SHARP_Employee_Safety-Manual_WithoutApp by liuhongmeiyes

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									Occupational Safety & Health Program

                 for Employees of
           YOURCOMPANYNAME


        Safety & Health Agenda   for   Roofing Professionals


  The        SHARP®                                    Program




                     2007       SHARP®
                            FOREWORD

This program contains Safety and Health information for employees of
yourcompanyname.

This program is provided to each employee to assist in the maintenance of a
safe workplace for all yourcompanyname employees.

This program applies to all work sites where yourcompanyname employees are
assigned, whether other trades are present, or not. If the procedures in this
program do not cover your operation, contact your job foreman or call the Safety
Coordinator.

All safety rules, programs and procedures contained in this program are in
accordance with OSHA, DOT, EPA, and all local agencies as well as
yourcompanyname policies and procedures.

Hereinafter, yourcompanyname may be referred to as "The
Company".
                    TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                Page

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                  9

2.0 SAFETY AND HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES            10
    2.1 Foremen and Supervisors
    2.2 Employee Responsibilities
    2.3 Safety Coordinator Responsibilities

3.0 EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN                         10
    3.1 In Case of Tornado
    3.2 In Case of Fire
    3.3 In Case of Medical Emergency
    3.4 In Case of Lightning

4.0 GENERAL HAZARD ANALYSIS                       11
    4.1 Hazard Recognition
    4.2 Hazard Mitigation

5.0 GENERAL SAFETY                                12
    5.1 List of General Safety Guidelines
    5.2 Crew Safety Inspections
    5.3 Controlled Access Zones (CAZ)

6.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT                 15
    6.1 Eye Protection
    6.2 Respiratory Protection
    6.3 Hand Protection
    6.4 Body Protection
    6.5 Foot Protection
    6.6 Head Protection

7.0 TRANSPORTATION                                17
    7.1 Regular Vehicles
    7.2 Commercial Motor Vehicles
    7.3 Transportation of Hazardous Materials
    7.4 Commercial Driver’s License
    7.5 CDL Acquisition Program
    7.6 Controlled Substance Testing
    7.7 Employee Training
    7.8 State-Specific Requirements

8.0 OVERHEAD DEVICES                             26
    8.1 Hoisting Equipment

9.0 GENERAL MACHINE SAFETY RULES                 26
    9.1 Authorization
    9.2 General Guidelines
    9.3 Grinding Wheels

                        MRCA/SHARP®     3
10.0 COMPRESSED GAS                                                 28
     10.1 Storage and Handling
     10.2 Welding and Torch-Cutting

11.0 MATERIAL HANDLING                                              30
     11.1 General Safety Rules for Parts Handling

12.0 ELECTRICAL                                                     31
     12.1 Electrical Safety
     12.2 Lockout / Tagout
     12.3 Responsibility
     12.4 Electrical Lockout
     12.5 Other Energy Sources

13.0   CONFINED SPACES                                               33
       13.1 Hazards of Confined Spaces
       13.2 Hazardous Atmospheres
       13.3 General Safety Hazards
       13.4 Physical Hazards
       13.5 Workplace Analysis of Hazards
       13.6 Confined Space Entry Permit
       13.7 Permit Required Space Operations, Practices & Procedures
       13.8 Permit Required Space Attendant Practices & Procedures
       13.9 Authorization Requirement for Entrants and/or Attendants

14.0 GENERAL HOUSEKEEPING                                           41
     14.1 Office and Shop Housekeeping
     14.2 Job Site Housekeeping

15.0 HAZARD COMMUNICATION                                           41
     15.1 General Information
     15.2 Container Labeling
     15.3 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
     15.4 Employee Training and Information
     15.5 List of Hazardous Chemicals
     15.6 Hazardous Non-Routine Tasks
     15.7 Informing Contractors

16.0 POTENTIALLY TOXIC EXPOSURES FOR EMPLOYEES                      44
     16.1 General Procedures for Exposures
     16.2 Lead Exposure
     16.3 Carbon Monoxide
     16.4 Silica Exposure
     16.5 Special Chemical Hazards in Petro-Chem Facilities
     16.6 Acute and Chronic Health Hazard Liquids

17.0 DRUG/ALCOHOL POLICY                                            53
     17.1 Administration
     17.2 Policy

18.0 CONTROL of HAZARDOUS ENERGY SOURCES                        55
     18.1 Restoring Machines and Equipment to Normal Operations
                           MRCA/SHARP®      4
19.0 HEARING CONSERVATION                                       57
     19.1 The Company Hearing Conservation Program

20.0 SAFETY AND HEALTH COMPLIANCE ENFORCEMENT                   57
     20.1 Disciplinary Procedures for Infractions

21.0 OCCUPATIONAL INJURY MANAGEMENT/RECORDKEEPING 58
     21.1 Recordkeeping
     21.2 Work-Related
     21.3 Traveling Employees
     21.4 Recording Injuries
     21.5 Forms
     21.6 Reporting a Death or Accident
     21.7 Purpose
     21.8 Early Return to Work Guidelines

22.0 ACCIDENT/INCIDENT NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES                  63
     22.1 Response Actions
     22.2 Objective Assessment
     22.3 Accident/Incident Investigation

23.0 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION                                      65
     23.1 Responsibilities
     23.2 Selection of Respirators
     23.3 Use of Respirators
     23.4 The Respirator is Donned By:
     23.5 Qualitative Fit Test
     23.6 Care and Storage of Respirators
     23.7 Job Site Surveillance
     23.8 Medical and Physical Requirements
     23.9 Information Regarding Voluntary Employee Respirator Use

24.0 WORKPLACE VIOLENCE PREVENTION                              69
     24.1 Major Categories of Workplace Violence
     24.2 Threat Assessment
     24.3 Violence Prevention Strategies

25.0 FALL PROTECTION                                            70
     25.1 Definitions
     25.2 Fall Protection Systems
     25.3 Other Fall Hazards
     25.4 Alternate Fall Protection Systems
     25.5 Training
     25.6 General Training
     25.7 Specific Training
     25.8 Certification

26.0 BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL                      75
     26.1 Exposure Determination
     26.2 Compliance Methods
     26.3 Hepatitis B Vaccine
     26.4 Post-Exposure Evaluation and Follow-Up
     26.5 Recordkeeping
                          MRCA/SHARP®     5
27.0 EMPLOYEE SAFETY INCENTIVES                             76
     27.1 Safety Award

28.0 PROHIBITED ARTICLES POLICY                             77
     28.1 Firearms
     28.2 Knives
     28.3 Explosives
     28.4 Weapons

29.0 EMPLOYEE TRAINING                                      77
     29.1 Responsibilities
     29.2 Comprehension of Training
     29.3 Frequency of Training
     29.4 Verification of Training
     29.5 Vehicle and Equipment Operator’s Authorization

30.0   SCAFFOLDS                                            78
       30.1 General Requirements
       30.2 Platform Construction
       30.3 Component Mixing
       30.4 Supported Scaffolds
       30.5 Access
       30.6 Access for Erecting and Dismantling Scaffolds
       30.7 Use
       30.8 Fall Protection
       30.9 Falling Object Protection
       30.10 Specific Scaffolding Systems
       30.11 Fabricated Frame Scaffold
       30.12 Roof Bracket Scaffold
       30.13 Pump Jack Scaffold
       30.14 Crawling Boards
       30.15 Mobile Scaffolds
       30.16 Aerial Lifts
       30.17 Training Requirements

31.0 LADDERS/STAIRWAYS                                      86
     31.1 Ladders
     31.2 Platforms
     31.3 Stairways

32.0 FIRE PREVENTION/FIRE PROTECTION                        87
     32.1 Fire Prevention
     32.2 Fire Protection

33.0 FIRST-AID                                              90
     33.1 Cuts and Abrasions
     33.2 Burns
     33.3 Impaled Objects
     33.4 Heat-related Injuries
     33.5 Cold Weather Emergencies
     33.6 Eye Injuries
     33.7 Amputations

                           MRCA/SHARP®      6
34.0 SHEET METAL SAFETY                            92
     34.1 Handling Sheet Metal
     34.2 Welding and Cutting
     34.3 Point of Operation Safeguards
     34.4 General Shop Safety

35.0 ASBESTOS                                      94
     35.1 Regulatory Authority
     35.2 Permissible Exposure Limits
     35.3 EPA
     35.4 Classes of Asbestos Removal Operations
     35.5 Hazard Evaluation by Class of Activity
     35.6 Exposure Monitoring
     35.7 Work Practices and Engineering Control
     35.8 Special Requirements
     35.9 Employee Training Program
     35.10 Communication of Hazard
     35.11 Handling and Disposal
     35.12 Housekeeping
     35.13 Medical Surveillance
     35.14 Record Keeping

36.0 KETTLES/TANKERS                               104
     36.1 Kettles
     36.2 Tankers
     36.3 Hot-Bitumen Equipment

37.0 MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS                         106
     37.1 Company Vehicles
     37.2 Jobsites




                         MRCA/SHARP®      7
                        APPENDIX


A.   Glossary of Acronyms
B.   Reserved
C.   Medical Questionnaire for Respirator Physicals
D.   Hot-Work Permit Form
E.   Forklift Operator’s Daily Inspection Form
F.   New Employee Questionnaire
G.   Declination of HBV Vaccination
H.   Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Incident Report
I.   Reserved
J.   Record of Respirator Fit-Test
K.   New Chemical Hazard Alert Form
L.   Threat Assessment Team Meeting Documentation Form
M.   Sound Level Measurement Field Log Form
N.   Accident/Incident Investigation Form
O.   Confined Space Entry Permit Form
P.   Commercial Vehicle Driver Information Update Form
Q.   Sound Level Test Results Form
R.   Safety Quiz Monthly Tally Sheet Form
S.   Safety Quiz Quarterly Tally Sheet Form
T.   OSHA Recordkeeping Form 300
U.   OSHA Recordkeeping Form 300-A
V.   OSHA Recordkeeping Form 301
W.   Bloodborne Pathogens Record and Certification of Employee Training Form
X.   Employee Safety Training Record Form
Y.   Reserved
Z.   Reserved




                         MRCA/SHARP®     8
1.0   INTRODUCTION

      People are our most important asset and their safety is vital. It is the policy of
      yourcompanyname that every employee is entitled to a safe and healthful place to work.
      It is a basic responsibility for all of us to make safety and health a part of our daily,
      hourly concern. This responsibility must be accepted by every employee who conducts
      the affairs of the company, regardless of what capacity they may function in.

      The requirements of this program are for our welfare and protection. Each of us has a
      direct obligation to understand and practice them. It is impossible to include all the rules
      of safety, which apply to each work situation. If you encounter working conditions about
      which there may be some safety question not covered in this program, you should ask
      your foreman for guidance or contact the Safety Coordinator. If they are not
      immediately available, you should use careful and sound judgment. Safety is a matter
      of the right attitude, and safe practices are a part of your job at all times.

      My personal commitment to this Safety & Health Program cannot be overestimated
      because I know that the joint cooperation of employees and management in the
      observation of this program, and a safety conscious attitude will ensure safe working
      conditions and accident free performance for our mutual benefit.




                                           President or Safety Coordinator




                                      MRCA/SHARP®       9
2.0   SAFETY AND HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES

2.1   Foremen and Supervisory Personnel

      Each foreman is responsible for the enforcement of the company's safety rules and
      procedures and is responsible for initiating action when there is a need for new, different
      or improved safety precautions. Foremen must take corrective action whenever unsafe
      practices are discovered.

      In case of doubt about the safety of personnel, equipment, procedures, operations or
      material, the foreman will consult with management and/or the Safety Coordinator. An
      appraisal of the situation will be made and recommendations or changes will be made.
      If conditions justify an immediate decision, and conditions so warrant, the supervisor is
      expected to discontinue operations until corrective action can be taken.

2.2   Employee

      Safety is the responsibility of every employee. Each employee of yourcompanyname
      will receive a copy of this program, review it, and sign off indicating that they read and
      understand it. If any part of this program is not understood, it is incumbent upon the
      employee to ask his/her foreman or the Safety Coordinator to explain. Each employee
      must abide by the rules policies and procedures in this program. Any situations that
      arise that are not covered in this program should be brought to the immediate attention
      of the employee’s foreman. When in doubt about any safety-related concern, always err
      on the side of caution.

2.3   Safety Coordinator

      The primary responsibility of the Safety Coordinator is to provide advice and
      enforcement of safety policies and procedures to management. The Safety Coordinator
      will periodically review and update these procedures. The Safety Coordinator has the
      authority and responsibility to enforce all policies, procedures, laws and regulations as
      they pertain to Occupational Safety, Occupational Health, OSHA, DOT, and the EPA.

      The Safety Coordinator for the company is ____________________, who can be
      reached in the office at (____) ____-______.

3.0   EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN

      The number and diverse nature of the emergency situations that could be encountered
      by company employees is endless. Competent action is best effected by a combination
      of clear, rational thinking and knowledge of available options. That principle
      underscores the benefit of having a safety meeting upon arrival at any new jobsite, and
      discussing logistics and basic options associated with basic emergency scenarios. The
      company chain of command should always be observed with deference given to
      supervisory personnel. The nature of the company’s operations usually place most
      employees at locations other than the shop or base facility of the company, and out of
      doors. The following are not all-inclusive of potentially serious emergencies, but a guide
      for the most common.




                                      MRCA/SHARP®      10
3.1     What to do if there is a TORNADO:

        If you hear the outdoor warning sirens sound and the weather is threatening, go to the
        closest building and follow the owner’s instructions or go to the nearest inside restroom.
        If there is no building or you are not close enough to make it, lie down in a depression or
        low area and cover your head. Never try to outrun a tornado!!!

3.2     What to do if there is a FIRE:

        If you are near a phone, call the fire department (most areas now use 911). Have
        someone else use the fire extinguisher to put the fire out while you are calling. If there
        is no phone close by, and one is available, use a radio to call the office and report the
        fire. Remember to give your exact location when reporting a fire.

        The most important thing to remember in a fire situation is to protect lives first and
        then property.

3.3     What to do for a MEDICAL EMERGENCY:

        If the person who is injured is unconscious, bleeding profusely or unable to move, call
        EMS (most areas now use 911). First aid and CPR will be taught company wide, and
        should only be administered by a person or persons that have had proper training and
        are certified in first aid and CPR. Notify the office by telephone or, if available, radio.
        Do not panic, your attitude will have a direct effect on the injured person. Always
        remember to give your exact location when reporting an injury.

3.4     What to do in case of LIGHTNING:

        Lightning presents an extreme hazard to all who may be exposed to it but workers on a
        rooftop are especially at risk. The distance to the lightning is equal to approximately one
        mile for every five seconds of time between the flash and the thunder. The following
        information is provided by the United States Weather Service:

3.4.1   If lightning threatens: Move indoors but stay away from windows. Avoid using
        electrical appliances and use the telephone only in an emergency.

3.4.2   If caught outdoors during a thunderstorm: Stay away from isolated objects such as
        single trees or towers. If your hair stands on end or your skin tingles, lightning may be
        about to strike. Crouch down quickly and make yourself as small a target as possible.
        Minimize contact with the ground.

3.4.3   If driving in a motor vehicle: Stay in your vehicle. An enclosed vehicle offers
        reasonably good protection from lightning as long as you don’t touch metal.

4.0     GENERAL HAZARD ANALYSIS

4.1     Hazard Recognition

        Roofing work is inherently dangerous. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) keeps track
        of fatalities in the workplace, and reports that during the time period 2003-2005, on
        average, about 67 roofers died each year as a result of injuries connected with their
        work. Most deaths in roofing result from falls. Death and serious injury also occurs as a

                                         MRCA/SHARP®      11
        result of traffic accidents while driving or riding in company vehicles. The other great
        contributor to death and serious injury of roofers are burns associated with exposure to
        hot asphalt in the performance of built-up roofing work.

4.2     Hazard Mitigation

4.2.1   Falls – The key to reducing employee injury due to falls is to raise employee awareness
        of the hazard and available fall protection systems. The company Fall Protection
        Program is contained in this program as Section 25 Employees will receive basic
        training in fall protection prior to assignment to work on the roof. Regular and ongoing
        training in fall protection will be provided to all employees assigned to work on the roof.
        Since many falls happen while ascending or descending the ladder, or when stepping
        from the ladder onto the roof and visa-versa, special emphasis is given in employee
        training to ladder safety.

4.2.2   Vehicle Accidents – Since the company does most of its business away from the shop,
        employees are often at risk for vehicle accidents while going to or from the jobsite.
        Vehicle operations and associated safety procedures are topics for regular ongoing
        training for employees who drive or ride in company vehicles. Drivers are designated
        and authorized by the company, who has the discretion to prohibit, due to past driving
        record, any employee from driving company vehicles. Any employee conduct that is
        perceived as reckless, lawless, or unsafe will constitute a basis for prohibition or
        suspension of employee driving authorization. Special emphasis in employee training is
        given to the operation of commercial vehicles as defined by the U.S. Dept. of
        Transportation (DOT), and to the backing of vehicles. Guidelines for safe vehicle
        operation are contained in this program as Section 7.

4.2.3   Hot Asphalt- Most hot asphalt, when used in built-up roofing, is applied at between 450
        and 550 degrees, Fahrenheit. Burns from this type of operation tend to be very serious.
        Along with raising the employee’s awareness of, and respect for the hazard through
        training, the hazard can be mitigated through a combination of the use of proper work
        practices and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Safe work practices for hot asphalt
        are contained in this program in Section 5. Proper indications for, and use of PPE is
        contained in this program as Section 6.

4.2.4   Many other hazards exist for the roofer. They include, but are not limited to: rooftop
        equipment, cranes and hoisting equipment, power hand tools, hazardous chemical
        exposures, and material handling equipment. The guidelines for these lesser but
        important hazards are contained in various sections of this program. The main factor in
        mitigation of all hazards is the awareness of the employee to the hazard and employee
        knowledge that unnecessary risks must not be taken. This can only be achieved by
        employee training on an ongoing, regular and repetitive basis.

5.0     GENERAL SAFETY

        Every employee should review all safety and health procedures that have been
        established. This indoctrination should be documented by a signed statement from the
        employee and the trainer. Foremen must insure that no chemical is allowed on their job
        unless a MSDS is on hand and in the office of the Safety Coordinator for that chemical.

5.1     List of General Safety Guidelines
5.1.1   Unauthorized employees may not turn-on, repair or operate any machinery, equipment,
        vehicle or lift. Authorization is specifically given for operation of tools and equipment.
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      12
5.1.2   Unauthorized use of electricity, gas, air, acids, caustics or other dangerous materials is
        prohibited.

5.1.3   Safety guards and devices are furnished by the company and their use is required at all
        times of operation. Only the Safety Coordinator may authorize changes or removal.

5.1.4   Danger, caution and warning signs are posted to identify specific hazards and control
        measures. These instructions provide employee awareness and protection. Only the
        Safety Coordinator may authorize changes or removal.

5.1.5 Protective equipment (hearing, eye, hand, body, etc.) is specified by the company to
      protect the employee against specific hazards. Required equipment must be worn at all
      times of operation. See the “Personal Protective Equipment” section for specific
      requirements regarding PPE.

5.1.6   Horseplay, scuffling, running and practical jokes are not permitted.

5.1.7   Employees authorized to clean or repair powered equipment must de-energize and
        lockout all switches prior to work. Only the Safety Coordinator may authorize changes
        to this procedure.

5.1.8   Employees will not be allowed to operate stationary machinery (with exposed moving
        parts) or use hazardous materials while unaccompanied. At least one other employee
        must be nearby to give assistance in case of an accident. Since there is an automatic
        brake used, proper training shall be completed before use. Any exceptions must be
        approved by the Safety Coordinator.

5.1.9   Compressed air lines (air hoses) are to be used only on work required. Cleaning of
        clothing, workstations, floors and benches is not allowed. Compressed air can throw
        metal shavings and debris into other employee’s eyes as well as embed them in their
        skin. Brushes, brooms and vacuums will be used for cleaning.

5.1.10 The use of makeshift equipment is not allowed. Be sure that the proper tool, fixture or
       other equipment is available and in good working condition before starting a job.

5.1.11 Hand tools are to be used for the purpose for which they are designed. Employees are
       responsible for their own personal hand tools and the foremen are responsible for
       having the right tools on the job.

5.1.12 Company provided tools cannot be modified. If you have an idea for change, report it to
       your foreman.

5.1.13 The Safety Coordinator may conduct random inspections of company owned toolboxes
       to check for unauthorized or defective tools.

5.1.14 Open-toed shoes, sandals, canvas shoes, or open-weave shoes are not permitted
       during hot work. Jogging shoes are permitted for other types of work if the upper part of
       the shoe is constructed of leather or similar material.

5.1.15 When ascending or descending ladders use both hands on the side rails. Use ladders
       at all times when descending from an elevation. Do not jump from roofs, docks or
       platforms.
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      13
5.1.16 Good housekeeping helps prevent accidents, fires and health hazards. Keep work
       areas free from obstructions. Place debris in trash containers or trash trucks. A clean
       area is a productive area. Set the example.

5.1.17 Electrical circuit breakers shall not be taped in the ON position. The tape may prevent
       effective tripping in the event of an overload.

5.1.18 Employees should always follow the instructions of their foreman. They should never
       attempt short cuts or modify an established work procedure without first discussing it
       with their foreman. If an employee feels that the job he has been told to perform is too
       dangerous he should tell his foreman before starting the job. In the event the employee
       still feels uncomfortable after discussing it with his foreman, the Safety Coordinator
       should be notified at once. The Safety Coordinator will make the final determination as
       to the danger of the job.

5.1.19 All employees should always be aware of powered vehicles in the shop area and at the
       work site. Drivers may not always have a clear view or may not be able to stop without
       warning.

5.1.20 In general, use common sense. If an employee could be injured by a machine,
       operation or process, identify it and report it immediately to your foreman. Foremen will
       correct these conditions. If foremen need assistance, the Safety Coordinator should be
       contacted.

5.1.21 Earplug radios or headsets shall not be allowed anywhere on the job site.

5.1.22 When working around exposed energized equipment, rings, metal watchbands and
       jewelry will not be worn. Long hair must be worn about the head or covered with a cap
       or hair net.

5.1.23 Do not walk under any ladder or overhead lift. Objects can fall and cause injury.

5.1.24 Working at elevations higher than 6 feet requires the use of fall protection systems and
       equipment as defined by the Fall Protection Section, Section 25.

5.2     Crew Safety Inspections

5.2.1   The Safety Coordinator will conduct regular safety inspections on each crew.

5.2.2   The purpose of these inspections is to insure that each crew is implementing the safety
        and health programs. Each inspection will be unannounced with the foreman present.
        The results of the inspection will be discussed and any corrective action will be
        scheduled.

5.2.3   Inspections resulting in safety performance below expectations will result in a jointly
        designed action plan, with expected dates of completion. At the end of this period a re-
        inspection will be made.

5.2.4   If the results indicate the action plan was not followed or completed, a joint meeting
        between the foreman and the Safety Coordinator will be scheduled.

5.3     Controlled Access Zones (CAZ)
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      14
5.3.1   Controlled Access Zones may include, but are not limited to: material hoisting areas,
        falling object hazard areas, crane set-up areas, areas of leading edge work, and areas
        where fall protection is required and the only fall protection system is the Safety Monitor
        system.

5.3.2   CAZ will be set up and maintained as a precaution to bystanders, onlookers, and
        pedestrian traffic, which may otherwise be at risk on or near the job site. On the roof,
        CAZ are set up by the foreman and Safety Monitor, and maintained by the Safety
        Monitor.

5.3.3   CAZ will be defined and demarcated by the use of caution tape or rope and will be
        placed so as to create a perimeter around the CAZ sufficient to keep those at risk at a
        safe distance from the potential hazards. On the roof, the warning line may demarcate
        the CAZ. If a warning line is not required and not in use, the CAZ is any area within 6
        feet of an unprotected edge.

5.3.4   The foreman or supervisor on the job site will be responsible for the set-up and
        maintenance of any CAZ barricade. He/she may designate a subordinate to monitor
        and maintain the barricade.

6.0     PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

        Certain personal protective equipment is required by yourcompanyname. Personal
        protective equipment is designed for a specific need and is mandatory for specific
        operations, but may also be obtained upon request for employees who feel they need
        the equipment.

6.1     Eye Protection

6.1.1   Safety glasses are required to be worn by all employees working in or having business
        in designated areas or if there is a chance of getting a foreign object in your eye. This
        includes clean-up time. Non-approved glasses will not meet these requirements and will
        not be allowed in these areas.

6.1.2   Safety glasses will be worn by operators of roof cutters and others in the close proximity
        of roof cutting operations. This includes clean-up time. Non-approved glasses will not
        meet these requirements and will not be allowed.

6.1.3   Non-prescription safety glasses are available for purchase in the safety office for those
        employees not requiring prescription lenses. Prescription safety glasses must be
        procured by those employees requiring them.

6.1.4   Adherence to eye protection standards will be included in inspections.

6.1.5   In addition to safety glasses, safety goggles and/or face shields will be required in
        specific jobs. Ask your foreman, if you have any questions in your job.

6.1.6   Welding, soldering, kettle operations and cutting operations require special eye
        protection. Ask your foreman, if you have any questions.

6.2     Respiratory Protection

                                        MRCA/SHARP®      15
6.2.1    Respirators are not normally worn during yourcompanyname projects. If you are
         involved in a special case you will be informed by your foreman and respirators will only
         be used with the approval of the Safety Coordinator.

6.2.2    Only approved respiratory equipment shall be used.

6.2.3    See the Respiratory Protection section of this manual.

6.3      Hand Protection

         Hand protection is designed to prevent contact with skin and the substance being used.
         Be sure the gloves used are designed for the application that applies. Proper gloves are
         required when performing hot work or if specified in the MSDS.

6.3.1    Inspect gloves prior to use. If any tears, cuts or excessive wear is found, replace them
         prior to work.

6.3.2    After use, clean gloves thoroughly. If using acids, caustics or solvents, inspect to
         ensure that material has not penetrated the glove.

6.4      Body Protection

         Typically, full-length trousers and a shirt are sufficient body protection. A long sleeved
         shirt is required when working with, or around hot asphalt. If special body protection is
         needed for your job you will be notified by your foreman or by the Safety Coordinator.

6.5      Foot Protection

         Employees are not always required to wear safety toe shoes while working for
         yourcompanyname.

6.5.1    Open toed shoes, sandals, canvas shoes, or open weave shoes are not permitted
         during hot work. Jogging type shoes are allowed for other types of work if the upper
         part of the shoe is of leather or similar material.

6.5.2    Solid material shoes (leather or equal) are acceptable for hot work providing they are
         solid with full tongue and reach at least to the ankle.

6.5.3    Employees working with solvents should use care that their shoes will withstand the
         material handled.

6.5.4    Approved work boots are required during the tear-off and removal of existing roofing.

6.6      Head Protection

6.6.1    In most cases, head protection (hard hat) is not required at yourcompanyname. There
         are some exceptions:

6.6.2    Head protection is required:

       Any time there is a chance of falling objects from above. Trash loading operations
        during tear-off is a good example.
       When working within 10 feet of a power line carrying greater than 440vAC.
                                         MRCA/SHARP®      16
       When operating a kettle or tar pot.
       If required by the building owner or contractor.
       Workers acting as the "Ground Man" on a roof loading operation.

7.0       TRANSPORTATION

          This section covers most aspects of the company’s transportation of materials,
          equipment, and personnel to and from job sites, and on any and all company business.
          It may not cover every circumstance or local ordinance that may arise from day to day
          operations. Regulations, whether Federal, state, or local, always take precedence and
          must be adhered to by operators of all company vehicles.

7.1       Driver License Classifications

7.1.1     These are the Federal Standards for a CDL. For customization, your state’s information
          will be listed here. The classes are:

         Class F (Operator): Age limited varies by state, but you must pass the driver’s
          examination to get a Class F license.

         Class E (For Hire): You must have a Class E license if you receive compensation for
          driving a motor vehicle transporting 14 or fewer passengers, or if you will transport
          property for pay or as part of your job. Anyone who regularly operates a motor vehicle
          for his or her employment, which belongs to another person and is designed to carry
          freight and merchandise, must also have a Class E license. The vehicle driven must be
          26,000 pounds or less, Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) and not required to be
          placarded for hazardous materials. If you are required to have a school bus permit, you
          must have a valid driver’s license, but it does not have to be a Class E license.

         Class M (Motorcycle): You must have a Class M license if you operative a motorcycle
          or motor-tricycle on public roadways. (may Vary by state)

         Commercial Drivers License (CDL): The Federal standard requires States to issue a
          CDL to drivers according to the following license classifications:
          Class A -- Any combination of vehicles with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds
          provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.

