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					Urban Ecology Appendix 1: Ohio Noxious Weeds

Ohio Administrative Code 901:5-37-01 Prohibited noxious weeds.
  The following plants are hereby designated "prohibited noxious weeds":
  (A) Shatter cane (Sorghum bicolor).
  (B) Russian thistle (Salsola Kali var. tenuifolia).
  (C) Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. (Pers.)).
  (D) Wild parsnip (Pastinance sativa).
  (E) Wild carrot (Queen Annes lace) (Daucus carota L.).
  (F) Oxeye daisy (Chrysanthermum leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum).
  (G) Wild mustard (Brassica kaber var. pinnatifida).
  (H) Grapevines: when growing in groups of one hundred or more and not pruned, sprayed,
       cultivated, or otherwise maintained for two consecutive years.
  (I) Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L. (Scop.)).
  (J) Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).
  (K) Cressleaf groundsel (Senecio glabellus).
  (L) Musk thistle (Carduus nutans).
  (M) Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).
  (N) Mile-A-Minute Weed (Polygonum perfoliatum).

HISTORY: Eff 10-15-87; 2-5-88; 6-30-92; 11-21-94
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule authorized by: RC 5579.04
Rule amplifies: RC 5579.04, 5579.05, 5579.08
119.032 Review Date: 3-26-04

Urban Ecology Appendix 2: Invasive Species

The ODNR has compiled the following lists of targeted invasive species (some of the most
invasive plants in natural areas and the most established), and watch list species (only established
in specific regions of Ohio, yet potentially very invasive) (ODNR 2001).

                                      Targeted Species
                        Common Name                      Scientific Name
                  Autumn olive                    Elaeagnus umbellata
                  Buckthorn, glossy               Rhamnus frangula
                  Buckthorn, European             Rhamnus cathartica
                  Garlic mustard                  Alliaria petiolata
                  Honeysuckle, Amur               Lonicera maackii
                  Honeysuckle, Japanese           Lonicera japonica
                  Honeysuckle, Morrow             Lonicera morrowii
                  Honeysuckle, Tatarian           Lonicera tatarica
                  Knotweed, Japanese              Polygonum cuspidatum
                  Purple loosestrife              Lythrum salicaria
                  Rose, multiflora                Rosa multiflora
                  Reed grass                      Phragmites australis
                  Reed canary grass               Phalaris arundinacea

                                           Watch List
                       Common Name                         Scientific Name
             Black swallow-wort                   Vincetoxicum nigrum
             Cat-tail hybrid                      Typha x glauca
             Dog rose                             Rosa canina
             Honeysuckle, showy pink              Lonicera x bella
             Knapweed, spotted                    Centaurea maculosa
             Kudzu                                Pueraria lobata
             Mile-a-minute                        Polygonum perfoliatum
             Small-flowered hairy willow herb     Epilobium parviflorum
             Spurge, leafy                        Euphorbia esula
             Water-cress                          Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum

Urban Ecology Appendix 3: Ohio State University Extension Program - Cuyahoga

Seeds of Hope...Harvest of Pride!
Ohio State University Extension's Urban Gardening Program in Cuyahoga County

What are the Benefits of Community Gardening?
Adapted from a 1995 Monograph by the American Community Gardening Association

Community gardening and greening projects...cultivate community leaders.
In Ohio in 2000, 1071 volunteers contributed 38,000 hours to organize and manage 337
community gardens in seven counties of the state. Gardens replaced over 40 acres of otherwise
vacant land to yield a harvest valued at nearly $1.1 million. 6269 gardeners participated.

Increase self-esteem, bolster confidence and encourage learning in children.
Children's Aid Society (CAS) is a residential treatment center for children from abusive
environments in Cleveland, Ohio. Julie Jackson coordinates the center's gardening program that
has been part of the overall program since CAS began in 1832. In the beginning, the garden
provided the center's kitchen with food. Today, the garden is a therapeutic activity for the

CAS psychologists provide individualized instruction tailored to each child. The main goal is to
provide each youth with experiences at which he will be successful. Success builds self-esteem,
bolsters confidence and encourages more learning and growth. Even a small garden plot becomes
the "child's land" and gives him a sense of ownership, control and responsibility. Source: The
Plain Dealer, December 4, 1996 and an interview with Julie Jackson of Children's Aid Society.

