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					Peace    March 2000                                                                           Serial No.54




                                                                 Contents
   Peace                                     Celebrations of Macao’s Return
                                               to the Motherland…………….………………….2

                                          FEATURE ARTICLES
 March 2000
                                            World Arms Control and Disarmament
 Serial No. 54                               in 1999……………………………….……....…...4
                                            Non-Proliferation at A Crossroads………………....9
                                            Maintaining World Peace Is the Common Aspiration
                                            and Mission of the World People and
                                            Peace Organisations in Various Countries…...…..15

                                          THE MILITARY SERVES THE PEOPLE
                                            Post-war Demining Operations
                                             in China….……………………………………….....17

                                          INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES
                                            A Delegation of Korean National Peace Committee
                                             Visits China……….…………………………..…23
                                            A CPAPD Delegation Visits Vietnam
                                             and Laos…………………….………….........…. 24
                                            A CPAPD Delegation Visits Japan………......….....25



        (Cover photo: He Luli, Vice-Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Con-
        gress and President of the Chinese Peoples Association for Peace and Disarmament meets with the
        delegation of the Korean National Peace Committee (KNPC) headed by Ri Song Ho, KNPC Vice-
        Chairman.)




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Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54




          Celebrations of Macao’s Return to the Motherland


     On December 20, 1999, there came an-        Macao was long separated from the moth-
other grand event for the Chinese nation---      erland, the bond of flesh and blood and the
Macao's return to the motherland. It is on       overall national interests have always
very day that a hand-over ceremony was           linked our Macao compatriots closely with
held by the Chinese and Portuguese gov-          the people of the rest of the country. Our
ernments. The Chinese Government sol-            thriving socialist motherland has been the
emnly declared resumption of exercise of         primary force behind the epoch-making
sovereignty over Macao and official estab-       change in Macao's status. Macao's return is
lishment of Macao Special Administrative         also a great victory in the cause of world
Region (SAR) of Peoples' Republic of Chi-        peace and justice. It proves once again that
na. The five-star red flag and Macao SAR         no force on earth will stop the historical
flag are hoisted and flutter high on the pole.   trend to the progress of mankind.
From that day on, Macao compatriots have              President Jiang pointed out that the po-
become the real masters of the land, and         litical decision made by governments of
Macao has stepped into a brand-new era in        China and Portugal to settle the question of
its development.                                 Macao through negotiations is a wise move
     After the transfer of government of         that conforms to the needs of the times. He
Macao, President Jiang Zemin also at-            expressed thanks to all the people both in
tended and spoke at the ceremony in cele-        and out of the Portuguese Government who
bration of the establishment of Macao SAR        have made efforts for the settlement. He
and the public gathering in Beijing in cele-     believes that the successful settlement has
bration of Macao's return to China. In his       provided a new historical starting point
speech, Jiang remarked that Macao's sepa-        from where the friendship between the
ration from and reunion with the mother-         Chinese and Portuguese peoples will grow
land epitomise the modern history of the         further in the 2 Ist century.
Chinese nation. In old days, Macao gradu-             President Jiang said that Macao com-
ally fell prey to Portuguese colonial rule       patriots have played an important role both
against the background of old China en-          in the struggles waged by the Chinese peo-
trenched in poverty and weakness and bul-        ple for national liberation and in China's
lied by imperialists. Today, Macao has vic-      modernization drive. He firmly believed
toriously returned to China as the New           that they will carry forward the glorious
China is confidently marching toward pros-       tradition of loving the country and loving
perity and strength. This historic change        Macao and make even greater contributions
fully testifies to the great strength of the     to maintaining long-term stability and de-
present-day China and its people. Although       velopment of Macao and safeguarding the
2
Peace   March 2000                                                              Serial No.54

fundamental interests of the country and the      with states and regions and relevant inter-
nation.                                           national organizations. It also will continue
     Touching on the future of Macao, Jiang       to have independent finances and practice
pointed out after the Chinese Government          an independent taxation system. The Cen-
resumes the exercise of sovereignty over          tral Government will not levy taxes on Ma-
Macao, the existing capitalist system in          cao. The economic and trade activities and
Macao will Continue to be practiced, the          the investment interests of states and re-
current social and economic systems will          gions in Macao will be protected in accord-
remain unchanged, and so will the life-           ance with the law.
style. The laws will remain basically un-              He stressed that the Central
changed and the right of private ownership        Govemment's policies and principle regard-
will be protected by law. As a special ad-        ing Macao and all the provisions of the
ministrative region of the People's Republic      Basic Law of the MSAR fully conform to
of China, Macao will enjoy a high degree          the fundamental interests of the country, in-
of autonomy as provided for in the MSAR           cluding Macao, benefit investors of all
Basic Law, such as executive, legislative         countries and are the basic guarantee for
and independent judicial power, including         Macao's long-term stable development.
that of final adjudication, except in foreign          In concluding his speech, Jiang re-
and defense affairs which are the responsi-       marked that the Chinese Government and
bilities of the Central People's Government.      people will continue with their efforts to
The interests of the inhabitants of Portu-        accomplish the great cause of the reunifica-
guese descent in Macao will be protected          tion of the Motherland in line with the poli-
by law and their customs and cultural tradi-      cies of “ peaceful reunification ” and
tions will be respected. In tomorrow's Ma-        “one country, two systems”. The suc-
cao, the entire resident, irrespective of their   cessful implementation of “ one country,
race and color, will have opportunities to        two systems” in Hong Kong and Macao
compete as equals, and everyone will enjoy        will give a positive push to the early set-
the rights and freedoms as guaranteed by          tlement of the Taiwan question. He said
law.                                              the world of tomorrow should be one of
     Jiang said the MSAR will remain a free       lasting peace and common progress and
port and a separate customs territory after       prosperity for all countries. The Chinese
the Chinese Government resumes the exer-          people are ready to work unremittingly with
cise of sovereignty over Macao. Using the         the people of other countries for a beautiful
name of "Macao, China", it may on its own         future of the world.
maintain and develop economic relations




                                                                                               3
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54

FEATURE ARTICLES




             World Arms Control and Disarmament in 1999

                                     By Wang Zheng

     In 1999, American hegemonism further      armament, which moved along fairly well
developed in a particular domestic political   after the Cold War, was seriously hindered
context: isolationism-gained ground, uni-      and the world's secure environment was de-
lateralism expanded day by day and the         teriorating.
presidential election was under way. Over
the course of the year, the United States      I. Aspects of the Situation
performed a series of actions which had a              1. Missiles and missile defence be-
significant impact on arms control and dis-    came the focus of arms control and disar-
armament in the world: leading the NATO        mament; the United States persisted in de-
war against Yugoslavia, bombing the Chi-       veloping the Theatre Missile Defence sys-
nese Embassy in Yugoslavia, making great       tem (TMD) and the National Missile De-
efforts to develop the missile defence sys-    fence system (NMD), despite objections
tem, seeking to revise the Anti-ballistic      from other countries. The strategic world
Missiles Treaty, increasing military expen-    balance changed considerably.
diture and widening existent military alli-            On January 20, 1999, US Secretary
ance relations. At the same time, the US       of Defence William Cohen, feeling an in-
Congress produced the Cox Report, and the      crease of 'alien menace,' announced an
US Senate vetoed the Comprehensive Test        added sum of US$86 billion to be used for
Ban Treaty. Under these conditions, the        further research on the NMD and declared
world nuclear arms control system, nuclear     that the United States would unilaterally
non-proliferation in particular, was seri-     annul the Anti-ballistic Missiles Treaty if
ously undermined, and the course of world      Russia objected to revising it. On March 18
arms control and disarmament shifted in an     and 19, the US Senate and House of Repre-
unfavourable direction. The issue of disar-    sentatives passed the bill on the National
mament between the United States and           Missile Defence System. Even now, the
Russia and the multilateral arms control       two Houses of the US Congress have le-
and disarmament mechanism, featuring dis-      gally confirmed the National Missile De-
armament talks, were deadlocked. The is-       fence System, making it a basic policy of
sue of arms control and disarmament be-        the United States.
came a prominent question in international             From then on to the middle of Sep-
relations, especially between world powers.    tember, the United States did four tests on
Sino-US and US-Russian relations also ex-      the theatre high-altitude interceptor missiles
perienced major setbacks. There were lean-     in New Mexico, failing in the first two and
ings toward another arms race in the world.    succeeding in the last two. From 1995 to
Overall, the progression of peace and dis-     1998, the US military conducted five such
4
Peace   March 2000                                                               Serial No.54