          Class B -- Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such
          vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds GVWR.

          Class C -- Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the
          definition of Class A or Class B, but is either designed to transport 16 or more
          passengers, including the driver, or is placarded for hazardous materials.

7.1.2     Satisfactory Driving Record – The Company has a regulatory obligation to check the
          driving records of all CDL drivers. The company shall obtain permission to review each
          employee’s driving record and upon such review, to authorize the employee to operate
          company vehicles. Employees must not operate company vehicles unless the company
          expressly makes such authorization.




                                         MRCA/SHARP®      17
7.2       Commercial Motor Vehicles (CMV) Commercial Motor Vehicle means any self-
          propelled or towed vehicle used on public highways in interstate commerce to transport
          passengers or property when:

         The vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of
          4,537 or more kilograms (10,001 or more pounds); or

         The vehicle is designed to transport more than 15 passengers, including the driver; or

         The vehicle is transporting hazardous materials in a quantity or amount that requires the
          vehicle to be placarded.

          If you state has adopted any part of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, they
          will be listed here. Therefore, drivers and vehicles operating solely intrastate, must obey
          those regulations.

          The following requirements pertain to all Commercial Motor Vehicles.

7.2.1     Inspection, Repair and Maintenance of Commercial Motor Vehicles – The company will
          systematically inspect, repair, and maintain all commercial vehicles in its control. Parts
          and accessories shall be in safe and proper operating condition at all times. Such
          equipment and systems include:

         Lighting Devices, Reflectors, and Electrical Equipment
         Brakes
         Glazing and Windows
         Fuel Systems
         Coupling Devices and Towing Methods
         Tires, Heaters, Windshield Wipers, Defrosters, Mirrors, Horn, Speedometer, Exhaust
          Systems, Floors, Rear-end Protection, Seats and seat-belt assemblies, Vehicle interior
          noise levels
         Frame and frame assemblies
         Suspension Systems
         Axles and attaching parts
         Wheels and rims
         Steering Systems

7.2.2     Records must be kept on all commercial vehicles, to include a file containing:

         Company identification number, if so marked
         Year
         Make
         Model
         Vehicle Identification Number
         Tire size
         An annual maintenance schedule caused by the company (a means to indicate the
          nature and due date of the various inspection and maintenance operations to be
          performed )
         A record of inspections, maintenance and repairs indicating their date and nature.

7.2.3     The inspection, maintenance and repair records will be kept either where the vehicle is
          housed or maintained, for a period of one year, and for six months after the vehicle
          leaves the company’s control.
                                          MRCA/SHARP®      18
7.2.4   Periodic (Annual) Inspection – Commercial Motor Vehicles will not be operated unless
        they have received and passed an inspection at least once during the previous twelve
        months and documentation of the inspection is maintained with the vehicle. The
        documentation may include an inspection report prepared by a qualified inspector, or
        some other documentation such as a sticker or decal that is based on the inspection
        report. The sticker or decal will include: the date of inspection, the name and address of
        the motor carrier who controls the vehicle or other entity where the inspection report is
        maintained, information that uniquely identifies the vehicle, a statement certifying that
        the vehicle has passed the inspection.

7.2.5   Inspector Qualifications – Inspectors performing periodic annual inspections must be
        qualified by reason of a combination of experience and training. The inspector may
        have successfully completed a State or Federal-sponsored training program, or have a
        combination of training and/or experience totaling at least one year.

7.2.6   Periodic annual inspections may be carried out through a State or other jurisdiction’s
        roadside inspection program.

7.2.7   The minimum standards for the periodic annual inspection are detailed in Appendix G of
        Subchapter B, 49CFR397.77. Equipment that must be inspected and found to pass
        include:

       Brake System
       Coupling Devices
       Exhaust System
       Steering Mechanism
       Suspension
       Frame
       Tires
       Wheels and Rims
       Windshield Glazing
       Windshield Wipers

7.2.8   Driver Vehicle Inspection Reports

        Pre-Trip Inspections – The driver shall be satisfied that the vehicle is in safe operating
        condition and shall review the last required inspection report for the vehicle. He/she
        shall sign the report if defects or deficiencies were noted by the driver who prepared the
        report. By signing the previous report, the driver acknowledges that there is a
        certification that required repairs have been completed.
        Post-Trip Inspections – Drivers of commercial vehicles shall inspect and prepare an
        inspection report at the end of each day’s work for each vehicle operated. A copy of the
        last report must be kept on the power unit. The company maintains the original report
        for a minimum of 3 months. The report shall cover, at a minimum:
       Service brakes, including trailer brake connections
       Parking brake
       Steering mechanism
       Lighting devices and reflectors
       Tires
       Horn
       Windshield wipers
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      19
             Rear-vision mirrors
             Coupling devices
             Wheels and rims
             Emergency equipment

    7.2.9     Emergency Equipment – Commercial vehicles must carry and maintain in good
              operating condition the following emergency equipment:

                                   Fire extinguisher
                                   Spare fuses
                                   Warning devices for stopped vehicles

    7.2.10 Drivers Hours of Service:
              Hours of service for drivers of commercial motor vehicles are detailed in Part 395 of the
              Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR).
              Drivers must complete a Daily Log in the form prescribed by the FMCSR’s unless all of
              the following apply:
             The driver operates within a 100 air-mile radius of his/her base location.
             The driver returns to the base location and is released within 12 hours of the start of the
              day.
             At least 8 consecutive hours off duty separate each 12 consecutive hours on duty.
             The driver does not exceed 10 hours maximum driving time after 8 consecutive hours
              off.
             The company maintains and retains for 6 months, an accurate and true record
              documenting:
              o    The time the driver reports for duty each day.
              o    The total number of hours the driver is on duty each day.
              o    The time the driver is released from duty each day, and
o                  For drivers used the first time or intermittently, the total time for the preceding 7
                    days.

    7.2.11 Medical Qualifications

              Drivers of commercial motor vehicles must have in their possession, a current medical
              authorization card signed by a medical examiner. The authorization may only be given
              subsequent to a physical examination that meets the criteria in Section 391.41 of the
              Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    7.3       Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    7.3.1     Placarding of Vehicles – Commercial vehicles must be placarded if they carry 1,000
              pounds of a hazardous material. There are exceptions to this rule as outlined in 49 CFR
              172.500, Tables 1 and 2.

    7.3.2     Haz-Mat Shipping Papers – Commercial vehicles must carry Haz-Mat Shipping Papers
              that reflect the hazardous materials they transport. The papers must contain:

             The Proper Shipping Name
                                              MRCA/SHARP®       20
         The Hazard Class
         The Quantity
         The United Nations or North America ID Number
         The Packing Group

7.4       Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) - **Sample of State information, upon
          purchase of customization, your state will be listed here** State of Missouri
          Requirements (adopted from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations). A CDL is
          required for operation of any commercial motor vehicle with a GVWR or GCWR of
          26,001 lb. or more, any vehicle transporting hazardous materials in a quantity requiring
          placarding, or any placarded vehicle.

          The requirements are that the driver:
         Must be at least 21 years old
         Must speak and read English well enough to converse with the general public
         Must understand traffic signs and signals in English
         Must be able to respond to official inquiries
         Must be able to make entries on required reports
         Must be, by virtue of experience, training, or both., able to determine whether cargo
          being transported has been properly located, distributed and secured
         Must be familiar with methods and procedures for securing cargo.
         Must be physically qualified to drive in accordance with physical qualifications and
          examinations.
         Must possess a current and valid CDL license.
         Must furnish the company with a list of past violations.
         Must have passed CDL road test and written examination.
         Must have completed an application of employment.

7.4.1     Driver Qualification File – The Company maintains a driver qualification file for all drivers
          of Commercial Motor Vehicles. The file contains (at a minimum):

         Driver application for employment
         Inquiry to state agencies for motor vehicle record
         Inquiry to previous employers for previous three years
         The original or a photocopy of the medical examiners certificate
         Driver’s road test certificate (certificate waived if the driver license is a Commercial
          Driver License of which a photocopy is maintained in the file)
         Driver data sheet
         Checklist for casuals
         Controlled substances testing documentation, if required.

7.4.2     Physical Qualifications and Examinations:
         Must have no impairment of physical movement normally associated with operating a
          motor vehicle
         Must not have diabetes requiring insulin
         Must not have a cardiovascular disease
         Must not have a respiratory dysfunction that will interfere with driving
         Must not have a form of epilepsy that will interfere with driving
         Must possesses a medical examiner’s certificate on his/her person
         Must have good eyesight with corrective lenses and good hearing
         Must not be on drugs or diagnosed as an alcoholic

7.5       CDL Acquisition Program
                                           MRCA/SHARP®       21
7.5.1     Some employees may be asked to acquire a Commercial Driver License (CDL). Study
          materials for the necessary tests will be provided by the company. A company truck will
          be provided for use in taking the driving test.

7.5.2     Employees will not be responsible for the costs associated with acquisition of the CDL if
          he/she maintains employment with the company for one year after the effective date of
          the CDL. If the employee leaves the company after six months, but less than one year
          after the effective date, he/she is responsible for one-half of the costs and if the
          employee leaves before the six month date, of his/her own will, he/she is responsible for
          all of the cost associated with acquisition of the CDL.

7.5.3     Employees may or may not receive pay raises upon acquisition of a CDL. Pay raises
          will be awarded upon a number of factors including, but not limited to: work record, date
          of last pay raise, attitude and treatment of trucks and equipment. No guarantee of pay
          raise is implied and can only be expressed in writing from the president of the company.

7.5.4     This program will be read by all candidates for a CDL. A statement certifying an
          understanding of this program will be signed by all CDL candidates.

7.6       Controlled Substance Testing

7.6.1     Tests Required:

         Pre-Employment Testing – Prior to assignment to any safety-sensitive function, the
          company requires all drivers who operate vehicles with a GVWR or GCWR of 26,001 or
          above, to undergo and pass alcohol and controlled substance testing. No new
          employee will be assigned to safety-sensitive functions in the aforementioned vehicles
          unless they have passed the alcohol/controlled substance testing requirements within
          the previous six months.
         Post-Accident Testing – As soon as practicable after an accident, the company
          requires alcohol/controlled substance testing for each surviving driver who:
       Was performing safety-sensitive functions with respect to the vehicle if the accident
        resulted in a death, or;
       Receives a citation for a moving violation under state or local law and if any person
        receives medical treatment away from the scene for injuries, or;
       If any vehicle receives damage as a result of the accident that requires it to be
        transported from the scene by a tow truck or other motor vehicle.
         Random Testing – The company requires all employees who operate vehicles with a
          GVWR or GCWR of 26,001 or above to participate in its random screening program.
          The basics of the program are as follows:
       The minimum annual rate for alcohol testing is 25% of the average number of drivers
        employed by the company.
       The minimum annual rate for controlled substance testing is 50% of the average
        number of drivers employed by the company.
       The selection of drivers for random alcohol and controlled substance testing will be
        made by a scientifically valid method such as a random number table or a computer-
        based random number generator. Under the selection process used, each driver will
        have an equal chance of being tested each time selections are made.
                                         MRCA/SHARP®      22
       Random alcohol/controlled substance tests will be totally unannounced and the dates for
        such tests will be spread reasonably throughout the calendar year.
         Reasonable Suspicion – The Company requires drivers to undergo testing upon
          reasonable suspicion that the driver has violated the alcohol/controlled substances rules
          of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. The criteria implementation of
          reasonable suspicion testing are:
       The determination of reasonable suspicion must be based on specific, current,
        articulable observations concerning the appearance, behavior, speech or body odors of
        the driver.
       The required observations that trigger reasonable suspicion testing will be made by a
        supervisor or company official who is trained in accordance with section 7.72 of this
        program. The person who makes such a determination will not conduct the alcohol test
        of the driver.
       Alcohol testing for reasonable suspicion is only applicable if the observations that lead to
        testing are made during, just prior to, or just after the driver the performance of safety-
        sensitive functions.
         Return-to-Duty Testing – Prior to assignment to any safety-sensitive function, the
          company will direct that any employee who operate vehicles with a GVWR or GCWR of
          26,001 or above, must submit to, and pass a return-to-duty alcohol test with a maximum
          blood alcohol level of 0.02 subsequent to suspension due to alcohol abuse. Prior to
          assignment to any safety-sensitive function, the company will direct that any employee
          who holds a current CDL must submit to, and pass a return-to-duty controlled substance
          test with a verified negative result subsequent to suspension due to substance abuse.
         Follow-up Testing – If a determination is made that any driver is in need of assistance
          resolving problems associated with alcohol misuse and/or use of controlled substances,
          the driver will be subject to unannounced alcohol and/or controlled substance testing as
          directed by a substance abuse professional. Follow-up testing will only be indicated
          prior to, during, and subsequent to the performance of safety sensitive functions.
7.6.2     Records associated with the alcohol/controlled substance program, policies, testing, etc.
          of the company are maintained in a secure place within the main offices of the company.
          Access to these records is restricted to company officials.
7.7       Employee Training
7.7.1     Drivers holding CDLs - The Company will distribute to each driver materials that detail
          the Alcohol/Controlled Substance Testing program. The materials will include, at a
          minimum:
       The identity of the person designated by the company to answer questions and provide
        information about the alcohol/controlled substances program.
       The categories of drivers who are subject to alcohol/controlled substances program
       An adequate explanation of what safety sensitive functions are.
       Specific information as to what driver conduct is prohibited by company policy.
       The circumstances under which a driver will be tested for alcohol/controlled substances.
       The procedures for testing for alcohol/controlled substances, and the procedures used
        to safeguard the integrity of testing processes and the validity of the results.
       The requirement that a driver submit to alcohol/controlled substance testing in
        accordance with Part 382 of The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.
                                         MRCA/SHARP®      23
       An explanation of what constitutes a refusal to submit to alcohol/controlled substance
        testing, and the attendant consequences.
       An explanation of the consequences for drivers found to have violated the company
        Alcohol/Controlled Substance Program.
       An explanation of the consequences for drivers found to have an alcohol concentration
        of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.
       Information concerning the effects associated with alcohol and controlled substances
        use on an individual’s health, work, and personal life; signs and symptoms of an alcohol
        or controlled substances problem; and available methods of intervening when an
        alcohol/controlled substance problem is suspected, including confrontation, referral to
        any employee assistance program, and/or referral to company management.


7.7.2    Supervisors of Drivers holding CDLs – Will receive a minimum of 60 minutes of
         training on alcohol misuse, and will receive an additional 60 minutes of training on
         controlled substances use. The training will be used by the supervisors to determine
         whether adequate reasonable suspicion exists to require a driver to undergo testing
         under the guidelines for reasonable suspicion testing ( Section 7.6.1 of this program).
         The training will cover:
       Physical appearance
       Speech characteristics
       Performance indicators of probable alcohol misuse
       Performance indicators of probable controlled substance misuse


7.8      Sample - State-Specific Requirements for Missouri ** Requirements for most
         states may be found at the DOL website for the particular state.
7.8.1    Height Limitations (without special permit):
       Maximum height of any vehicle outside of a commercial zone (see 7.8.3) on designated
        highways is 14 feet.
       Maximum height of any vehicle in a commercial zone is 15 feet.
       Maximum height of any motor vehicle carrier outside of a commercial zone is 14 feet.
       Maximum height on all other highways is 13-1/2 feet.

7.8.2    Width Limitations (without special permit):
       Maximum width of any vehicle on supplementary highway 10 miles from interstates and
        designated highways is 8 feet.
       Maximum width of any vehicle on interstates and certain designated highways is 8-1/2
        feet.
7.8.3    Commercial Zone – Commercial zones exist only in cities with a population of 75,000
         or more. There, the commercial zone is one mile beyond the city limits plus one mile for
         each 50,000 or part of 50,000 population, except:
       The commercial zone for St. Louis City extends 18 miles beyond the city limits.
       The commercial zone for Kansas City extends 12 miles beyond the city limits.
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      24
    The commercial zone on interstate highways extends only 2 miles beyond the city limits.
7.8.4   Supplementary Highways – Supplementary highways are short highways that connect
        small towns or county seats. Supplementary highways do not cross state lines. They
        are usually black or grey on the official state highway maps.
7.8.5   Length Limitations (without special permit):
    Maximum length of any single vehicle is 40 feet.
    Maximum length of any bus or trackless trolley coach not including one foot in front and
     back for safety bumper is 45 feet.
    Maximum length of truck-tractor and semi-trailer upon interstates and certain designated
     highways the length of the semi-trailer (no overall maximum length – includes load) is 53
     feet. Upon all other roads is 60 feet.
    Maximum length of truck-tractor, semi-trailer and trailer combinations (double bottoms)
     upon interstates and certain designated highways the length of the semi-trailer or trailer
     (no overall maximum length) is 28 feet. Upon all other roads is 65 feet.
    Maximum length of truck and trailer(s) and all other combinations of vehicles upon
     interstates and certain designated highways is 65 feet. The overall maximum length
     upon all other roads is 55 feet.
    Automobile Transporters and Boat Transporters, conventional fifth wheel is 65 feet,
     stinger steered is 75 feet, and double or triple saddle mounts (on interstate and
     designated highways) is 75 feet.
7.8.6   Maximum Weight on any Single Axle:
    The maximum weight allowed on interstates is 20,000 pounds.
    The maximum weight allowed on primary and other designated highways (including a
     2,000 pound statutory tolerance) is 22,000 pounds.
    The maximum weight allowed in a commercial zone is 22,400 pounds.
7.8.7   Maximum Weight on any Tandem Axle:
    The maximum weight allowed on interstates is 34,000 pounds.
    The maximum weight allowed on primary and other designated highways (including a
     2,000 pound statutory tolerance) is 36,000 pounds.
7.8.8   Maximum Gross Weight
    The actual gross weight allowed depends on the distance from the first to last axle. To
     determine the maximum gross weight allowed in a commercial zone, multiply the
     number of axles by 22,400 pounds.
    80,000 pounds maximum gross weight is allowed on all highways in Missouri, except
     where bridge structures are signed with lesser weight limits.
    The maximum gross weight allowed on interstates, primary, and other designated
     highways is 80,000 pounds.
7.8.9   Primary Highways- Primary highways are long highways that connect major cities.
        Primary highways include interstate highways. They are usually red on the official
        Missouri State highway maps.
7.8.10 Oversize and Overweight Permits


                                      MRCA/SHARP®      25
        You may apply for an oversize or overweight permit by calling (___) ____-______, or
        (___) ____-_____, for local calls only, or by contacting:
                         Your state’s DOT Permit Department information here.

8.0     OVERHEAD DEVICES

8.1     Hoisting Equipment

8.1.1   Employees using hoisting equipment shall inspect all strain points daily.

8.1.2   Foremen should conduct an inspection on a monthly basis. Report problems to the
        Safety Coordinator.

8.1.3   Wire cables shall be replaced when signs of wear or kinks appear. If in doubt contact
        the Safety Coordinator.

8.1.4   Under no circumstances will the capacity of any hoist be exceeded.

8.1.5   If power fails, move all controls to the OFF position so the hoist will not start up when
        power returns.

8.1.6   Always lift and lower loads slowly and carefully.

8.1.7   Position the hoist directly over the load. Do not swing hoist.

8.1.8   Standing under loads or moving loads over personnel is not permitted.

8.1.9   All hoisting equipment must have an annual inspection by a qualified mechanic, and
        documented in writing.

9.0     GENERAL MACHINE SAFETY RULES

9.1     Tool & Equipment Authorization - Only authorized persons may operate powered
        machines or perform welding operations.
9.2     General Guidelines

9.2.1   Approved eye protection is required at all times of machine and/or welding operations.

9.2.2   Loose fitting clothing is not allowed around machines with exposed moving parts.

9.2.3   Never lift heavy tools or materials alone. Get help if necessary.

9.2.4   Gloves will not be worn when close to rotating, drilling or other moving part(s) if contact
        is possible.

9.2.5   Rings, bracelets and loose jewelry shall not be worn when operating rotating machinery.
        Long hair must be secured about the head or worn under a hair net or cap.

9.2.6   Keep work area clean and neat at all times.

9.2.7   Report any defects in the machine’s operation immediately.


                                        MRCA/SHARP®         26
9.2.8   All personal tools must be approved by a supervisor.

9.2.9   Machine “point of operation” guards may only be removed for maintenance. Guards
        must be in place prior to operation.

9.2.10 Shut off power when machine is not attended. Lockout tags shall be used when
       machine is receiving service or maintenance work. Defective or out of service
       equipment should be tagged with a “Defective” or “Needs Repair” tag.

9.2.11 Point of operation guards should be set for no more than 1/4-inch clearance.

9.2.12 Check power and operating switches at the beginning of operations. Keep them
       accessible at all times.

9.2.13 Do not talk to others while operating machinery.

9.2.14 Always check to see that all people and obstructions are clear prior to operating
       machines.

9.2.15 Wear protective equipment if required.

9.2.16 Check setups prior to operating machines.

9.2.17 Place scrap metal in proper containers.

9.2.18 Insure that point of operation area is well lighted.

9.2.19 Turn off power and allow time for machine to stop motion prior to cleanup.

9.3     Grinding Wheels

9.3.1   All applicable general machine safety rules must be followed in addition to those listed
        below.

9.3.2   The maximum safe grinding speed in RPM shall be marked on all grinding wheels and
        shall not be exceeded.

9.3.3   Whenever a wheel breaks, a careful inspection must be made to make sure that guards
        have not been damaged.

9.3.4   Grinding wheels that are out of balance, broken or chipped shall not be used.

9.3.5   The tool rest shall have a maximum clearance of 1/8 inch. This measurement will be
        taken when the wheel is NOT moving.

9.3.6   Only approved grinding solutions will be used when coolant is necessary.

9.3.7   Grinding wheel motors will be turned off when not in use.

9.3.8   Storage of portable grinders shall be such that damage to the wheel does not occur
        when not in use.


                                        MRCA/SHARP®       27
9.3.9   Grinding wheels shall not be modified to fit a grinder or arbor other than that for which
        the wheel was intended.

10.0    COMPRESSED GAS

10.1    Storage and Handling

10.1.1 Compressed gases are divided into categories as follows:

    Combustible: liquefied or non-liquefied
    Non-combustible: liquefied or non-liquefied

10.1.2 All compressed gas cylinders are manufactured to Interstate Commerce Commission or
       Department of Transportation regulations. Because all distributors do not use the same
       color-coding, care should be used when identifying the contents of a bottle. Always be
       sure that you read the label on the bottle.

10.1.3 Do not abuse or mishandle gas cylinders. They should never be dropped, permitted to
       strike each other or to strike another object and under no circumstances should direct
       flame or high heat be allowed to contact a cylinder.

10.1.4 Rope or chain slings should not be used to carry cylinders. If necessary to hoist, use a
       properly designed basket.

10.1.5 Empty cylinders should be separated from full cylinders.

10.1.6 Valve protection caps should always be used when valves on cylinders are not in use.

10.1.7 If cylinders are used in the upright position, they must be secured to a substantial
       structure to prevent their falling over.

10.1.8 Never mix gases in a cylinder. Always use the proper regulator for the gas being
       regulated.

10.1.9 Never attempt to repair valves or gauges.

10.1.10 Make sure that the threads on regulators correspond to those on the cylinder valve
        outlet.

10.1.11 Never force connections that do not fit.

10.1.12 Cylinder valves should be opened slowly.

10.1.13 Combustible gas regulators, hoses or other appliances should never be interchanged
        with similar equipment intended for use with other gases.

10.1.14 When "Cracking a Valve" i.e., opening a valve for an instant to clear the opening of
        dust or dirt, the following precautions should be taken:

    Never crack a valve near a flame or other source of ignition.
    Always point the valve opening away from your body, but not toward anyone else.

10.1.15 Open all valves slowly. Never permit the gas to enter a regulator suddenly.
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      28
10.1.16 Before removing a regulator from a cylinder, close the regulator valve and release all
        gas from the regulator.

10.1.17 Never attempt to stop a leak between a cylinder and a regulator by tightening the
        adjusting nut, unless the cylinder valve has been closed.

10.1.18 Do not allow sparks, molten metal, electric current, excessive heat or flames to come
        in contact with the cylinder hose or regulator.

10.1.19 DO NOT USE OIL OR GREASE AS A LUBRICANT ON ATTACHMENTS FOR
        OXYGEN CYLINDERS. EXPLOSIVE!

10.1.20 Cylinders must be stored upright and secured against tipping over.

10.1.21 When valve protection hoods become frozen, let them thaw out naturally in a warm
        room. Never use steam or open flame to thaw them out.

10.1.22 Cylinders should not be stored near highly flammable substances.

10.1.23 Do not store cylinders near locations where moving objects may strike or fall on them.

10.1.24 Cylinders should never be used for any purpose other than as containers for the
        particular gas for which they were designed.

10.1.25 Never use compressed gas to dust off clothing.

10.1.26 Cylinder valves should be tightly closed when not in use or empty.

10.1.27 Never use flame to detect gas leaks. Use soapy water.

10.1.28 Cylinders containing acetylene should always be stored in a separate group, never
        with oxygen or chlorine cylinders.

10.1.29 Oxygen must be stored a minimum of 20 feet from any flammable material, or a 5-foot
        high noncombustible barrier may separate cylinders.

10.1.30 Cylinders with leaking valves should be moved to a safe area and tagged as having a
        defective valve.

10.1.31 Oxygen should never be used as a substitute for air. Oxygen should always be
        referred to by its proper name.

10.1.32 Compressed gas cylinders or tanks may only be filled by employees who have been
        properly trained and so authorized.

10.2   Welding and Torch-Cutting

10.2.1 Only properly certified personnel shall be permitted to operate Arc or Oxy-acetylene
       apparatus. Approved face shields or welder goggles shall be worn during welding,
       brazing and cutting operations.

10.2.2 Fire retardant clothing and safety shoes are recommended.
                                      MRCA/SHARP®      29
10.2.3 It is the welder’s responsibility to place work behind protective screens in order to
       protect others from flying particles and flash burns to the eyes.

11.0   MATERIAL HANDLING

11.1   General Safety Rules for Material Handling

11.1.1 Always wear gloves when handling sheet metal. Use handling devices if provided.

11.1.2 When placing material on a high pile or when reaching for an object above your head,
       do not stand on a box or chair. Use only approved ladders or lifts.

11.1.3 Use both hands to remove empty cases or boxes from shelves or benches.

11.1.4 Defective handling equipment shall not be used. Report problems to your foreman.

11.1.5 Never load a hand truck or skid in such a manner that you cannot see over it.

11.1.6 Riding on forks is prohibited.

11.1.7 Material shall be stored in a safe manner. Do not place heavy articles where they can
       fall or tip over.

11.1.8 Sharp and pointed articles shall be stored in such a manner that no one can bump into
       them. Exposed nails should be removed.

11.1.9 Material storage racks and floors shall not be overloaded. If in doubt, ask your foreman.

11.1.10 Do not store items on top of files, lockers etc.

11.1.11 Always load a truck or lift so material will not roll off.

11.1.12 When passing a load, watch for falling objects.

11.1.13 Never attempt to catch a falling object. This can cause injury.

11.1.14 Empty skids must be stored flat.

11.1.15 Overhead racks shall not be overloaded.

11.1.16 Only properly trained employees may operate forklifts. Such training must be
        reflected on the employee’s Tool and Equipment Operators Authorization Card,
        Section 29.

11.1.17 Keep all storage materials out of aisles. Keep area neat and clean. Do not block fire
        extinguishers!!




                                         MRCA/SHARP®       30
12.0   ELECTRICAL

12.1   Electrical Safety

12.1.1 Always use grounded plugs on equipment. Do not cut the grounding lug off of any plug.

12.1.2 If additional outlets are needed use an approved expansion box.

12.1.3 Make sure that the electrical requirements of your equipment match the outlet power
       rating.

12.1.4 All power, computer and/or telephone cords must be of the approved type and must be
       properly installed according to applicable codes.

12.1.5 When running any temporary cords across aisles, cover them with an approved trip
       reducing device or material. Any cord in place for more than two working days is not
       temporary.

12.1.6 Tools and equipment must always get their power through a Ground Fault Interrupter
       Circuit (GFIC).

12.1.7 Hand tools must, at all times, have a good strain relief boot.

12.1.8 A cord is not deemed serviceable if any of the interior conductors have their insulating
       jacket cut or torn.

12.2    Lockout / Tagout

       General - This policy address practices and procedures that are necessary to disable
       machinery or equipment and prevent the release of potentially hazardous energy while
       maintenance and servicing activities are being performed where the unexpected
       energization, start-up, or release of stored energy could cause injury. This is company
       policy and is usually superseded by the Lockout/Tagout Program of the building
       owner, or facility we are working on.

