] (about $1000 in 2006);[79] a disproved legend says that Manhattan was purchased
for $24 worth of glass beads.[80][81]

In 1664, Peter Stuyvesant, the Director-General of the colony of New Netherland, surrendered
New Amsterdam to the English without bloodshed. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city
"New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany.[82] At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch
War, the Dutch gained control of Run (then a much more valuable asset) in exchange for the
English controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. Several intertribal wars among
the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused
sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. [83] By 1700, the
Lenape population had diminished to 200. [84]

In 1702, the city lost 10% of its population to yellow fever.[85] New York suffered seven
major yellow fever epidemics from 1702 to 1800.[86]

New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule. It became a center of
slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, more than any other city other
than Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but
others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy
through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the South.
Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s during construction of a new federal
courthouse near Foley Square revealed than tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the
area in the colonial years.

The city hosted the influential John Peter Zenger trial in 1735, helping to establish the freedom of
the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by George II
of Great Britain as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[87] The Stamp Act Congress met in New
York in October 1765 as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, skirmishing over the next ten
years with British troops stationed there.

The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in
August 1776 entirely within the modern day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the
Americans were defeated, leaving subsequent smaller armed engagements following in its wake,
the city became the British military and political base of operations in North America. The city was
a haven forLoyalist refugees, as well as escaped slaves who joined the British lines for the
freedom promised by the Crown. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during
the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated in 1783, they transported
3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the

The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten
Island between American delegates including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howeon
September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began the Great Fire of New
York occurred, a large conflagration which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city,
including Trinity Church.[88]

In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York the national capital
shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of
Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789 the first
President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States
Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and
the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.[89] By 1790, New
York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.

Under New York State's "Gradual Abolition law of 1799", children of slave mothers were born to be
eventually liberated but were held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late
twenties.[90]Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped
slaves, gradually a significant free-black population developed in Manhattan. Under such
influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay the New York Manumission
Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black
children.[91] It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks
struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among
its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more
than 16,000 in 1840.[92]

In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development related to the western and cotton
trades, as well as European immigration.[93] The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811,
which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1819 opening of the Erie
Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and
commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes.[94] Local
politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s,
including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John
Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the old merchant
elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park
in an American city.

To top