Family by liuhongmeiyes



Chapter 11
          Quiz (true or false)
1. About half the couples in the United States who
   marry will divorce.
2. A new family structure develops after a divorce
3. High school sweethearts who marry have less
   than a 10% chance of being together 20 years
4. In more than half of all marriages, both the
   husband and wife work outside the home
5. The divorce rate has been steadily climbing
   since the 1960’s.
   1-4 are true
   #5 is false. Even though divorce rates
    rose dramatically from 1960-1985, the last
    fifteen years have actually seen a decline
    in the rate of divorce.
                        Defining a family
   Family- a group of people related to one
    another by marriage, blood, or adoption.
       Of all social institutions, family has the
        greatest impact on individual behavior
       Family of orientation- family you are born into
       Family of procreation- established upon
   Marriage- a legal union based on mutual
    rights and obligations
      Two Basic Types of Family

 Nuclear family- composed of
one or both parents and children

   Extended family- two or more adult
    generations of the same family whose
    members share economic resources
    and a common household
   Patterns of Family Structure

Based on the following things:
 Who inherits

 Who is in authority

 Where do couples live
Who Inherits
   Patrilineal- descent and inheritance are
    passed from the father to his male
   Matrilineal- descent and inheritance are
    passed from the mother to her female
   Bilateral- descent and inheritance are
    passed equally through both parents
          Who is in authority?
   Patriarchy- the oldest man living in the
    household has authority over the rest of
    the family members
   Matriarchy- the oldest woman living in the
    household has authority over the rest of
    the family members
   Equalitarian- authority split evenly
    between the husband and wife.
         Where do couples live?

   Patrilocal- live with or near
    the husband’s parents
   Matrilocal- live with or
    near the wife’s parents
   Neolocal- establish
    residences of their own
                 Marriage Arrangements

   Monogamy- marriage of one woman
    and one man– most widely practiced
    form of marriage
   Polygamy- marriage of a male or
    female to more than one person at a
   Polygyny- marriage of one man to two
    or more women
   Polyandry- marriage of one woman to
    two or more men
Choosing a mate

   Suppose you came home one day
    from school and your parents asked
    you to come into the living room to
    meet your future husband or wife.
   After the meeting they informed
    you that you needed to consider
    how you were going to negotiate
    your dowry with your in-laws.
      Choosing a mate
   When should parents begin discussing
    values related to the dating process?
   What personal values are important to
    consider in relation to dating?
   What role does the community play in
   Does the community have a
    responsibility to provide dating activity
    options? If so, what types of options
    should be available?
    Choosing a mate
   Exogamy- practice of marrying outside
    of one’s group
   Endogamy- marriage within one’s
    group required by social norms
   Homogamy- tendency to marry
    someone similar to oneself
   Hetergomy- marriage between people
    of differing social characteristics
   Incest taboo- norm forbidding
    marriage between close relatives
    Functionalism and Family
 Socialize the young
 Provide social and emotional support
 Manage reproduction
 Regulate sexual activity
 Transmit social status
 Serve as an economic center
      Conflict Theory and Family
   Focus on the way families compete and
   Most family structure has been patriarchal and
   Male dominance has been considered normal
    and legitimate
   Men provide finances outside of home/ women
    keep up the home traditionally
   This structure then has contributed to the social
    inequalities between men and women.
    Symbolic Interactionalism and
 Key to understanding behavior within the
  family lies in the interactions among family
  members and the meanings that members
  assign these interactions
 Relationships within the family are
  constantly changing
 New married couple           arrival of
  children        leaving of children
      Match the perspective
1. Fathers “giving away” brides
2. Having children
3. Development of self-concept
4. Newly married couples adjusting to each
5. Social class being passed from one
   generation to another
6. Child abuse
   Fathers “giving away” brides Functionalist
   Having children Functionalist
   Development of self-concept
           Symbolic Interactionalist
   Newly married couples adjusting to each
    other    Symbolic Interactionalist
   Social class being passed from one
    generation to another Functionalist
   Child abuse Conflict
 Nature of the American Family
 Nuclear
 Bilateral
 Equalitarian
 Neolocal
 Monogamous
  Romantic Love and Marriage
 83%  of men and women rated “being in
  love” as the most vital reason to marry
 Other reasons to marry
    Advancement of career