12.3   Responsibility

       Appropriate employees shall be instructed in the safety significance of the lockout /
       tagout procedure. Each new or transferred affected employee and other employees
       whose work operations are, or may be in the area shall be instructed in the purpose and
       use of the lockout or tagout procedure.

12.4   Electrical Lockout

       To assure proper lockout of electrical equipment and/or equipment rotated or driven by
       electrical motors including, but not limited to, compressors, and any other equipment
       which might create a hazard to personnel when work is being performed on or around
       such equipment.

12.4.1 Operators are responsible for the shutting down of the equipment and locking out the
       main switch with a multiple lockout device. On high voltage breakers the electrician will
       jack the breaker out to the disconnect position and place the multi-lock device on the
       jackshaft for the operator.
                                       MRCA/SHARP®       31
       On high voltage fuses, the electrician will open the disconnect, short and ground the
       roadside of the disconnect, and remove the fuses and place the multi-lock device on the
       door so the door cannot be opened. After locking out the circuit, the operator should try
       the start-up switch to assure the equipment will not start. Caution: Return operating
       controls to the "off" position after the test.

12.4.2 Any craft working on the equipment will also apply their locks to the lockout device,
       except on high voltage, the electrician will place their locks while they observe. When
       the craft concerned with the job has completed their part of the work, they are to remove
       their lock from the switch, or on high voltage, have the electrician remove their lock
       while they observe.

12.4.3 Locks must be applied at the main switch or circuit breaker and not at the remote or
       start/stop station. Some motors have more than one such station.

12.4.4 When all crafts have completed their work and removed their locks, the operator may
       remove his lock and put the equipment in service, except on high voltage, the electrician
       will remove the multi-lock device and jack the breaker in or replace the fuses and close
       the disconnect.

12.4.5 Operator's locks will be kept in the control rooms and when used, will be noted in the
       logbook and signed by the operator who applies the lock.

12.4.6 When a job is completed, the operator removing the lock will return it to the control room
       lock board and note it in the logbook.

12.4.7 Locks shall be of a design and standard decided on by management. Each individual
       will have locks keyed alike. Each craft will have locks consecutively numbered and
       keyed differently. Each supervisor will have a master key for his group of locks.

12.4.8 Locks may be painted a distinct color for each craft for easy identification.

12.4.9 In case of small motors or portable devices, physical disconnection, such as unplugging
       the male plug from the female receptacle, is permissible instead of locking out.

12.4.10 No lock shall be removed other than by the original key except by that Craft
        Supervisor. A master key will be used only in cases where the person who has
        locked-out equipment cannot be contacted or where the job was started on the
        preceding day and the person is absent from work, the supervisor will then remove the
        lock with the master key, and the person assigned to replace that person will place his
        lock in its place. The person originally applying the lock or tag must, upon their return,
        be notified of removal by someone other than themselves.

12.4.11 All lockout locks must have a "Danger Do Not Operate" tag with the name of the
        person and key number on the tag attached to the lockout device; lock numbers, tag
        numbers and the name of the persons must all match.

12.4.12 All locks are the responsibility of the individual assigned to the lock number. No locks
        will be used by others not assigned to that number.



                                        MRCA/SHARP®      32
12.4.13 Equipment that is locked out and is permanently out of service and not intended to be
        put back in service, will be tagged, but not with tags used for lockout/tagout
        procedures.

12.4.14 Locks that malfunction will be turned in to the supervisor. The non-working locks will
        be replaced with a lock with the same number.

12.5   Other Energy Sources (lockout / tagout)

       Other energy sources, i.e. such as that in springs, elevated machine members, rotating
       flywheels / fans, hydraulic systems, and; air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc.

12.5.1 The operator and/or operations supervisor is responsible for shutting down and isolating
       the equipment. Isolation shall be done by such means as applying chains and locks,
       blinding and tagging, or using restraints. Stored energy shall then be dissipated by
       methods such as repositioning, blocking and bleeding down.

12.5.2 When isolating an energy source piping, the chain and lock method can only be used
       during a craft employee’s shift or extended shift, and only if the isolation valves do not
       leak. Otherwise blinding is mandatory.

12.5.3 Operators’ locks shall be the first on and the last off. Operators’ locks shall be unit locks
       that are keyed alike for that unit. Once a lock is applied to the multi-lock device, the lock
       number shall be recorded in the unit log. This information, concerning where and what
       type of work is being done will also be passed on to the on-coming shift at shift change
       time.

12.5.4 After isolation of the equipment and the dissipation of the stored energy the operator will
       attempt to activate or use the equipment to assure that the equipment cannot be started
       or used.

12.5.5 At this time all crafts that work on this equipment shall apply their locks to the lockout
       device. When the craft concerned with the job has completed their part of the work,
       they are to remove their lock from the lockout device.
12.5.6 When all crafts have completed their work and removed their locks, the operator may
       remove his lock and put the equipment in service. This should be recorded in the
       logbook.

13.0   CONFINED SPACES

       Confined spaces can present complex and hazardous conditions for workers. They may
       require special equipment, training, and safety procedures. Confined spaces can
       generally be divided into two distinctive classes, simple Confined Spaces, and Permit-
       Required Confined Spaces. They may be characterized as follows:

       Confined Spaces are spaces large enough and so configured that an employee can
       bodily enter and perform assigned work; have limited or restricted means for entry or
       exit; and are not designed for continuous employee occupancy. They do not contain or,
       with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable
       of causing death or serious physical harm.

       Permit-Required Confined Spaces (Permit Space) are spaces that contain or have a
       potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; or contain a material that has the potential
                                        MRCA/SHARP®       33
       for engulfing an entrant; or have an internal configuration such that an entrant could be
       trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes
       downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or contain any other recognized
       serious safety or health hazard. Entry to and operations in permit spaces is controlled
       by a written Confined Space Entry Permit (see Section 13.6).

       Confined spaces can be categorized generally as those with open tops and a depth that
       will restrict the natural movement of air, or enclosed spaces with very limited openings
       for entry or exit.

13.1   Hazards of Confined Spaces

13.1.1 The hazards that may be presented by a confined space are dictated by:

        The material stored or used in the confined space; or
        The activity carried out in the confined space; or
        The external environment

13.1.2 The hazards that may be present in a confined space are:

          Flammable or Explosive Conditions
          Toxic Contaminant Exposures
          Asphyxiation or Oxygen Deficiency
          Physical Hazards such as moving or operational machinery

13.2   Hazardous Atmospheres

13.2.1 Flammable Atmospheres – A flammable atmosphere generally arises from enriched
       oxygen atmospheres, vaporization of flammable liquids, byproducts of work, chemical
       reactions, concentrations of combustible dusts, and de-sorption of chemical from inner
       surfaces of the confined space. An atmosphere becomes flammable when the ratio of
       oxygen to combustible material in the air is neither too rich nor too lean for combustion
       to occur. Combustible gases or vapors will accumulate when there is inadequate
       ventilation in areas such as a confined space. Flammable gases such as acetylene,
       butane, propane, hydrogen, methane, natural or manufactured gases or vapors from
       liquid hydrocarbons can be trapped in confined spaces, and since many gases are
       heavier than air, they will seek lower levels as in pits, sewers, and various types of
       storage tanks and vessels. In a closed top tank, it should also be noted that lighter than
       air gases may rise and develop a flammable concentration if trapped above the opening.
       The byproducts of work procedures can generate flammable or explosive conditions
       within a confined space. Specific kinds of work such as spray painting can result in the
       release of explosive gases or vapors. Welding in a confined space is a major cause of
       explosions in areas that contain combustible gas. Chemical reactions forming
       flammable atmospheres occur when surfaces are initially exposed to the atmosphere, or
       when chemicals combine to form flammable gases. This condition arises when dilute
       sulfuric acid reacts with iron to form hydrogen or when calcium carbide makes contact
       with water to form acetylene. Other examples of spontaneous chemical reactions that
       may produce explosions from small amounts of unstable compounds are acetylene-
       metal compounds, peroxides, and nitrates. In a dry state, these compounds have the
       potential to explode upon percussion or exposure to increased temperature. Another
       class of chemical reactions that form flammable atmospheres arise from deposits of
       pyrophoric substances (carbon, ferrous oxide, ferrous sulfate, iron, etc.) that can be
       found in tanks used by the chemical and petroleum industry. These tanks containing
                                       MRCA/SHARP®      34
       flammable deposits will spontaneously ignite upon exposure to air. Combustible dust
       concentrations are usually found during the process of loading, unloading, and
       conveying grain products, nitrated fertilizers, finely ground chemical products, and any
       other combustible material. High charges of static electricity, which rapidly accumulate
       during periods of relatively low humidity (below 50%), can cause certain substances to
       accumulate electrostatic charges of sufficient energy to produce sparks and ignite a
       flammable atmosphere. These sparks may also cause explosions when the right air or
       oxygen to dust or gas mixture is present.

13.2.2 Toxic Atmospheres - The substances to be regarded as toxic in a confined space can
       cover the entire spectrum of gases, vapors, and finely-divided airborne dust in industry.
       The sources of toxic atmospheres encountered may arise from the following:

      The manufacturing process (for example, in producing polyvinyl chloride, hydrogen
       chloride is used as will as vinyl chloride monomer, which is carcinogenic).

      The product stored (removing decomposed organic material from a tank can liberate
       toxic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

      The operation performed in the confined space (for example, welding or brazing with
       metals capable of producing toxic fumes). During loading, unloading, formulation, and
       production, mechanical and/or human error may also produce toxic gases which are not
       part of the planned operation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a hazardous gas that may build
       up in a confined space. This odorless, colorless gas that has approximately the same
       density as air is formed from incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood,
       coal, gas, oil, and gasoline; it can be formed from microbial decomposition of organic
       matter in sewers, silos, and fermentation tanks. Carbon monoxide is an insidious toxic
       gas because of its poor warning properties. Early stages of CO intoxication are nausea
       and headache. Carbon monoxide may be fatal at 1000 PPM in air, and is considered
       dangerous at 200 PPM, because it forms carboxyhemoglobin in the blood which
       prevents the distribution of oxygen in the body. Carbon monoxide is a relatively
       abundant colorless, odorless gas, therefore, any untested atmosphere must be suspect.
       It must also be noted that a safe reading on a combustible gas indicator does not
       ensure that CO is not present. Carbon monoxide must be tested for specifically. The
       formation of CO may result from chemical reactions or work activities, therefore fatalities
       due to CO poisoning are not confined to any particular industry. There have been fatal
       accidents in sewage treatment plants due to decomposition products and lack of
       ventilation in confined spaces. Another area where CO results as a product of
       decomposition is in the formation of silo gas in grain storage elevators. In another area,
       the paint industry, varnish is manufactured by introducing the various ingredients into a
       kettle, and heating them in an inert atmosphere, usually town gas, which is a mixture of
       carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In welding operations, oxides of nitrogen and ozone are
       gases of major toxicologic importance, and incomplete oxidation may occur and carbon
       monoxide can form as a byproduct. Another poor work practice, which has led to
       fatalities, is the re-circulation of diesel exhaust emissions. Increased CO levels can be
       prevented by strict control of the ventilation and the use of catalytic converters.

13.2.3 Irritant (Corrosive) Atmospheres - Irritant or corrosive atmospheres can be divided
       into primary and secondary groups. The primary irritants exert no systemic toxic effects
       (effects on the entire body). Examples of primary irritants are chlorine, ozone,
       hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and sulfur
       dioxide. A secondary irritant is one that may produce systemic toxic effects in addition to
       surface irritation. Examples of secondary irritants include benzene, carbon tetrachloride,
                                       MRCA/SHARP®      35
       ethyl chloride, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and chloropropene. Irritant gases vary
       widely among all areas of industrial activity. They can be found in plastics plants,
       chemical plants, the petroleum industry, tanneries, refrigeration industries, paint
       manufacturing, and mining operations. Prolonged exposure at irritant or corrosive
       concentrations in a confined space may produce little or no evidence of irritation. This
       may result in a general weakening of the defense reflexes from changes in sensitivity.
       The danger in this situation is that the worker is usually not aware of any increase in
       his/her exposure to toxic substances.

13.2.4 Asphyxiating Atmospheres - The normal atmosphere is composed approximately of
       20.9% oxygen and 78.1% nitrogen, and 1% argon with small amounts of various other
       gases. Reduction of oxygen in a confined space may be the result of either consumption
       or displacement. The consumption of oxygen takes place during combustion of
       flammable substances, as in welding, heating, cutting, and brazing. A more subtle
       consumption of oxygen occurs during bacterial action, as in the fermentation process.
       Oxygen may also be consumed during chemical reactions as in the formation of rust on
       the exposed surface of the confined space (iron oxide). The number of people working
       in a confined space and the amount of their physical activity will also influence the
       oxygen consumption rate. A second factor in oxygen deficiency is displacement by
       another gas. Examples of gases that are used to displace air, and therefore reduce the
       oxygen level are helium, argon, and nitrogen. Carbon dioxide may also be used to
       displace air and can occur naturally in sewers, storage bins, wells, tunnels, wine vats,
       and grain elevators. Aside from the natural development of these gases, or their use in
       the chemical process, certain gases are also used as inerting agents to displace
       flammable substances and retard pyrophoric reactions. Gases such as nitrogen, argon,
       helium, and carbon dioxide, are frequently referred to as non-toxic inert gases but have
       claimed many lives. The use of nitrogen to inert a confined space has claimed more
       lives than carbon dioxide. The total displacement of oxygen by nitrogen will cause
       immediate collapse and death. Carbon dioxide and argon, with specific gravity greater
       than air, may lie in a tank or manhole for hours or days after opening. Since these gases
       are colorless and odorless, they pose an immediate hazard to health unless appropriate
       oxygen measurements and ventilation are adequately carried out. Oxygen deprivation
       is one form of asphyxiation. While it is desirable to maintain the atmospheric oxygen
       level at 21% by volume, the body can tolerate deviation from this ideal. When the
       oxygen level falls to 17%, the first sign of hypoxia is a deterioration to night vision which
       is not noticeable until a normal oxygen concentration is restored. Physiologic effects are
       increased breathing volume and accelerated heartbeat. Between 14-16% physiologic
       effects are increased breathing volume, accelerated heartbeat, very poor muscular
       coordination, rapid fatigue, and intermittent respiration. Between 6-10% the effects are
       nausea, vomiting, inability to perform, and unconsciousness. Less than 6%, spasmotic
       breathing, convulsive movements, and death in minutes.

13.3   General Safety Hazards

13.3.1 Mechanical - If activation of electrical or mechanical equipment would cause injury,
       each piece of equipment should be manually isolated to prevent inadvertent activation
       before workers enter or while they work in a confined space. The interplay of hazards
       associated with a confined space, such as the potential of flammable vapors or gases
       being present, and the build-up of static charge due to mechanical cleaning, such as
       abrasive blasting, all influence the precautions which must be taken. To prevent vapor
       leaks, flashbacks, and other hazards, workers should completely isolate the space. To
       completely isolate a confined space, the closing of valves is not sufficient. All pipes must
       be physically disconnected or isolation blanks bolted in place. Other special precautions
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      36
       must be taken in cases where flammable liquids or vapors may re-contaminate the
       confined space. The pipes blanked or disconnected should be inspected and tested for
       leakage to check the effectiveness of the procedure. Other areas of concern are steam
       valves, pressure lines, and chemical transfer pipes. A less apparent hazard is the space
       referred to as a void, such as double walled vessels, which must be given special
       consideration in blanking off and inerting.

13.3.2 Communication Problems - Communication between the worker inside and the
       standby person outside is of utmost importance. If the worker should suddenly feel
       distressed and not be able to summon help, an injury could become a fatality.
       Frequently, the body positions that are assumed in a confined space make it difficult for
       the standby person to detect an unconscious worker. When visual monitoring of the
       worker is not possible because of the design of the confined space or location of the
       entry hatch, a voice or alarm-activated explosion proof type of communication system
       will be necessary. Suitable illumination of an approved type is required to provide
       sufficient visibility for work in accordance with the recommendations made in the
       Illuminating Engineering Society Lighting Handbook.

13.3.3 Entry and Exit - Entry and exit time is of major significance as a physical limitation and
       is directly related to the potential hazard of the confined space. The extent of
       precautions taken and the standby equipment needed to maintain a safe work area will
       be determined by the means of access and rescue. The following should be considered:
       type of confined space to be entered, access to the entrance, number and size of
       openings, barriers within the space, the occupancy load, and the time requirement for
       exiting in event of fire or vapor incursion, and the time required to rescue injured
       workers.

13.4   Physical Hazards

       The hazards described in this section include thermal effects (heat and cold), noise,
       vibration, radiation, and fatigue while working in a confined space.

13.4.1 Thermal Effects - Four factors influence the interchange of heat between people and
       their environment. They are: (1) air temperature, (2) air velocity, (3) moisture contained
       in the air, and (4) radiant heat. Because of the nature and design of most confined
       spaces, moisture content and radiant heat are difficult to control. As the body
       temperature rises progressively, workers will continue to function until the body
       temperature reaches approximately 102oF. When this body temperature is exceeded,
       the workers are less efficient, and are prone to heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat
       stroke. In a cold environment, certain physiologic mechanisms come into play, which
       tend to limit heat loss and increase heat production. The most severe strain in cold
       conditions is chilling of the extremities so that activity is restricted. Special precautions
       must be taken in cold environments to prevent frostbite, trench foot, and general
       hypothermia. Protective insulated clothing for both hot and cold environments will add
       additional bulk to the worker and must be considered in allowing for movement in the
       confined space and exit time. Therefore, air temperature of the environment becomes
       an important consideration when evaluating working conditions in confined spaces.

13.4.2 Noise - Noise problems are usually intensified in confined spaces because the interior
       tends to cause sound to reverberate and thus expose the worker to higher sound levels
       than those found in an open environment. This intensified noise increases the risk of
       hearing damage to workers, which could result in temporary or permanent loss of
       hearing. Noise in a confined space which may not be intense enough to cause hearing
                                        MRCA/SHARP®       37
       damage may still disrupt verbal communication with the emergency standby person on
       the exterior of the confined space. If the workers inside are not able to hear commands
       or danger signals due to excessive noise, the probability of severe accidents can
       increase.

13.4.3 Vibration - Whole body vibration may affect multiple body parts and organs depending
       upon the vibration characteristics. Segmental vibration, unlike whole body vibration,
       appears to be more localized in creating injury to the fingers and hands of workers using
       tools, such as pneumatic hammers, rotary grinders or other hand tools which cause
       vibration.

13.4.4 General/Physical - Some physical hazards cannot be eliminated because of the nature
       of the confined space or the work to be performed. These hazards include such items
       as scaffolding, surface residues, and structural hazards. The use of scaffolding in
       confined spaces has contributed to many accidents caused by workers or materials
       falling, improper use of guardrails, and lack of maintenance to insure worker safety. The
       choice of material used for scaffolding depends upon the type of work to be performed,
       the calculated weight to be supported, the surface on which the scaffolding is placed,
       and the substance previously stored in the confined space. Surface residues in confined
       spaces can increase the already hazardous conditions of electrical shock, reaction of
       incompatible materials, liberation of toxic substances, and bodily injury due to slips and
       falls. Without protective clothing, additional hazards to health may arise due to surface
       residues. Structural hazards within a confined space such as baffles in horizontal tanks,
       trays in vertical towers, bends in tunnels, overhead structural members, or scaffolding
       installed for maintenance constitute physical hazards, which are exacerbated by the
       physical surroundings. In dealing with structural hazards, workers must review and
       enforce safety precautions to assure safety. Rescue procedures may require withdrawal
       of an injured or unconscious person. Careful planning must be given to the relationship
       between the internal structure, the exit opening, and the worker. If the worker is above
       the opening, the system must include a rescue arrangement operated from outside the
       confined space, if possible, by which the employee can be lowered and removed without
       injury.

13.5   Workplace Analysis and Hazard Evaluation

       yourcompanyname has analyzed the company facilities and employee assignments and
       tasks and been unable to identify neither Non-Permit spaces or Permit-Required
       Confined Spaces. If, in the future, situations arise that present confined space hazards
       for employees, the following guidelines will be followed.

13.5.1 Atmospheric Testing – Prior to entry into any permit-required spaces, the internal
       atmosphere will be tested with a calibrated direct-reading instrument for oxygen content;
       for flammable gases or vapors; and for potential toxic air contaminants. The results of
       testing shall be documented on the Confined Space Entry Permit.

13.5.2 Periodic Testing – Subsequent to initial testing, the atmosphere inside a space must
       be periodically tested, as necessary, to ensure that conditions inside the space have not
       changed or deteriorated. The results of testing shall be documented on the Confined
       Space Entry Permit. Any employee who enters the space, or that employee’s
       representative shall be afforded an opportunity to observe the pre-entry and periodic
       testing described herein.

13.6   Confined Space Entry Permit
                                       MRCA/SHARP®      38
13.6.1 A Confined Space Entry Permit will be required for entry into any of the areas having
       conditions as outlined in section 13. The information included on the permit will consist
       of:
    The date and time of issue
    The date and time of expiration
    Identification of the confined space
    The name of the job supervisor
    The names of standby personnel
    Equipment to be worked on, or nature of reason for entry
    Type of work to be performed in the space
    An atmospheric testing log to include: time of test, Oxygen level in %, explosive level as
       % of the L.F.L., any toxic concentration expressed as PPM, and the tester’s signature
    A descriptive statement of requirements for periodic atmospheric testing
    A checklist of mandatory pre-entry procedures to include:
        Lock-Out/De-energize
        Line(s) Broken/Capped/Blanked
        Purge/Flush/and Vent
        Ventilation
        Secure and demarcate area
        Respiratory protection
        Standby personnel ready
        Standby equipment ready
        Entrants equipped with Full-Body Harness w/D-Ring
        Emergency retrieval system in place
        Fire extinguishers in place
        Lighting (explosion-proof) in place
        Protective clothing
        Hot-Work permit, if necessary

             A section detailing communication procedures
             A section detailing rescue procedures
             A statement of verification of understanding and a signature line next to the
              printed name of all entrants and standby personnel

13.6.2 A copy of the Confined Space Entry Permit is included as Appendix O.

13.7   Permit-Required Confined Space Operations, Practices and Procedures

       Entry into Permit-Required Confined Spaces is conditional upon the completion and
       certification of the permit by the supervisor. The supervisor will not sign the permit until
       acceptable entry conditions are met. Acceptable conditions include:

        All hazards in the space that can be eliminated, have been eliminated by
         engineering controls, ventilation, or other means; and
        Authorized entrants are protected by use of PPE against any remaining or potential
         hazards; and
        All procedures and requirements of the permit have been met.

13.7.1 The Permit Space shall be appropriately isolated and demarcated from other work
       activity by signs and barriers to a level commensurate with the hazards present, as
       necessary.

                                       MRCA/SHARP®       39
13.7.2 The Permit Space shall be purged, made inert, flushed, or ventilated with appropriate
       equipment, as necessary, to eliminate or control atmospheric hazards.

13.7.3 Pedestrian, vehicle Pedestrian, vehicle, or other barriers shall be provided as necessary
       to protect entrants from external hazards

13.7.4 Conditions in the permit space are acceptable for entry throughout the duration of an
       authorized entry as long as all monitoring, entry procedures, and attending as specified
       in this program are being followed.

13.7.5 Equipment Provision – The Company will provide all appropriate equipment needed for
       safe entry into a permit required confined space. That includes a complete and
       operational Personnel Retrieval System. The system must be in place and operational
       prior to entry by any personnel. Entrants must be wearing a full body harness with the
       d-ring in the back and be hooked up to the retrieval system. Supervisors of the permit
       required confined space entry procedures will be responsible for ensuring use of the
       appropriate equipment by all entrants to the confined space.

13.7.6 Permit Space Condition Evaluation - Conditions in the permit required confined space
       will be tested to determine if acceptable entry conditions exist before entry is authorized
       to take place. The permit space shall be tested or monitored, as necessary, to
       determine if acceptable entry conditions are being maintained during the course of entry
       operations and, when testing for hazards, the first test shall be for oxygen, then for
       combustible gases and vapors, and then for toxic gases and vapors.

13.8   Permit Space Entrant Procedures

       Attendants to a permit-required confined space must have been trained and know the
       hazards of confined spaces, be aware of behavioral effects of potential exposures,
       maintain continuous count and identification of authorized entrants, remain outside the
       space until relieved, and communicate with entrants as necessary to monitor entrant
       status. Attendants execute and ensure compliance with the requirements of the permit;
       summon rescuers if necessary; prevent unauthorized entry into the confined space; and
       perform non-entry rescues if required. They do not perform other duties that interfere
       with their primary duty to monitor and protect the safety of authorized entrants at the
       time of the permit required confined space entry. Guidelines for attendants include:

13.8.1 A minimum of one attendant will be provided outside the permit space into which entry is
       authorized for the duration of entry operations.

13.8.2 The attendant must be protected with a PPE ensemble equal to that of the entrant(s).

13.8.3 The attendant must have an approved, operational Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
       (SCBA) in the carrying case, ready to be donned.

13.8.4 The attendant’s source of breathing air must be a separate source from that of the
       entrants.

13.8.5 The attendant must call the entrants out of the permit space if he has to leave for any
       reason and there is no replacement, or if he detects or suspects any new hazard inside
       or outside of the permit space.


                                       MRCA/SHARP®      40
13.8.6 The attendant may not leave his station unless he is relieved by an equally qualified
       replacement; the entrants exit the permit space; or for self-preservation.

13.8.7 At a minimum, at least one additional employee must be within signal or calling distance
       of the attendant. He must be able to summon immediate emergency assistance, if
       needed.

13.9   Authorization Requirements for Entrants and / or Attendants

       Authorized entrants and/or attendants for permit–required confined spaces are limited to
       those who have been trained and certified at the OSHA 24-Hour Hazmat Specialist
       level. These employees will have been issued a wallet card certifying such training. No
       other employees may enter a permit-required confined space.

14.0   GENERAL HOUSEKEEPING

14.1   Office and Shop Housekeeping

14.1.1 A clean and neat area is a safe area, keep your area presentable.

14.1.2 At no time will large and/or heavy objects be stacked higher than 5 feet.

14.1.3 Open containers or food and beverage will not be left in areas overnight.

14.1.4 Large amounts of paper and trash must not accumulate in work areas and offices.

14.1.5 Cords and wires must not extend out into aisles. These create a trip hazard.

14.1.6 Do not block aisles. If you have too much stuff for your office, clean house.

14.1.7 Keep chairs adjusted to the proper height for you. This reduces fatigue and helps
       prevent eyestrain.

14.1.8 Do not use chairs for stepladders.

14.2   Job Site Housekeeping

14.2.1 Foremen will be responsible for the neatness and organization of job sites. Overly
       messy or cluttered job sites will be considered safety hazards.

15.0   HAZARD COMMUNICATION

15.1   General Information

       In order to comply with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication, the following written
       Hazard Communication Program has been established for SHARP Member Companies.
       All work units of the company are included within this program. The written program will
       be available in the office of the Safety Coordinator at the company main office. Any
       employee may review this program in person at the aforementioned location or may
       obtain a written copy by submitting a written request, which is dated, signed, and
       contains a full return address.

15.2   Container Labeling
                                       MRCA/SHARP®      41
15.2.1 The foreman and/or Safety Coordinator will verify that all containers received for use will
       be clearly labeled as to the contents, note the appropriate warning hazard, including
       specific information regarding the physical and health hazards, and will list the name
       and address of the manufacturer.

15.2.2 Each crew foreman will ensure that all secondary containers are labeled with either an
       extra copy of the original manufacturer label, or with a "central stores" generic label
       which have blocks for identity and hazard warning, and which prominently displays the
       required information in the English language.

15.2.3 Original labels on containers containing hazardous chemicals will not be removed.

15.2.4 If a different material is placed in a container, the label for the hazardous material
       contents must be changed to reflect the true contents in the container.

15.2.5 For help with labeling, see the Safety Coordinator. The Safety Coordinator will review
       the company labeling system yearly and update as required.

15.2.6 Portable containers for use on the job may be filled from larger containers and need not
       be labeled if the chemical is drawn for immediate use, the hazardous chemical will be
       under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled
       container, and the contents will be used-up within the work shift in which it is transferred.
       This exception for labeling is pursuant to, and detailed in 29 CFR 1926.1200(f)(7).

15.2.7 It is the responsibility of the job foreman and/or the Safety Coordinator to inform the
       prime contractors and other trades working in proximity to the job site who may be
       exposed to hazardous materials of the labeling system used by yourcompanyname,
       either verbally or in writing prior to the start of work.