Provide positive work experiences for youths-at-risk
Judge Peter Sikora of Cuyahoga County (Cleveland, Ohio) Juvenile Court supports gardening as
a way for juvenile offenders to serve their community service time. "But here they can see
results, something growing and beautiful. The garden teaches youths how plants grow. You start
with a seed and nurture it and have something positive to show for it. As we develop our new
detention center, I want to build in a garden site, maybe on a rooftop, but I want to formalize it as
a project." Source: The Plain Dealer, Sunday, October 6, 1996.

Help feed people and save money
A 1994 survey by the National Gardening Association found that of the 30 million households
already involved in gardening, about one percent, or 300,000 households, report using a
community garden. Of the 50 million American households that have no involvement in
vegetable or flower gardening, 13.5 percent, or 6.7 million households, say they would be
interested in becoming involved if an organized community gardening program were nearby.

A study evaluating the nutritional, social and economic contributions of the Philadelphia Urban
Gardening Project, one of the country's largest urban gardening programs, revealed that
     gardeners ate fresh produce from their gardens 5 months of the year

      62 percent of the gardeners preserved some of their harvest
      food was shared with neighbors and relatives on a weekly basis
      more than 40 percent of the gardeners shared food with a church or community
      in 1987, gardeners were realizing an average net of $113 from their plots. A dollar per
       square foot is a conservative estimate of what a gardener can expect to realize from his

"Community gardens provide an alternative for people in low income communities to
simultaneously improve food security and their participation in a local food system. For low
income families, urban gardens are a potential source of fresh, nutritious produce at relatively
low cost. These benefits take on greater significance in light of recent debate at the national level
about government food programs. Urban gardens also provide a focal point for people to come
together in community and build neighborhood relationships at a time when disappearing
resources put a strain on inner city families."

"Low income, inner city residents may find it difficult to obtain fresh produce due to a lack of
availability or high cost in small neighborhood stores, the exodus of large supermarkets and a
lack of adequate transportation. This study finds that access to community gardens is an
important strategy for improving vegetable consumption, gaining control over the quality and
variety of produce consumed, and facilitating community relationships and development."

A 1992 study by Kansas State University of 361 community gardeners found that 48 percent of
the unemployed people surveyed reported savings of at least $150. Nationally, the USDA
estimated that urban gardeners involved in its programs grew $16 million worth of fresh food in

Improve nutrition
Gardeners in the Philadelphia Urban Gardening Program study consumed significantly more of
six vegetable categories than non-gardeners, including cole crops, okra/eggplants, sweet and hot
peppers, summer squashes, tomatoes and herbs. Their vegetable consumption frequency was also
almost always higher than controls.

Gardeners, however, consumed less fruit, especially citrus fruits and juices, than controls. They
also consumed less milk products, sweets and sweet drinks.

Gardeners and non-gardeners ate similar amounts of vegetables; however, gardeners were more
likely to eat vegetables in meatless meals (vs. side dishes, salads, stews and snacks).

Promote healthier communities
According to Diane Relf of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, a leader in the study of people-plant
interactions, researchers have found that plants and greening activities play at least three distinct
roles in community development. They
     provide a more livable environment by controlling physical factors such as temperature,
        noise, and pollution;

       help create a community image that is perceived as positive by both residents and
        outsiders, and
     create opportunities for people to work together.
These translate directly into the tangible economic and social benefits of reduced crime, higher
property values, nutritious food from community gardens, and increased business activity in
attractive, green neighborhoods.

A survey by Rutgers Cooperative Extension of participants in their urban gardening program
revealed that 13 percent of the participants said the gardening activity improved their
neighborhood. Typical comments included the following: "It's better to have a garden instead of
having a garbage-filled lot."; "Even people just passing felt like stopping and talking to
gardeners."; "Over the garden, we knew who our neighbors are."

"Gardening is a healing art. To begin with, it heals the Earth. For the gardener, toiling amid the
beans and sweet corn heals the body, while watching Nature's cycles heals the mind and soul.
Gardening can even heal a community's spirit, as do Cleveland's shared neighborhood gardens,
which reclaim abandoned lots and return them to public benefit." source: Cleveland Bicentennial
Commission's Images from the Heart, A Bicentennial Celebration of Cleveland and Its People.

Increase civic participation
A study at Rutgers University confirmed that community gardens get people talking to one
another. Interviews with participants in the New Brunswick Community Gardening Program in
New Jersey revealed that having a garden significantly increased the frequency of interaction
among gardeners, even outside of the gardening season.