tests, none of which were successful. On                  After the Kosovo crisis, Russia
October 2, 1999, the United States ran its        made obvious adjustments in its policies
first test on the interception technology in-     for internal affairs, foreign affairs and na-
tended for the National Missile Defence           tional defence. The military expenditure
System and succeeded. The US military             was greatly increased. Premier Putin an-
also said that another two tests would be         nounced an increase of expenses on mili-
carried out by the end of the first half of the   tary research and equipment improvement,
year 2000. If they are successful, the Na-        from 24 billion rubles to 48 billion rubles,
tional Missile Defence system will be de-         and had reiterated the continuation of the
clared feasible in technology, and will be        policy of nuclear containment. While giv-
submitted to the President for its deploy-        ing priority to strategic nuclear missiles, it
ment.                                             will also develop tactic nuclear missiles.
     2. The arms expansion of the United          Yeltsin signed orders to develop 'non-
States and the attack it led on Yugoslavia        strategic nuclear weapons,' fully modernise
evoked strategic re-examination and mili-         its nuclear arsenal, and develop mini-atom
tary readjustments by world powers.               bombs to prepare for a limited nuclear war.
         In 1999, the defence expenditure of      It revised its plan for military reform for
the United States was US$276.2 billion,           unexpected incidents and local wars. On
1.67 times the defence expenditures of            the issue of ABM, Russia's attitude became
Britain, France, Russia, Japan and China          firmer and more resolute. On November 2,
combined. On October 5, 1999, US Presi-           1999, Russia's strategic rocket force suc-
dent Bill Clinton signed the bill on the an-      cessfully launched a short-distance inter-
nual national defence expenditure for 2000,       ceptor missile. The Russian military
totalling US$288.9 billion, with an increase      pointed out that this launch was mainly tar-
of US$18 billion over the year 1999. The          geting the US recent intentions to quit the
increase was the largest since the Cold           Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty unilaterally
War. The United States hopes to prevent           and stated that if the United States persisted
the proliferation of high-performance             in the revision of the Treaty, a new nuclear
weapons, including weapons of mass de-            arms race would be inevitable. On foreign
struction, for the sake of “security”; on         affairs, Russia took an even firmer stand
the other hand, it has actively carried for-      toward matters concerning its own inter-
ward the military revolution and, by mak-         ests. It opposed Western interference into
ing use of the newest achievements of sci-        Chechen affairs, made great efforts to rein-
ence and technology, sped up the building         force its position and role in the United Na-
of new-generation weapons, which focuses          tions and intensified its cooperation with
on the information system, advanced weap-         China with regard to arms control.
ons platforms and new-type precision at-                  In 1999, the European Union took a
tack ammunition. It has energetically en-         solid step toward building an independent
couraged research on the National and             defence. The Kosovo crisis helped Europe-
Theatre Missile Defence Systems in order          ans recognise setbacks in their defence and
to gain absolute military superiority and se-     they started the construction of a unified
curity.                                           defence system. In early June 1999, the
                                                  declaration on strengthening European se-
                                                  curity and defensive policies was passed at
                                                                                                5
Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54

the EU Summit in Cologne. On December                The United States persisted in develop-
10, 1999, the EU Summit passed a report         ing the TMD and NMD, and sought to re-
on the policies of the EU common security       vise the ABM Treaty. The issue of missile
and defence, which suggested setting up a       defence became a prominent matter in
rapid response force of 50,000 to 60,000        Sino-US and Russian-US relations. The
soldiers independent of NATO, which             Kosovo crisis made the contradictions in
would enable the EU to make defensive de-       world power relations conspicuous and im-
cisions and take military actions on its own.   peded the progress of world power rela-
This report revealed the EU's plan to set up    tions. The containment and counter-
an independent defence. It means that the       containment struggles between the United
building of Europe's common defence has         States and Russia intensified, and there re-
entered an essential stage and that Europe is   lations again became tense. The Sino-US
casting off its military dependence on the      relationship was also seriously affected.
United States. Although under US restric-       The divergence in building an independent
tions the road to an independent defence        European defence between the West
will be long and not easy, the impact of this   Europe and the United States was becom-
development on the world is significant and     ing apparent.
far-reaching.
     India and Pakistan, who conducted nu-      II. The origin of US hegemonism
clear tests successively in 1998, ran mis-           A clear understanding of the new de-
sile-launching tests in succession in 1999 as   velopment of and changes in US arms con-
well. What followed were minor military         trol and disarmament and the ideological
clashes. The arms race was increasing           origins of its policies will be helpful in un-
rather than decreasing in South Asia, where     derstanding the situation of world arms
India further augmented its armament            control and disarmament in 1999. The fol-
strength. In the new annual fiscal budget,      lowing are my thoughts on this matter :
its military expenditure increased from 2.3        1. A new development in US hegemon-
percent to 3 percent of the GDP. It gave        ism occurred against the background of the
priority to developing an air force and navy.   United States making a series of strategic
It also planned to spend US$300 million on      readjustments to maintain its supreme posi-
advanced fighter planes from Russia and         tion of leadership, win strategic advantage
France, and aimed to own two aircraft car-      and retard the development of multi-
riers by the year 2010. On August 16, 1999,     polarization. Reviewing the development of
the India National Security Council put         the world situation, we see US efforts to
forward India's nuclear theory, which           maintain a unilateral hegemony, as well as
stresses that India will possess a minimum      objections to this by most other countries,
credible nuclear deterrent. India's nuclear     who want political equality, sovereign in-
force will be based on aircraft, mobile land-   dependence and economic justice; this dis-
based missiles and warships. The advance-       parity constitutes a major contradictions in
ment of India's nuclear theory marks its        today's world. Although multi-polarization
continued march toward nuclear armament.        is an objective process, it will not develop
    3. Arms control and disarmament be-         naturally, for the United States will not
came prominent matters in international re-     want to allow it to develop smoothly and
lations, especially between world powers.       will inevitably impede the process.
6
Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54

     2. The US economy is in one of the         consolidating the hegemonic position of the
best periods in its history. This present       United States in the 21st century.
round of economic growth started in March            4. The disintegration of the former So-
1991, and had continued for 105 months by       viet Union broke the strategic world bal-
the end of 1999. From 1993 to 1999, the         ance and the situation of the United States
annual growth rate of the US GDP averages       being the one and only superpower became
3.4 percent; at the same time, the present      prominent. At the same time, other major
unemployment rate is the lowest in 30           nations in the world, due to their weak
years, the inflation rate is at a record low    points and difficulties in development, and
compared to the last 10 years, and financial    the developing countries, although large in
surplus has been increasing. A favourable       number, can hardly work together in har-
economic situation provides the corner-         mony to keep the US hegemony in check in
stone for the ever-growing US dictatorship,     the near future. Besides, some countries
unilateralism and isolationism. It also         take a passive and concessive attitude to-
makes an increase in military expenditure       ward the US policy of expansion, thus
of the United States possible.                  swelling the United States with arrogance.
   3. In the 1990s, the United States spared    At the same time, the US economy has
no efforts to applied the world's newest        maintained steady growth, and the United
achievements in science and technology to       States, motivated by a modern high-tech
armaments development. One fundamental          revolution, is in the lead in most high-tech
purpose for the US in developing the TMD        areas. The United States has a clear advan-
and NMD was to maintain and reinforce its       tage in technology. Therefore, in the eyes of
leading position in military affairs and sci-   some US decision-makers, the United
ence, enhance comprehensive national            States is facing a new period of strategic
power and win an advantageous position in       opportunity, and should take this opportu-
military technology in the 21st century.        nity to set up a US-pivoted world order to
These programs are like the development of      consolidate its position as the only super-
the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) years    power in the world. In this context, the
ago, which as a program of missile defence      United States has been making adjustments
had not been successful, but whose im-          of its external policies in the last couple of
mense scientific research covered various       years, and has started to pursue more ag-
fields and brought about many achieve-          gressive, more expansive and more risky
ments, serving as an important source for       foreign and military policies.
the new military revolution in the United            5. Behind the US development of their
States. In addition, some achievements in       missile defence system, the war against
scientific research in the United States        Yugoslavia and the fabrication of the
benefited or directly came from the SDI         China-threat theory, lie the US complex of
program. Therefore, it is not proper to take    military industry and technology, the mo-
the TMD, NMD and SDI merely as missile          nopolistic capitalists' pursuit of economic
defence programs. They are actually com-        benefit and the drive that economic benefits
prehensive scientific research projects in      give to warfare and an arms race. There ex-
the name of missile defence and important       ists an enormous and powerful interest
military arrangements for the purpose of        group in the United States, namely the mili-
                                                tary-enterprises & scientific research estab-
                                                                                              7
Peace   March 2000                                                               Serial No.54

lishments. They rely on each other and play     tionship, we can see that whenever the US
a key role in the US foreign affairs. After     presidential election comes near, Sino-US
the disintegration of the former Soviet Un-     relations experience setbacks. The reason
ion and the Cold War, the huge market for       for this phenomenon is that the opposition
ammunition has been disappearing. All           party will attack the foreign policies of the
kinds of conflicts they have instigated are     ruling party by making an issue of the Sino-
for the purpose of selling their ammunition     US relations. The US public, lacking rele-
to obtain huge profits.                         vant knowledge, has some conceptual mis-
     6. The year 1999 was one in which the      understandings of China. This situation
domestic policy of the United States had an     makes the issue of China a "sitting duck."
enormous influence on its foreign policies.     Under pressure, the party in office will usu-
All the adjustments of the internal and ex-     ally give in on the policy toward China to
ternal policies of the United States and do-    maintain a domestic political balance and
mestic public opinion were highly politi-       soothe public opinion.
cised. With the presidential election as a           A typical example of this type of strug-
pivot, the two Parties used every means and     gle between the two parties is the veto of
went to every extreme in order to assume        the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
power. Because of the sex scandals, Bill        (CTBT) by the US Senate on October 13,
Clinton became the most vulnerable presi-       1999, which, far from being a sign of a
dent in dozens of years in the history of the   fundamental change of the US nuclear pol-
United States. The differences between the      icy, reveals that the struggle between the
Government and the Congress and the             two parties has developed to an extent void
fierceness of the struggles between the two     of principle or restraint.
Parties were also rare.
     The domestic politics of the United        (The author is Deputy Director, Research Division
States also affected Sino-US relations. Re-     of the CPAPD and the article was completed in De-
                                                cember1999.)
viewing the past tens of years of this rela-