15.3   Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

15.3.1 The Safety Coordinator will be responsible for obtaining and maintaining the MSDS
       system for the company. He/she will review incoming MSDS's for new and significant
       health and safety information and see that any new information is passed on to the
       affected employees. MSDS’s can be in a language other than English, although an
       English version shall be maintained.

15.3.2 Copies of MSDS's for all hazardous chemicals to which employees of this company may
       be exposed will be kept in the office of the Safety Coordinator and in the crew truck at
       each job site. MSDS's will be available to all employees, as well as to other trades, in
       their work area or at the job site at any time. If MSDS's are not available or new
       chemicals in use do not have corresponding MSDS's, the Safety Coordinator must be
       contacted immediately.

15.3.3 When ordering or purchasing materials and products not currently listed on the
       companies chemical inventory list, purchase orders should have attached a notice
       stating that “purchase of a potentially hazardous material is conditional upon receipt of
       the MSDS for that material and the proper labeling of the material container”.

15.3.4 Employees will be trained to recognize and interpret labels, warnings, color-coding, and
       signs affixed to containers that they might handle, in order to minimize their risk to
       potential hazards.
                                        MRCA/SHARP®       42
15.3.5 Proper understanding and use of MSDS's will be covered in section 15.4.3 of this
       program.

15.3.6 Where employees must travel between workplaces during a work shift, i.e., their work is
       carried out at more than one geographical location; the material safety data sheets may
       be kept at the primary workplace facility. In this situation, the employer shall ensure that
       employees can immediately obtain the required information in an emergency.
       (1910.1200 (g)(9)).

15.4   Employee Training and Information

15.4.1 The Safety Coordinator shall work with employees in order to ensure compliance with all
       elements of this section.

       Prior to starting work, each new employee of YOURCOMPANYNAME, will attend a
       safety & health orientation and will receive information on the requirements outlined in
       29 CFR 1910.1200; information on operations that may utilize hazardous chemicals; the
       availability of various personal protective equipment; who to contact to answer questions
       about chemicals; the location and availability of the written Hazard Communication
       Program, which includes the list of hazardous chemicals used by this
       yourcompanyname, and accompanying Material Safety Data Sheets.

       Prior to the first exposure to hazardous chemicals and whenever there is a potential for
       exposure to chemicals employees have not formally been trained on the physical and/or
       health affects of the ingredients, yourcompanyname Employees will be trained on: the
       methods and observation that may be used to determine the presence of release of
       hazardous chemicals in the work area; the physical and health hazards of the chemicals
       in the work area; the measures that can be taken to protect employees from these
       hazards, including safe work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective
       equipment that should be warn; how to read MSDS's and labels to obtain appropriate
       hazard information, and how to locate the MSDS's and hazardous chemical list.

15.4.4 After attending the Health & Safety Orientation, each employee will sign the section in
       the New Employee Questionnaire to verify that they attended the training, received a
       copy of the written Hazard Communication Program, and understand the company
       policy on hazard communication.

15.4.5 Prior to the introduction of any new chemical hazard by the company into the workplace,
       each employee who may be at risk to exposure will be made aware of any and all
       pertinent information that will help minimize their risk.

15.5   List of Hazardous Chemicals

15.5.1 A list of all known hazardous chemicals used by employees of this yourcompanyname is
       contained as a separate section of the company Safety Manual.

15.5.2 The Hazardous Chemical List includes the trade name of the product, and the
       hazardous chemical constituents.

15.5.3 The hazardous chemical list will be updated as necessary to reflect the introduction or
       deletion of any chemical into or from the work place.

                                        MRCA/SHARP®      43
15.6   Hazardous Non-Routine Tasks

15.6.1 Periodically, employees are required to perform hazardous non-routine tasks. Prior to
       starting work on such projects, each affected employee will be given information by their
       foreman and/or the Safety Coordinator about hazardous chemicals to which they may
       be exposed to during such activity followed by a verbal briefing of the hazards they
       could be exposed to. This information includes but is not limited to: specific chemical
       hazards, protective/safety measures the employee can take, and measures the
       company has taken to minimize the hazards including ventilation, respiratory protection,
       the buddy system, and emergency procedures.

15.7   Contractor and Adjacent Trade Notification

15.7.1 It is the responsibility of the job foreman and/or the Safety Coordinator to provide the
       prime contractors and other trades working within proximity to our job site who may be
       exposed to hazardous materials on the yourcompanyname job site, of the nature of the
       hazard and the precautions their employees may take to minimize the possibility of
       exposure by usage of appropriate protective measures, as well as the location of the
       available Material Safety Data Sheets.

16.0   POTENTIAL TOXIC EXPOSURES FOR EMPLOYEES

16.1   General Procedures for Exposures

       16.1.1 DON'T TRY TO BE A HERO! If you find someone passed out, do not rush in to
       rescue. That person may have been overcome by a toxic gas and/or an oxygen-
       deficient atmosphere, and for you to rush to that persons' side will only compound the
       problem - you may become the next victim! Call for help. If you have been trained, don
       a SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus), and have a backup before attempting
       rescue. Don't become part of the problem!

16.1.2 If the exposure is a solid or liquid consult the material’s MSDS to determine the
       appropriate first aid treatment.

16.1.3 If the exposure is a gas or vapor, remove the person from the vapor or gas. If the
       person has labored breathing administer oxygen if it available. If the person is not
       breathing, and checking the material’s MSDS does not uncover potential problems with
       doing so, administer CPR.

16.1.4 A physician must be seen following any acute chemical exposure.

16.2   Lead Exposure

16.2.1 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) – OSHA has established an employee PEL to lead of
                     3
       0.05 mg/meter . This PEL pertains to lead in air.

16.2.2 Health Hazard – Lead and its inorganic compounds are neurotoxins, which may produce
       peripheral neuropathy.

    Acute Overexposure – If left untreated: weakness, vomiting, loss of appetite,
     uncoordinated body movements, convulsions, stupor, bloody stools, and possible coma.


                                       MRCA/SHARP®      44
    Chronic Overexposure – If left untreated: weakness, insomnia, hypertension, slight
     irritation to skin and eyes, metallic taste in mouth, anemia, constipation, headache,
     muscle and joint pain, neuromuscular dysfunction, possible paralysis, and
     encephalopathy.

16.2.3 Routes of Entry

       Inhalation: When scattered in the air as a dust, fume or mist, it may be inhaled
       (breathed) and absorbed through the lungs and upper respiratory tract. Irritation can
       occur in both acute and chronic overexposure.

       Ingestion: When it gets into the mouth and is swallowed, it may be absorbed through the
       digestive system and can result in both acute and chronic overexposure.

       Skin: Dusts, fumes or mists are not readily absorbed through the skin; however, they
       may cause mechanical irritation to the skin.
       Eyes: Dusts, fumes or mists may cause mechanical irritation.

16.2.4 Potential Exposure Conditions

       Many flashing materials are lead or contain a high percentage of lead. They are solid,
       and have a very low potential for any type of discharge or release of dust, fume or mist.

       Some older paint materials on flashings and/or coping may contain lead. A certain
       amount of potential exposure, albeit low, exists for any employee who is involved in the
       removal or demolition of these types of materials.

16.2.5 First Aid

       Inhalation: Remove from exposure. Get medical attention if experiencing effects of
       overexposure.

       Ingestion: Get immediate medical attention.

       Eyes: Flush with copious amounts of water. Get immediate medical attention.

       Skin: Wash thoroughly with soap and water.

16.2.6 Control Measures

       Work Practices – Care should be taken when dismantling, demolishing, or otherwise
       disturbing roofing materials that are known or are suspected of having lead paint on
       their surfaces.

       Engineering Controls – When flashing material or coping is known to have lead-
       containing paint that is in a condition that allows it to crumble into a fine dust when
       handled, special care should be used. When these conditions exist, misting the
       materials with water to help prevent dusts from becoming airborne may control dusts.
       Local exhaust ventilation shall be provided in areas where exposures are above the PEL
       or Threshold Limit Values (TLV) specified by OSHA, or other local, state, or federal
       regulations.

16.2.7 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
                                       MRCA/SHARP®     45
       Respiratory Protection – Use of approved respirators is required for work in conditions
       where engineering controls and/or special ventilation cannot mitigate the exposure
       hazard.

       Eyes and Face – Face shields or vented goggles should be used around molten metal.
       Safety glasses should be used for operations generating flying pieces.

       Hands – Gloves should be worn when handling materials are known to be lead, or are
       suspected to be coated with, lead.

       Other clothing and equipment – Full protective clothing is required if the PEL is
       exceeded. Hardhat, safety shoes and other safety equipment should be worn as is
       appropriate for the environment.

16.2.8 Employee Training - All employees who perform tasks that place them at risk for
       exposure to lead will be trained in the following:

    The content of this program and the OSHA lead standard for construction, 29 CFR
     1926.62.

    Their responsibility to adhere to this program and to report any discovery of conditions
     during rooftop operations that are suspect for lead exposure.

    Characterization and methods of recognizing roofing materials that have the potential of
     containing lead.

    The health effects of overexposure to lead.

    Routes of entry and situations and conditions that can put them at risk for lead
     exposure.

    First aid treatment for lead overexposure.

    Work practices and engineering controls that can be used to minimize the hazard of
     lead exposure.

    Personal Protective Equipment and its proper use to protect against exposures to lead.

16.3   Carbon Monoxide (CO)

16.3.1 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) – OSHA has established an employee PEL standard
       for exposure to Carbon Monoxide of 35 ppm, averaged over an eight-hour workday.

16.3.2 Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) – OSHA has established a ceiling limit of 200 ppm
       as measured over a 15-minute exposure period.

16.3.3 Health Hazard – Carbon Monoxide is a toxic gas. Exposure can cause Hypoxia (low
       oxygen content or tension), Cerebral Edema (swelling of the brain), and
       Carboxyhemoglobin (a toxic compound formed upon exposure to carbon monoxide).
       The effects of exposure can cause brain damage, heart damage and death in a
       relatively short period of time.

                                      MRCA/SHARP®      46
       CO may aggravate a heart condition. Ingestion of barbiturates and alcohol may
       increase the gas’ toxic effects. Just as with exposure to asbestos and smoking creates
       a synergistic effect, so does exposure to CO to a person who smokes. A smoker
       already has a higher level of Carboxyhemoglobin and thus faces a higher risk of CO
       poisoning from exposure.

16.3.4 Route of Entry

       Inhalation: Pulmonary inhalation is the main route of entry.

16.3.5 Potential Exposure Conditions

       Carbon Monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas. CO is derived by the
       incomplete burning of fuels containing carbon such as gasoline, natural gas, oil,
       propane, coal or wood. The most common source in the roofing workplace is the
       internal combustion engine such as that which is used on roof cutters, power brooms,
       luggers, tearoff machines, etc.

       The firing of asphalt in kettles and tankers would also have a significant potential to
       produce Carbon Monoxide. Another strong potential to produce CO is found in the use
       of torches using propane fuel.

16.3.6 Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Headaches

    Tightness in the Chest

    Nausea

    Drowsiness

    Inattention

    Fatigue

    Lack of Coordination

    Weakness

    Confusion

16.3.7 First Aid - CO poisoning can be reversed if caught in time. If you suspect CO poisoning:

    Move the victim to fresh air away from any suspected source of CO.

    Call for Emergency Medical Services (EMS).

    Monitor for any respiratory problems.

    Administer CPR for any victim not breathing on their own.

16.3.8 Control Measures and Exposure prevention
                                       MRCA/SHARP®      47
    Be aware of the potential for exposure in poorly ventilated areas.

    Use fans to ventilate enclosed areas where small engines run

    Keep engines on equipment well tuned and in good condition.

    Train employees in Carbon Monoxide poisoning and its effects.

16.3.9 Employee Training – All employees who perform tasks with tools, equipment or
       materials that place them at risk for exposure to Carbon Monoxide poisoning, will be
       trained in the following:
    The content of this program and the PEL established by OSHA for Carbon Monoxide

    Their responsibility to adhere to this program and to report any conditions that may put
     themselves or co-workers at risk for CO poisoning.

    Characterization of situations, tools and equipment that may be potential sources of
     Carbon Monoxide gases.

    The health effects of exposure to Carbon Monoxide.

    Routes of Entry for exposure to CO.

    First Aid for exposure to CO

    Work practices and engineering controls that will minimize the risk for exposure to CO.

    How respiratory protection equipment can mitigate the risk of exposure to Co.

16.4   Silica Exposure

       Permissible Exposure Limit – OSHA has established an employee PEL to silica of 10
       milligrams per cubic meter divided by the % of quartz+2.

16.4.1 Health Hazard – The health hazard from crystalline silica over-exposure is a disease
       called silicosis. Silicosis is a disabling, non-reversible and sometimes fatal lung disease.
       Overexposure to dust that contains microscopic particles of crystalline silica can cause
       scar tissue to form in the lungs, which reduces the lungs' ability to extract oxygen from
       the air we breathe.

       In addition to silicosis, inhalation of crystalline silica particles has been associated with
       other diseases, such as bronchitis and tuberculosis. Some studies also indicate an
       association with lung cancer. There are three types of silicosis, depending on the
       airborne concentrations of crystalline silica to which a worker has been exposed:

      Chronic Silicosis usually occurs after 10 or more years of overexposure.

      Accelerated Silicosis results from higher exposures and develops over 5-10 years.

      Acute Silicosis occurs where exposures are the highest and can cause symptoms to
       develop within a few weeks or up to 5 years.

                                        MRCA/SHARP®       48
16.4.2 Symptoms

    Shortness of breath following physical exertion

    Severe cough

    Fatigue

    Loss of appetite

    Chest pains

    Fever

16.4.3 Route of Entry

       Inhalation: Pulmonary inhalation is the main route of entry.

16.4.4 Potential Exposure Conditions include, but are not limited to:

    Sweeping gravel or ballast rock with a hand broom

    Sweeping gravel or ballast rock with a power broom

    Picking up gravel from the rooftop with a gravel remover

    Gravel or rock ballast spreading operations

    Loading ballast from a dump truck or pile onto a conveyor

    Loading wheelbarrows, buggies, etc. from the end of the conveyor

    Drilling holes in concrete for termination bar installation

    Concrete cutting

    Cutting concrete for reglet installation

16.4.5 First Aid

       Most silica exposure is not of a nature that would require first aid. The chronic nature of
       silicosis requires a prolonged exposure period with a latency period of up to 15-20
       years.

16.4.6 Control Measures

    Make sure areas of potential exposure are well ventilated

    Dampen gravel or rock that is particularly dry to reduce dust

    Wear a respirator or dust mask when working with, or in close proximity to the
     operations that include cutting reglets and receiving/distributing ballasts.

                                       MRCA/SHARP®      49
    Never use compressed air to clean rock or a roof with large amounts of dirt or dust.

    Never use compressed air to blow dust from clothes

16.4.7 Personal Protective Equipment

       Respirators provide good mitigation of airborne concentrations of silica dust. They must
       be used in accordance with Section 23, “Respiratory Protection”.

16.4.8 Employee Training – All employees who perform tasks with tools, equipment or
       materials that place them at risk for exposure to Crystalline Silica, will be trained in the
       following:

    The content of this program and the PEL established by OSHA for Crystalline Silica

    Their responsibility to adhere to this program and to report any conditions that may put
     themselves or co-workers at risk for Crystalline Silica exposure.

    Characterization of situations, tools and equipment that may be potential sources of
     Crystalline Silica.

    The health effects of exposure to Crystalline Silica.

    Routes of Entry of Crystalline Silica.

    First Aid for exposure to Crystalline Silica.

    Work practices and engineering controls that will minimize the risk for exposure to
     Crystalline Silica.

    How respiratory protection equipment can mitigate the risk of exposure to Crystalline
     Silica.

16.5   Special Chemical Hazards (Acute Toxic Gases) Common to Petro-Chem

       Some of the chemicals in refineries and chemical plants are very hazardous. It is
       important to understand how to recognize these chemicals and how to respond in the
       event of exposure. In the event of a chemical release, you should always move away
       from the chemical at a right angle to the prevailing wind.

16.5.1 Chlorine

       Liquid chlorine is stored under pressure in a container. When released to the
       atmosphere, liquid chlorine vaporizes and becomes a dense, greenish-yellow gas.
       Because chlorine gas is heavier than air, it will stay close to the ground and will collect in
       pits, trenches and any low area.

       Chlorine has a pungent and very irritating odor. You can normally detect the presence
       of chlorine at about .3 ppm. Chlorine's PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit) is 0.5 ppm
       (parts per million) and it's IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) is 30 ppm.
       Chlorine is not flammable, however, since chlorine is a strong oxidizer, it can cause and
       support combustion of materials such as steel and oils. It is also not a carcinogen, but it
       does have a sharp suffocating odor and is very corrosive to the respiratory tract (nose,
                                        MRCA/SHARP®       50
      throat and lungs). It can cause chemical pneumonia. Chlorine is also very irritating to
      the eyes. Eye contact will result in tearing and can result in chemical burns. Prolonged
      skin contact can cause acid-like burns.

      First aid for chlorine inhalation involves moving the individual to an uncontaminated
      area. If breathing is labored, provide oxygen. If the individual is not breathing, begin
      CPR. For eye or skin contact, flush the affected area with copious amounts of water. It
      will be necessary to hold the eyelids open while they are being flushed. Contaminated
      clothing must be removed and laundered before reuse. Safety showers and eye wash
      stations are usually located throughout the plant.

16.5.2 Ammonia

      Anhydrous ammonia, like chlorine, is a gas at normal atmospheric pressure and
      temperatures. Unlike chlorine, ammonia is flammable in a very narrow range of
      conditions. Ammonia is stored in distinctive short gas cylinders and is used as a
      neutralizing agent throughout the plant; its pH is very high. Anhydrous Ammonia has a
      very pungent, irritating odor. Ammonia's PEL is 25 ppm and it’s IDLH is 500 ppm.

      When liquid anhydrous ammonia is released into the atmosphere, it vaporizes into a
      very cold gas. Although anhydrous ammonia gas is in itself colorless, this vaporized
      cold gas condenses water vapor in the air into a dense white cloud that hovers near the
      ground. Once this cloud starts to warm the cloud will dissipate and start to rise, since
      anhydrous ammonia vapors are lighter than air. If gaseous anhydrous ammonia were
      released, these vapors would be less visible and would tend to rise immediately.

      Ammonia vapors are very irritating to the respiratory system and the eyes. The
      ammonia vapors will combine with the moisture present in the body's moisture bearing
      tissues such as your eyes, nose and lungs, creating a very corrosive fluid.

      First aid for ammonia inhalation involves moving the individual to an uncontaminated
      area. If breathing is labored, provide oxygen. If the individual is not breathing, begin
      CPR. Bear in mind that if you have to treat ammonia inhalation, more than likely you will
      also have a skin contact problem. For eye or skin contact, flush the affected area with
      copious amounts of water. It will be necessary to hold the eyelids open while they are
      being flushed. Contaminated clothing must be removed and laundered before reuse.
      Safety showers and eye wash stations are usually located throughout the plant.

      Anhydrous ammonia is a cryogenic substance and will freeze skin and will freeze
      clothes to skin. If you need to remove the victim’s clothing for any reason, take caution
      not to remove clothes while still frozen to skin.

16.5.3 Hydrogen Sulfide

      Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a naturally occurring gas. It is found in most crude oils.
      Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air and will tend to collect in low places such as
      excavations, sewers, trenches and tanks. It is also manufactured as a by-product in
      many of the refinery processes. Hydrogen Sulfide gas can be found in varying amounts
      in all process streams; all refinery equipment is suspect for accumulations of this deadly
      gas. In low concentrations, hydrogen sulfide smells like rotten eggs. High
      concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide will deaden your sense of smell; therefore the sense
      of smell is a very poor indicator of the presence of Hydrogen Sulfide.

                                     MRCA/SHARP®       51
       Hydrogen Sulfide is very toxic. Its symptoms of exposure include coughing, eye
       irritation, dizziness, and fainting. Its PEL is 10 ppm and its IDLH is 300 ppm. Hydrogen
       sulfide is a central nervous system and respiratory system toxin. First aid for hydrogen
       sulfide inhalation involves moving the individual to an uncontaminated area. It breathing
       is labored, provide oxygen. If the individual is not breathing, begin CPR.

16.5.4 Hydrofluoric Acid (Hydrogen Fluoride)
       Anhydrous hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless gas at temperatures above 650F. If
       released into the atmosphere HF         Acid will rapidly combine with the moisture in the air
       forming a white cloud that will stay near the ground. HF Acid has a strong irritating odor.
       If you are exposed to HF your eyes will be irritated, your nose, throat and skin will have
       a burning sensation. HF Acid is very corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory system.
       HF has a great affinity for calcium and it will penetrate the skin and seek out the calcium
       bearing parts of your body. HF's PEL is 3 ppm, and its IDLH is 30 ppm.
       If you are going to administer first aid, do not become a victim yourself, wear
       appropriate Personal Protective Equipment. Skin and eye contact cause severe
       burning. Immediate flushing with copious amounts of water is vital. For eye exposure,
       eyelids must be held open while flushing. All contaminated clothing must be removed
       immediately The Safety Department must be notified immediately! Contaminated
       clothing cannot be reused until they have been successfully decontaminated.

       Acute HF inhalation requires treatment by a physician. First aid for HF inhalation
       involves moving the individual to an uncontaminated area and providing oxygen if
       breathing is labored. If the individual is not breathing, begin CPR.

16.5.5 LPG

       LPG is a general term for Liquefied Petroleum Gas. LPG by itself is odorless, colorless
       and is a gas at atmospheric conditions. LPG when released into the atmosphere will
       rapidly vaporize into a very cold gas, condensing moisture out of the air forming a visible
       cloud. This cloud is highly flammable with a very wide explosive range.

       If you were overexposed to LPG your symptoms would be dizziness, disorientation and
       possibly excitation. These symptoms may occur at the upper levels of OSHA's PEL of
       1,000 ppm.

       First aid for LPG inhalation involves moving the individual to an uncontaminated area. If
       breathing is labored, provide oxygen. If the individual is not breathing, begin CPR.

16.6   Acute and Chronic Health Hazard Liquids

16.6.1 Polynuclear Aromatics (PNA's)

       PNA's are present in crude oil and all heavy oils. PNA's are skin irritants. They can
       cause dermatitis and prolonged exposures can cause skin cancer, especially if the
       exposed area is subjected to sunlight.

       Wearing protective gloves and following good personal hygiene practices provide
       protection from PNA exposures.

16.6.2 Acids and Caustics


                                        MRCA/SHARP®       52
       Acids are solutions with a pH of less than 7. Caustics have a pH of greater than 7.
       Solutions with pH of 7 are neutral. Acids and caustics are used in many plant areas.
       Acids and caustics are not in themselves flammable or cancer causing. Acids and
       caustics are very corrosive materials. Acids and caustics are used in plants as a liquid
       and/or gas. They attack the skin and eyes. When working around acids or caustics,
       protective clothing and goggles are required. Any exposure requires immediate flushing
       of the affected area with copious amounts of water for at least fifteen (15) minutes. All
       contaminated clothing must be removed immediately. Contaminated articles of clothing
       cannot be reused until they have been successfully decontaminated.

16.6.3 Benzene

       Benzene is a hydrocarbon. Benzene is very flammable and has a pleasant, sweet odor.
       Benzene will dull your sense of smell. Benzene attacks the blood making organs of the
       body causing a number of blood conditions including leukemia (cancer of the blood).
       Benzene is a chronic health hazard; you must have multiple overexposures to be
       affected. Benzene can enter the body through inhalation (most common), ingestion and
       skin absorption. Under normal plant conditions, the highest benzene levels are less than
       .1ppm. Your only possibility of overexposure would be in an emergency situation in
       which a large quantity of benzene containing material was spilled or released near you.
       Benzene's PEL is 1.0 ppm with an IDLH of 3,000 ppm.

       Protective equipment such as boots, gloves, aprons, etc. made of PVC (Polyvinyl
       Chloride) and, if inhalation is likely, organic vapor or supplied air respirators will provide
       protection when working in areas contaminated with benzene. Good hygiene practices
       are also necessary. Always wash any skin contaminated with hydrocarbons. Launder
       all contaminated clothing before reuse.

17.0   DRUG-ALCOHOL POLICY

       This policy is adopted to facilitate compliance with the "Drug-Free Work Place Act of
       1988" and to ensure a safe and healthy work place for all employees.

17.1   Administration

       The details and provisions of this policy will be administered by the Company President,
       Safety Coordinator and all Supervisors.

17.2   Policy

17.2.1 yourcompanyname will not hire nor maintain in employment individuals who use,
       manufacture, have in their possession, sell or distribute on its premises, facilities or work
       places, illegal drugs or alcohol or any form of paraphernalia used in the consumption of
       such controlled substances.

17.2.2 yourcompanyname employees must not report for work under the influence of any drug,
       alcoholic beverage, intoxicant or narcotic or other substance (including legally
       prescribed drugs and medications) which will in any way adversely affect their working
       ability, alertness, coordination, response, or adversely affect the safety of others on the
       job.



                                        MRCA/SHARP®       53
17.2.3 Certain employee groups whose jobs deal with the safety of others, as determined by
       management, will be subject to drug screening and appropriate action as prescribed by
       policy. All new hires may be subject to drug screening as a condition of employment.

17.2.4 Entry into or presence on yourcompanyname premises or work sites by any person is
       conditional upon the companies right to search the person, personal effects, vehicles or
       lockers of any employee or entrant for any substances named in Section 17.2.2. By
       entering into or being present on company premises or work sites, any person is
       deemed to have consented to such searches which may include periodic and
       announced searches of anyone while on, entering or leaving company premises or work
       places. These searches may include the use of electronic detection devices, scent
       trained dogs or the taking of blood, urine or saliva samples for testing to determine the
       presence of substances named in Section 17.2.2. The company also reserves the right,
       at all times, to have authorized personnel conduct examinations of its employees for the
       purpose of determining if any such persons are using illegal drugs or alcohol.

17.2.5 The taking of blood, urine or saliva samples for testing may also be used for any person
       applying for employment, or an employee who is suspected to be under the influence of
       drugs or alcohol, or any employee who is involved in an accident with a company vehicle
       or equipment or who is injured in the course of employment.

17.2.6 Any person who refuses to submit to a search, as described in this policy, or who is
       found using, possessing or distributing any of the substances named in Section 17.2.2
       of this policy, or who is found under the influence of any such substance(s), is subject to
       disciplinary action including possible immediate discharge.

17.2.7 Legally prescribed drugs may be permitted on company premises or work locations
       provided the drugs are in the original prescription container and are prescribed by a
       licensed medical practitioner for the current use of the person in possession. Any
       employee in possession of such prescription drugs must report such possession to his
       foreman or the Safety Coordinator at the beginning of each workday. Any valid
       prescription that in the opinion of the company may produce hazardous effects may be
       restricted.

17.2.8 The Company has the right, at its discretion, to report use, possession or distribution of
       any substance described in Sec. 17.2.2 to law enforcement officials and to turn over to
       the custody of law officials any such substance. The company also has the right to
       report the removal of company property to law enforcement officials.

17.2.9 Some employee assistance for treatment of alcohol or drug dependence is available for
       yourcompanyname employees. The company may, at its discretion, assist employees
       in finding sources for counseling and treatment.

17.2.10 This policy fully complies with and meets all requirements of the Drug-Free Work Place
       Act of 1988 and is in effect on all government and non-government funded projects and
       work sites. Compliance with this policy is mandatory for all yourcompanyname
       employees and is considered a condition of employment. Violation of this policy can
       result in termination of employment.




                                       MRCA/SHARP®      54
18.0   CONTROL of HAZARDOUS ENERGY SOURCES

18.1   Lockout / Tagout

       General - This policy address practices and procedures that are necessary to disable
       machinery or equipment and prevent the release of potentially hazardous energy while
       maintenance and servicing activities are being performed where the unexpected
       energization, start-up, or release of stored energy could cause injury.

18.2   Responsibility
       Appropriate employees shall be instructed in the safety significance of the lockout /
       tagout procedure. Each new or transferred affected employee and other employees
       whose work operations are, or may be in the area shall be instructed in the purpose and
       use of the lockout or tagout procedure.

18.3   Electrical Lockout

       Proper lockout of electrical equipment and/or equipment rotated or driven by electrical
       motors including, but not limited to, compressors, and any other equipment which might
       create a hazard to personnel when work is being performed on or around such
       equipment is essential.

18.3.1 Prior to repair or maintenance on energized equipment or machinery, foremen are
       responsible for shutting down the equipment and locking out the main switch with a
       lockout device. On high voltage breakers, an electrician must be used to jack the
       breaker out to the disconnect position and place the multi-lock device on the jack shaft
       for the foreman.