A study of the Philadelphia Urban Gardening Program found that gardeners were more likely
than controls to regard their neighbors as friendly. They were also significantly more likely to
participate in food distribution projects, neighborhood clean-ups and neighborhood social events.
Gardeners gave significantly more positive responses to questions on psychosocial well-being
and frequency of meaningful life events.

Marti Ross Bjornson of Northwestern University reports that gardening projects "enable low-
income urban residents to gain access to public policy, economic resources, and social
interaction. Gardening projects can introduce residents to non-profit and government officials
and vice versa."

"A community activity such as gardening can be used to break the isolation, creating a sense of
neighborliness among residents," says longtime activist Charles Lewis. "Until this happens, there
is no community, but rather separate people who happen to live in the same place."

Reduce stress
Research sponsored by the Center for Health Design on the use and therapeutic benefits of
hospital gardens finds an overwhelmingly positive response from employees, patients, and their
families and friends. Of those who were observed and interviewed while in a garden, 95 percent
reported a therapeutic benefit. According to the study, this manifests itself in employees being
more productive, patients feeling better and having more tolerance of medical procedures, and

family and friends feeling relieved of stress.

Studies at Texas A&M have documented that simply looking at a plant can reduce stress, fear,
and anger, and lower blood pressure and muscle tension. Researchers at the University of
Illinois have found that people shown urban scenes with some vegetation recover more quickly
that people exposed to scenes without vegetation.

The U.S. Forest Service's Human-Environment Research Laboratory is studying how the
surrounding landscape, especially the presences of trees and grass, influences the functioning of
low-income residents in three Chicago public housing projects.

Reduce crime
A 1993 study for the Merck Family Fund reported that after Philadelphia police officer Rita
Ikedaf started a community gardening program, burglaries and thefts in the area dropped from
about 40 incidents per month to just four per month. The Trust for Public Land reported a 28
percent drop in crime after the first year of a garden project in the Mission District of San
Francisco. "Working on the garden encouraged residents to form a neighborhood watch group,
which made the area an unattractive place for drug dealers."

Urban Ecology Appendix 4: Recipe for a City Garden

Cooking Up A Design for Your Vacant Lot Garden
Every garden is as special and unique as the people who
come together to create it. There are, however, a few parts in
every garden that are basic. Here is a menu from which you
can choose ingredients necessary in every garden and some
that can help make your garden special.

Basic Ingredients
One Vacant Lot - 125 feet by 25 feet
Generous amounts of: Water, Sun Light, Soil, Plants,
Volunteers and Imagination

Begin by listing everything on the site
Walk the site to get a feel for what is already there like large rocks, trees, adjacent buildings,
fences, streets and alleys, etc. Observe the dips and hills and potholes - if you can't level the site
with a bulldozer, they can be included in the design. An irregular ground level can add a lot of
visual interest. Note the shady and sunny areas and where the nearest source of water is. If there
are areas that do not drain well, note them.

Add: Possible uses for the site
Consider how you and your neighbors will use the site: vegetable gardening? relaxing?
barbecuing? active sports for adults, teens, children? or is this just to beautify an eyesore?

Add: Lots of Spices, Flavors, Colors, and Textures:
After you and your group have decided how the garden will be used then list all of the things you
want to put into the garden that will give your garden its special flavor.
    Structures can include: an arbor, compost bin, picnic table, benches, fence, lights, raised
       or ground level beds and containers to hold plants, walks.
    Select plants, trees and shrubs using plant guides such as the U. of I. Cooperative
       Extension Guide to Perennials, the Openlands guide to native plants and the Chicago
       Botanic Garden guide to Chicago perennials. See what your local library has. Visit
       gardens in your own neighborhood, the Garfield Conservatory, the Chicago Botanic
       Garden, and in other communities and neighborhoods as well.
    Select plants to add different heights - short perennials, medium high shrubs, taller
       ornamental trees, even taller shade trees.
    Select plants also for winter color and year round presence - evergreens, shrubs with red
       branches, grasses that dry and remain to hold snow in the winter season.
    Select hardy plants that require minimal care like watering and can survive in "Zone 5" -
       Chicago's short growing season - and remember to select plants that need sun for sunny
       areas and shade plants for the shade.