    Conformity

    Peers

     Marriage rate- # of marriages per
      year for every thousand people
 Divorce rate- the # of divorces per year
  for every 1000 people.
 Causes of Divorce:
     Age– later the age upon marriage, lower
      the chance for divorce
     Number of years married– Longer married,
      less chance for divorce
     Nature and quality of the relationship–
      more respect and flexibility, lower chance
      of divorce
 Four factors that affect marriages
 Economic   prosperity causes divorce rates
  to go up.
 The stigma of divorce gone after baby
 Increasing financial independence of
 American values and attitudes about
  marriage are changing
 What does the future of marriage
            look like?
 Average  age at first marriage is increasing
 Average age of entire U.S. population
  increasing, especially baby boomers who
  are now passing the age range that gets
  divorces most.
 Couples are having fewer children–
  reduces pressure
True or False– explain why
1. Wife battering is a predominantly
   lower class phenomenon.
2. Wife battering occurs more often in
   some ethnic groups than others.
3. Alcohol is the main cause for
   domestic violence.
4. Women who are battered must be
   crazy or neurotic.
5. Once a battered woman, always a
   battered woman.
1. Wife battering is predominantly a
   lower class phenomenon.

False. Women in families on lower
   incomes are more likely to come to
   the notice of helping agencies
   because wealthy women hide their
   injuries. Research indicates there
   are no socio-economic barriers to
   domestic violence
2. Wife battering occurs more often in
  some ethnic groups than others.

False. Spouse abuse can manifest
 itself in any society where there is
 an unequal power imbalance
 between men and women, regardless
 of ethnicity.
3. Alcohol is the main cause of
  domestic violence.

False. Alcohol may be a trigger, but it
 is not the major cause of domestic
 violence. “Being under the
 influence” may provide the
 perpetrator with what he/she feels
 to be an excuse for his/her behavior.
4. Women who are battered must be
  crazy or neurotic.

False. Studies have shown that women
 in violent relationship are no more
 psychiatrically or psychologically
 disturbed than other women. What
 we may label as ‘crazy’ or ‘disturbed’
 behaviors are often tactics adopted
 by battered women in an attempt to
 survive in a very difficult, intolerable
 and possibly life-threatening situation
5. Once a battered woman, always a
  battered woman.

False. Most women who have
 successfully managed to escape a
 violent relationship alive are very
 careful to choose a different type of
 relationship the next time.
           Family Violence
 Family violence was traditionally thought
 of as a lower class phenomenon because
 when it was first studied police records
 and public medical records were used.
 Upper class people used lawyers and
 private doctors so they weren’t
 represented in statistics at all.
           Family Violence (cont)
   ¼ of all adults report having been physically
   Estimated that probably 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 10
    boys are victims of sexual aggression, either
    within or outside the home.
   At least 4 million women are battered by their
    husbands each year
   Over 4000 women each year are beaten to
   Extent of physical violence is underestimated
    because ¾ occurs during separation or after
    divorce and most research is conducted among
    married couples.
           Family Violence
 Wives  can be abusive to husbands as
  well– much of it in retaliation or self-
 Abuse is not always physical; it can be
  verbal and psychological
 Over 9 million children in the U.S. suffer
  from neglect, being ignored.
 Most frequent and most tolerated form of
  family violence is sibling violence.
Changes in Marriage and
 •   Blended families
 •   Single-parent families
 •   Childless marriages
 •   Dual employed marriages
 •   Cohabitation
 •   Same-sex partners
 •   Choosing single life
 •   Boomerang kids
Blended Families
Boomerang Kids
Review Questions p. 380
1. How does a blended family differ from a nuclear
   family? (p. 371-372)
2. Which group is increasing more rapidly: the
   number of white single parent families or the
   number of African American and Latino single
   parent families? What reasons can be offered
   for this? (p. 372-373)
3. Is your family a dual employed family? How do
   the cultural values of your parents affect their
   economic behavior?
4. Is it true that Americans today are married for a
   smaller proportion of their lives than Americans
   of previous generations? Explain. (p. 378-379)

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