8
Peace   March 2000                                                              Serial No.54




                     Non-Proliferation at A Crossroads
                                         (Excerpts)

                                  By Mr. Sha Zukang,
                 Director-General of the Department of Arms Control and
                  Disarmament, the Ministry Foreign Affairs of the PRC



     The turn of century is witnessing pro-      ments. China acceded to the Treaty on the
found changes in international security          Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
situation. Against such backdrop, arms con-      (NPT) in 1992 and contributed positively to
trol and non-proliferation has come to an        its indefinite extension in 1995. China ac-
important turning-point. Its future course is    tively participated in the negotiations of the
a common concern of the international            Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC),
community. This conference is both neces-        signed and ratified the convention in 1993
sary and timely, for it offers us a good op-     and 1997 respectively, and has imple-
portunity to look back and forward into the      mented its legal obligations faithfully.
arms control and non-proliferation issues,       China became a state party to the Biologi-
and to explore new ways and new solu-            cal Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1984,
tions.                                           and is now actively participating in the ne-
     The topic assigned to me was "what          gotiations of a protocol to strengthen the ef-
more can be done to secure enthusiastic          fectiveness of the convention. China was
Chinese participation in and defence of the      one of the first to sign the Comprehensive
regimes". To be frank, when I saw this           Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and has
topic, my first reaction was China has not       played a positive role in the work of the
done its public relations work properly, for     CTBTO Prepcom. As a member state of
even knowledgeable scholars like the or-         IAEA, China has put its civilian nuclear fa-
ganisers of this conference seem not to          cilities under IAEA safeguards on a volun-
know much, or even have some misunder-           tary basis. It joined the Zangger Committee
standings, about China's policies and prac-      in October 1997, and signed the "93+2"
tices on non-proliferation.                      protocol aimed at strengthening the IAEA
     Therefore, I feel compelled to give a       safeguards system by the end of 1998.
brief introduction to China's policies and       Moreover, China has signed and ratified
practices in this field. China firmly supports   relevant protocols to the Treaties of
the international efforts to prevent the pro-    Tlatelolco, Rarotonga and Pelindaba. It has
liferation of WMDs, and has actively and         also undertaken to sign the amended proto-
enthusiastically participated in and de-         col to the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-
fended all multilateral non-proliferation re-    Free Zone Treaty.
gimes based on international legal instru-
                                                                                               9
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54

     These facts indicate that China has       and the beginning of a new and more turbu-
joined almost all the multilateral legal in-   lent era. These changes are bound to have
struments in the field of arms control and     far-reaching impacts on the cause of inter-
non-proliferation. Apart from participating    national non-proliferation. Meanwhile, with
in multilateral non-proliferation efforts,     the deepening of non-proliferation efforts,
China has improved its export control sys-     some negative tendencies have emerged in
tems on sensitive items and technologies,      this field. How to assess such impacts and
and has promulgated a series of laws and       how to reduce and remove such negative
regulations. In December 1995, China pub-      tendencies? This is a question calling for
lished the Regulations on the Supervision      serious consideration by all governments
and Control of Chemicals, and subse-           and people committed to arms control and
quently issued the List of Chemicals Sub-      non-proliferation. Whether the international
ject to Supervision and Control and the By-    community could reach a constructive con-
laws for the Implementation of the Regula-     sensus on this question and take necessary
tions in June 1996. China promulgated the      actions is crucial for progress in arms con-
Regulations on Nuclear Export Control in       trol and non-proliferation in the next cen-
September 1997, and the Regulations on         tury. Here, I would like to share with you
the Control of Military Products Export in     some of my personal views on this:
October 1997. In June 1998, China pub-
lished the Regulations on the Control of the   I. Interference in other countries' inter-
Export of Dual-Use Nuclear Materials and       nal affairs and the use of force will jeop-
Related Technology. All these facts have       ardize international security environ-
shown that China adopts a clear-cut policy     ment essential for progress in arms con-
against the proliferation of WMDs. This        trol and non-proliferation.
policy will remain unchanged in the future.
                                                    As is known to all, arms control and
     Looking back, one of the basic reasons    non-proliferation does not exist in vacuum.
that prompted China to adopt its non-          Rather, it hinges upon a peaceful and se-
proliferation policy was the relaxation of     cure international environment. History
the international situation and the im-        tells us that, absence of security constitutes
provement of the relations between major       a primary incentive for a country to acquire
powers after the Cold War. Under such cir-     and develop WMDs. Indeed, arms control
cumstances, non-proliferation of WMDs is       and non-proliferation will go nowhere in a
conducive to the global stability, and is in   world where everyone feels insecure. This
the interest of most of the countries in the   year's NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in
world. As a matter of fact, this is also the   blatant violation of the principles enshrined
fundamental reason behind the achieve-         in the UN Charter has delivered a hard
ments attained in international arms control   blow to international arms control and non-
and non-proliferation in the post-Cold-War     proliferation efforts. It has highlighted the
era.                                           role of military power in safeguarding na-
     However, recently, the international      tional security, compelling countries to re-
situation has been undergoing the most pro-    view their international security environ-
found changes since the end of the Cold        ment, and increasing their urgency to build
War. In a certain sense, these changes have    up their military force. While expressing
marked the end of the post-Cold-War era,
10
Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54

their indignation on NATO's invasion,           puts such cooperation in jeopardy. It wil-
many people could ask this question: if         fully interferes in others' internal affairs,
Milosevic had nuclear weapons in his hand,      expands and strengthens its military alli-
would NATO dare to do what it did in            ances, and adopts a policy of containment
Yugoslavia?                                     towards countries which it perceives as its
     Furthermore, the war in Kosovo also        "rivals" or "potential rivals". All this is
reveals the hypocritical nature of some         aimed at preventing the rise of other pow-
countries' non-proliferation policy. After      ers, so as to preserve its status as the only
witnessing the terrific performance of vari-    superpower. At the same time, it takes ad-
ous kinds of sophisticated cruise missiles      vantage of its economic and scientific
and smart bombs in Yugoslavia, few people       strength to develop national missile defence
would believe that the missile non-             system, in an attempt to disrupt the global
proliferation policy hard-pushed by some        strategic balance, and to seek absolute secu-
countries is aimed at safeguarding interna-     rity and hegemony for itself.
tional peace and security rather than pre-           As is known to all, during the Cold
serving their own military superiority.         War years, the ABM treaty constituted a
                                                cornerstone of global strategic stability,
II. Substituting international coopera-         paving the way for the limitation and reduc-
tion with unilateralism will hamper the         tion of offensive strategic weapons between
process of arms control and non-                the US and the former Soviet Union. De-
proliferation.                                  spite the drastic changes in the international
                                                situation following the end of the Cold
     Non-proliferation of WMDs relies on
                                                War, the crucial role of the ABM treaty to
the joint efforts by the international com-
                                                the international security remains un-
munity. Non-proliferation can succeed only
                                                changed. Pending the elimination of nu-
in the framework of co-operative security.
                                                clear weapons, any substantive amendment
No country, no matter how strong it is, can
                                                to this treaty will undermine global strate-
ensure the success of non-proliferation sin-
                                                gic stability.
gle-handedly or only with the help of a few
                                                     It is true that what the ABM treaty
allies. It has to have the cooperation of
                                                maintains is "the balance of terror" and can
other countries, especially those militarily
significant countries. Unilateralism and        only offer only relative security― not an
non-proliferation are fundamentally incom-      ideal situation. However, given the strong
patible with each other. As a matter of fact,   proclivity of a superpower for the use of
all the existing non-proliferation treaties     force, "the balance of terror" is certainly
and regimes are products of international       better than "the terror of imbalance", and
cooperation rather than achievements of         relative security is better than absolute in-
any individual state. Obviously, interna-       security. Therefore, any violation of this
tional cooperation in the field of non-         treaty is bound to give rise to strong oppo-
proliferation is in the common interest of      sition from other countries, and will inevi-
all countries. We, therefore, should treasure   tably have severe negative impacts on in-
and maintain such cooperation.                  ternational cooperation in arms control and
     However, some country, out of its own      non-proliferation. It may even result in a
ambition for global dominance, deliberately     new round of arms race and more extensive