       On high voltage fuses, an electrician will open the disconnect, short and ground the
       roadside of the disconnect, and remove the fuses and place the multi-lock device on the
       door so the door cannot be opened. After locking out the circuit, the foreman should try
       the start-up switch to assure the equipment will not start. Caution: Return operating
       controls to the "off" position after the test.

18.3.2 Any outside vendor working on the equipment will also apply their locks to the lockout
       device, except on high voltage, an electrician will place their locks while they observe.
       When the vendor concerned with the job has completed their part of the work, they are
       to remove their lock from the switch, or on high voltage, have the electrician remove
       their lock while they observe.

18.3.3 Locks must be applied at the main switch or circuit breaker and not at the remote or
       start/stop station. Some motors have more than one such station.

18.3.4 When all crafts have completed their work and removed their locks, the operator may
       remove his lock and put the equipment in service, except on high voltage, an electrician
       will remove the multi-lock device and jack the breaker in or replace the fuses and close
       the disconnect.

18.3.5 When a job is completed, the operator removing the lock will return it to the Safety office
       lock board and note it in the logbook.



                                       MRCA/SHARP®      55
18.3.6 Locks shall be of a design and standard decided on by management. Each individual
       will have locks keyed alike. Each craft will have locks consecutively numbered and
       keyed differently. Each supervisor will have a master key for his group of locks.

18.3.7 Locks may be painted a distinct color for each craft for easy identification.

18.3.8 In case of small motors or portable devices, physical disconnection, such as unplugging
       the male plug from the female receptacle, is permissible instead of locking out.

18.3.9 No lock shall be removed other than by the original key except by that Craft Supervisor.
       A master key will be used only in cases where the person who has locked-out
       equipment cannot be contacted or where the job was started on the preceding day and
       the person is absent from work, the supervisor will then remove the lock with the master
       key, and the person assigned to replace that person will place his lock in its place.

18.3.10 All lockout locks must have a "Danger Do Not Operate" tag with the name of the
        person and key number on the tag attached to the lockout device; lock numbers, tag
        numbers and the name of the persons must all match.

18.3.11 All locks are the responsibility of the individual assigned to the lock number. No locks
        will be used by others not assigned to that number.

18.3.12 Equipment that is locked out and is permanently out of service and not intended to be
        put back in service, will be locked out with a department lock furnished by the
        Supervisor, also transformer cabinets, substation fences, and tool boxes will use
        department locks, not lockout locks.

18.3.13 Locks that malfunction will be turned in to the supervisor. The non-working locks will be
        replaced with a lock with the same number.

18.4   Other Energy Sources (lockout / tagout)

       Other energy sources include, but are not limited to: springs, elevated machine
       members, rotating flywheels / fans, hydraulic systems, and; air, gas, steam, or water
       pressure, etc.

18.4.1 The foreman is responsible for shutting down and isolating the equipment. Isolation
       shall be done by such means as applying chains and locks, blinding and tagging, or
       using restraints. Stored energy shall then be dissipated by methods such as
       repositioning, blocking and bleeding down.

18.4.2 When isolating an energy source piping, the chain and lock method can only be used
       during a craft employee’s shift or extended shift, and only if the isolation valves do not
       leak. Otherwise, blinding is mandatory.

18.4.3 Foremen’s locks shall be the first on and the last off. Once a lock is applied to the multi-
       lock device, the lock number shall be recorded in the unit log.

18.4.4 After isolation of the equipment and the dissipation of the stored energy the foreman will
       attempt to activate or use the equipment to assure that the equipment cannot be started
       or used.


                                        MRCA/SHARP®      56
18.4.5 At this time all crafts that work on this equipment shall apply their locks to the lockout
       device. When the craft concerned with the job has completed their part of the work,
       they are to remove their lock from the lockout device.

18.4.6 When all crafts have completed their work and removed their locks, the operator may
       remove his lock and put the equipment in service. This should be recorded in the
       logbook.

18.5   Restoring Machines or Equipment to Normal Production Operations

18.5.1 All employees are authorized to shut down equipment, especially in the case of an
       emergency. Re-activation of equipment or machinery is a different matter. Activation of
       start switches or levers may only be performed by the foreman. Other employees may
       only activate start switches or levers subsequent to specific approval and verbal
       authorization from the foreman. This rule applies generally to all machinery and
       equipment but most especially to roof cutters, tearoff machines, power brooms,
       scrapers, spudders, and roof hoists and hoisting equipment..

19.0   HEARING CONSERVATION

19.1   The company hearing conservation section will comply with 29 CFR 1926.52 –
       Occupational noise exposure.

19.1.1 Noise exposure level monitoring for rooftop/outdoor equipment and sheet metal shop
       equipment will be conducted by the Safety Coordinator in accordance with 29 CFR
       1926.52. The monitoring will be documented using three main documents, copies of
       which can be found in the Safety Director’s office:

    Sound Level Measurement Field Log – intended to be filled out in the field while or
     immediately after measurements are taken

    Hearing Conservation Program Exposure Level Test Results (Outdoor/Rooftop
     Equipment) – allow for office categorization and recording of efforts for each job site
     where outdoor/rooftop equipment is measured

    Hearing Conservation Program Exposure Level Test Results (Sheet Metal Shop
     Equipment) – allow for office categorization and recording of efforts for each location
     sheet metal shop equipment is measured

       All of these documents record the types of instruments used for exposure
       measurement, their calibration, and the exact results of monitoring.

19.1.2 The results of noise exposure level monitoring are available at both the company office
       and the Safety Director’s office.

20.0   SAFETY & HEALTH COMPLIANCE ENFORCEMENT

20.1   This section is intended to promote compliance with, and enforcement of the company's
       Safety and Health Program. The following disciplinary procedures will be undertaken for
       infractions of safety and health rules and guidelines.

20.1.1 The first infraction of any safety and health rules will bring a written warning.

                                        MRCA/SHARP®       57
20.1.2 The second infraction of any safety and health rules requires a written warning and
       disqualification from the incentive program for that quarter.

20.1.3 Upon commission of a third infraction of the safety and health rules the employee will
       receive one day off without pay and disqualification from the incentive program for the
       entire year.
20.1.4 A commission of a fourth offense of the safety and health rules will result in termination
       of employment with yourcompanyname.

21.0   OCCUPATIONAL INJURY MANAGEMENT/RECORDKEEPING

21.1   Recordkeeping -- Recording or reporting a work-related injury, illness, or fatality does
       not mean that the employer or employee was at fault, that an OSHA rule has been
       violated, or that the employee is eligible for workers' compensation or other benefits. All
       employers covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) are covered
       by these Part 1904 regulations.

21.1.1 If your company had ten (10) or fewer employees at all times during the last calendar
       year, you do not need to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless OSHA or the BLS
       informs you in writing that you must keep records. However, all employers covered by
       the OSH Act must report to OSHA any workplace incident that results in a fatality or the
       hospitalization of three or more employees.
21.1.2 If your company had more than ten (10) employees at any time during the last calendar
       year, you must keep OSHA injury and illness records unless your establishment is
       classified as a partially exempt industry under § 1904.2.

21.2   Work-Related -- You must consider an injury or illness to be work-related if an event or
       exposure in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition
       or significantly aggravated a pre-existing injury or illness. Work-relatedness is presumed
       for injuries and illnesses resulting from events or exposures occurring in the work
       environment, unless an exception in § 1904.5(b)(2) specifically applies.

21.2.1 What is the "work environment"? OSHA defines the work environment as "the
       establishment and other locations where one or more employees are working or are
       present as a condition of their employment. The work environment includes not only
       physical locations, but also the equipment or materials used by the employee during the
       course of his or her work."

21.2.2 You are not required to record injuries and illnesses if . . .

    At the time of the injury or illness, the employee was present in the work environment as
     a member of the general public rather than as an employee.

    The injury or illness involves signs or symptoms that surface at work but result solely
     from a non-work-related event or exposure that occurs outside the work environment.

    The injury or illness results solely from voluntary participation in a wellness program or
     in a medical, fitness, or recreational activity such as blood donation, physical
     examination, flu shot, exercise class, racquetball, or baseball.

    The injury or illness is solely the result of an employee eating, drinking, or preparing
     food or drink for personal consumption (whether bought on the employer's premises or
                                         MRCA/SHARP®      58
       brought in). For example, if the employee were injured by choking on a sandwich while
       in the employer's establishment, the case would not be considered work-related.

       Note: If the employee is made ill by ingesting food contaminated by workplace
       contaminants (such as lead), or gets food poisoning from food supplied by the
       employer, the case would be considered work-related.

    The injury or illness is solely the result of an employee doing personal tasks (unrelated
     to their employment) at the establishment outside of the employee's assigned working
     hours.
    The injury or illness is solely the result of personal grooming, self-medication for a non-
     work-related condition, or is intentionally self-inflicted.

    The injury or illness is caused by a motor vehicle accident and occurs on a company
     parking lot or company access road while the employee is commuting to or from work.

    The illness is the common cold or flu (Note: contagious diseases such as tuberculosis,
     brucellosis, hepatitis A, or plague are considered work-related if the employee is
     infected at work).

    The illness is a mental illness. Mental illness will not be considered work-related unless
     the employee voluntarily provides the employer with an opinion from a physician or other
     licensed health care professional with appropriate training and experience (psychiatrist,
     psychologist, psychiatric nurse practitioner, etc.) stating that the employee has a mental
     illness that is work-related.
21.3   Traveling Employees -- Injuries and illnesses that occur while an employee is on travel
       status are work-related if, at the time of the injury or illness, the employee was engaged
       in work activities "in the interest of the employer." Examples of such activities include
       travel to and from customer contacts, conducting job tasks, and entertaining or being
       entertained to transact, discuss, or promote business (work-related entertainment
       includes only entertainment activities being engaged in at the direction of the employer).

21.4   Recording Injuries -- You must consider an injury or illness to meet the general
       recording criteria, and therefore to be recordable, if it results in any of the following:
      Death
      Days away from work
      Restricted work or transfer to another job
      Medical treatment beyond first aid
      or loss of consciousness
      You must also consider a case to meet the general recording criteria if it involves a
       significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care
       professional, even if it does not result in death, days away from work, restricted work or
       job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness.

21.4.1 You must record an injury or illness that results in death by entering a check mark on
       the OSHA 300 Log in the space for cases resulting in death. You must also report any
       work-related fatality to OSHA within eight (8) hours.

21.4.2 When an injury or illness involves one or more days away from work, you must record
       the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log with a check mark in the space for cases
       involving days away and an entry of the number of calendar days away from work in the
       number of days column. If the employee is out for an extended period of time, you must

                                       MRCA/SHARP®      59
       enter an estimate of the days that the employee will be away, and update the day count
       when the actual number of days is known.

21.4.3 You begin counting days away on the day after the injury occurred or the illness began.

21.4.4 You must count the number of calendar days the employee was unable to work as a
       result of the injury or illness, regardless of whether or not the employee was scheduled
       to work on those day(s). Weekend days, holidays, vacation days or other days off are
       included in the total number of days recorded if the employee would not have been able
       to work on those days because of a work-related injury or illness

21.4.5 You may "cap" the total days away at 180 calendar days. You are not required to keep
       track of the number of calendar days away from work if the injury or illness resulted in
       more than 180 calendar days away from work and/or days of job transfer or restriction.
       In such a case, entering 180 in the total days away column will be considered adequate.

21.4.6 If a work-related injury or illness results in medical treatment beyond first aid, you must
       record it on the OSHA 300 Log. If the injury or illness did not involve death, one or more
       days away from work, one or more days of restricted work, or one or more days of job
       transfer, you enter a check mark in the box for cases where the employee received
       medical treatment but remained at work and was not transferred or restricted.

21.4.7 "Medical treatment" means the management and care of a patient to combat disease or
       disorder. For this purpose, medical treatment does not include:

    Visits to a physician or other licensed health care professional solely for observation or
     counseling;
    The conduct of diagnostic procedures, such as x-rays and blood tests, including the
     administration of prescription medications used solely for diagnostic purposes (e.g., eye
     drops to dilate pupils);
    or "First aid" as defined in 21..4.5 of this section.

21.4.5 "first aid" means the following:

    Using a non-prescription medication at nonprescription strength (for medications
     available in both prescription and non-prescription form, a recommendation by a
     physician or other licensed health care professional to use a non-prescription medication
     at prescription strength is considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes);
    Administering tetanus immunizations (other immunizations, such as Hepatitis B vaccine
     or rabies vaccine, are considered medical treatment);
    Cleaning, flushing or soaking wounds on the surface of the skin;
    Using wound coverings such as bandages, Band-Aids™, gauze pads, etc.; or using
     butterfly bandages or Steri-Strips™ (other wound closing devices such as sutures,
     staples, etc., are considered medical treatment);
    Using hot or cold therapy;
    Using any non-rigid means of support, such as elastic bandages, wraps, non-rigid back
     belts, etc. (devices with rigid stays or other systems designed to immobilize parts of the
     body are considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes);
    Using temporary immobilization devices while transporting an accident victim (e.g.,
     splints, slings, neck collars, back boards, etc.).
    Drilling of a fingernail or toenail to relieve pressure, or draining fluid from a blister;
    Using eye patches;
    Removing foreign bodies from the eye using only irrigation or a cotton swab;
                                          MRCA/SHARP®   60
    Removing splinters or foreign material from areas other than the eye by irrigation,
     tweezers, cotton swabs or other simple means;
    Using finger guards;
    Using massages (physical therapy or chiropractic treatment are considered medical
     treatment for recordkeeping purposes); or
    Drinking fluids for relief of heat stress.

21.5   Forms -- You must use OSHA 300, 300-A, and 301 forms, or equivalent forms, for
       recordable injuries and illnesses. The OSHA 300 form is called the Log of Work-Related
       Injuries and Illnesses, the 300-A is the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses,
       and the OSHA 301 form is called the Injury and Illness Incident Report.

21.5.1 You must enter information about your business at the top of the OSHA 300 Log, enter
       a one- or two-line description for each recordable injury or illness, and summarize this
       information on the OSHA 300-A at the end of the year.

21.5.2 You must complete an OSHA 301 Incident Report form, or an equivalent form, for each
       recordable injury or illness entered on the OSHA 300 Log.

21.5.3 You must enter each recordable injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log and 301 Incident
       Report within seven (7) calendar days of receiving information that a recordable injury or
       illness has occurred.

21.5.4 You must keep a separate OSHA 300 Log for each establishment that is expected to be
       in operation for one year or longer.

21.5.5 You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all
       employees on your payroll, whether they are labor, executive, hourly, salary, part-time,
       seasonal, or migrant workers. You also must record the recordable injuries and illnesses
       that occur to employees who are not on your payroll if you supervise these employees
       on a day-to-day basis. If your business is organized as a sole proprietorship or
       partnership, the owner or partners are not considered employees for recordkeeping
       purposes.

       NOTE: If you obtain employees from a temporary help service, employee leasing
       service, or personnel supply service, and an injury or illness occurs to one of
       these employees, you must record these injuries and illnesses if you supervise these
       employees on a day-to-day basis.
21.5.6 At the end of each calendar year, you must:

    Review the OSHA 300 Log to verify that the entries are complete and accurate, and
     correct any deficiencies identified;
    Create an annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on the OSHA 300 Log;
    Certify the summary;
    Post the annual summary.
    You must review the entries as extensively as necessary to make sure that they are
     complete and correct.

21.5.7 How do I complete the annual summary? You must:

    Total the columns on the OSHA 300 Log (if you had no recordable cases, enter zeros
        for each column total); and



                                       MRCA/SHARP®      61
    Enter the calendar year covered, the company's name, establishment name,
     establishment address, annual average number of employees covered by the OSHA
     300 Log, and the total hours worked by all employees covered by the OSHA 300 Log.

       NOTE: If you are using an equivalent form other than the OSHA 300-A summary form,
       as permitted under § 1904.6(b)(4), the summary you use must also include the
       employee access and employer penalty statements found on the OSHA 300-A
       Summary form.
21.5.8 How do I certify the annual summary? A company executive must certify that he or
       she has examined the OSHA 300 Log and that he or she reasonably believes, based on
       his or her knowledge of the process by which the information was recorded, that the
       annual summary is correct and complete.
21.5.8.1 Who is considered a company executive? The company executive who certifies the
        log must be one of the following persons:

      An owner of the company (only if the company is a sole proprietorship or partnership);
      An officer of the corporation;
      The highest ranking company official working at the establishment; or
      The immediate supervisor of the highest-ranking company official working at the
          establishment.
21.5.9 How do I post the annual summary? You must post a copy of the annual summary in
       each establishment in a conspicuous place or places where notices to employees are
       customarily posted. You must ensure that the posted annual summary is not altered,
       defaced or covered by other material.

21.5.10 When do I have to post the annual summary? You must post the summary no later
       than February 1 of the year following the year covered by the records and keep the
       posting in place until April 30.

21.5.11 You must save the OSHA 300 Log, the privacy case list (if one exists), the annual
       summary, and the OSHA 301 Incident Report forms for five (5) years following the end
       of the calendar year that these records cover.

21.5.12 You must save your copies of the OSHA 200 and 101 forms for five years following the
       year to which they relate and continue to provide access to the data as though these
       forms were the OSHA 300 and 301 forms. You are not required to update your old 200
       and 101 forms.

       NOTE: During the storage period, you must update your stored OSHA 300 Logs to
       include newly discovered recordable injuries or illnesses and to show any changes that
       have occurred in the classification of previously recorded injuries and illnesses. If the
       description or outcome of a case changes, you must remove or line out the original entry
       and enter the new information.

21.6   Reporting a Death or Accident -- Within eight (8) hours after the death of any
       employee from a work-related incident or the in-patient hospitalization of three or more
       employees as a result of a work-related incident, you must orally report the
       fatality/multiple hospitalization by telephone or in person to the Area Office of the
       Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor, that
       is nearest to the site of the incident. You may also use the OSHA toll-free central
       telephone number, 1-800-321-OSHA (1-800-321-6742).


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21.6.1 You must give OSHA the following information for each fatality or multiple hospitalization
       incident:
        The establishment name;
        The location of the incident;
        The time of the incident;
        The number of fatalities or hospitalized employees;
        The names of any injured employees;
        Your contact person and his or her phone number; and
        A brief description of the incident.
21.6.2 Do I have to report a fatality caused by a heart attack at work? Yes, your local
       OSHA Area Office director will decide whether to investigate the incident, depending on
       the circumstances of the heart attack.
21.7   Purpose--Regardless of the best efforts of employees and the management toward the
       prevention of accidents, it is inevitable that some work- related injuries would occur. In
       conjunction with our worker's compensation insurance carrier, the company has
       established an "Early Return to Work" program to provide cost-effective medical
       treatment and a recovery program for employees who are injured on the job.

21.8   Early Return to Work Guidelines

21.8.1 Any employee injured on the job will be referred to the appropriate medical care facility.

21.8.2 The Safety Coordinator will communicate with the treating physicians to coordinate the
       possible availability of temporary alternative work assignments suitable for any
       limitations of the injured employee. The Safety Coordinator will follow-up with the
       employee and medical care providers when an injury requires extended care or recovery
       periods.

21.8.3 The yourcompanyname policy is to allow the employee to perform light duty work, if
       applicable. This will be determined on a case-by-case basis.

22.0   ACCIDENT / INCIDENT NOTIFICATION AND PROCEDURES

       Prompt and detailed reporting of accidents and/or incidents, which cause injuries to
       persons or damage to property, is essential. The responsibility for reporting begins with
       anyone who is involved in or witness to any such event. The foreman must respond to
       any injury situation with the appropriate action.

       Accident reporting is to be done immediately after an accident. Accidents shall be
       reported to _____________________ at (___) ___-_____.

22.1   Response Actions

       Any injury must be assessed by the foreman and dealt with as follows:

22.1.1 Any life-threatening injury requires an immediate call to 911. The injured worker should
       be treated with first-aid until the arrival of emergency medical personnel. Treatment
       should be done by someone who has been trained and is certified in First-Aid/CPR.

22.1.2 Notify the Safety Coordinator as soon as possible.


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22.1.3 Transport less seriously injured employees to the proper and appropriate medical
       provider.

22.1.4 Make out a detailed and complete report of the injury and circumstances surrounding it.
       (See Sec. 22.3)

22.1.5 The Safety Coordinator will make the report if he/she is notified in a timely manner and
       able to come to the accident scene and investigate.

22.2   Objective Assessment

       The assessment of work-related injuries is a very critical process. Although, minor cuts
       and scrapes which can be treated on-site from the first aid kit need not be reported.
       Injuries such as back strains and pulled muscles should be treated as serious and dealt
       with accordingly. These injuries have the potential to become workers compensation
       claims and must be thoroughly investigated. If in doubt, consult the Safety Coordinator.

22.3   Accident/Incident Investigation

22.3.1 When an accident/incident takes place, workers should inform the jobsite foreman
       immediately, who is then responsible for contacting the Safety Coordinator at the
       company office. The Safety Coordinator is responsible for contacting the Safety
       Director.

22.3.2 The responsibility for promptly and thoroughly completing an incident/accident
       investigation is with the Safety Director.

22.3.3 The Safety Director will use the “Incident/Accident Investigation Report Form” as the
       framework for all investigations conducted. A copy of this form is available at the
       company office and the Safety Director’s office.

22.3.4 The “Incident/Accident Investigation Report Form” will contain recommendations for
       corrective actions, procedures or process changes, or any other action deemed
       necessary by the investigator to diminish or abate the hazard or exposure, which
       allowed or created the accident. A timetable for corrective actions will also be included,
       with the Safety Director charged with monitoring and ensuring the completion of the
       items within the timetable.

       In conducting an investigation, time is of the essence. Information is best gathered
       immediately after any accident or incident. The investigation should begin as soon as
       possible after an accident/incident, and in no case more than 24 hours after the event.

22.3.5 A comprehensive accident/incident investigation report will contain recommendations for
       corrective actions, procedure or process changes, or any other action deemed
       necessary by the investigator to diminish or abate the hazard or exposure, which
       allowed or created the accident. The Safety Coordinator will designate a timetable for
       changes to be made and compliance with recommendations achieved. He/she will
       monitor the necessary changes and be responsible for ensuring their completion.




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23.0   RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

       This Respiratory Protection Program has been established in accordance with 29 CFR
       1910.134 in order to protect company employees from those occupational diseases
       caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases,
       smokes, sprays, or vapors. The primary objective is to prevent atmospheric
       contamination, accomplished as far as feasible by engineering control measures (for
       example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general or local ventilation, and
       substitution of less toxic materials). When engineering controls are not feasible,
       appropriate respirators shall be used pursuant to the requirements outlined in this
       section.

       Respiratory protective devices shall be approved by the National Institute for
       Occupational Safety and Health or acceptable to the U.S. Department of Labor for the
       Specific contaminant to which the employee may be exposed.

23.1   Responsibilities

       Administration of this program shall be the responsibility of the Safety Director. He/she
       shall also be responsible for an annual inspection and evaluation of the program to
       determine the continued effectiveness of the program. When deficiencies are noted,
       this shall be reported to the company Safety Coordinator.

       The company Safety Coordinator shall have the authority to make adjustments in the
       program and its procedures as necessary to ensure its effectiveness.

       Employees must use respirators issued or approved by the company. Respirators must
       be used in accordance with the training provided. Employees are required to guard
       against damage to the respirators and to report any malfunction to their foreman.
       Employees shall ensure that respirators are stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary
       location.

23.2   Selection of Respirators

       Selection of respirators shall be determined on a job-by-job basis. Hazard assessment
       shall be made as part of a Site-Specific Safety and Health Plan for jobs that appear to
       present potential health hazards to workers through inhalation.

23.2.1 Respirator selection shall be made using the information available so as to afford the
       level of protection necessary relative to the hazard.

23.2.2 The chemical and physical properties of the contaminant, as well as the toxicity and
       concentration of the hazardous material, shall be considered in the selection process for
       respirators.

23.2.3 The nature and extent of the hazard, work requirements and conditions, as well as the
       limitations and characteristics of the available respirators, shall also be factors
       considered in making the proper selection.

23.2.4 Only respirators approved by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
       (NIOSH) shall be acceptable for use by employees in this program. The
       appropriateness of the equipment shall be as outlined in 1910.134(d) – Selection of
       Respirators.
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23.2.5 Limitations--Air purifying respirators are only acceptable for use in atmosphere that are
       not oxygen deficient, and that are not Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH).

23.3   Use of Respirators

       Employees required to wear respirators shall be trained in the respirators safe use,
       selection, and maintenance.

23.3.1 Pre-use inspection--Employees will inspect respirators prior to each use. He/she should
       check to see that all parts are present and intact and that the respirator is clean. A
       respirator that is not routinely used but is kept ready for emergency use shall be
       inspected after each use and at least monthly to assure that it is in satisfactory working
       condition.

23.4   The Respirator is Donned By:

23.4.1 Placing the device over the face by first fitting the chin into the respirator and pulling the
       face piece to the face;

23.4.2 Positioning the headbands around the crown of the head and the back of the neck; and

23.4.3 Adjust the headbands, beginning with the lower ones, until a tight but comfortable fit is
       obtained; and

23.4.4 Performing a positive and negative pressure check. Each time the respirator is donned,
       a positive and negative pressure check should be made.

23.4.5 Positive pressure check--place the palm of the hand or thumb over the exhalation valve
       cover and press lightly. Exhale slightly to create a positive pressure inside the face
       piece. If no air escapes, proceed with job duties. If air escapes, readjust face piece and
       try again. If this test fails, contact your foreman.

23.4.6 Negative pressure check--place the palm of the hand over each filter to seal off the
       inhalation valves. Inhale slightly to create a negative pressure inside the face piece. If
       a vacuum is achieved, proceed with job duties. If air is drawn in from edges of face
       piece, readjust the face piece and try again. If this check is unsuccessful, contact your
       foreman.

23.5   Qualitative Fit Test

       When employees are required to wear and use negative pressure respirators, a
       qualitative fit test may be required as part of the selection process for the respirator. No
       employee will be required to wear a negative pressure respirator for which a successful
       qualitative fit-test has been performed.

23.5.1 A Competent Person will administer a qualitative fit test using controlled procedures and
       recognized protocols for this procedure as outlined in 29 CFR 1910.134, Appendix A.

23.5.2 The results and record of the qualitative fit-test will be documented on a form and
       maintained in the employee’s file or in a fit-test file that is maintained in the company
       main office.

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23.6   Care and Storage of Respirators

       Respiratory protective equipment shall be inspected regularly and maintained in good
       condition. Chemical cartridges shall be replaced as necessary so as to provide
       complete protection.

       Respirators that have been previously used shall be cleaned and disinfected before the
       company issues it to another employee.

       Remove filters, cartridges, or canisters. Disassemble face piece by removing speaking
       diaphragms, demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies, hoses, or any
       components recommended by the manufacturer. Discard or repair any defective parts.

       Wash components in warm (43 deg. C maximum) water with a mild detergent or with a
       cleaner recommended by the manufacturer. A stiff bristle (not wire) brush may be used
       to facilitate the removal of dirt.

       Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm, preferably running water and drain.

       When the cleaner used does not contain a disinfecting agent, respirator components
       should be immersed for two minutes in one of the following:

    Hypochlorite solution (50 ppm chlorine) made by adding approximately one milliliter of
     laundry bleach to one liter of water at 42 degrees C., or

    Aqueous solution of iodine (50 ppm iodine) made by adding approximately 0.8 milliliters
     of tincture of iodine (6-8 grams ammonium and/or potassium iodide/100 cc of 45%
     alcohol) to one liter of water at 43 degrees C., or

    Other commercially available cleansers of equivalent disinfectant quality when used as
     directed, if their use is recommended or approved by the respirator manufacturer.

       Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm, preferably running water. Drain.

       Components should be hand-dried with a clean, lint-free cloth or air-dried.

       Reassemble face piece, replacing filters, cartridges, and canisters where necessary.

       Test the respirator to ensure that all components work properly.

       All cleaned and inspected respirators will be stored in plastic bags under the supervision
       of the foreman when on the job site.

       Respirators will be under control and storage by a Competent Person when not in
       service on the job.

23.7   Job Site Surveillance

23.7.1 Appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure or
       stress shall be the responsibility of the foreman.



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23.7.2 Work practices and engineering controls shall be modified as necessary so as to
       minimize employee exposure to contaminants and stress, and to maximize the efficacy
       of protective equipment.