      Arrange plants in the beds, fence lines, along the walks. They should be "massed" for the
       greatest effect. This means grouping many of the same kinds of plant together in one area
       so there will be a dramatic effect of color, shape and texture.

Add: One basic drawing
Refer to your list and using a rectangular piece of paper, to scale if you wish on a piece of graph
lined paper, first show where all of the things you found on your walk are located, noting
whether they will be removed or will remain. Next rough in the area where deliveries of wood
chips, soil, and other materials can be made, probably at the rear of the garden, in the least
visible place near the alley. You will always need this work space, so allow at least 20% of the
garden space for this and include a compost area or bin here, too.

Add: All the extras
Begin to put on paper your own special garden plan. Choose one of the basic patterns or draw
one of your own. Remember that a garden design that is balanced is the most pleasing, but that
one that is purposely a little off balance might also work as can be found in a Japanese garden,
for example. Start entering bed areas, walks, trees, shrubs...everything you want to add to the
As you draw in the parts of your garden, here are some hints
     Make circles or squares where you will plant flower beds, and make circles with a dot in
        the middle where you will plant trees, smaller circles with a dot where shrubs will go.
     Because curved lines are pleasant in a garden, draw a double line for the walkway or path
        that winds back and forth along the length of the site through the arbor, past the beds,
        under the trees, ending at a table, or maybe loops around and rejoins the path once again
        at the front of the lot.
     Refer to your list of desired plants. Draw smaller circles, squares, ovals and crescents
        where the groups of plants will go in the beds, and along the lot line or fence line. Write
        in the names of the plants in each shape. Draw them in order of height (taller behind,
        shorter in front, or taller in the middle and progressively shorter moving out) and in
        pleasing color combinations (shades of one color mixed with white, or a rainbow effect,
        or bright multicolors, or complementary colors). On your piece of paper consider
        repeating these bed themes - colors, sizes and bloom season - in groups of three, or in an
        alternating pattern along the length of the site. This is how balance is created.
     Write in the areas where the compost bin, work space will be.
     If you plan to put in fences, write this in along the property lines, noting where the gates
        will be. Remember to plan for a large (at least 8 feet wide) gate at the rear to
        accommodate truck deliveries of wood chips, soil, compost, trees, plants etc.
     Want lights? a bird bath? an arbor or other structure? draw them in. You can use
        squares and circles and just write inside what the object is.

Prepare and Clean: Vacant Lot
You are now ready to prepare the vacant lot by cutting down weeds, clearing away rubbish, and
spreading a layer of soil over the lot. If funds are not available for a large amount of soil, spread
free wood chips and buy soil for the raised or ground level beds where you want plants. Save
anything usable like bricks and stones for walks, fences, walls for compost bins, edging for beds;

tires for planters; lumber for trellises, arbors, benches - use that ingredient called imagination
before deciding something is really garbage.

Mix it all together and cook up a time line for starting and finishing the work
Consider what is your first priority, which flower bed to fill first, which structure to build or buy
and then go to it. Most gardeners must budget their money over a few years to buy all the
materials for the garden. Plants are fairly easy to get over the spring and summer from OLP,
GPCA, CBG and DOE, so invest in the "hardware" first such as soil, which is hard to find free or
even cheap, and lumber.

A beautiful garden takes a while to grow, just like good cheese and fine wine, and people, come
to think of it! The plants must mature before full appreciation of the finished garden will happen.
It takes at least three years for perennials, trees and shrubs to really look like something, or to
even put our their first flowers. You might help your impatience by planting annuals among the
new perennials to fill in the empty places as they grow and mature.

Urban Ecology Appendix 5: Recycle Columbus!

Drop boxes accept / do not accept the following items:

Acceptable                                           Not Acceptable
Soda, Milk, Detergent & Shampoo Bottles              Caps
with a #1 or #2 on the bottom, Plastic Grocery       Plastics #3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Bags                                                 Oil Jugs
Labels do not need to be removed.
- Please rinse, flatten and remove lids and caps
Clear, Brown, Green & Blue Glass Bottles and         Ceramics
Jars in which food products are packaged             Window or Drinking Glass
Labels do not need to be removed.                    Light Bulbs
- Please rinse and remove lids and caps              Broken Glass
Newspaper with Ad Slicks, Magazines, Phone
Books (seasonal), Brown Grocery (Kraft)
Bags, "Junk" Mail, Chip Board, Corrugated
Cardboard, Office Paper
- Please place newspaper in brown grocery
sack or leave loose.
Beverage & Steel Food Cans
Aluminum and Bi-metal Beverage Cans, Steel           Paint Cans
Food/Tin Cans, Aluminum Foil, Empty                  Coat Hangers
Aerosol Cans                                         Steel Scraps
Labels do not need to be removed.
- Please rinse and flatten.
Gable-Top Cartons & Drink Boxes
Paperboard Cartons containing such items as          Frozen Food Cartons
Milk, Juice, Fabric Softener and Egg                 Frozen Juice Concentrate Containers
Substitutes. Also accepted is packaging              Straws
recognized by its box shape (Aceptic) into
which a straw can be inserted.