                                                                                              11
Peace   March 2000                                                                Serial No.54

proliferation of WMDs. This is in nobody's       IV. Concerning the implementation of
interest.                                        treaty obligations, an attitude of leniency
                                                 on oneself and stringency on others can-
III. Double standards will weaken the            not but undermine the authority of in-
impartiality and integrity of the interna-       ternational treaties of arms control and
tional non-proliferation efforts.                non-proliferation.
     The purpose of non-proliferation is to            Everyone is equal before the law. And
enhance the universal security of all coun-      treaty obligations should be honoured.
tries. Only in such a way can non-               These are some basic principles underlying
proliferation efforts enjoy lasting viability.   a civilised world. Yet, some country takes a
And non-proliferation should not become a        cynical view on arms control and non-
tool for some countries to seek or maintain      proliferation treaties and their legal obliga-
strategic and security advantages. On the        tions undertaken therein. This is extremely
issue of non-proliferation, as on other is-      disturbing. When a treaty was under nego-
sues, all countries should be treated            tiation, they pushed for a strict verification
equally, while double standards and selfish      regime and quick conclusion of the treaty.
criteria should be abandoned. Otherwise,         After the treaty was concluded, it always
non-proliferation efforts will lose the un-      keeps a vigilant eye on others to make sure
derstanding and support of the international     that other countries comply with the treaty.
community. Some countries, however, for-         When it comes to itself, it would delay or
mulate their non-proliferation policies en-      even reject the ratification of the same trea-
tirely out of their own interests. When their    ties. Even if it ratifies a treaty, it would pass
friends and allies, or countries in which        certain domestic legislation, the content of
they have a major strategic and economic         which is tantamount to reservations on key
interest develop weapons of mass destruc-        articles of the treaty, in clear violation of
tion and their delivery means, they either       treaty provisions. This inevitably casts
look the other way or adopt a policy of tacit    doubts on its sincerity towards arms control
consent or even connivance. As for those         and non-proliferation treaties and their ne-
countries not to their liking or countries of    gotiations. These acts seem to tell the world
different culture, custom or ideology, they      that, as a self-styled world leader, it is mak-
never hesitate to impose economic sanc-          ing law for others, which itself does not in-
tions or even take military actions even on      tend to abide by. Obviously this is some-
most dubious grounds. This reflects the          thing that is unacceptable for any country
short-sightedness of these countries and         with any sense of national dignity. The in-
their lack of a long-term strategy on the is-    ternational community does not need a self-
sue of non-proliferation, which they them-       styled leader like this, much less do we
selves advocate so vehemently. As a result,      need a world police. Or even if we did, we
not only the international non-proliferation     should not allow him to be above the law.
efforts will be harmed, the self-interests of    We have a saying in China: do not do unto
these countries will ultimately be jeopard-      others what you would not want others do
ised as well.                                    to you. He who wants to lead the world
                                                 should behave himself well first.

12
Peace   March 2000                                                              Serial No.54

V. Contempt for and mistrust of multi-           not effective in preventing the proliferation
lateral    arms    control   and    non-         of WMDs. After succeeding in incorporat-
proliferation treaties is detrimental to         ing various obligations into the treaties, in-
the authority and universality of non-           cluding very intrusive verification arrange-
proliferation regimes.                           ments, they now claim that these treaties
                                                 can not be truly effective. This logic is be-
      International arms control and non-
                                                 yond our comprehension. Of course, the
proliferation treaties are multilaterally ne-
                                                 lack of efficiency may not be the real rea-
gotiated and reflect the common will of the
                                                 son. There may be some other deeper con-
international community. They constitute
                                                 siderations which are only known to them-
the legal basis of international non-
                                                 selves. But whatever the reasons are, this
proliferation efforts, therefore, should be
the guiding principles for all its states par-   approach can only end up undermining the
                                                 authority of the international arms control
ties. Every state party is obliged to preserve
                                                 and non-proliferation treaties, depriving in-
the authority of these treaties, which is in
                                                 ternational non-proliferation efforts of a
their own interest. However, some coun-
                                                 uniform criterion, and casting doubts over
tries on the one hand spare no efforts in
                                                 the significance and even necessity of nego-
pushing for the conclusion of such treaties,
                                                 tiating new treaties.
and on the other hand demonstrate an atti-
tude of contempt of, and mistrust for, the
treaties' role in preventing the proliferation   VI. Emphasizing non-proliferation while
of WMDs.                                         neglecting peaceful uses will lose the
      This attitude is shown in two ways:        support of the large number of develop-
first, these countries, when they have the       ing countries for international non-
suspicion that another country might be in       proliferation efforts.
violation of a treaty, instead of seeking              Non-proliferation of WMD and inter-
clarification or inspection through the pro-     national cooperation in peaceful uses of
cedures set forth in the treaty, they always     technology are two sides of a coin. They
attempt to resolve the issue through mass        complement rather than conflict with each
media or by exerting pressure bilaterally.       other. Experience has shown that every ma-
Secondly, after the treaty enters into force,    jor step forward in non-proliferation is
they still keep the export control arrange-      closely linked to enhanced international co-
ments at variance with the treaty provi-         operation in related science and technology.
sions. During the negotiations of some           It is precisely on the basis of such an under-
arms control treaties, such as the protocol      standing that almost every arms control and
to the Biological Weapons Convention,            non-proliferation treaty contains provisions
they even go so far as to refuse any discus-     on the international scientific and techno-
sion on the issue of export control, for fear    logical cooperation and exchanges.
that that would further erode the raison               Unfortunately, some Western countries
d'etre of a certain existing export control      while pursuing very vigorously on non-
group.                                           proliferation, take a very negative attitude
      The apparent reason for these countries    towards international scientific and techno-
doing this is, as they claimed, that the arms    logical cooperation. During the negotiations
control and non-proliferation treaties are       of treaties, they always try to avoid under-
                                                                                               13
Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54

taking obligations on technological coop-       ment, and to establish a fair and just new
eration or to weaken the relevant articles as   international political and economic order.
much as they can. After the treaty takes ef-    Only in such a way can each and every
fect, their performance in implementing         country, large or small, rich or poor, strong
these articles is evasive at best. Moreover,    or weak, with or without WMDs, enjoy a
certain countries use non-proliferation as an   sense of security, thereby removing the in-
excuse to block legitimate scientific and       centives for countries to acquire and de-
technological cooperation between other         velop WMDs. Secondly, efforts should be
countries, and even resort to economic          made to enhance international cooperation
sanctions. If such practice is allowed to       in the area of non-proliferation, and to ex-
continue, international non-proliferation ef-   plore new solutions consistent with the new
forts will lose the support of the large num-   international situation on the basis of exist-
ber of developing countries, ultimately         ing non-proliferation treaties. The success
leading to the disintegration of the non-       of non-proliferation does not hinge upon
proliferation regimes.                          the containment and pressure policy of a
     In conclusion, let me emphasise that       few countries, but on the concerted efforts
non-proliferation of WMDs is a long-term        of the whole international community.
undertaking. With the rapid advancement               In about two weeks time, mankind will
of science and technology, the increasing       enter a new century and a new millennium.
globalisation of world's economy and the        It is our sincere hope that all countries will
quick expansion of Internet, it will be more    take concrete steps to reduce and remove
and more difficult to achieve non-              those negative elements that hamper pro-
proliferation objectives. The fundamental       gress in our fight against the proliferation
way to prevent the proliferation of WMDs        of WMDs and put the international non-
lies in the complete prohibition and thor-      proliferation efforts on a healthy track. This
ough destruction of such weapons. Pending       will be in the interest of all countries.
the attainment of this ultimate objective, it
is necessary for the international commu-       (This is a paper addressed by Mr. Sha Zukang,
nity to take measures from two perspec-         at the Wilton Park Conference December 14,
tives. First, efforts should be made to im-     1999.)
prove the international security environ-




14
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54




         Maintaining World Peace is the Common Aspiration
               And Mission of the World People and
             Peace Organisations in Various Countries
                            By CPAPD Secretary-General Chen Jifeng


     With the forthcoming of a new millen-      quillity in the world. The Cold-war mental-
nium, the human race is about to step into      ity of some countries and blocs of countries
the 21st century. What kind of the 21st cen-    is still in existence, hegemony and power
tury will be is an issue of universal concern   politics have manifested themselves now
and calling for heated discussions in the in-   and then. The phenomenon of intensifying
ternational community. How peace move-          the military alliances is increasingly being
ments will unfold activities in the new cen-    felt. The new “gunboat policy” is running
tury is a crucial problem to be tackled and     rampant. The high-tech armaments are be-
solved by all the peace organisations and       coming tools for some countries to pursue
institutions in various countries. At the im-   hegemonism. Certain countries create
portant moment of the turn of the centuries,    imaginary adversaries everywhere, inter-
looking back at the developments of the         vene in the internal affairs of sovereign
world peace movement and looking for-           states at will, expand military alliances
ward to the future filled with hopes, we        aimed at the third party, conduct research,
need to consider what we should do in the       development and deployment of new
21st century.                                   weapon systems that undermine strategic
     Over the past half a century, having       security and stability, and even take a sov-
completed a hard journey, the world peace       ereign state as a test ground for sophisti-
movement has both brilliant chapters and        cated weapons. Overshadowed by the
grieved setbacks. The inhuman World War         aforementioned factors, the international
I broke out in the Balkan region within the     nuclear non-proliferation mechanism has
century, which shall come to an end with        been damaged and the danger of nuclear
tremendous human blood-shed in the same         weapon proliferation is on a clear rise. For
region. We feel deeply distressed about all     example, the US-Russian bilateral nuclear
these. We should make serious review and        disarmament process is in stalemate, ratifi-
summaries of the past so as to exert con-       cation of the CTBT is slow-moving, the US
certed efforts to build endurable world         Congress rejected the ratification of the
peace by taking advantage of the inception      CTBT and the US threatens to withdraw
of the new century.                             from the ABM, the negotiation of the Cut-
     Peace and development are the main         off Treaty is difficult to take off, and the
themes of our time, and the people of the       new nuclear tests occurred.
whole world universally demand peace and             Based on the above facts, we believe
development. However, there is no tran-         that at the present and also in the consider-