23.8   Medical and Physical Requirements

       The use and wearing of a respirator places unusual demands on the physical abilities
       and stamina of the wearer. Employees will not be assigned to tasks requiring the use of
       respirators unless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform the
       work and use the equipment. This determination will include at a minimum:

23.8.1 A physical exam by a physician will be required within the previous year prior to
       assignment of work duties requiring a respirator.

23.8.2 The final decision as to the physical ability of the employee to work in a respirator will be
       up to the physician and will be made in writing and placed in the employee's personnel
       file.

       The OSHA Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire (29 CFR 1910.134 App.C) will
       be utilized as part of the employee’s medical examination. The Respirator Medical
       Evaluation Questionnaire will be filled out by the employee and forwarded to the
       appropriate health care professional. A copy of the Respirator Medical Evaluation
       Questionnaire is available at the Company office, and is contained as an Appendix C of
       this program.

23.9   Information Regarding Employees Using Respirators When not Required Under
       the Standard.

       Respirators are an effective method of protection against designated hazards when
       properly selected and worn. Respirator use may be encouraged, even when exposures
       are below the exposure limit, to provide an additional level of comfort and protection for
       workers. However, if a respirator is used improperly or not kept clean, the respirator
       itself can become a hazard to the worker. Sometimes, workers may wear respirators to
       avoid exposures to hazards, even if the amount of hazardous substance does not
       exceed the limits set by OSHA standards. Certain precautions must be taken to be sure
       that the respirator itself does not present a hazard.

23.9.1 If an employee uses a respirator on a volunteer basis, in conditions where respirator use
       is not required, the following precautions are his/her responsibility (in accordance with
       29 CFR 1910.134, App. D):

23.9.2 The employee shall read and heed all instructions provided by the manufacturer on use,
       maintenance, cleaning and care, and warnings regarding the respirators limitations.

23.9.3 The employee shall choose respirators certified for use to protect against the
       contaminant of concern. NIOSH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
       Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, certifies respirators. A
       label or statement of certification should appear on the respirator or respirator
       packaging, regarding what the respirator is designed for the level of protection afforded.

23.9.4 The employee shall ensure that the respirator is not worn into atmospheres containing
       contaminants for which the respirator is not designed to protect against.

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23.9.5 The employee shall keep track of his/her respirator so that they do not mistakenly use
       someone else’s respirator.

24.0   WORKPLACE VIOLENCE PREVENTION

       Workplace violence has emerged as an important safety issue in today’s workplace. It’s
       most extreme form, homicide, is the second leading cause of fatal occupational injury in
       America. In addition, hundreds of thousands of workers experience some type of non-
       fatal violent assault on the job, each year. The company has established this section in
       an attempt to prevent injury to its employees from violent acts and to comply with the
       general duty clause of the Occupational Safety & Health Act. The general duty clause
       mandates that employers are responsible for creating a safe and healthy workplace for
       their employees.

24.1   Major Categories of Workplace Violence

24.1.1 Internal Violence – Usually perpetrated by current or former employees, or from
       outsiders. Conditions that can lead to internal violence may include, but not be limited
       to:

      Fear of job layoffs
      A rigid style of management
      Insensitive terminations
      Psychological instability
      Obsessive love affairs, or
      Domestic disputes that spill over into the workplace

24.1.2 External Violence – Occurs mainly away from company property and usually by
       persons who have no established relationship with the company. It may occur en route
       to or from company jobsites or on jobsites. It may be perpetrated by persons who are
       connected to the customer or client. It may come from workers in other trades who are
       present on the jobsite. It can take place any time while company employees are in
       public places or are interacting with the general public.

24.2   Threat Assessment

24.2.1 Threat Assessment Team – The Company will establish a threat assessment team
       comprised of representatives of management, senior supervisory personnel, foreman
       level personnel, and labor level personnel. Their responsibility includes assessing how
       vulnerable the company is to workplace violence, and reaching agreement on
       preventative actions to be taken. The team will review and analyze all past incidents of
       threats and violence to identify the types of risks faced by the company. Understanding
       the sources of threats and violence will enable the company to implement the proper
       preventative procedures. Goals of the team should include:

    Implementation of a prevention policy
    Implementation of an employee training program

    Contingency plans for responding to acts of violence

    Contingency plans for communicating with the media / public

24.3   Violence Prevention Strategies
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24.3.1 The following must be implementing toward the prevention of internal violence:

    Employee Training – Employees should receive training in awareness of co-workers
     whose behavior may indicate an imminent hazard.

    Zero Tolerance Policy (ZTP) – Must be enacted for violence among co-workers, and for
     absolute compliance with the company policy on prohibited articles. The ZTP must also
     set forth guidelines for dealing with alleged violence perpetrators.

    Pre-Employment Screening – Efforts should be made in the hiring process to identify
     potential employees who have a history of committing violent acts.

    Access Control – In general, there are two lines of defense in making a workplace
     secure. The first involves the property boundary lines and outside areas, such as
     parking lots, walkways and roads. The second is the perimeter walls of buildings. In
     both cases, the appearance of the facility, whether it looks secure or not, should be of
     primary consideration. Fences and landscaping can be used to protect the property
     boundary lines. The fence should be installed to nationally recognized standards and be
     provided with access control devices, such as gates or turnstiles. Natural barriers such
     as dense shrubbery also may deter intruders. Proper lighting of outside areas,
     especially parking lots, acts as a strong psychological deterrent to the intruder.

    Prevention Training for all Employees – Should include training on the warning signs
     and indicators of potential violence, the need for employees to inform the company of
     threats and incidents, and the procedures for reporting threats and incidents. Training
     should also cover crisis management for responding to acts of violence, and for
     communication with the media and the public.

25.0   FALL PROTECTION

       The intent of the fall protection program is to outline safety and compliance
       requirements for fall protection as they pertain to the roofing industry.

25.1   Definitions

25.1.1 Anchorage – A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices.

       Body Belt – A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a
       lanyard or lifeline. To be used for restraint or positioning work only, not for fall arrest.

       Body Harness – Straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will
       distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders, with
       means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

       CFR – Code of Federal Regulations

       Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) – An area in which certain work may take place without the
       use of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems; access to the
       zone is controlled.

       Free Fall – The act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest
       the fall.
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       Guardrail Systems – A barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.

       Hole – A gap or void 2 inches (5.1 cm) or more in it’s least dimension in a floor, roof, or other
       walking/working surface.

       Low-Slope Roof – A roof having a slope less than or equal to 4/12 (vertical to horizontal).

       Mechanical Equipment – All motor or human propelled wheeled equipment used for roofing
       work, except wheelbarrows and mopcarts.

       PPE – Personal Protective Equipment

       Rake Edges – Any unprotected side, of which, is not a constant elevation.

       Roof – The exterior surface on the top of a building. This does not include floors or framework,
       which, if a building has not been completed, temporarily become the top surface of the building.

       Roofing Work – The hoisting, storage, application and removal of roofing materials and
       equipment, including related insulation, sheet metal, and vapor barrier work, but not including
       the construction of the roof deck.

       Steep-Roof – A roof having a slope greater than 4/12 (vertical to horizontal).

       Toeboard – A low protective barrier that will prevent the fall of materials and equipment to
       lower levels and provide protection from falls for personnel.

       Walking/Working Surface – Any surface, whether horizontal or vertical, on which an employee
       walks or works.

25.2   Fall Protection Systems

       Fall protection systems must be used to protect employees that are working on roofs with
       unprotected edges that are six (6) feet or more above the lower levels. Forms of fall protection
       and their requirements are as follows:

25.2.1 Guardrail Systems

    Must have an overall height of 42 inches (give or take 3 inches)

    Must have a top and mid rail, and toe boards.

    All rails must be a smooth surface rail, at least a minimum of ¼ inch thick.

    If rails are made of a wire rope, then:

        It must be flagged with a highly visible material at an interval of not less than every six feet.
        The wire rope must be a minimum of ¼ inch thick.

    The top rail must be capable of withstanding 200 pounds of pressure with a total deflection of
     no more than three (3) inches at a point within two (2) inches of the top.

25.2.2 Safety Net Systems


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       Safety net systems are generally not used for fall protection on roofing jobs. If and when a
       safety net system is proposed for any specific job, the yourcompanyname Safety Director
       should be involved. In addition, the system set up according to the requirements of the Fall
       Protection Standard for safety net systems, 29 CFR 1926, 502 (c).

25.2.3 Personal Fall Arrest Systems consist of:

    Full-Body Harness

    Lanyards

    Lifelines - Must be constructed of synthetic fibers such as nylon or rayon

    Anchorages - Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment shall be
     independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of
     supporting at least 5,000 pounds per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and
     used as follows:

        As part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least
         two; and

        Under the supervision of a qualified person.

    Maximum arresting force on a person can be no greater than 1800 pounds. When the whole
     system is assembled, it shall allow the employee a freefall of no more than six (6) feet.

       Note: Effective January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest
             system.

25.2.4 Warning Line Systems - When used, warning line systems must be used in conjunction with a
       Safety Monitor and be set up according to the following provisions:

    Have an overall height of between 34 (at lowest sag) and 39 inches.
    Must be constructed with a material that has a tensile strength of at least 500 pounds
    flagged with a highly visible material at an interval of six (6) feet or less.
    Set up a minimum of six (6) feet from the edge of the roof.
    Stanchions must be capable of withstanding a lateral pressure of 16-18 pounds, when applied
     at a point 30 inches above the roof or working surface.
    When mechanical equipment is used, then the warning lines will be set up according to the
     following:

    A minimum of six (6) feet from the edge parallel to the travel of the mechanical equipment.
    A minimum of ten (10) feet from the edge perpendicular to the travel of the mechanical
     equipment.
    On roofs where the width is less than 50 feet Warning Lines are not required; however, a
     trained Safety Monitor is required.

25.2.5 Safety Monitor System

       Safety Monitors MUST be competent, capable persons who are properly trained and has
       knowledge of the elements of the Fall Protection Standard, has the authority to take prompt
       corrective measures to eliminate hazards, and understands the procedures to be followed in
       order to minimize fall hazards. Responsibilities include:



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    Warning employees when it appears that they are unaware of a fall hazard or are acting in an
          unsafe manner,

    Positioned so as to be able to observe all of the workers on the job, and

    Must be able to communicate orally with all of those they are in charge of monitoring.

25.2.6 Fall Protection Plans (Residential-type roofing construction)

       “Residential-type construction” is characterized as that where the materials and construction
       methods are essentially the same as in typical single-housing or town-home type of buildings.
       That basically means where the structural roof framing is done with wood lumber. Fall
       Protection plans can be used only if it can be demonstrated that there is no alternative and that
       other Fall Protection Systems are not feasible, and/or create greater fall hazards. The Fall
       Protection Plan must correspond with the following:

    Be prepared by a qualified, knowledgeable person and implemented by the same.

    Must be site-specific, up to date, and maintained at the jobsite.

    Must designate by name or other means of identification, who is authorized to be in the
     Controlled Access Zone (CAZ).

    A competent person must investigate any accident promptly and modify the Fall Protection Plan
     accordingly.

    Plans must follow Appendix E to subpart M of the Fall Protection Standard, 29 CFR
     1926.502(k).

25.3   Other Rooftop Hazards

25.3.1 Roofing work on Low-sloped roofs

       With the exception of performing hoisting operations, working around holes, ramps and
       runways, or dangerous equipment, each employee engaged in roofing activities on low-sloped
       roofs, with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected
       from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, or a
       combination of warning line system and guardrail system, warning line system and safety net
       system, or warning line system and personal fall arrest system, or warning line system and
       safety monitoring system. Or, on roofs 50 feet or less in width, the use of a safety monitoring
       system alone is permitted.

25.3.2 Holes and Openings

       Openings which are commonplace for such things as skylights and rooftop equipment must be
       securely covered and marked or labeled as such.

    Securely covered is identified as nailed or screwed down, or attached so the wind, equipment,
     or employees may not inadvertently remove them.

    Marked or labeled is identified as color coded or marked with the word “hole” or “cover” to
     provide warning of the hazard.

    Covers, structurally, must be capable of holding twice the weight of any worker traffic that may
     be on it at any given time.

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    The proper covering and marking of rooftop openings is the responsibility of the General
     Contractor.

    All rooftop openings will be inspected by yourcompanyname prior to beginning the roofing
     operations, and if the rooftop openings are not deemed to be properly covered,
     yourcompanyname will see that it is properly done, and will also notify the General Contractor of
     the situation.

25.3.3 Protection for Persons Below Walking/Working Surfaces

    Toeboards, when used as falling object protection, will be erected along the edge of the
     overhead walking/working surface for a distance sufficient to protect employees below.

    The toeboards will be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds
     applied in any outward or downward direction.

    The toeboards must be a minimum of 3.5 inches in vertical height, and have not more than ¼
     inch of clearance above the working surface.

    The toeboards must be solid or have openings not more than 1 inch in greatest dimension.

25.4   Alternate Fall Protection Systems (Applicable to Residential Roofing)

       Alternate fall protection systems are available for use on structures where the working
       environment and the construction materials, methods, and procedures employed are essentially
       the same as those used for typical house and townhouse construction.

25.4.1 Roofing slide guards are an acceptable fall protection system on roofs of 8/12 or less slope,
       with eave to lower level or ground height of 25 feet or less. Slide guards must be made of
       planks that are of 2in. x 6in. nominal dimension.

25.4.2 On roofs with a slope of 6/12 or less, no more than 3 rows of material may be installed before a
       continuous slide guard is installed along the entire length of the eave. The plank must be
       installed approximately perpendicular, or 90 degrees to the plane of the roof.

25.4.3 On roofs with a slope greater than 6/12, up to and including 8/12, the eave slide guards must
       be installed as described in Sec. 26.4.2, and additional guards must be installed below the work
       area at intervals of not more than 8 feet.

25.4.4 On roofs with a slope of more than 8/12 or with an eave to ground height of more than 26 feet,
       conventional fall protection systems must be used.

25.4.5 On roofs with a slope of 4/12 or less, or on tile or metal roofs with a slope of 8/12 or less, safety
       monitoring systems alone may be used.

25.4.6 If conventional fall protection systems are not used, Employees must:

          Be trained in alternate fall protection systems.
          Be trained in the special fall hazards of rake edges.
          Ensure that work surfaces are clear of slip hazards.
          Wear appropriate non-slip footwear.
          Not ascend or descend the roof within 6 ft. of rake edges.
          Not store materials or supplies within 6 ft. of rake edges.
          Not store tile materials or supplies within 3 ft. of rake edges.

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        Maintain areas below eaves and rake edges free of falling object hazards.

25.5   Training

       Employees who perform work that requires the use of fall protection will receive training on the
       proper steps and procedures for performing the work in a safe manner.

25.5.1 General Training - Employees who are covered under the Fall Protection Program shall receive
       “Fall Protection training (Competent Person) training and be required to take a written test.

25.5.2 In order to pass, the employee must maintain a 70% or higher, demonstrating knowledge and
       competence regarding fall protection.

25.6   Specific Training

       When an employee is required to use fall protection equipment that they are not familiar with, or in
       a location that could pose additional hazards, they receive specific training. This training covers
       special equipment and procedures the employee needs to follow in order to safety perform the
       work.

25.7   Retraining

       When the employer has reason to believe that any affected employee who has already been
       trained does not have the understanding and skill required by this section, the employer shall
       retrain each such employee.

25.8   Certification

25.8.1 Any employee who is exposed to a fall hazard shall receive training by a competent person.
       Training will address the prevention and protection against fall hazards as well as outline safety
       systems to utilize for the hazards involved.

25.8.2 All documentation shall bear the names of the employees trained, the date of the training and the
       name, signature and title of the person who conducted the training.

25.8.3 All training documentation is maintained in the employees’ personnel safety file, located in the main
       office of yourcompanyname.

26.0   BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL

       This program is designed to facilitate compliance with 29 CFR 1910.1030 “Occupational Exposure
       to Bloodborne Pathogens.”

26.1   Exposure Determination

       The employees of yourcompanyname who may have somewhat of an exposure to blood or are
       at a greater risk for injuries producing blood would be those who work predominately with sheet
       metal, guttering, and metal flashing material, etc.

26.2   Compliance Methods

26.2.1 Every and all precaution should be taken to avoid contact with blood or other infectious materials.

26.2.2 All first aid kits shall be equipped with several surgical-type rubber gloves.

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26.2.3 Employees who have been exposed to the blood or other body fluids of others shall
       immediately wash their hands and other potentially exposed parts of their body.

26.3   Hepatitis B Vaccine

26.3.1 No working elements of the company have been identified as having substantial risk of
       exposure to bloodborne pathogens and therefore, will not require pre-exposure vaccination for
       Hepatitis B virus prior to work assignments.

26.3.2 Employees who are designated to render first aid on the job can be offered the Hepatitis B
       Vaccine after they have given first aid, rather than offering pre-exposure vaccinations. All first-
       aid providers who render assistance in any situation involving the presence of blood or other
       potentially infectious materials, regardless of whether a specific exposure incident occurs, must
       be offered the full immunization series as soon as possible, but in no event, later than 24 hours.

26.4   Post-Exposure Evaluation and Follow-Up

When an employee incurs an exposure incident, it must be reported to the Safety Coordinator. All
      employees who incur exposure incidents will be offered post-exposure evaluation and follow-up
      in accordance with the OSHA standard. This follow-up will include:

26.4.1 Documentation of the route of exposure and the circumstances related to the incident.

26.4.2 If possible, the identification of the source individual and, if possible, the status of the source
       individual. The blood of the source individual will be tested, after consent is obtained, for HIV /
       HBV infection.

26.4.3 Results of testing of the source individual will be made available to the exposed employee with
       the exposed employee informed about the applicable laws and regulations concerning
       disclosure of the identity of the source individual.

26.4.4 The employee will be given appropriate counseling concerning precautions to take during the
       period after the exposure incident. The employee will also be given information on what
       potential illnesses to be alert for and to report any related experiences to appropriate personnel.

26.5   Recordkeeping

       The company will establish and maintain accurate records for each employee with occupational
       exposure, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20 and paragraphs (h) (1) of the Bloodborne
       Standard.

27.0   EMPLOYEE SAFETY INCENTIVE PROGRAM

27.1   Safety Quiz

       At each monthly safety meeting, employees assigned to roofing operations or associated
       support of roofing operations will take a written quiz consisting of 10 questions. The subject
       matter for the quiz questions will cover safety rules, regulations and guidelines concerning fall
       protection, electrical safety, first-aid, vehicle safety, fire prevention safety, and material handling
       safety. Study material covering the subject matter for each quiz will have been given out during
       the previous month. Employees are encouraged to study and, if necessary, recruit help in
       studying from friends, family, other employees and anyone who can help.

               Awards are given out as follows:


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              30 correct answers -    _________________
              25-29 correct answers - _________________
              24-0 correct answers - __________________

       For the purposes of the Safety Quiz Program, quarters will be:
       1st.   January, February, March
       2nd. April, May, June
       3rd.   July, August, September
       4th.   October, November, December

       To be eligible to receive the quarterly award, an employee must be an employee through the
       last day of the quarter, and remain accident free during that quarter.

       This program promotes an aggressive process of learning and awareness through a positive
       reinforcement of employee participation in the process. It also provides management a graphic
       and definable assessment of the progress of employee’s knowledge of the practices and
       procedures that, if utilized, will prevent injuries and contribute to their safety and welfare.

28.0   PROHIBITED ARTICLES POLICY

28.1   Firearms

29.1.1 Firearms, regardless of size or type are prohibited on company premises, in company vehicles,
       or on company jobsites. Any employee found to be in possession of any firearm is subject to
       immediate dismissal.

28.2    Knives

28.2.1 Switchblade knives, stiletto type knives and any other knife with a blade longer than 4 inches
       are prohibited on company premises, in company vehicles, or on company jobsites. Pocket
       knives with blades less than 4 inches are permitted.

28.3   Explosives

28.3.1 Explosives, regardless of size or type are prohibited on company premises, in company
       vehicles, or on company jobsites. Fireworks are considered to be explosives and are
       prohibited.

28.4   Weapons

28.4.1 Any other weapon, i.e. brass knuckles, mace, stun gun, or any other perceived weapon is
       prohibited, just as guns, knives and explosives on company premises, in company vehicles, or
       on company jobsites.

29.0   EMPLOYEE TRAINING

       This program is designed to ensure that all employees are properly trained to safely operate
       tools and equipment toward completion of the work they are directed to do.

29.1   Responsibilities

29.1.1 The Safety Coordinator is responsible for the design and implementation of training courses for
       employees. These courses shall cover general safety and health, specific tools, equipment and
       special work situations and circumstances.

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29.1.2 The crew foremen are responsible for ensuring that employees use the work practices,
       engineering controls and safety precautions that are taught in employee training.

29.2   Comprehension of Training

29.2.1 Employees may take exams upon the completion of training. These exams should be designed
       by the Safety Coordinator and should be designed in a way so as to test the comprehension
       and retention of the training that has been administered. Employees should achieve a score of
       70% on exams or repeat training until this score is achieved.

29.3   Frequency of Training

29.3.1 Employees shall be trained properly prior to assignment of tasks and/or operation of equipment
       that requires training. Refresher training may be provided to employees as determined by the
       Safety Coordinator.

29.4   Verification of Training

       A certificate of training shall be maintained in each employee file. This certificate shall reflect
       type of training; date of training; name of trainee; and place of training. (See Sec. 29.5)

29.5   Tool & Equipment Operator’s Authorization

29.5.1 Employees will make application to operate tools and equipment. Application will be made on a
       form provided by the company.

29.5.2 Tool & Equipment Operator’s Cards will be issued by the company to employees that are deemed
       qualified to operate it. The cards will be punched to indicate what vehicles and equipment the
       employee is authorized to operate.

29.5.3 The Safety Coordinator may authorize the operation of vehicles or equipment without formal
       training if the employee has demonstrated knowledge of the safe operation and use of it.
       Documentation of this competency will be made by the statement “ by knowledge and longtime
       experience “ and certified by the Safety Coordinator in the appropriate place on the training file.

30.0   SCAFFOLDS

       The most recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) scaffold standard,
       found in 29 CFR 1926.450, was published on Aug. 30, 1996. It is an extensive document that
       outlines requirements for all scaffold systems. This chapter, however, will address only
       supported scaffolds, because roofing contractors rarely use suspended scaffolds. For more
       information about suspended scaffolds, contractors should refer to 29 CFR 1926.451(d) and
       various parts of 29 CFR 1926.452.

       The first part of this section discusses general OSHA requirements for all scaffold systems.
       The second part describes specific systems in more detail.

30.1 General Requirements

30.1.1 Capacity

       Each supported scaffold must be able to support four times its “maximum intended load.”
       Maximum intended load means the total weight of all workers, materials and equipment that will
       be on the scaffold at any one time. A scaffold also has to support its own weight and any force
       transmitted to it by means of wind, snow, ice buildup and other external forces.

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       OSHA requires that a qualified person must design all scaffolds. OSHA defines a qualified
       person as “one who by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing,
       or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his
       ability to solve ore resolve problems relating to they subject matter, the work, or the project.” A
       scaffold must be constructed within the limits of its design and loaded within its designed
       capacity.

30.2 Platform Construction

30.2.2 Scaffold working levels need to be fully planked or decked, using scaffold planks.

30.2.3 There should be no more than a 1-inch gap between the scaffold uprights and decking.

30.2.4 When an employer can demonstrate that a 1-inch gap or less is not feasible, the deck still
       needs to be planked as fully as possible. In any case, OSHA does not allow gaps of more than
       9½ inches.

30.2.5 Platforms used only as walkways or by employees who are erecting or dismantling scaffolds
       are not considered working surfaces and are exempt from these requirements.

30.2.6 Scaffold platforms and walkways must be at least 18 inches wide. There are two exceptions to
       this rule:

30.2.7 30.2.6 Ladder-jack, roof-bracket and pump-jack scaffolds can be as narrow as 12 inches.

30.2.8 If the scaffold is erected in an area that is too narrow to accommodate an 18-inch platform, the
       platform must be as wide as possible and guardrails or personal fall-arrest systems must
       protect employees.

30.2.9 The front edge of the scaffold platform should not be more than 14 inches from the face of the
       building. If the distance is greater than 14 inches, there must be guardrails erected along the
       front surface or employees must wear personal fall-arrest systems.

30.2.10Platform planks have to extend 6 inches over their supports. If they are too short, movement
       on the scaffold may cause them to move and fall; if they are too long, the weight distribution
       may cause them to tip.

30.2.11For platforms that are 10 feet or less in length, the cantilevered portion (i.e., the end that hangs
       over the support) should not be more than 12 inches long.

30.2.12For scaffold planks longer than 10 feet, the cantilevered portion should not be more than 18
       inches long.

30.2.13Regardless of plank length, excess length of the cantilevered portion is not a problem if there
       are guardrails to prevent worker or material weight from being applied to the length or it is
       secured to the support so that it will not tip when weight is applied.

30.2.14When more than one plank is used to create a longer platform, the following rules apply:

30.2.15If the planks are abutted, they must rest on separate supports. Common support members,
       such as T-sections, can be used, as can hook-on platforms designed to rest on the same
       support.

30.2.16If the scaffold changes direction, they must be put over a support by at least 12 inches. If the
       overlap is less than 12 inches, the planks should be nailed or otherwise restrained.


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30.2.17If the scaffold changes direction, any planks that will be laid on a bearer at a right angle should
       be laid first. Planks that will be at a right angle should be laid on top of the first planks.

30.2.18Wood platforms cannot be covered with opaque finishes.

30.2.19Platform edges may be covered or marked for identification and the platforms themselves may
       be painted with wood preservatives or fire-retardant finishes and slip-resistance finishes, but the
       coating must not obscure the top or bottom surface.

30.3   Component Mixing

30.3.1 Scaffold components can be mixed under two conditions. The first is that the components
       must fit together easily and without force. Additional parts must not be modified in order to fit
       unless a competent person determines that the resulting scaffold will be structurally sound.

30.3.2 The second condition is that dissimilar metals may not be combined unless the competent
       person approves the match. Some metals may react to one another and weaken the scaffold.

30.4 Supported Scaffolds

30.4.1 There are only three basic requirements for supported scaffolds:

30.4.2 All parts of a scaffold must be plumb and braced.

30.4.3 All parts, including legs, poles posts, frames and uprights, must be on a firm foundation. The
       best way to ensure a firm foundation is through the use of base plates and mudsills. Footings
       have to be level, sound and rigid, and there must be no chance of settling or displacement.
       Unstable materials or equipment cannot be used anywhere on a scaffold or under its footing.
       Equipment such as forklifts must not be used to support a scaffold, unless it is designed to be
       supported this way and the forklift is not moved at all while the scaffold is occupied.

30.4.4 Anytime a scaffold has a height that is more than four times its width; it has to be restrained
       with guys, ties or braces. These must be installed according to the manufacturer’s
       recommendations and at the following:

30.4.5 Where horizontal members support both inner and outer legs.

30.4.6 At the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height.

30.4.7 Every 20 feet vertically or less for scaffolds less than 3 feet wide, or every 26 feet or less for
       scaffolds wider than three feet. (At each of these heights, the ties and braces must be placed
       at each end and at intervals of less than 30 feet horizontally.)

30.5 Access

30.5.1 This section applies to all employees who have access to scaffolds for reasons other than
       erecting and dismantling them.

30.5.2 Anytime scaffold platforms are more than two feet higher or lower than another level, access
       must be provided by means of one of the following:

30.5.3 Portable ladders

30.5.4 Hook-on ladders



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30.5.5 Attachable ladders

30.5.6 Stair towers

30.5.7 Stairway-type ladders

30.5.8 Ramps and walkways

30.5.9 Integral prefabricated scaffold access

30.5.10 Personnel hoist

(Note: Because stair towers, stairway-type ladders, ramps and walkways are not commonly used in
       the roofing industry, they are not addressed in this section.)

30.5.11Access must not be provided by cross bracing under any circumstances.

30.5.12Portable, hook-on and attachable ladders must be set up with the bottom rungs no further than
       24 inches above the ground (or level), equipped with rest platforms at least every 35 feet and
       used in such a way that they won’t cause the scaffold to tip.

30.5.13Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames also must have rest platforms every 35 feet.
       They must be designed specifically to be used as ladders and be spaced uniformly within each
       frame section. Spacing between rungs cannot be larger than 16¾ inches, and rung length has
       to be at least 8 inches.

30.5.14In all cases, rungs and steps need to line up vertically between rest platforms.

30.6   Access for Erecting and Dismantling Scaffolds

30.6.1 OSHA requires that a safe means of access must be provided for employees who are erecting
       or dismantling a scaffold. A competent person will make the determination about how the safe
       access will be accomplished. Ladders must be installed as soon as it is safe to do so. On
       fabricated frame scaffolds, also known as tubular welded frame scaffolds, cross bracing should
       not be used as access, but end frames can be if they are designed to be used as ladders and
       have horizontal members spaced no more thank 22 inches apart.