Recycle Columbus! Drop-box locations:

   Fire Stations        Recreation Ctrs Kroger Stores (17): Home Depot Stores (5)
        (13):                  (12):       11. 1630 Morse Rd. 51. 6333 Cleveland Ave
1. 2300 W. Broad      33. 1254 Briarwood 12. 1350 N. High St.    52. 100 S. Grener Ave
         St.                   Ave.               14. 1425         53. 2480 Brice Rd.
2. 3555 Fishinger      34. 1056 Atcheson     Worthington Ctr.  56. 5200 N. Hamilton Rd.
         Rd.                    St.                  Dr.         57. 5858 Sawmill Rd.
 3. 3069 Parsons       35. 1826 Lattimer 15. 5151 W. Broad          JoAnn Fabrics &
        Ave.                    Rd.                  St.               Crafts (1)
       4. 211         37. 4900 Olentangy 16. 3637 S. High St.    19. 2757 Festival Lane
McNaughten Rd.              River Rd.         17. 2525 Rome-      Other Locations (1)
   5. 2170 West      38. 240 W. Oakland         Hilliard Rd.   18. Indianola Plaza - 3600
      Case Rd.                 Ave.        20. 2090 Bethel Rd.       Indianola Ave.
 6. 3601 N. High       39. 276 S. Nelson 21. 5727 Emporium        Rumpke Recycling
         St.                    Rd.                  Sq.            1191 Fields Ave.
   7. 5151 Little       40. Goodale Pk. - 22. Northern Lights As of: March 21, 2001
    Turtle Way       Dennison Ave. Pking       Shopping Ctr
 8. 7560 Smokey                 Lot         23. 1501 Chambers
      Row Rd.        41. 1184 Barnett Rd.           Rd.
9. 440 Lazelle Rd.   42. 3923 N. High St.         25. 1585
 10. 3675 Gender         - Whetstone Pk       Georgesville Rd.
         Rd.           44. 4900 Sawmill      26. 6800 E. Broad
      13. 3240                  Rd.                  St.
 McCutcheon Rd.       45. 455 S. Westgate 27. 3675 E. Broad
 54. 5433 Fisher               Ave.                  St.
         Rd.         46. 2801 Lockbourne 28. 850 S. Hamilton
 55. 5305 Alkire               Rd.4                 Rd.
         Rd.           50. Schiller Park -       29. 560 E.
                           1069 Jaeger        Livingston Ave
                         Street(1st & 3rd    30. 4485 Refugee
                        Saturday of each            Rd.
                             month)        31. 6095 Gender Rd.

Recycle, Columbus Curbside Pick-up:

Curbside Recycling Collection
       Can’t make it to a drop box? Want the convenience of curbside recycling? It's
       easier than you think! The City of Columbus has a partnership with Rumpke
       Recycling to offer curbside recycling to all Columbus residents for only $4 per
       month. A recycling bin is provided and collection is the same day as your color-
       coded refuse and yard waste curbside collection day. Paper products should be
       placed separately in the bin in a paper grocery type bag. To subscribe, please
       print out the subscription form below and mail it with a check for $16 (four
       months in advance) or call Rumpke at 1-800-828-8171.