                                                                                             15
Peace   March 2000                                                                 Serial No.54

able long period to come, prevention of nu-     equals, be they big or small. It is only un-
clear proliferation and promotion of nuclear    derstandable that there exist some differ-
disarmament are still the major tasks for the   ences among peace organisations since they
international community, also the major         are under different conditions. Problems re-
tasks for the world peace movement in the       lating to peace should be solved through
year 2000 and a fairly long period to come.     consultations and under no circumstances
In the meantime, as hegemonism and power        should the individual views or stand be im-
politics constitute serious threat to world     posed onto others. Only by so doing, can
peace, we must resolutely oppose hegemon-       the world peace movement get united.
ism and power politics in order to more ef-     Fourthly, efforts should be exerted to or-
fectively maintain world peace.                 ganise rich and colourful activities, to mo-
     It is of our view that confronted by the   bilise people and carry out peace education
peace movements in various countries of         among them. The people, only the people,
the world are stern challenges and formida-     are the motive force for creating world his-
ble tasks. For the year 2000 before a new       tory. It is a common task for whole man-
millennium, firstly, by seriously reviewing     kind to safeguard world peace, and only the
and summarising the developments of the         broad masses are mobilised to join the
world peace movement over the past half a       peace movement and to wage joint strug-
century, we should assess our experience,       gles against war and hegemonism, can the
draw useful lessons and advance the peace       world peace and tranquillity be guaranteed.
movement for continuous development at               The Chinese people are peace-loving
the inception of a new century. Secondly,       people. The objective of the Chinese Peo-
peace is an eternal theme, and people of the    ple's Association for Peace and Disarma-
world long to live in a peaceful environ-       ment is to devote itself to the promotion of
ment. It is common desire and aspiration of     mutual understanding, friendship and co-
all the peace organisations in the world to     operation between the Chinese people and
build an ever-lasting peace. This common        peoples of the world and, to joint efforts at
objective links us together so that we          home and abroad to safeguard world peace,
should further enhance and expand ex-           to strive for the complete prohibition and
changes and co-operation, jointly explore       thorough destruction of nuclear weapons,
the challenges and opportunities facing the     prevent a new world war, protect ecological
peace movements and work hard for our           environment, promote economic develop-
common objective. Thirdly, all peace or-        ment and advance social progress. We are
ganisations in the world are independent,       ready to make concerted efforts with all or-
and accountable only to their fellow coun-      ganizations and individuals that work for
trymen. All the peace organisations should      peace to achieve the ever-lasting peace in
seek co-operation and exchanges based on        the world.
the principles of mutual respect, seeking
common ground while reserving differ-           (The article is excerpts of a speech at the National
ences, and non-interference into each           Conference of the French Peace Movement Septem-
other's internal affairs. All the peace or-     ber 10-15, 1999)
ganisations should treat each other as



16
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54

THE MILITARY SERVES THE PEOPLE

              Postwar Demining Operations in China
                                        (Excerpts)
I China’s Policy on Landmine                  scale demining operations in Sino-
     China has always attached great im- Vietnamese border areas and has provided
portance to accidental injury to civilians assistance and technical training to some
caused by landmines. It supports proper countries seriously affected by mines.
and rational restrictions placed on the use
and transfer of landmines to eliminate the II. Mine Situations in China’s Border
threat of landmines to innocent civilians Areas
without undermining national security.             A large amount of landmines and other
     China believes that, in addressing the explosive devices have been discovered in
issue of landmines, especially that of anti- an area of over 300 square kilometers along
personnel landmines (APLs), both humani- the Sino-Vietnamese border in China's
tarian concerns and legitimate self-defense Yunnan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Au-
needs of sovereign countries should be tak- tonomous Region. This narrow strip, alto-
en into consideration. As a defensive gether accounting for 0.003% of the entire
weapon, landmine is an important military Chinese territory, is the only area affected
means for China and some other develop- by mines in China over years.
ing countries to safeguard national sover-
                                              A. Distribution of Minefields
eignty and resist foreign invasion.                The border between China and Vi-
    China holds that landmine clearance         etnam begins at the mouth of Beilun River
and restrictions on the use of landmines are    in Dongxing County, Guangxi Zhuang Au-
complementary measures to eliminate the         tonomous Region in the east, and ends in
threat of landmines to innocent civilians.      Jiangcheng County, Yunnan Province in
Therefore, the Chinese Government ratified      the west. On the Chinese side, there are
the Amended Landmine Protocol (Protocol         over 560 minefields with a total area of
11) to the Convention on Certain Conven-        over 300 square kilometers. The minefields
tional Weapons (CCW), and has adopted           are located in mountain basins, jungles,
measures to further restrict the use of         sandy land, river beaches and roads, form-
landmines.                                      ing a large mined belt with a wide front and
                                                small depth.
     Meanwhile, the Chinese Government is
of the view that clearance of mines left over   B. Features of Minefields
from wars is an important part and parcel of        1. Complicated Geographic Environ-
efforts in addressing the threat of APLs to     ment of Mined Areas
innocent civilians. The Chinese Govern-             The Sino-Vietnamese border area is lo-
ment has always taken a serious and re-         cated in subtropical mountainous jungles,
sponsible attitude toward postwar mine          most of which is typical karst region. With
clearance, and has made great achievements      high mountains, steep slopes, dense forests
in this regard. It has launched two large-      and high grass, the region is precipitous and
                                                                                             17
Peace   March 2000                                                                  Serial No.54

Communications there are difficult.              except those in disputed sections in some
                                                 seven years.
     Figure 1 landmines neutralized              A. Planning of Demining Operations
                                                      Two large-scale demining operations
                                                 have been launched. The first one was
     2. Varieties of Landmines                   launched between January 1992 and July
     In the minefields, there are over 20        1994 to clear important trade ports and
types of landmines of different countries.       passes. The second one was launched be-
Most of the landmines are APLs and there         tween July 1997 and September 1999 to
are also a few anti-tank landmines. The          clear all remaining minefields except those
APLs are mainly blasting type and frag-          in disputed sections.
mentation type. There are also a few direc-      B. Three Stages of Demining Operations
tional APLs. Figure 1 shows landmines                 1. Preparation Stage
neutralized.                                          Preparation includes establishing com-
     3. Large Number of Other Unexploded         manding organizations, working out
Ordnance (UXO) in the Minefields                 demining plans, training key deminers,
     In addition to landmines, other UXO         conducting pilot demining operations, es-
like grenades, mortar shells, rocket projec-     tablishing demining teams and training
tiles, and bullets have been left behind in      them in accordance with different situa-
the minefields. There are hundreds of            tions, raising demining equipment and ma-
thousands of UXO in minefields (as shown         teriel, and surveying the minefields.
in Figure 2). These UXO with metal case
have increased the workload, difficulty and          Figure 2 Other UXO in minefields
danger of demining operations. In addition,
there are also lots of discarded or deactivat-       2. Operation Stage
ed ammunitions to be destroyed in the                This stage is aimed at accomplishing
demining operations.                             most demining missions, permanently seal-
     4. High Risks in Demining Operations        ing some minefields, and marking and seal-
     Due to the high-temperature and hu-         ing minefields to be cleared later. In ac-
midity, the landmines and other UXO in the       cordance with different features of the
minefields have been corroded and de-            minefields of complicated terrain and dense
formed seriously. The igniting rings and         vegetation, a comprehensive approach of
fuse devices of some landmines are ex-           demining is applied, combining burning,
posed and thus easy to trigger. This has in-     blasting, mechanical demining and manual
creased the risks in demining operations.        demining. In advance of a demining opera-
                                                 tion, the leading deminers conduct on-site
III Demining Operations                          survey, investigate and verify the location
    In order to maintain peace, protect life     and area of the minefield as well as the
and property of the local people, and pro-       types of landmines. Then, they work out
mote the local economic development, the         demining plans, confirm specific operation
Chinese Government decided to launch             procedures and demining methods. Finally,
large-scale demining operations in border        the demining teams enter their respective
areas from 1992 to clear all the minefields      minefields to begin operation.
                                                     3. Acceptance Check Stage
18
Peace   March 2000                                                                Serial No.54