30.7   Use

30.7.1 A competent person before each work shift and after any event that could affect the scaffold’s
       integrity must inspect scaffolds. Any part of the scaffold that is at all damaged or weakened
       should be removed, repaired or braced.

30.7.2 Erecting, moving, dismantling or altering can take place only under the supervision of a
       competent person trained employees chosen by the competent person.

30.7.3 Unless they are mobile scaffolds or otherwise designed by a registered professional engineer,
       scaffolds never should be moved horizontally while employees are on them.

30.7.4 Clearance between scaffolds and power lines must be calculated. For any power of over 50
       kilovolt (kV), the minimum distance is 10 feet. After that, the distance has to be increased by
       0.4 inches for each kV over 50.




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30.7.5 Storms and high winds must bring an end to scaffold work unless the competent person
       determines that it is safe for employees to continue working. In such cases, a windscreen or
       personal fall-arrest systems must protect employees.

30.7.6 Debris must not be allowed to accumulate on the scaffold.

30.7.7 Employees who need to reach higher than the scaffold allows may not stand on boxes, barrels
       or other makeshift devices. A ladder can be used if the ladder legs, scaffold planks and
       scaffold itself is secured against movement. Both ladder legs must be on the same platform
       plank.

30.7.8 Scaffold platforms may not deflect more than one-sixtieth of the total span at any time. For a 5-
       foot span, the maximum deflection is 1 inch; on a 10-foot span, it is 2 inches.

30.8 Fall Protection

30.8.1 The height trigger for OSHA fall-protection rules on scaffolds is 10 feet. Whenever a scaffold is
       10 feed or more above a lower level, guardrails capable of supporting a 200-pound force must
       protect employees applied in any direction or personal fall-arrest systems. Crawling boards
       (chicken ladders are an exception. On this type of scaffold, employees can use either of these
       two systems, or they can use a ¾-inch diameter grab-line or equivalent handhold that is
       securely fastened along the length of the board.

30.8.2 Guardrail systems must be installed along all open edges and meet certain the following OSHA
       requirements:

30.8.3 Top-rails must be between 38 and 45 inches above the platform and able to with stand a force
       of 200 pounds from a downward or horizontal direction.

30.8.4 When mid-rails are used, they should be about halfway between the top-rail and platform level.
       If screen or mesh is used instead, it must extend all the way from the top rail to the platform. If
       intermediate members (such as balusters or rails) are used, they must be spaced so there is
       never more than a 19-inch gap between them. These mid-rail systems must be able to
       withstand a force of at least 150 pounds.

30.8.5 Guardrails must be surfaced and constructed for employees’ protection. They must be free of
       any imperfections that could puncture or impale employees’ skin or snag their clothing.

30.8.6 Steel or plastic banding must not be used for trop-rails or mid-rails. Manila or plastic rope can
       be used but only under a competent person’s supervision.

30.8.7 Cross-bracing can be used as mid- or top-rails, as long as the height is appropriate: Mid-rail
       cross-braces must be 20 to 30 inches high, and top-rails must be at 38 to 48 inches high. The
       ends of the cross bracing must not be more thank 48 inches apart where they attach to the end-
       frame.

30.9   Falling Object Protection

30.9.1 Fall-protection rules specify that anyone working in an area where an object could fall from
       above must wear a hard hat. There are a number of additional ways to protect people from the
       dangers of falling objects. This potential danger must be considered for employees working on
       scaffolds, as well as for those below the scaffold.

30.9.2 Protection from falling objects can be provided by toe-boards, screens, guardrails systems,
       debris nets, catch platforms or canopies.


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30.9.3 Objects should be kept safely away from the edges of surfaces from which they may fall.

30.9.4 Barricades below the area will prevent people from walking into an area where they may be
       struck by a falling.

30.9.5 Debris nets, catch platforms and canopies must be strong enough to stop any object that may
       fall into them.

30.9.6 Toe-boards must be able to withstand a force of 50 pounds, be at least 3½ inches high, and
       have no more than a ¼-inch clearance from the platform. They must be secured at the
       outermost edges, and they cannot have any holes larger than 1 inch.

30.10 Specific Scaffold Systems

30.10.1This section covers additional OSHA requirements for the following scaffold systems: fabricated
       frame scaffolds, roof brackets, pump jacks, ladder jacks, crawling boards and mobile scaffolds.
       All the general information presented previously also applies to these systems. For additional
       requirements pertaining to suspended scaffolds, refer to 29 CFR 1926.452

30.11 Fabricated Frame Scaffold

30.11.1When moving platforms to the next level, existing platforms must be left in place until the new
       frames are braced and ready to receive the planks.

30.11.2All brace connections must be secured and all members must fit together so that the scaffold
       automatically is squared and aligned.

30.11.3Frames and panels must be secured by pins.

30.11.4Brackets that support cantilevered loads must be used appropriately and only to support
       personnel, unless otherwise designed by a qualified engineer.

30.11.5Scaffolds more than 125 feet high must be designed by a registered professional engineer.

30.12 Roof Bracket Scaffolds

30.12.1Scaffold brackets must fit the pitch of the roof and provide a level platform support.

30.12.2The brackets should be secured with nails wherever feasible. First-grade manila rope, at least
       ¾ of an inch in diameter, can be used when nails are not feasible.

30.13 Pump Jack Scaffolds

30.13.1Brackets, braces and accessories must be made from metal plates and angles. Each bracket
       must have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent failure.

30.13.2Rigid triangular bracing must be used to secure the scaffold at the top and bottom and at any
       other necessary points.

30.13.3Workbenches may not be used as scaffold platforms but may be used as the top-rail of the
       guardrail system if they meet the height and strength requirements.

30.13.4Only quality lumber may be used for wooden poles. It must be straight-grained and free of
       imperfections.



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30.13.5Whenever wood is joined together to form a pole or create a long pole, mending plates and
       brackets must be used appropriately.

30.14 Crawling Boards

30.14.1Crawling boards must extend from the peak to the eaves.

30.14.2They must be secured to the roof with ridge hooks.

30.15 Mobile Scaffolds

30.15.1Scaffolds must be securely braced to prevent collapse. They must be plumb, level and
       squared. Screw jacks should be used when the scaffold needs to be leveled.

30.15.2Casters and wheels need to be locked to prevent movement. Caster and wheel stems must be
       pinned or otherwise secured in the scaffold legs.

30.15.3When the scaffold is being moved manually, the force must be applied at a height of no more
       than 5 feet.

30.15.4When the scaffold is being moved manually, the force must be applied at a height of no more
       than 5 feet.

30.15.5When the scaffold is moved by a power system, the system must be specifically designed for
       this purpose.

30.15.6Employees on the scaffold must be warned before the scaffold is moved. For it to be moved
       while employees are on it, the following conditions must exist:

30.15.7The ground surface must be within 3 degrees of level and free of pits, holes and obstructions.

30.15.8The height-to-base ratio of the scaffold has to be a ratio of 2:1 or less.

30.15.9If outrigger frames are used, they must be used on both sides of the scaffold.

30.15.10When power systems are used, the force must be applied directly to the wheels and must
       not move the scaffold faster than 1 foot per second.

30.15.11All employees must be on the area of the platform that is within the wheels, casters and
       supports.

30.15.12All employees must be on the area of the platform that is within the wheels, casters and
       supports.

30.16 Aerial Lifts

30.16.1 Aerial lifts include any of the following:

30.16.2 Extensible boom platforms

30.16.3 Aerial ladders

30.16.4 Articulating boom platforms

30.16.5 Vertical towers


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30.16.6 A combination of any such devices

30.16.7 Lifts must be used according to manufacturer’s recommendations, and any modifications to
       the equipment require written certification from the manufacturer or a testing laboratory.

30.16.8 Safe use of this equipment is regulated by the following requirements:

30.16.9 Lift controls must be tested each day.

30.16.10 Only authorized persons can operate lifts.

30.16.11 Employees must stand with both feet on the bottom of the basket.

30.16.12 Body belts must be used as positioning devices.

30.16.13 Load limits are adhered to.

30.16.14 Brakes must be set and outriggers used.

30.16.15 An aerial lift truck cannot be moved when the bottom is elevated and employees are in the
       basket.

30.16.16 Booms that are primarily designed as personnel carriers must have upper and lower controls.

30.16.17 Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom has to be inspected to make sure it is cradled
       properly and the outriggers are stowed properly.

30.17 Training Requirements

30.17.1Section 1926.454 states that a person who is qualified in the subject must train each employee
       who works on a scaffold. The training must include the following:

30.17.2 Electrical, fall and falling object hazards, and systems for protecting employees against these
       hazards.

30.17.3 Proper use of scaffold systems and safe handling of materials on the scaffold

30.17.4 Maximum intended loads and capacities of the scaffolds used

30.17.5 Any other pertinent parts of this standard

30.17.6 Each employee who erects, dismantles, moves, operates, repairs, maintains or inspects a
       scaffold must be trained by a competent person in the following topics:

30.17.7 The correct procedures for all the above-listed activities

30.17.8 The nature of scaffold hazards

30.17.9 The design criteria, maximum intended load-carrying capacity and intended uses for the
       scaffold

30.17.10 Other pertinent requirements of the standard

30.17.11 Whenever an employer believes an employee lacks needed skills to work safely with
       scaffolds, that employee should be trained and retrained, as necessary. An employee should be


                                       MRCA/SHARP®       85
       retrained when the work site changes, the equipment or safety systems change, or there are
       inadequacies in an employee’s work.

31.0   LADDERS/PLATFORMS/STAIRWAYS

31.1   Ladders - NOTE: ALWAYS FOLLOW MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS WHEN
       USING LADDERS.

31.1.1 Inspect ladders before using. Any defective ladder must be taken out of service immediately
       and taken to the Safety Coordinator for repair or salvage. All ladders must be stable and wobble
       free, prior to use.

31.1.2 Steps of all wooden ladders shall be reinforced with braces or steel rods.

31.1.3 The base or foot of all straight ladders shall have safety shoes or some form of nonskid
       anchorage.

31.1.4 Steps shall be kept free of grease at all times.

31.1.5 The method for establishing the correct angle to use for setting straight ladders against the wall
       is to set the base of the ladder out from the wall a distance equal to one-fourth the height of the
       wall: the 4 to 1 rule.

31.1.6 Never climb the ladder if someone is already on it. Only one man at a time is allowed on the
       ladder.

31.1.7 Do not lean over to reach a point of work when the work gets beyond arms length. Move the
       ladder instead.

31.1.8 Use both hands on the ladder when ascending or descending. Always face the ladder. If
       necessary, use a rope to raise or lower materials. Never carry anything up the ladder in your
       hands.

31.1.9 Ladders must be securely tied off at the top.

31.1.10 A stepladder shall not be used as a straight ladder.

31.1.11 Never use furniture as a substitute for a ladder.

31.1.12 Ladders must extend a minimum of 36 inches above the roof        or parapet wall. Select a
       ladder tall enough to meet this requirement.

31.1.13 Do not store hand tools, etc. on ladder rungs. When moving, always       check to see that this
       procedure is followed.

31.1.14 Carefully descend the ladder all the way to ground level. Do not jump off a rung or slide down.

31.1.15 Never stand on the top step of a stepladder.

31.2   Platform Lifts

31.2.1 Cage lifts shall be secured to the blades of the forklift.

31.2.2 Platforms shall be provided with top rails, mid rails and toe boards.


                                        MRCA/SHARP®       86
31.2.3 When lifting, have two employees present, one operating the forklift and one on the platform.

31.2.4 If only one employee is used, the truck lift will be extended, the power shut off, and parking
       brake set. Railings and steps will be provided so that the employee can climb to the platform
       without falling hazards

31.3   Stairways

31.3.1 Stairs must be installed between 30 and 50 degrees from horizontal. With every 12 feet of rise,
       a landing of 22 inches wide and at least 30 inches wide in the direction of travel shall be
       installed.

31.3.2 Where there is a door or gate that opens directly on a stairway, a platform or landing shall be
       provided and it must be wide enough not to reduce the width of landing space to less than 20
       inches of landing space.

31.3.3 All risers must have the same height and tread depth with no more than a ¼ inch variance.

31.3.4 All parts of stairway shall be free of hazardous projections, such as nails.

31.3.5 Foot traffic is prohibited on skeleton metal stairs or stairways with pan stairs unless the stairs
       are temporarily fitted with wood or other solid material.

31.3.6 Treads for temporary stairs shall be made of wood or other solid material and installed to the
       full width and depth of the stair or pan.

31.3.7 Stairways having four or more risers or rising more than 30 inches whichever is less, shall be
       equipped with:

    At least one handrail at a height of 36 inches and be able to withstand a force of 200 pounds,
     without failure, in any downward or outward direction.

    Midrails shall be located midway between the toprail and stairway steps.

32.0   FIRE PREVENTION/FIRE PROTECTION

32.1   Fire Protection

32.1.1 Do not smoke except in an area designated by the foreman as a "designated smoking area."

32.1.2 Extinguish cigarettes, pipes, cigars, matches, etc. and dispose of in proper receptacles.

32.1.3 Wooden (kitchen type) matches are not allowed inside the warehouse. Disposable lighters are
       not allowed in any area where welding is in progress. Use approved lighters or safety matches
       only.

32.1.4 Flammable liquids are identified as such. Know the flammables on your job and how to handle
       them.
32.1.5 Store flammables only in approved containers.

32.1.6 Do not smoke while using flammable liquids.

32.1.7 Open containers of flammables used to clean splices must be kept closed when not in use.



                                        MRCA/SHARP®       87
32.1.8 All bulk flammables shall be stored in an appropriate location. This area shall be maintained
       free of obstructions to facilitate access in an emergency.

32.1.9 All flammable liquid storage areas shall be clearly defined and posted as "No Smoking Areas."

32.1.10 Bulk storage of flammable liquids in yard areas, parking areas or adjacent to the warehouse
       shall be approved, in advance, by the Safety Coordinator.

32.1.11All bulk containers, drums, caddies, etc., that contain flammable liquids, shall be provided with
       a grounding system to prevent accumulation of static electrical charge. Any pumps used shall
       be of the approved type and have bonding wires between the bulk container and the container
       being filled.

32.1.12 Bulk storage of flammable liquids shall not be allowed in the open warehouse.

32.1.13 Flammable liquids to be stored in foreman's trucks shall not exceed 60 gallons or the quantity
       needed for that day’s work, whichever is least. Individual containers shall not exceed 5 -gallon
       capacities and shall be marked as to their contents.

32.1.14 Approved safety cans shall be used for storing and dispensing small quantities of flammable
       liquids. Such containers shall be stored in approved metal cabinets or at least 25 feet from the
       warehouse.

32.1.15 Metal cabinets that contain flammable liquid storage shall be identified as follows:

    Painted in yellow and lettered in red: "FLAMMABLE"

32.1.16 The use of open containers and glass containers is strictly prohibited. Flammable liquids shall
       not be placed, stored or transported in such containers.

32.1.17 Flammable liquid containers (safety cans) shall be maintained in good mechanical order. All
       integral parts or devices such as seals, closing springs, flash arrestors and similar items shall
       be maintained. Each container shall be inspected prior to use by those using it and defects
       reported to the foreman.

32.1.18 All flammable liquid containers shall be plainly marked or identified.

32.1.19 Safety cans shall be periodically inspected by a supervisor to ensure proper working order. All
       defective cans shall be removed from service and be disposed of.

32.1.20 Under no circumstances shall employees be allowed to dismantle, alter or repair safety cans
       without permission of the Safety Coordinator.

32.1.21 The application of air pressure or compressed gas to any flammable liquid container for any
       purpose is strictly prohibited.

32.1.22 Flammable liquids shall not be used or stored within 20 feet of sources of heat or ignition.
       Conditions or circumstances may dictate greater distances or complete isolation.

32.1.23 Defective faucets, spigots or pumps on bulk containers shall be replaced immediately.

32.1.24 Only approved explosion proof electrical devices and/or connectors shall be used in the
       presence of flammable liquids or vapors.



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32.1.25 Only approved lights shall be used during cleaning and painting operations inside confined
       spaces.

32.1.26 Adequate forced air ventilation to prevent accumulation of vapor shall be introduced by
       explosion proof equipment, in all confined spaces, surface areas and where large areas are
       being painted or cleaned with flammable liquids.

32.1.27 Rags or other combustible materials used to absorb or wipe up flammable liquids shall be
       disposed of in approved receptacles. If rags are to be washed and reused, or discarded, keep
       in covered metal container.

32.1.28 All employees required to work with flammable liquid shall be thoroughly instructed in the
       proper use, handling and storage of them.

32.1.29 Employees shall not use, handle or transport flammable liquids unless authorized to do so by
       supervision.

32.1.30 The transportation of flammable liquids inside (passenger compartment) of yourcompanyname
       owned or operated vehicles is prohibited.

32.1.31Non-approved cloth type gloves shall not be worn while using flammable liquids.

32.1.32 Gloves and aprons of non-absorbent materials shall be worn in any operation where clothing is
       likely to become wetted with flammables, acids or caustics.

32.1.33 All containers, valves, faucets, hoses, spout assemblies, transfer pumps and similar items
       used to store, convey, or transfer flammable materials shall comply with the specifications
       established by Underwriters Laboratories or Factory Mutual. Check with the Safety Coordinator
       if you have any questions.

32.1.34 Torch-applied roofing systems and flashings will not be installed on wooden or other flammable
       roof deck materials without specific approval of the Safety Coordinator. Special fire prevention
       and safety procedures will be utilized as determined by the Safety Coordinator and company
       management.

       The rules and regulations set forth above are minimum standards necessary for safe use,
       handling and storage of flammable liquids. Any question or doubt arising as to what constitutes
       proper and safe working procedures, as related to flammable liquids, should be directed to the
       Safety Coordinator prior to work operations being started.

32.2   Fire Prevention

32.2.1 Properly store and handle flammable and combustible liquids.

32.2.2 Use only approved containers for storage and handling.

32.2.3 Dissipate static electricity before transferring liquids from container to container. The two
       containers must be bonded together and grounded. Grounding dissipates static electricity.

32.2.4 When using LPG, employees should be warned not to use fire to find a leak. LPG is heavier
       than air and will be found in low lying areas. Instead, use soapy water and look for bubbles.

32.2.5 Do not attempt to extinguish LPG fires. Evacuate the area immediately and call the fire
       department.
32.2.6 Do not use torch-applied roofing materials on combustible decks.

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32.2.7 When using torch-applied roofing materials, conduct fire watch inspections periodically for at
       least one hour after the work has been completed.

33.0   FIRST-AID

33.1 Cuts and Abrasions

33.1.1 Thoroughly wash cuts and abrasions and cover them with a sterile gauze.

33.1.2 Apply pressure and elevate injury when heavy bleeding is present. Seek medical attention.

33.1.3 Seek medical attention if there is a flap of skin hanging loose. Replace flap of skin in its correct
       position and cover the area with sterile gauze.

33.2   Burns

33.2.1 First Degree burns are similar to sunburns, skin is red and dry and the burn is usually painful.
       Treat by running cool water over the burn area and apply a sterile dressing.

33.2.2 Second Degree burns involves the top layers of skin turning the skin red and producing blisters.
       Treat by running large amounts of cool water over the affected area and cover with a sterile
       dressing. DO NOT PLACE burn ointments or household remedies on burn, it may trap in the
       heat and cause more burning. DO NOT PLACE ice or ice water on any burns. Ice causes body
       heat loss. Seek medical attention.

33.2.3 Third Degree burns destroy all layers of skin and any or all of the underlying structures. These
       burns look charred with underlying tissues looking white. SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION
       IMMEDIATELY. DO NOT TREAT THE BURN WITH COOL WATER OR COVER ARE WITH A
       STERILE DRESSING.

33.3   Impaled Objects

33.3.1 DO NOT REMOVE an impaled object from the victim. Control the bleeding and secure the
       impaled object from moving to prevent further damage or increase internal or external bleeding

33.4   Heat Related Illnesses

33.4.1 Heat Cramps are muscle spasms that can be treated by:

    Removing the victim from the heat, loosening tight or heavy clothing.
    Having the victim lie down to relieve the cramps.
    Have the victim drink lots of water.

33.4.2 Heat Exhaustion causes the victim’s skin to become cool and clammy and the victims face will
       be ashen gray. Some other common side effects of heat exhaustion are dizziness, headache,
       nausea, and/or faint or weak. Treatment should be as follows:

    Removing the victim from the heat, loosening tight or heavy clothing.
    Having the victim lie down to relieve the cramps.
    Have the victim drink lots of water

33.4.3 Heat Stroke is the least common heat related illness. The victim will become hot, dry and
       flushed. The victim will not be sweating and may lose consciousness as the body’s core
       temperature rises.
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    Cool the victim immediately by removing them from the heat to an air-conditioned place.
    Remove the victim’s clothing and cover them with cool wet sheets or towels. DO NOT
     SUBMERGE VICTIM IN ICE OR USE ICE TO COOL VICTIM. IT COULD RESULT IN DEATH.
    Place a fan near the victim.
    Seek medical attention immediately.

33.5 Cold Weather Emergencies

33.5.1 Frostbite is freezing in deep layers of the skin and tissue; pale waxy-white skin color; the skin
       becomes hard and numb usually affecting the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, and nose.
       Treatment of Frostbite is to:

    Move the victim to a warm dry area.
    Remove any wet or tight clothing.
    Gently place frozen area in warm water (105 F) and monitor the water temperature to warm the
     affected area slowly. Do this only if there is no chance of affected area of re-freezing.
    Seek Medical attention immediately.
    DO NOT rub the affected area.

33.5.2 Hypothermia is when the normal body temperature drops to or below 95 F causing uncontrolled
       shivering, drowsiness, fatigue, cool blush skin, slurred speech, confused behavior.

      Move the victim to a warm dry area.
      Remove any wet or tight clothing.
      Seek Medical attention immediately.
      Have victim drink warm, sweet drinks and avoid drinks with caffeine or alcohol.
      Place warm bottles or hot packs in the armpits, groin, neck, and head area.

33.6   Eye Injuries

33.6.1 Do not attempt to remove an impaled object in the eye.

33.6.2 Cover both eyes to prevent the eyes from moving, since the pupils move together.

33.6.3 Seek medical attention immediately.

33.7   Amputations

33.7.1 An amputation is the complete severing of a body part, such as a hand, finger, arm, or leg.

33.7.2 Apply a sterile dressing to wound and apply pressure to curb bleeding.

33.7.3 Transport amputated part to the hospital along with the victim. To keep the amputated part
       viable for re-attachment follow these instructions:

    Wrap the body part in sterile gauze and place it in a plastic bag.
    Place the bag in a cool container, but do not allow the tissue to freeze.
    Keep the wounded area elevated, and never apply a tourniquet.




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34.0   SHEET METAL SAFETY

       There are hundreds of federal OSHA safety and health regulations. Some of the regulations are
       written for specific industries, for example, construction; while others are written for specific
       operations, for example, power press and scaffoldings. Given the fact that sheet metal
       contractors perform work “in the field,” as well as in a fixed workplace, sheet metal contractors
       often have to comply with many different OSHA standards. This chapter will cover handling
       sheet metal, arc welding and cutting, point of operation, and general shop safety.

34.1   Handling Sheet Metal

34.1.1 Wear thick leather gloves to protect hands from sharp edges and corners.

34.1.2 Whenever possible always move sheet metal mechanically. If it must be moved manually,
       employees should use safe lifting procedures and get assistance when needed.

34.1.3 Store sheet metal on storage tables to prevent the amount of bending and lifting employees
       must do.

34.2   Arc Welding and Cutting

34.2.1 The operator must open the power supply switch when he/she needs to leave the work or stop
       working for any significant amount of time.

34.2.2 Operator’s must report faulty or defective equipment to supervisor.

34.2.3 Never place hot electrode holders in water.

34.2.4 Always place electrode holders in such a way that they cannot make electrical contact with
       employees or other items.

34.2.5 Only fully insulated components may be used for arc-welding.

34.2.6 The manual electrode holders must be able to handle the maximum-rated current required by
       the electrodes.

34.2.7 Do not use cables if they are in need of repair. They also may not be used if they contain slices
       or repairs within 10 feet of the end of the cable to which the electrode is connected.

34.2.8 A grounded return cable must have a safe current capacity that is at least equal to the output of
       the unit it serves. If the unit serves more than one unit, then the capacity must be at least equal
       to the total maximum capacity of all units.

34.3   Safeguarding the Point of Operation

34.3.1 Every guard must:

    Be able to prevent operators from reaching their hands or fingers through, over, around, or
     under the guard.
    Conform to table O-10, which may be found in 29 CFR 1910.217.
    Be constructed and installed without pinch points.
    Use fasteners that are not readily removable.
    Make inspection easy.
    Offer full visibility of the point of operation.
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34.3.2 A die-enclosure guard must be fixed to the die shoe or stripper.

34.3.3 A fixed-barrier guard must be attached securely to the press frame or bolster plate.

34.3.4 An interlocking press-barrier guard must be attached to the press frame or bolster and
       interlocked with the press clutch control so that the clutch may not be activated unless the
       guard conforms to table O-10.

34.3.5 The hinged or movable sections of an interlocking press barrier guard may not be used for
       manual feeding.

34.3.6 The adjustable barrier guard shall be securely fastened to the press bed, bolster plate, or die
       shoe. Adjustments are allowed only by those qualified.

34.4   General Shop Safety

34.4.1 The shop supervisor will see that all shop machinery is used in a safe manner and that all
       personnel operating shop equipment have had adequate training in the operations of this
       equipment.

34.4.2 Each job site and shop supervisor is responsible for inspecting machinery and tools to be
       certain that they are being used in a safe manner, making certain that the job site and shop
       conditions do not present a hazard to the company’s employees and that all safety regulations
       have been met, and notifying the safety coordinator of unsafe job site conditions.

34.4.3 All employees shall follow safe practices, use personal protective equipment as required,
       render every possible effort to safe operations and report all unsafe conditions or practices to
       his or her immediate supervisor or the company’s safety coordinator.

34.4.4 All unsafe, unhealthy or hazardous conditions or places shall he immediately placed off limits,
       out of order, or out of bounds and then promptly removed or corrected.

34.4.5 Horseplay, scuffling and other acts, which have an adverse influence on the safety or well being
       of employees, are prohibited.

34.4.6 Employees shall be alert to see that all guards and other protective devices are in their proper
       places and adjusted prior to operating equipment. Employees shall report deficiencies
       promptly.

34.4.7 Workers shall not handle or tamper with any tools, equipment, machinery or facilities not within
       the scope of their duties, unless they are thoroughly qualified.

34.4.8 Apparatus, tools, equipment and machinery shall not be repaired or adjusted while in operation,
       nor shall oiling or moving parts be attempted except on equipment that is designed or fitted with
       safety-guards to protect the person performing the work.

34.4.9 Keep all sheet metal and scrap stacked in a way to prevent it from slipping or falling.

34.4.10Lockout/Tagout procedures will be used when equipment needs to be serviced.

34.4.11The shop area and jobsite will be kept free of scrap metal and trash.

34.4.12Keep an adequate supply of 10-pound ABC-rated fire extinguishers located throughout the
       shop area and be sure they are checked on a regular basis.

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35.0   ASBESTOS

35.1   Regulatory Authority

35.1.1 All regulations of Title 29 of the Codes of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1926, Section 1101
       are adopted and incorporated by reference and hereinafter may be referred to as the "OSHA
       Asbestos Standard."

       OSHA regulates employee safety and health in the workplace. Rules and regulations
       promulgated by OSHA always pertain to the worker and the yourcompanyname requirement to
       provide a safe and healthful workplace.

35.2   EPA

35.2.1 All regulations of Title 40 of the Codes of Federal Regulations,Part 61, Subpart M, Appendix A
       are adopted and incorporated by reference and hereinafter may be referred to as National
       Emissions Standards for Hazardous Pollutants or NESHAPS. EPA regulates industry’s
       requirements to protect the environment. Rules and regulations promulgated by EPA always
       pertain to protection of the air, water, and general environment. NESHAPS specifically
       regulates visible emissions of airborne contaminants.

35.3   Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)

35.3.1 OSHA has established the permissible limits of employee exposure to .1 fiber per cubic
       centimeter (f/cc) of breathing air over an 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) for longer
       exposures, and to 1 f/cc for short term (30 minute or less) exposures. Sampling techniques and
       analytical methods are detailed in Appendix A of the OSHA Asbestos Standard.