                   Recyclable Papers
                                                          Containers Accepted

                  Newspaper with ad slicks               Glass bottles & jars (all
                  Magazines                               colors and clear)
                  Corrugated cardboard                   Aluminum cans, scrap
                   boxes                                  Plastics #1 & #2 (e.g.
                  Grocery (kraft) bags                    soda, water bottles, milk
                  Telephone books                         jugs, etc.)
                  "Junk" mail                            Steel cans, aerosol cans,
                  Paperboard packaging                    scrap
                   (aseptic cartons)                      Aseptic, gable top cartons
                                                           (e.g. juice boxes, dairy

Recycle, Columbus Yard Waste Recycling:

Yard Waste Recycling
      Rumpke will provide collection of grass clippings, leaves, branches and other
      yard waste for all City of Columbus residents. Place your properly prepared,
      source-separated yard waste at the curbside for collection.
       On the same day as your City of Columbus refuse collection day. Residents
          may call 645-8774 to find out your designated collection day or by using the
          City color-coded map on this website.
       Available once a week throughout the entire year.
       Pick up will only be at the curbside. Residents with alley or other types of
          collection must put their yard waste at the street.
       Yard waste items should be at the curbside by 6 a.m. the day of pick-up.

        Place in biodegradable paper yard waste bags (available at grocery and
          hardware stores) or your own plastic or metal containers (not bigger than 32
          gallons) labeled yard waste.
        If using your own container, do not use bags. The yard waste will be emptied
          directly into the truck. Leave lids off containers.
        Bundle branches and twigs with twine or string. The bundles should not
          exceed four feet in length or two feet around. No single branch should be
          larger than 8" in diameter.
        Bundles or containers of yard waste can weigh no more than 50 pounds.
        Please remember – do not use plastic bags.

       Special Note on Holiday Material Collection:
        Christmas trees over 8 feet should be cut in half. They do not need to be
          bundled, but must be completely free of all decorations.
        Other live decorative materials can be bundled or placed in biodegradable
          paper bags, but must be free of decorations or wire objects.

Yard Waste at the Home:
Choices for Controlling Yard Waste at Home
         Reducing the amount of waste generated begins at home with easy choices for
         taking care of your yard.
          Composting: Leaves, grass clippings, weeds, prunings, dead flowers and ash
             from burnt wood can be composted... not only to reduce yard waste, but to
             nourish your landscaping. Composted materials provide important nutrients
             for soil and plants.
Don’t Bag It: You’ll save time mowing when you don’t bag your clippings. The grass clippings
will keep your lawn moist and green by recycling nutrients. If you’d like more information or
need special instructions on Homeowner lawn maintenance, please call the OSU Extension -

Urban Ecology Appendix 6: Models of Successful LEED Programs

We have included these successful programs and policies as a guide and learning reference for
the City of Columbus and any other entities that are ambitious enough to start a green building
(sustainability) program. Within the City of Seattle’s sustainable building policy is actual code
that Columbus and other regional cities can use as a means of steering the communities towards
their own governmental practices.

City of Seattle Sustainable Building Policy
The City's Sustainable Building Action Plan states "One way to encourage the building industry
to build more sustainable is to lead by example," (p. 15). Recommendation #2 in the Action
Plan is:
    Adopt a policy that would require all City of Seattle new construction and major
    renovation projects to be designed and built in a sustainable manner.

The City's Sustainable Building Policy was unanimously endorsed by the City Council and
signed by the Mayor in February 2000. The policy uses the US Green Building Council's
LEEDTM Rating System to evaluate City projects.

The policy was developed by the City of Seattle's interdepartmental Green Building Team,
which includes representatives from Seattle City Light, Seattle Public Utilities, the Facilities
Division of the Executive Services Department, the Department of Design, Construction, and
Land Use, the Office of Environmental Management and the Lighting Design Lab. The Policy is
incorporated into the City's Environmental Management Program. The text of the policy is as

Sustainable Building Policy
6.9 Sustainable Building

6.9.1 Purpose
The purpose of a Citywide policy on sustainable building is to demonstrate the City’s
commitment to environmental, economic, and social stewardship, to yield cost savings to the
City taxpayers through reduced operating costs, to provide healthy work environments for staff
and visitors, and to contribute to the City’s goals of protecting, conserving, and enhancing the
region’s environmental resources. Additionally, the City helps to set a community standard of
sustainable building.

6.9.2 Organizations Affected
All City departments and offices and their contractors responsible for financing, planning,
designing, developing, constructing and managing City-owned facilities and buildings.

6.9.3 Definitions

Sustainable Building
Sustainable building integrates building materials and methods that promote environmental
quality, economic vitality, and social benefit through the design, construction and operation of

the built environment. Sustainable building merges sound, environmentally responsible practices
into one discipline that looks at the environmental, economic and social effects of a building or
built project as a whole. Sustainable design encompasses the following broad topics: efficient
management of energy and water resources, management of material resources and waste,
protection of environmental quality, protection of health and indoor environmental quality,
reinforcement of natural systems, and integrating the design approach.