     The aim of this stage is to check the         minefields in residential areas at border
cleared minefields and hand over safe and          trade ports, border passes, and trade mar-
cleared land to the local government. For          kets, military positions, communication fa-
each cleared minefield, strict check and           cilities, and barracks, patrol routes and
transfer procedures are performed. The             training quarters.
deminers sign the form of demining re-                  3. Demining of Deep Minefields
sponsibility after the demining squad and               Demining of deep minefields is to clear
platoon checks the cleared minefield. After        landmines and UXO above 2 meters deep
confirming that there are no mines left in         underground. It is used to clear border
the field, the local government signs the          roads and mine blocks at trade ports.
document of transfer and accepts the                    4. Permanent Sealing of Minefields
cleared minefield.                                      In order to protect the natural resources
     C. Principles of Demining for Differ-         and prevent civilian injuries from mines, it
ent Minefields                                     is decided to take measures to mark and
     The fundamental principles for postwar        seal such areas. The army, together with
demining operations are thoroughness,              the local governments, and in light of dif-
speed, safety and low cost.                        ferent natural and geographical conditions
     In implementing the above mentioned           of the minefields, has adopted many meth-
principles, the demining command has               ods to effectively seal or mark the mine-
worked out the principle of clearing mine-         fields. In water source areas where human
fields in accordance with the status of the        and livestock activities are relatively fre-
fields as well as different ways in which          quent, sealing walls and marking signs are
those landmines were laid. The minefields          built to prevent access by human or live-
are thus classified into four types, i.e., shal-   stock; in areas where human or livestock
low minefields, medium level minefields,           occasionally appear, ridges or ditches are
deep minefields and permanently sealed             built and marking signs are also estab-
minefields. Therefore, the safe use of the         lished; in areas where there are natural
cleared minefields can be guaranteed while         ditches or cliffs, marking signs are estab-
the demining operations can be accelerated         lished. So there are four methods of sealing
and the cost of demining equipment and             and marking, namely, wall-sign sealing,
manpower can be reduced.                           ditch-sign sealing, ridge-sign sealing and
                                                   sign sealing.
     1. Demining of Shallow Minefields
                                                        Notification is announced through the
     Demining of shallow minefields is to
                                                   media to ensure that everyone is aware of it
clear landmines and UXO above 0.5 meter
                                                   and enable the general public to conscien-
deep underground. It is used to clear the
                                                   tiously observe the stipulations of the seal-
minefields that are located in areas for pro-
                                                   ing marks around the minefields and thus
duction, living and combat readiness quar-
                                                   ensure their safety. These measures have
ters.
     2. Demining of Medium Level Mine-             greatly reduced or eliminated the threat to
                                                   local civilians brought by these minefields.
fields
     Demining of medium level minefields
is to clear landmines and UXO above 1 me-          D. Demining Methods
                                                       A comprehensive application of vari-
ter deep underground. It is used to clear the
                                                   ous demining methods, such as burning,
                                                                                                 19
Peace   March 2000                                                              Serial No.54

blasting, mechanical operation and manual             2.Blast Demining
detection and clearance, is a typical feature         Blast demining is one of the most
of the postwar demining operations on the        commonly used demining methods. Due to
Sino-Vietnamese border. Applying differ-         the relatively high cost of blast demining, it
ent methods in a rational order according to     is seldom used in postwar demining opera-
different situations is the key in achieving     tions. However, the Sino-Vietnamese bor-
success in the above mentioned demining          der demining troops and some research in-
operations. The extensive use of burning,        stitutes have jointly developed the highly
blasting, mechanical operation and other         cost-effective and reliable GBPL 114
methods have reduced the workload of             demining Bangalore. It has made the
manual demining and thus reduced the risks       method of blast demining widely applied in
of triggering landmines by deminers. The         the demining operations.
following are some types of demining                  Clear parallel paths through the mine-
methods:                                         field every 50 meters with rocket demoli-
     1. Destruction of Landmines by Burn-        tion kits and widen the paths through man-
ing                                              ual detection and demining. Deminers to
     Most of the minefields were established     transport demining equipment deep into the
more than ten years ago and are covered          minefield will use these paths. Then GBPL
with dense vegetation. The over 2-meter          114 demining bangalores or simply bonded
high grass has increased the difficulty for      linear charge are used to create paths verti-
demining operations. Burning the surface         cal to two parallel paths so as to divide the
vegetation could clear barriers for demining     minefield into a network. Finally, in areas
operations, and also destroy or detonate         with anti-tank mines, landslide parts as well
landmines and other UXO exposed on the           as slopes of more than 25 degrees, sector
surface or laid shallowly underground. Pri-      blasting is conducted to detonate antitank
or to the burning operation, the barriers on     mines and to destroy nonexplosive barriers.
the front of the minefield should be cleared     Blast demining can be used to clear all
thoroughly to establish an operation plat-       minefields but those in residential areas and
form. Explosion devices are used to create       around arsenals.
fire insulation belts and burning operation           3. Mechanical Operation
paths. Rivers, roads, and farms could also            Mine-clearance machines, such as
be used as fire insulation belts. The next       demining flail, demining plough and bull-
step is to spray withering agent to make the     dozer, are used to flail, plough and roll the
plant wither in 2-3 days, or to directly spray   minefield. This can effectively clear APLs
fuel for sufficient burning. Finally, fire is    and other explosive devices. Mechanical
lit with flame-throwers. Except those lo-        demining can lower demining cost, acceler-
cated near rocky hills, residential areas,       ate demining operation and reduce risks of
construction remains and arsenals, other         casualties from triggering mines. The
minefields could be cleared through burn-        drawback of this method is that it is limited
ing operation. As burning operations may         by terrain to some extent. It is only suitable
detonate                                         on a flat ground or on a mountain slope less
     Landmines and other UXO, operation          than 25 degrees. Besides, the majority of
personnel should put on protective equip-        such machines can only be used to clear
ment.                                            APLs.
20
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54

     4. Manual Detection and Clearance         tion. In a minefield of APLS, it can clear a
     Whatever geographic surroundings and      path of 3m wide and of the same length of
conditions of minefields are, thorough and     the bangalore or the length of the several
perfect clearance of a minefield can only be   sections connected in a series. When sever-
achieved by the combination of the manual      al sections are connected in a series for use,
detection and clearance with other methods.    the head of the first section is provided with
The manual detection and clearance is the      a section of burning and detonation inter-
oldest and most widely used demining           rupter. With this provision, even if the in-
method. It is the last step in clearing all    terrupter section initiates a mine or mines
kinds of minefields. For some special          in the course of installation, the succeeding
minefields such as the ones near arsenals or   sections will not suffer sympathetic detona-
residential areas, only the method of manu-    tion. This type of bangalore is character-
al detection and clearance can be applied.     ized by high efficiency, low cost, thorough
     E. Demining Equipment and Ma-             clearance, safety, reliability and conven-
chinery                                        ience. Using this bangalore, a deminer can
     Various standard and non-standard         clear 600 square meters of shallow mine
demining equipment and machinery have          blocks (from the surface to 0.5 m under-
been used in the postwar demining opera-       ground) per workday.
tions along the Sino-Vietnamese border.             3. GTL 115 Mine Detector
The demining equipment includes GBP 123             The GTL 11 5 mine detector, equipped
rocket explosive hose kit, GBP 114 demin-      with large, medium and small detecting
ing bangalore, improvised demining linear      head assemblies, is used to detect mines
charge, GTL 115 mine detector, GGT 120         with metallic components on a flat ground,
demining set, and etc. The demining ma-        in a jungle and in an area with high grass.
chinery includes demining plough, demin-            4. GGT 120 Demining Set
ing flail, demining milling cutter, demining        The demining set is for mine-detection
high-pressure water jet, and etc. The fol-     and clearance by an engineer squad. It in-
lowing is some demining equipment widely       cludes GTL 1 1 0 mine detector, aluminum-
used during the postwar demining opera-        alloy prod, path-marking flag, mine-
tions along the Sino-Vietnamese border.        marking flag, grapnel, demining rope and
     1. GBP 123 Rocket Explosive Hose Kit      etc.
     The 17-kilograme GBP 123 rocket ex-            F. Protective Equipment
plosive hose kit is mainly used to clear a          The use of protective equipment im-
path through a minefield of APLs. It may       proves the safety guarantee for deminers.
be used singly or in a series of two kits. A   The demining protective equipment can ef-
single kit can clear a path through a mine-    fectively minimize or avert injuries caused
field of APLs of no less than 0.8m wide        by accidental explosion of another or mine
and 28m long.                                  explosive devices. A deminer wearing a set
     2. GBP 114 Demining Bangalore             of the protective equipment as required will
The GBP 114 demining bangalore, each           only suffer from slight injuries of less than
section being 0.62 m long, can be employed     2nd-degree in an accidental explosion.
in single section or in a series of several         Two types of protective equipment are
sections combined together. It is loaded       used, i.e. single-person demining protective
with amatol inside and uses electric igni-     equipment and FLF Series protective
                                                                                             21
Peace   March 2000                                                                     Serial No.54

equipment. Their difference lies in their        The demining operations have made a
protective boots.        The single-person     great contribution to the development of the
demining protective equipment is fitted        border trade and the opening up of the bor-
with a pair of boots with air cushion, which   der areas to the outside world. Six national
reduces pressure on the ground surface, by     and 13 provincial border trade ports and
human body. Wearing this pair of boots,        more than 30 border markets have been re-
the deminer is unlikely to trigger a mine      stored or newly-established, which has
even if he steps on it. The FLF Series pro-    greatly promoted border trade. The open-
tective equipment is provided with a pair of   ing of more than 290 border passes has
boots with mine-resistant sole, which is       completely changed the situation of no sin-
specially designed and made of special ma-     gle unimpeded access by land along the Si-
terial. When a deminer wearing the boots       no-Vietnamese border before demining op-
triggers a mine by stepping on it, the boots   erations and has created favorable condi-
will attenuate detonation waves, interrupt     tions for the growth of the border areas'
explosion products and minimize injury to      economy and its opening up to the outside
lower limbs and feet.                          world.        The border trade volumes of
     G. Mine Clearance Achievements            Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in
  The demining units of Yunnan and             1993 and 1994 were RMB 2.6 billion yuan
Guangxi border defense troops have dis-        and 2.64 billion yuan respectively. In 1998,
patched more than 2,000 officers and sol-      the trade volume reached 3.4 billion yuan.
diers in the demining operations succes-       The border trade volumes between Vietnam
sively. They have overcome many difficul-      and Yunnan Province in 1993 and 1994
ties such as complicated terrain of moun-      were RMB 638 million yuan and 520 mil-
tain and jungle, dense vegetation, changea-    lion yuan respectively. In 1998, the volume
ble weather, and long burial time of           reached RMB 1.279 billion yuan. Accord-
landmines. By using the methods of burn-       ing to incomplete statistics, an average of
ing, blasting, mechanical operation and        more than 5 million persons and 1.3 million
manual demining, they have cleared 1.88        persons crossed the Sino-Vietnamese bor-
million landmines, 320,000 UXO, and have       der passes in Guangxi and Yunnan respec-
destroyed more than 700 tons of discarded      tively each year since 1995.
ammunitions and explosive devices,                  The demining operations along the Si-
cleared and permanently sealed a total area    no-Vietnamese border have improved road
of some 300 square kilometers, and cleared     traffic and border patrol conditions. In
some 290 trade paths and ports, restored       Guangxi border areas, 172 km new high-
60, 000 hectares of deserted farmland, pas-    way has been built; in Yunnan border areas,
tures and forests. The mine threat on Chi-     54 km of highway have been opened. The
nese side along the Sino-Vietnamese border     opening of these roads has greatly im-
has been basically removed.                    proved traffic conditions in border areas
                                               and has created favorable conditions for the
 IV Significance of Postwar Demining           poverty-stricken areas along the border to
Operations Along the Sino-Vietnamese           get rich.
Border                                         (The article is provided by the Foreign Affairs Office, the
                                               Ministry of National Defense, PRC, in December 1999)