35.4   Classes of Asbestos Removal Work

35.4.1 “Class I asbestos work” means activities involving the removal of Thermal System Insulation
       (TSI) and surfacing Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) and Presumed Asbestos Containing
       Material (PACM).

35.4.2 “Class II asbestos work” means activities involving the removal of ACM that is not thermal
       system insulation (TSI) or surfacing material. This includes, but is not limited to, the removal of
       asbestos containing wallboard, floor tile and sheeting, and roofing and siding shingles.

35.4.3 “Class III asbestos work” means repair and maintenance operations, where “ACM”, including
       TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM, is likely to be disturbed.

35.4.4 “Class IV asbestos work” means maintenance and custodial activities during which
       employees contact but do not disturb ACM or PACM, and activities to clean up dust, waste and
       debris resulting from Class I, II, and III activities.

35.5   Hazard Evaluation by Class of Activity

35.5.1 “Class I Activities” Class I activities generally deal with forms of friable ACM. Roofing
       operations do not fall under the purview of Class I operations, therefore no hazard evaluation of
       Class I activities is proffered in this program.

35.5.2 “Class II Activities” Class II activities include the removal of asbestos-containing wallboard,
       floor tile and sheeting, and roofing and siding shingles. This would include asbestos-containing
       roofing felts or non-intact roof flashings that contain asbestos
                                        MRCA/SHARP®      94
                      fibers. This program specifically covers roofing operations dealing with Asbestos Containing
                                                                        2                         3
                      Roofing Material (ACRM). Using “objective data” from a trade organization , as provided for in
                      the OSHA Asbestos Standard, hazard evaluations for the following operations, by material type,
                      are expressed.

                 “Roof Flashings” Activities involving removal of roof flashings are not considered Class II work
                  unless the flashings are not intact. In this case removal of non-intact flashings ACM will be
                  considered Class II work. Proper methods for removal or disturbance of these “incidental”
                  materials is determined by and set forth in Work Practices and Engineering Controls, Section
                  35.7. Asbestos fibers are unlikely to be released in any significant quantity from flashings
                  during their removal.

                 “Built-Up Roofing (BUR)” BUR consists of multiple plies or felts that were coated and
                  saturated with asphalt or a similar binder during their manufacture, and which were assembled
                  on the roof between alternate layers of bitumen and sometimes topped with a layer of rock,
                  gravel or other aggregate. The asbestos fibers in BUR are entirely bound in a bituminous
                  matrix that ensures that they reside in a totally non-friable state. As long as the material is, and
                  remains intact, the likelihood of any airborne fiber release is practically non-existent.

                 “BUR Hazard Evaluation” - As recognized by OSHA and addressed in the revised standard,
                  “The potential for an asbestos-containing product to release breathable fibers depends largely
                  on its degree of friability. Friable means that the material can be crumbled with hand pressure
                  and is therefore likely to emit fibers. The fibrous fluffy sprayed-on materials used for
                  fireproofing, insulation, or soundproofing are considered to be friable, and they readily release
                  airborne fibers if disturbed. Materials such as vinyl-asbestos floor tile or roofing felt are
                  considered non-friable if intact and generally do not emit airborne fibers unless subjected to
                  sanding, sawing and other aggressive operations”.

                      When BUR is cut using a rotating blade (RB) such as with a roof cutter, the dust and debris
                      along the kerf or cut line is considered friable ACRM, or non-intact asbestos-containing roofing
                      material. Work practices and engineering controls for RB activities are addressed in Section
                      35.7.

                 “A/C Shingles” Asbestos/Cementitious (A/C) shingles consist of a mixture of asbestos fibers
                  and Portland cement. They have pre-drilled holes and are applied by simply nailing them into
                  place. A/C shingles, which are no longer sold, were normally used on steep slope roofs.
                  Shingles are usually pried off by manual methods, using shovels and pry bars. The asbestos
                  fibers in A/C shingles are coated with and locked in cement. The same precautions must be
                  taken, as for removing BUR materials. Work practices and engineering controls are addressed
                  in Section 35.7.

           35.5.3 “Class III Activities” Class III activities involve repair and maintenance operations. Generally,
                  roofing operations do not fall into the Class III category and are, therefore, not addressed in this
                  program.

           35.5.8 “Class IV Activities” Class IV activities involve maintenance and custodial activities, and
                  activities to clean up dust, waste and debris resulting from Class I, II, and III activities. Roofing
                  operations do not fall into the Class IV category and are, therefore,
                  not addressed in this program.



2
  “Objective Data” demonstrates that the product or material containing asbestos minerals or the activity involving such product or material cannot release asbestos
fibers in concentrations exceeding the TWA and excursion limit under those conditions having the greatest potential for releasing asbestos.
3
  “Objective Data” Demonstration for Certain Roofing Materials and Operations Under OSHA’s 1994 Asbestos Standard, The National Roofing Contractor’s
Association (NRCA)

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35.6   Exposure Monitoring

35.6.1 Evidence in the rulemaking record shows that exposures on most Class II roof removal jobs will
       be well below the PEL when employers comply with the work practices required by the
       standard and the workers are properly trained. Therefore, exposure monitoring is not required
       when a competent person determines that the material is intact, the work practices specified in
       the standard are followed, and the employees have been trained in accordance with the
       standard4.

35.6.2 If the competent person determines that the ACRM is not intact then the employer must
       conduct a Negative Exposure Assessment. Negative Exposure Assessments must be job
       specific and be conducted on jobs where only trained employees are performing the work.
       Objective data, prior exposure monitoring results, or results of initial exposure monitoring of the
       current job may be relied upon as the Negative Exposure Assessment.

35.7   Work practices and Engineering Controls

35.7.1 “Incidental” Roofing Activities (Roof Flashings)

    Before work begins and as needed during the job, the company’s competent person which has
     received the training outlined in 35.8.1 and 35.9.3 and who is capable of identifying asbestos
     hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure,
     and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, shall
     conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will
     likely remain intact.

    Roofing material must be maintained and removed in an intact state, if feasible. “Intact” means
     that the ACM has not crumbled, been pulverized, or otherwise deteriorated so that the asbestos
     is no longer likely to be bound with its matrix. All care and precaution must be exercised to
     keep the material intact. If at any time the ACRM becomes non-intact then the engineering
     controls for BUR (35.7.2) must be followed.

    All employees performing activities involving “incidental” materials will, prior to commencement
     of duties, receive training as outlined in Section 35.9.1 of this program.

    The material shall not be sanded, abraded or ground. Manual methods, which do not render
     the material non-intact, must be used.

    Material that has been removed from a roof will not be dropped or thrown to the ground. The
     material must either be carried or passed to the ground by hand or lowered to the ground by
     way of a dust–tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material must be removed from the roof as
     soon as practicable, and at least by the end of the work shift.

35.7.2 Built-up Roofing (BUR)

    Before work begins and as needed during the job, the company’s competent person that has
     received the training outlined in 35.9.2 and 35.9.4 and who is capable of identifying asbestos
     hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure,
     and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, shall
     conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will
     likely remain intact.

    BUR material must be maintained and removed in an intact state, if feasible. “Intact” means
     that the ACM has not crumbled, been pulverized, or otherwise deteriorated so that the asbestos
                       4
                           OSHA DIRECTIVE, CPL 2-2.63 CH-1 (Revised) 1/9/1996
                                       MRCA/SHARP® 96
      is no longer likely to be bound with its matrix. All care and precaution must be exercised to
      keep the material intact.

    Wet methods are generally recognized as one of the most efficient ways of keeping asbestos
     fibers from becoming airborne. Asbestos fibers are extremely absorbent, and the moisture they
     absorb makes them heavy and unable to become entrained in the atmosphere. Wet methods
     shall be used to remove roofing materials that are not intact, or that will be rendered not intact
     during removal if feasible, unless the methods will create a safety hazard.

    Roof cutter blades must be continuously misted during use, unless the competent person
     determines that such misting substantially decreases worker safety.

    When removing BUR roofs with asbestos-containing felts and an aggregate surface using a
     roof cutter with a rotating blade, all dust resulting from the cutting operation must be collected
     with a HEPA vacuum along the cut line. If there is no aggregate and the surface of the BUR is
     smooth, HEPA vacuuming may be replaced by gently sweeping and then carefully and
     completely wiping up the still-wet dust and debris along the cut line.

    BUR material that has been removed from a roof will not be dropped or thrown to the ground.
     The material must either be carried or passed to the ground by hand or lowered to the ground
     by way of a dust–tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material must be removed from the roof
     as soon as practicable, and at least by the end of the work shift.

    After lowering the ACRM to the ground unwrapped material must be transferred to a closed
     receptacle in such a manner to preclude the dispersion of dust.

    During operations involving ACRM removal, roof-level heating and ventilation air intake sources
     that are located in the regulated area will be isolated or the ventilation system will be shut down.

    Removal or repair of intact ACRM less than 25 square feet in area does not require use of wet
     methods or HEPA vacuuming as long as manual methods, which do not render the material
     non-intact and no visible dust is created, are used.

35.7.3 A/C Shingles

    Before work begins and as needed during the job, the company’s competent person who is
     capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control
     strategy for asbestos exposure, and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures
     to eliminate such hazards, shall conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the
     roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.

    A/C shingles must be maintained and removed in an intact state, if feasible. “Intact” means that
     the material has not crumbled, been pulverized, or otherwise deteriorated so that the asbestos
     is no longer likely to be bound with its matrix. All care and precaution must be exercised to
     keep the material intact.

    Wet methods are generally recognized as one of the most efficient ways of keeping asbestos
     fibers from becoming airborne. Asbestos fibers are extremely absorbent, and the moisture they
     absorb makes them heavy and unable to become entrained in the atmosphere. Wet methods
     should be used, if feasible, unless the competent person determines that their use will create a
     slip hazard for employees.

    A/C shingles that have been removed from a roof will not be dropped or thrown to the ground.
     The material must either be carried or passed to the ground by hand or lowered to the ground


                                      MRCA/SHARP®      97
       by way of a dust–tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material must be removed from the roof
       as soon as practicable, and at least by the end of the work shift.

35.8   Special Requirements for Class II Activities

35.8.1 Competent Person

       The company will maintain at least one "competent person", as defined in 29 CFR
       1926.1101(b) and 29 CFR 1926.20 through 1926.32.

       29 CFR 1926.20(b)(2) which requires health and safety prevention programs to provide for
       frequent and regular inspections of the job sites, materials and equipment to be made by
       competent persons, is incorporated by reference.

       On class II asbestos removals, on-site inspections shall be made at intervals sufficient to
       assess whether conditions have changed, and at any reasonable time upon employee request.
       The competent person shall perform or supervise the following duties as applicable:

    Set up the regulated area,
    Set up procedures to regulate access to the regulated area,
    Supervise all employee exposure monitoring, as necessary,
    Ensure that employees have respiratory protection, as necessary,
    Ensure, through on-site supervision, that employees use engineering controls and work
     practices and personal protective equipment (PPE), as necessary,
    Ensure that employees use hygiene facilities and decontamination procedures, as necessary,
    Ensure that proper work practices and engineering controls are functioning properly, and,
    Ensure that the notification procedures detailed in Section 35.8.4 are met.

35.8.2 Competent Person Training

    Competent persons supervising class II activities, including flashings that are not intact, shall be
     trained in all aspects of asbestos removal and handling as described in Section 35.9.2.

    Competent persons supervising activities involving removal of intact “incidental” material
     activities, removal or disturbance of roof flashings must have received the training described in
     Section 35.9.3.

35.8.3 Regulated Area

    All class II operations and roofing operations where the airborne concentrations exceed, or
     there is a reasonable expectation that they will exceed the PEL, must be conducted in a
     regulated area. Regulated areas will be maintained as follows:

    Demarcation - The regulated area will be demarcated in any manner that minimizes the number
     of persons within the area and protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne
     asbestos. Signs of demarcation are detailed in Section 35.10.

    Access – Access to the regulated area will be limited to those who are specifically authorized by
     the competent person or his agent to enter. Access will be limited to those who have had
     proper training.

    Respirators – Any person granted entry to a regulated area where respirators are required, due
     to airborne fiber concentrations or any other toxic exposure will be supplied with a respirator.
     Respirator selection will be made in accordance with the Respirator Program, Section 9.


                                      MRCA/SHARP®      98
    Prohibited Activities – The competent person, or his agent, will ensure that certain activities do
     not take place at any time in the regulated area. They include:

          Smoking
          Eating
          Drinking
          Chewing gum, tobacco, etc.
          Application of cosmetics

    Regulated areas will be set up and maintained by the competent person.

    During operations involving ACRM removal roof-level heating and ventilation air intake sources
     that are located in the regulated area will be isolated or the ventilation system will be shut down.

35.8.4 Notification Procedures

    Before work in areas containing ACRM is begun, the company will identify the presence,
     location and quantity of ACM therein. This information shall be given to:

        Employees who will be engaged in the ACRM removal,
        Owners of the building/facility, and
        Employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas.

35.9   Employee Training Program

       Workers involved in removal operations of ACRM will receive initial training prior to assignment
       and at least annually thereafter. The curriculum, scope, and length of training will be
       determined by the class of material or with incidental activities the condition of the material.

35.9.1 Workers on jobs involving the removal or disturbance of “incidental” ACRM, such as roof
       flashings, will be trained in the following topics:


      Identification of asbestos
      Asbestos uses in roofing, past and present
      Characteristics of asbestos
      Potential health effects of asbestos
      Nature of asbestos related disease, including latency and medical tests for identifying asbestos
       diseases
      Routes of exposure
      Dose response relationships
      Relationship between cigarette and asbestos exposure
      Availability of smoking cessation programs
      The Federal OSHA Construction Asbestos Standard
      Overview of the standard
      Discussion of alternative methods for handling intact asbestos roof flashings
      Discussion of the PEL and significant risk
      Intact verses non-intact materials
      Definitions
      How to recognize non-intact materials
      Procedures to be followed when material is or becomes non-intact
      Appropriate work practices
      Applying mastics, cements and coatings
      Manual methods for removing materials
      Clean-up and waste disposal

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    No time limit for the training has been established.

35.9.2 Workers on jobs involving class II activities will be trained in the following topics:

    Methods of recognizing asbestos, including certain requirements to presume that certain
     building materials contain asbestos
    The health effects associated with exposure to asbestos
    The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer
    The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the importance of necessary
     protective controls to minimize exposure including, as applicable: engineering controls, work
     practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, hygiene facilities, protective clothing,
     decontamination procedures, emergency procedures and waste disposal procedures, and any
     necessary instruction in the use of these controls
    The proper use and limitations of respirators
    Medical surveillance program requirements
    The content of 29 CFR 1926.1101 and appendices
    The names, addresses, and phone numbers of public health organizations that provide
     information, materials and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation
    The requirements for demarcating regulated areas and the meaning of such signs and labels,
     and
    The training will take at least 8 hours and be comprised of some "hands-on" work, and
    Trained employees will receive a refresher course at least annually. No time limit has been
     established.

35.9.3 Competent persons who supervise activities on operations involving the removal or disturbance
       of “incidental” ACRM such as intact flashings will be trained in all the provisions of Section
       35.9.1, plus:

    Methods of determining presence of Asbestos-Containing Material
    Understanding and Interpreting Air Monitoring Data
    The requirement of some states, building owners, etc. that air monitoring be conducted on all
     ACM projects
    Understanding a negative exposure assessment
    Notification Requirements—Commercial/Industrial Work Only

35.9.4 Competent persons on operations involving class II activities will be trained in all aspects of
       asbestos removal and handling including:

      Abatement
      Installation, removal and handling
      The contents of 29 CFR 1926.1101
      The identification of asbestos
      Removal procedures, where appropriate
      Other practices for reducing the hazard

       Such training shall be received in a course that meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accreditation
       Plan (40 CFR 763) for project designer or supervisor (5-day), or a course equivalent in
       stringency, content and length.

35.10 Communication of Hazard

35.10.1Demarcation of Regulated Area

    All Class I and Class II operations are required to be conducted within a Regulated Area.
     When required, demarcation of Regulated Areas will include, but not be limited to:

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        Warning signs that demarcate the Regulated Area are posted and displayed at such a
         distance from such an area that an employee will be able to read the sign and take
         necessary protective caution before entering the Regulated Area. Exact message content
         of the sign is dependent on whether the work, and resultant exposures, require respiratory
         protection equipment.
    At worksites that deal with friable ACM or ACRM that produces exposures above the PEL, or
     otherwise requires respirator use, signs will read as follows:

                                  DANGER
                                 ASBESTOS
                       CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
                         AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
       RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA.

       On most roofing projects, cutting and removing asbestos field felts with a RB roof cutter would
       produce a “worst case scenario”, and would still probably never produce fiber counts or
       exposures that would necessitate the use of respirators. Where respirators are not required,
       the sign of demarcation will read:

                                          DANGER
                                  ASBESTOS DUST HAZARD
                              CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
                                  Authorized Personnel Only

35.10.2 Notification to Employees - Before work in areas containing ACRM is begun, the company
       will identify the presence, location and quantity of ACM therein. This information shall be given
       to:

    Employees who will be engaged in the ACM removal;

    Owners of the building/facility; and

    Employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas.

35.10.3 Notification to Building Owners – When products labeled as containing asbestos are
       installed on non-residential roofs, yourcompanyname will notify the building owner of such
       installation. Notification as to presence and location of these products will be made no later
       than at the job completion.

35.11 Waste Handling and Disposal

35.11.1Intact ACRM: need not be bagged or wrapped. It must be handled in a manner that will
       prevent it from becoming non-intact. It can be maintained on the roof during the ongoing work
       but must be removed by the end of the work shift.

35.11.2Non-intact ACRM: Any ACM that is not intact shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is
       practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift. While the material remains
       on the roof it shall either be kept wet, placed in an impermeable waste bag, or wrapped in
       plastic.

       When removing BUR with asbestos-containing felts and an aggregate surface using a roof
       cutter with a rotating blade, all dust resulting from the cutting operation must be collected with a
       HEPA vacuum along the cut line. If there is no aggregate and the surface of the BUR is

                                       MRCA/SHARP®      101
       smooth, HEPA vacuuming may be replaced by gently sweeping and then carefully and
       completely wiping up the still-wet dust and debris along the cut line.

35.11.3Waste Shipment Record (WSR) - If the ACM is regulated by NESHAPS, the regulation
       requires the use of a Waste Shipment Record (WSR). A copy of the WSR will be delivered to
       the disposal site along with the waste shipment. The disposal operator will sign the WSR and
       send a copy to the generator of the waste. Copies of the signed WSR will be maintained for at
       least two years.

35.12 Housekeeping

35.12.1HEPA Vacuuming - During operations where vacuuming methods are necessary, HEPA filtered
       vacuuming equipment will be used. The equipment will be used and emptied in a manner that
       minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the work place.

35.13 Medical Surveillance Program

35.13.1This program is in place for employees who might be exposed to asbestos fibers at or above
       the PEL for a combined 30 days or more per year. With the objective information and evidence
       on record of negligible exposures during roofing operations on ACRM, it is highly unlikely that
       any employee would ever need to be enrolled in the medical surveillance program. However,
       the elements of the medical surveillance program are as follows:

    Medical Examinations - Medical examinations will be performed on effected employees by a
     licensed physician and will contain the following elements:

        A medical and work history with special emphasis directed to the pulmonary, cardiovascular,
         and gastrointestinal systems;

        An initial employment questionnaire (29 CFR 1101 Appendix D, part I) is detailed in the
         asbestos standard. APPENDIX E

        A periodic questionnaire (29 CFR 1101 Appendix D, part II) APPENDIX F

        A physical examination directed to the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, including a
         chest X-ray to be administered at the discretion of the physician. Conducted annually.

        A pulmonary function test; and

        Any other examinations or tests deemed necessary by the physician.

35.13.2Physicians Written Opinion - yourcompanyname will obtain a written opinion from the
       examining physician. The opinion will contain the results of the medical exam and will include:

    The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that
     would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to
     asbestos;

    Any recommended limitations on the employee or on the use of personal protective equipment
     such as respirators;

    A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical
     examination and of any medical conditions that may result from asbestos exposure; and



                                      MRCA/SHARP®      102
    A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung
     cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.

35.13.3 Unrelated Diagnosis - The company will instruct the physician to not disclose to the company,
       any medical condition or diagnosis unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.

35.13.4Disclosure to Employee

       yourcompanyname will provide a copy of the physician’s written opinion to the effected
       employee within 30 days of its receipt.

35.14 Recordkeeping

       The company shall collect and maintain records of objective data, exposure measurements,
       medical surveillance and employee training and waste disposal. The records maintained shall
       be made available to the assistant secretary of labor and/or the director of OSHA upon written
       request. The company will transfer records in compliance with 29 CFR 1910.20(b). If
       yourcompanyname ceases to do business and has no successor to receive and retain the
       records, the director of OSHA shall be notified 90 days prior to disposal. If requested by the
       Director, yourcompanyname will transfer such records to the custody of the Director.

       Specific recordkeeping requirements are:

35.14.1Objective Data - Objective data used to determine "negative exposure assessments" and
       exempt certain work tasks from regulatory work practices and engineering controls shall contain
       at least:

    The name of the work task qualifying for exemption;

    The source of the objective data;

    The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for ACM fiber release;

    A description of the work task exempted and how the data supports the exemption;

    Other data relevant to the operation and its exemption; and

    The record shall be maintained for the duration of reliance upon the data for purposes of
     exemption.

35.14.2Exposure Measurements - If employee exposure data is collected, it will be maintained for at
       least 30 years. This information will be available for examination and copying to employees,
       former employees, their designated representatives, and the Asst. Secretary of Labor. The
       record of data will include at least:

    The date of measurement

    The work task involved in the exposure monitoring

    Sampling and analytical methods and evidence of their accuracy

    Number, duration, and results of samples taken

    Type of PPE worn, if any, and the Name, social security number and exposure, of the effected
     employee.
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35.14.3Medical Surveillance - For employees who must be maintained in the medical surveillance
       program outlined in Section 35.13 of this program, records must be kept for the duration of
       employment plus 30 years. These records will be available for examination and copying by the
       employee, a designated representative of the employee, and the Asst. Secretary of Labor. The
       record shall contain, at least:

    The name and social security number of the employee

    A copy of medical examination results including: medical history questionnaire responses,
     results of any tests, and physicians recommendations

    Physicians written opinions

    Any employee medical complaints relating to exposure to asbestos, and

    A copy of all information provided to examining physicians concerning the requirements of the
     employee’s job and anticipated exposure to asbestos.

35.14.4Training Records - yourcompanyname will maintain a record of all training provided to
       employees concerning asbestos. The record will be maintained for a minimum of one year
       beyond the last date of employment.

35.14.5Sample Record and Verification Forms to document training are included as Appendix I and, I
       Refresh.

35.14.6Waste Disposal Records - Accurate records will be maintained as follows:

    Waste Disposal Authorization Request (If required)

    Waste Disposal Authorization (If required)

    Waste Shipment Record (WSR) (If required)

36.0   KETTLES AND TANKERS

36.1   Markings

36.1.1 Regulated kettles and tankers have to be marked on two opposing sides with the word “HOT”
       displayed in Gothic Lettering in black on a white background. The marking needs to be
       displayed on the kettle or tanker itself.

36.1.2 Regulated kettles and tankers with capacities of less than 1000 gallons also must be marked on
       two opposing sides with an orange panel or a white square-on-point configuration with the
       number 3257 indicating that the material being carried is at an elevated temperature. If the
       kettle or tanker has a capacity of greater than 1000 gallons, the marking must appear on both
       sides.

36.2   Shipping Papers

36.2.1 Regulated kettles or tankers having a capacity greater than 118 gallons and a temperature that
       exceeds 212 F must be accompanied by shipping papers.




                                     MRCA/SHARP®      104
36.2.2 The shipping paper must follow the exact format below and include all required information. You
       need to make sure you check your shipping papers and include an emergency response
       telephone number.

    Elevated Temperature Liquid, n.o.s., (Asphalt), 9, UN 3257, PG III, 1-750 gallon kettle

36.3   Kettles

36.3.1 Kettles should be positioned on flat surfaces where there is no chance of it getting stuck in sand
       or mud.

36.3.2 Kettles should be located as closely as possible to the point of application, and debris and loose
       material should be cleared away before the leveler leg is lowered. Locate the kettle so that the
       lid will open away from the building’s windows and doors.

36.3.3 Cover the air intakes of nearby buildings with plastic sheets to limit asphalt fumes from
       entering. If possible, the kettle should be placed where the asphalt discharge on the roof is
       away from air intakes.

36.3.4 Propane cylinders must be secured in an upright position, at least 10 feet from the kettle
       burner. If a mobile tank is used, the mobile cylinder should be located at least 25 feet from the
       tanker. Liquidfied petroleum gas (LPG) tanks should be closed tightly when not in use and
       opened fully when in use, with the pressure-release valves pointing away from the kettle.

36.4   Igniting Burner

36.4.1 Check for moisture

36.4.2 Check the whole assembly, including hoses, gauges, burners, tanks, and all moving parts to
       make sure they fit and operate as they should.

36.4.3 Have two 20-pound ABC-rated fire extinguishers located within 30 feet of the kettle.

36.4.4 Never light the burner in the well, always light the burner outside in a safe location and then
       place the burner in the heating tube.

36.5   Loading Kettle

36.5.1 When loading the kettle, the kettle operator should wear the proper PPE: Long-sleeved shirt,
       heavy cotton or leather gloves, long cuffless pants, heavy boots, and a hard hat with a full-face
       shield attached.

36.5.2 Break solid bitumen into smaller pieces and carefully place each piece into the kettle, taking
       care not to touch or splash the liquid bitumen.

36.5.3 Keep the kettle lid closed as much as possible to help reduce asphalt-fume generation. When
       the lid is open the kettle operator should keep out of the fumes as much as possible.

36.6   Kettle Monitoring

36.6.1 Do not allow the temperature to rise above safe levels. The temperature must always be kept
       below the bitumen’s flashpoint and not vary more than 25 F.

36.7   Piping

                                       MRCA/SHARP®      105
36.7.1 Pipes must be secured and kept as vertical as possible. The pipe’s end should be tied off to a
       guardrail on the roof with a 120-degree elbow pipe connected at the end to a discharge hose in
       order to dispense asphalt safely.

36.7.2 Barricade the area below the pipe to protect equipment and employees on the ground. Drape a
       tarp over parts of the building near the pipe to protect the building from dripping bitumen.

36.8   Tankers

36.8.1 Position tankers on level, firm ground. Place pads under trailer dollies and jacks or cribbing
       under the ends of the tank to ensure proper stability and support for the trailer.

36.8.2 Always place a fully charged ABC-rated fire extinguisher near the tanker.

36.9   Igniting Burner

36.9.1 Open exhaust stack covers and make sure there is bitumen covering heating tubes.

36.9.2 Check vent pipes to make sure they are not clogged.

36.9.3 Open the tank manhole cover to allow gases to escape and equalize the pressure while the
       asphalt is heating.

36.9.4 Do not light burners near flammable materials or operate burners at more than 20 pounds per
       square inch.

36.10 Tanker Monitoring

36.10.1Exercise caution when drawing off asphalt while burners are operating. Temperatures must
       never be allowed to exceed the material manufacturer’s specifications.

36.10.2When measuring the hot material in a tanker, use a solid material to prevent heat building up
       on the piece of material and burning you.

36.11 Other Equipment

36.11.1Luggers and mopcarts need to be used properly and kept in good working order. Employees
       must ensure there is no water or moisture in them. Close lugger valves before filling, and chock
       the wheels.

36.11.2Keep wheels clean and clear of bitumen; Luggers will tip easily if wheels do not move freely.
       Avoid obstacles with mopcarts because bitumen may splash over the side.

37.0   MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

       The modern proliferation of mobile communication devices and networks has made it necessary to
       set parameters for the use of such devices. This section sets forth policy for the possession and
       use of all mobile communication devices including, but not limited to cell phones, pagers and
       PDA’s. Communication using these devices is covered whether it is voice communication or text
       messaging.

37.1   Company Vehicles

       Use of cell phones, whether company-issued or personally owned, and other devices such as
       pagers is prohibited for the driver of any company vehicle. Passengers in company vehicles may
                                       MRCA/SHARP®      106
       use communication devices as long as they are not on company jobsites and as long as the
       communication does not interfere with the driver or his ability to concentrate on driving.

       Incoming calls or messages coming in to a device in the possession of the driver must be
       answered by a passenger or left unanswered.

37.2   Jobsites

       Use of mobile communication devices on company jobsites is restricted to all but Foremen.
       Foremen are prohibited from using mobile communication devices for personal calls except in
       case of emergency.




                                     MRCA/SHARP®     107

								
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