Life Cycle Cost Analysis
An inclusive approach to costing a program, facility, or group of facilities that encompasses
planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance over the useful life of the facilities
and finally any decommissioning or disassembly costs. Life Cycle Cost Analysis looks at the net
present value of design options as investments. The goal is to achieve the highest, most cost-
effective environmental performance possible over the life of the project.

LEED Rating System
LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, and is a voluntary,
consensus-based, market-driven green building rating system. It is based on existing, proven
technology and evaluates environmental performance from a "whole building" perspective.
LEED is a self-certifying system designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional,
and multi-family residential buildings. It contains prerequisites and credits in five categories:
Sustainable Site Planning, Improving Energy Efficiency, Conserving Materials and Resources,
Embracing Indoor Environmental Quality, and Safeguarding Water. There are four rating levels:
Bronze, Silver, Gold, and Platinum.

6.9.4 Policy
It shall be the policy of the City of Seattle to finance, plan, design, construct, manage, renovate,
maintain, and decommission its facilities and buildings to be sustainable. This applies to new
construction and major remodels in which the total project square footage meets the criteria
given. The US Green Building Council’s LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design) rating system and accompanying Reference Guide shall be used as a design and
measurement tool to determine what constitutes sustainable building by national standards. All
facilities and buildings over 5,000 gross square feet of occupied space shall meet a minimum
LEED Silver rating.
Design and project management teams are encouraged to meet higher LEED rating levels. A
Mayor’s Award for achieving a higher rating will be awarded. (See also Energy and Water
Conservation Policy and Landscape and Grounds Management Policy.)

6.9.5 Procedures and Responsibilities
The Directors of all City Departments whose responsibilities include planning, designing,
constructing or renovating City-owned facilities shall be responsible for ensuring that facilities
and buildings comply with 6.9.4.
The City’s Office of Environmental Management (OEM) shall be responsible for coordinating
any educational, technical and financial resources available to City departments that support and
promote sustainable design and construction of City facilities. The City’s OEM shall be
responsible for annually evaluating and reporting to the Oversight Panel how well applicable
City construction projects meet the goal of sustainability.

The Office of Environmental Management shall establish the minimum number of credits
required in each of the LEED categories so that projects shall demonstrate performance in all
The City’s interdepartmental Green Building Team, under the OEM, shall be responsible for
reviewing and updating the City portion of the LEED reference manual annually, for helping
provide technical expertise on specific sustainable building issues on a case by case basis, and
coordinating LEED training programs.

6.9.6 Budgeting and Financing
All capital construction which falls under this policy will be expected to budget to meet at
minimum the LEED Silver rating. Budget planning and life cycle cost analysis to achieve a
higher rating of gold or platinum is encouraged.

6.9.7 Training
City capital project managers currently managing or likely to manage projects which fit the
criteria in 6.9.4 will be responsible to attend introductory LEED training and annual follow-up
training. LEED training will be coordinated through the Office of Environmental Management
and/or other sponsoring departments.

6.9.8 References
     City of Seattle Sustainable Building Action Plan
     Seattle’s Solid Waste Plan: On the Path to Sustainability
     USGBC LEED Reference Manual
     Seattle Energy Code

For more information contact:
Lucia Athens, Chair, Green Building Team
Seattle Public Utilities Resource Conservation
Phone: 684-4643 email:

City of Austin Green Builder Program
The Austin Energy Services Green Building Program is an information clearing house and
consulting group that promotes sustainable building practices.

Through technical training of builders and architects and marketing efforts aimed at home
buyers, the Green Building Program encourages construction that emphasizes energy and water
conservation, the use of sustainable materials, and building design that promotes health and
safety, and community. The Green Building program counts 66 architectural firms, 58 builders,
and 77 building product/service suppliers’ among its core membership. A number of large
production builders are building all their homes to Green Building standards.

Nine years ago, the City of Austin, Texas recognized the direct local environmental impacts
associated with residential building. This realization and the need to protect dwindling natural
resources prompted the City’s efforts in establishing the Green Building Program, now regarded

as a leader in environmental building practices. Since that time, it has expanded its efforts to
provide incentives and technical assistance programs for all residential, commercial, and
multifamily building projects. The municipality is setting their own example by requiring all
municipal buildings to be built with sustainable standards. For the private sector, the Green
Building Program fosters "market transformation" by providing education; marketing and
monetary incentives to develop both the demand side (the buying public) as well as the supply
side (building professionals). The program is primarily funded through our municipal electric
utility and supplemented by the water utility, environmental, and solid waste departments.