22
Peace   March 2000                                                               Serial No.54

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES


        A Delegation of Korean National Peace Committee Visits China


     At the invitation of the Chinese Peoples        Meeting with the visiting KNPC delega-
Association for Peace and Disarmament            tion, Dai Bingguo, Minister of the Interna-
(CPAPD), a 5-member delegation of the Ko-        tional Department of the Central Committee,
rean National Peace Committee (KNPC)             CPC, hosted a friendly conversation on the
headed by KNPC Vice-Chairman Mr. Ri              relations between the CPC and the WPK.
Song Ho paid a visit to China 30 November             Zhu Shanqing, Member of the National
to 6 December 1999.                              Committee of the Chinese Peoples Political
     During the visit in Beijing, He Luli,       Consultative Conference and Vice-President
Vice-Chairperson of the Standing Committee       of the CPAPD hosted a working session with
of the National Peoples Congress and Presi-     the delegation, and also briefed the delega-
dent of the CPAPD met with the visiting          tion of the Chinese position on the present in-
KNPC delegation. She recalled the tradi-         ternational situation and the achievements of
tional friendship between the PRC and DPR        the reform and opening.
of Korea, the friendly exchanges between the          The KNPC delegation also went to
peace organizations of the two countries, and    Guilin and Guangzhou for a visit. Deputy Di-
also gave a brief introduction to the current    rector Chen Xian of Guilin City Peoples
situation of the economic construction, re-      Congress and Deputy Director Lu Zhiguang
form and opening, and the difficulties in        of Guangdong Provincial Peoples Congress
China. In respect of the Sino-Korean rela-       met the delegation respectively, and briefed
tions, Vice-Chairperson He said, the Chinese     the delegation on the local development and
government and people wish the Korean Pen-       progress of the reform and opening.
insula to enjoy peace and stability since DPR         While the KNPC delegation was visiting
of Korea is a close neighbour to China. That     China, the leaders of the two peace organiza-
is not only in the fundamental interests of      tions believed that to strengthen the bilateral
both the North and the South sides, but also     exchanges between the two peace organiza-
conducive to peace and stability in Northeast    tions will not only enhance the friendly co-
Asia. Since both the North and the South         operation between them, but also help con-
sides are the direct patties to the settlement   solidate and further the traditional friendship
of the problem so China wishes both sides on     between the two countries and two peoples,
the peninsula to improve relations, and also     which is not only in the fundamental interests
supports DPR of Korea to improve relations       of the two countries and two peoples but also
and finally normalise relations with western     beneficial to maintenance of peace and sta-
countries such as the United States, Japan       bility in the region as well as the world at
and EU countries. This is beneficial to peace    large. Therefore, both sides express the
and stability on the Peninsula and also in the   wishes to continuously strengthen the bilat-
fundamental interests of the people on the       eral      exchanges       and     cooperation.
Peninsula.


                                                                                                23
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54




             A CPAPD Delegation Visits Vietnam and Laos



    At the invitation of the Vietnam Peace      newspaper of the Vietnam Communist
Committee (VPC) and the Lao Committee           Youth League. The delegation also made a
for Peace and Solidarity (LCPS), a CPAPD        small donation to the flood-stricken area in
delegation headed by Huan Guoying,              Central Vietnam.
Member of the National Committee of the              In Laos, Mr. Somsavat Lengsavad,
Chinese People’s Political Consultative         Vice Premier and Foreign Minister, and
Conference and CPAPD Vice-President,            Mr. Siho Bannavong, Acting Chairman of
paid a friendly visit to the Socialist Repub-   Lao Front for National Construction and
lic of Vietnam December 16-22, and the          LCPS President met the delegation. Mr.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic Decem-         Sangsomsak Bounpone, LCPS Vice-
ber 22-27, 1999. The delegation was ac-         President hosted the working session with
corded with warm hospitalities.                 the delegation. Following its visit to Vien-
                                                tiane, the delegation also toured Luangpra-
    During the visit in Vietnam, Mr. Vu
                                                bang.
Dinh Cu, Member of the Central Commit-
                                                     During the visit to the two countries,
tee of Communist Party of Vietnam (VCP),
                                                the CPAPD delegation and their host or-
Vice-Chairman of the National Assembly
                                                ganizations shared the views on the current
and VPC President, Mr. Tran Van Dang,
                                                international political development, briefed
Member of VCP Central Committee and
                                                each other their domestic political and eco-
Secretary-General of the Vietnam National
                                                nomic situation and latest activities for
Front and Mr. Nguyen Chi Vu, President of
                                                peace, and wished to further the develop-
the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organiza-
                                                ment of bilateral cooperation. The delega-
tions met with Huan Guoying and her party.
                                                tion also learned the progress of the social-
Mr. Pham Van Chuong, executive Deputy
                                                ist drive, achievements and main difficul-
Minister of the Commission for External
                                                ties from the leaders and cadres at various
Affairs under the VCP Central Committee
                                                levels. The visit, a complete success, pro-
and VPC Vice-President hosted a working
                                                moted the bilateral friendly exchanges and
session with the delegation. Apart from
                                                cooperation between CPAPD and VPC and
Hanoi, the delegation toured Haiphong and
                                                between CPAPD and LCPS. It has made
Ha long and met with local leaders con-
cerned, visited Hanoi National University       positive contribution to people-to-people
                                                mutual understanding and good neighborly
and the Hanoi Peace Committee and state-
owned enterprises, Huan Guoying, leader         relationship.
of the delegation, had an exclusive inter-
view with a correspondent of Vanguard,
24
Peace   March 2000                                                            Serial No.54




                     A CPAPD Delegation Visits Japan


     At the invitation of Hiroshima Peace       promote peace cause and have made Hi-
Culture Foundation (HPCF), a 5-member           roshima one of important bases for peace in
delegation of the Chinese Peoples Associa-     Japan. The nuclear victims together with
tion for Peace and Disarmament (CPAPD)          their second generation educate the young
headed by CPAPD Co-ordinator Jiang              generation in peace by their personal
Hong visited Japan 13-20 December 1999.         wounds and experience. The peace organi-
During the duration in Japan, the delegation    zations with Hiroshima Peace Culture
paid a courtesy call on Mr. Tadatoshi           Foundation at the core make use of the nu-
Akiba, Hiroshima Mayor, and also had ex-        clear explosion sites and Hiroshima Peace
tensive discussions with Hiroshima Peace        Memorial Museum to conduct peace educa-
Culture Foundation, Hiroshima Medical           tion among local people and the people
Association Incorporated, Hiroshima Asso-       across the country. That shall be conducive
ciation of Nuclear Victims, and Hiroshima       to maintenance of peace and stability in
Association of Nuclear Victims-Second           Asia and the world at large.
Generation. Besides, the delegation also             During the stay in Hiroshima, the
toured the nuclear explosion sites and Hi-      delegation held a working session with Mr.
roshima Peace Memorial Museum. The              Yoshinaka Yasumaro, HPCF Council
program for delegation also included a visit    Chairman. Both sides expressed the wishes
to Kobe and Osaka, etc.. During the visit to    in principle to maintain, deepen and expand
Hiroshima, the delegation gave an inter-        the momentum for the bilateral exchanges
view to local media and the visit was also      and cooperation, and also put forward some
covered by the local media and TV.              new proposals for the future exchanges and
Through the visit, the delegation made          cooperation, which need further bilateral
many friends and mutual understanding be-       consultations.
tween them was further enhanced.                     On December 15 at the Forum organ-
     The peace work in Hiroshima is deep-       ized by Hiroshima Peace Culture Founda-
rooted among the people. Hiroshima is the       tion, CPAPD Coordinator Jiang Hong de-
very first city that suffered from nuclear      livered a speech entitled Promoting Sino-
explosion. Except for a lesson in lives and     Japanese Friendship and Safeguarding
suffering, the tragic and disastrous history    World Peace, giving brief introduction to
also left behind a legacy of seeking peace.     the Chinese independent foreign policy of
During the visit, those social activists from   peace and the principles for developing
all sectors and fields whom we get in con-      Sino-Japanese relations, expounding the
tact with are against war, strongly longing     nuclear policies of the Chinese government
for peace and opposed to the acts of politi-    and its principled position on international
cians to amend the Japan Constitution.          nuclear disarmament, and answered some
They do not only aspire for peace, but also     questions. Over 100 people attended the fo-
                                                                                             25
Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54

rum. The CPAPD and the HPCF have con-            ture. The peoples of the two countries be-
ducted exchanges for many years and this is      gan friendly exchanges dating back 2000
the first time to hold exchanges in the form     years. The long continuity of traditional
of forum. The participants listened to the       friendship between China and Japan and
speaker attentively and some even jotted         the in-depth mutual influence between
down some notes. After the speech, Mr. Ji-       them can hardly be found in the exchanges
ang Hong took some questions. His de-            among people in the world history. How-
tailed reply to the questions was received       ever, it is unfortunate that the friendly ex-
fairly well by the audience. Both the Chi-       changes between the peoples of China and
nese and Japanese sides believed that it was     Japan began to suffer from severe damage
a forum-type exchanges attended by a quite       from the end of the 19th century, which is
number of people, a successful pilot-            caused by the fact that Japan gradually took
project, beneficial to enhancing mutual un-      on a militarist path of invasion. Japan
derstanding and also elevated the level of       launched large-scale wars against China on
bilateral exchanges and cooperation.             many occasions, which imposed national
     CPAPD Coordinator Jiang Hong                disasters on the Chinese people, in the
stressed in his speech, in order to avoid the    meantime, the Japanese people also paid a
repetition of the historical tragedy, the peo-   huge historical price. According to a pre-
ple in Hiroshima have conducted a long-          liminary survey by relevant agencies in
term, extensive and popular movement to          China, the all-round aggressive war against
maintain peace, oppose war and nuclear           China waged by Japan militarism inflicted
war in particular, which has exerted a very      casualties as high as 35 million on the Chi-
important impact on the international peace      nese people and armed forces with the eco-
movement and played a positive role. The         nomic loss of as high as US$ 600 billion.
fact that the people of Hiroshima treasure            Mr. Jiang Hong emphasized that it so
peace dearly, long for peace, and have           happened that he was born right in the
made unremitting efforts for peace has won       place where the Japan militarists schemed
admiration of people of the world. The           the September 18th incident. The elder gen-
common goal for safeguarding world peace         eration personally experienced the agony of
links together the CPAPD and the HPCF.           the national territory being occupied and
During a decade or so of friendly ex-            the national sovereignty being reduced to
changes, the two peace organizations have        naught, and repeated this span of miserable
worked hard and actively to expand and           history to our younger generation again and
deepen the exchanges and cooperation, and        again, and requested us that the Chinese na-
promote friendship between the peoples of        tion should never forget this history of hu-
China and Japan. Efforts should be made          miliation. He himself belong to the post-
by both the government officials and civil-      war generation, has seen with his own eyes
ian sectors in the two countries so as to        the process in which the people of China
push forward Sino-Japanese friendship and        and Japan have restored friendship from
cooperation for generations to come. China       hostility and beat the swords into ploughs,
and Japan are good neighbors separated by        and felt it valuable and formidable for the
only a strip of water. Both China and Japan      two countries to restore rapprochement. So
enjoy long civilization, and people of the       we all should treasure and preserve it. As a
two countries have created a grandiose cul-      Chinese saying goes, the past not forgotten
26
Peace   March 2000                                                               Serial No.54

is a teacher for the future. We must firmly      for the Sino-Japanese relations to remain in
keep in mind the history so that it can re-      long-term stability and healthy develop-
mind us to be vigilant against the repetition    ment. On 25 March 1984 meeting with
of history. The reason to review and sum-        Japanese Prime Minister Nakasone, the late
marize history is for mankind to draw a          architect for the Chinese reform and open-
useful lesson and experiences from the long      ing comrade Deng Xiaoping said, in 1983,
river of human history, to do a better job in    the leaders of the two countries made a
pioneering the future and to greet tomorrow      long-term policy with vision in Tokyo, that
with more confidence.                            is to consider and develop the Sino-
     The Chinese nation and the Japanese         Japanese relations from the long-term per-
nation are both industrious and intelligent      spective. The very first step is to do so in
nations, and long for peace. “Peace is the       the 21st century, then in the 22nd century,
golden rule”, which is an ancient motto in-      23rd century, … to maintain friendship for-
herited from the past by the ancestors of the    ever. This matter carries the significance
Chinese people. The normalisation of Sino-       more than anything else between our two
Japanese relations is completed on the basis     countries. To acquire a long-term view is
of tremendous amount of work accom-              beneficial to cooperation between us. This
plished by personages from all social sec-       kind of cooperation is not only beneficial to
tors and the people at large in both coun-       one side, but to both sides, to both coun-
tries, thus the Sino-Japanese friendly rela-     tries and the peoples of the two countries.
tions has turned over to a new chapter. Dur-     This paragraph covers the inertia, impor-
ing President Jiang Zemin visited Japan in       tance and far-reaching significance of the
1998, China and Japan issued the Joint           principle for the Sino-Japanese friendship
Declaration on making Efforts to Establish       in simple but brilliant language.
Friendly and Co-operative Partnership for             Mr. Jiang Hong pointed out, in the pre-
Peace and Development, thus reiterating          sent world, the rapid development of sci-
the principles enshrined in the Joint Com-       ence and technology, especially the arrival
muniqué for normalising Sino-Japanese re-        of the information revolution and the rock-
lations and in Friendship Treaty and con-        eting development of information technol-
firming these principles as the most impor-      ogy have turned the world into a global vil-
tant foundation for Sino-Japanese relations.     lage. That trade, economic cooperation and
The announcement of Making Efforts to            cultural exchanges in the world are growing
Establish Friendly and Co-operative Part-        rapidly, and technical cooperation and
nership for Peace and Development is a           sense of environmental protection are
new objective for the Sino-Japanese rela-        strengthened helps to enhance mutual un-
tions. The people of China and Japan             derstanding and friendly cooperation
should maintain friendship for generations       among peoples of all countries. However,
to come.                                         the stern fact indicates that there is no tran-
     Friendship is, in fact, the principle for   quillity in the world. The cold-war mental-
taking the friendly and co-operative rela-       ity is still in existence and, hegemonism
tions between China and Japan as the over-       and power politics have shown new devel-
all interest, to which the differences and       opments, which still constitute the main
disagreements between them should subor-         source of threat to world peace and stabil-
dinate. Therefore, it is the highest principle   ity. The military bloc is being expanded and
                                                                                                27
Peace   March 2000                                                             Serial No.54

reinforced, the military alliance speared at    important contributions to world peace,
others also being strengthened and ele-         stability, development and prosperity.
vated, and the military intervention is on      However, there are always some people in
the rise and developing. There occurred on      the world who hate to see development in
many occasions that sanctions or military       China so they purposely propagate the so-
intervention were hurled against a sover-       called “China threat”fallacy. If it is not
eign state on pretext and even reduced a        intended for the hostility towards China,
sovereign state to a test ground for high-      but it demonstrates their biases, or it is at
tech and sophisticated weapons. That vio-       least lack of comprehensive understanding
lates and undermines the norms governing        of Chinas reality and policies. There is
international relations established by the      even a certain country that had conducted
United Nations. Nowadays, there emerges a       nuclear tests on the pretext of the so-called
interventionist fallacy in the international    Chinese “ nuclear threat ” , the lies of
community with slogans that “ human             which has been laid bare and self-defeating,
rights is above sovereignty ” , “ human         and also met with strong condemnation in
rights knows no territorial limits ” , and      the international community. China follows
“humanitarian intervention”, the aim of         the independent foreign policy of peace,
which is nothing more than searching for        does not enter into alliance with any coun-
misleading pretext for the military interven-   try, nor joins in any bloc of countries.
tion. The toss of new interventionism is not    China is always a staunch force for safe-
conducive to world peace and stability, and     guarding world peace and promoting pro-
the international peace and stability are far   gress of mankind. Even though China shall
from settled. Looking forward to the future,    become developed and powerful in the fu-
where is the world moving? How to main-         ture, it will not constitute any threat to any
tain world peace and stability? What kind       country, neither will it invade any other
of international order to be established? All   country. China has time again stated to the
these are immediate subjects confronted by      world that it will never seek hegemony.
the people in the world. The world is in di-    That is the state policy of China and is also
versity, and is undergoing profound             decided by the social system of China. The
changes. However, the Five Principles of        Chinese people shall resolutely promote
Peaceful Coexistence formulated in the          friendly relations with people of all coun-
spirit of the Bandong Conference, as well       tries, and make unremitting efforts for
as the UN Charter and its principles should     world peace.
underpin the establishment of a fair and ra-         CPAPD Co-ordinator Jiang Hong be-
tional new international order and promo-       lieved that so long as the peoples of China
tion of global peace and stability.             and Japan make concerted efforts, they are
     Mr. Jiang Hong continued, if China,        bound to make positive contributions to
making up 1/5 of the global population, is a    world peace and development, and to the
country with political stability, economic      progressive cause of human kind so as to
development, social progress, ethnic unity      help build a better world promoted in the
and popular happiness, it is bound to make      Joint Declaration.



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