Program Concept
Fundamentally, the program is based on a market-pull mechanism whereby the Green Building
Program promotes green building practices, rates buildings that feature these practices, thus
creating more demand from the public because these buildings are perceived as more attractive
products for people to buy. The technical staff provides design guidelines and rating systems in
easy to understand language for each type of building construction. Staff also provides technical
assistance to the public and our building professional participants, as well as assists in marketing
and promoting green projects. Consumer education and awareness are just as important as
fostering acceptance within the building professions.

Program Components

Technical Assistance
The program offers several kinds of technical assistance. Our Sourcebook covers a broad range
of information with general discussion of the building material, technique, or concern, as well as
resources and references – geared more toward building professionals or owner/builders. Concise
fact sheets and individual consultations are also available from our web site, by phone, fax or e-
mail to our customers.

Green Building Membership
Membership in the program allows technical, logistical, and marketing assistance for
participating building professionals, as well as serving as a means to assure that building
professionals are educated to a base level of expertise to practice sustainable building.

Rating System
A menu of sustainable options is available in an electronic spreadsheet for members. It self
calculates a Green Building rating. In addition, the commercial building sector is offered a cash
incentive and technical support for using a design checklist, which insures an integrated team

Education and Outreach
Educational efforts include conferences and monthly seminars. We write newspaper and
magazine articles as well as pay for advertisements. We appear on TV and radio talk shows and
exhibit at many trade shows. The latest accomplishment is a CD about the planning process,
called Green by Design.

Results and Benefits
To date, the program has rated 1,800 homes, 1,400 apartment units, and 10 commercial buildings
and has consulted on 85 other commercial projects.
Green Building results in many different types of resource savings but the task of accurately
quantifying all impacts is extremely difficult and time consuming. We have not accurately
measured the impact we are having. The program staff is presently working on quantifying the
effects on peak power capacity reduction, total energy use reduction, water treatment capacity
reduction, air and water pollution reduction, landfill reduction, and total water use reduction.

Energy Conservation
By conserving energy, Green buildings have benefits for many groups. Reducing a building’s
energy use saves money for the owner. Conserving energy reduces "peak demand" for the
electric utility, which allows for a more efficient use of power plant capacity and reduces the
need to build new power plants to keep up with demand. Saving energy also reduces pollution
caused by the production of energy, which benefits all citizens, plants, and animals.

Avoided Emissions
Green Buildings avoid emissions by reducing requirements for electricity production required for
manufacturing building materials, for reducing electricity for operating the building over its life
span, by discouraging automobile use, and by reducing heat island effect. In 1999, Green
Building participants reduced 3,644,066 kg CO2, 3,882 kg SO2, 7,365 kg NOx from energy
conservation alone.
Weighing the dollar value of these emissions' impacts is a highly customized process. While the
value of an avoided ton of carbon dioxide has been assigned dollar values by various experts
ranging from $5 to $30, Austin Energy has selected $20 for its calculations. This is considered a
suitable mid-range number to ascertain the dollar value of its programs' environmental benefit.
We determined that the Austin Green Building Program resulted in over $50,000 worth of annual
environmental costs through electrical savings. This is approximately one-fifth the cost of
administering the program in 1998.

Water Conservation
Green Buildings use less water, both interior (plumbing fixtures) and exterior water
(landscaping). This reduces costs to the owner, costs to the local environment, and stress on
water delivery and discharge systems, as well as delaying the need for increased capacity.

Waste Reduction
The program's holistic orientation also espouses a waste reduction approach, whether
considering the choice of materials (re-used or recycled content) or managing construction waste
and recycling. We also encourage planned recycling centers in homes as well as composting.
Naturally, such an emphasis will alleviate pressure on local landfills. To assist the salvage
process we have a collaborative Internet site for salvaged materials.

Water Pollution Prevention
Green Buildings reduce water pollution by promoting better land use and through requiring
native vegetation (reducing pesticide necessity) In addition, water quality concepts such as

stormwater filtration via wet ponds, constructed wetlands, and pervious paving methods are

Building Materials and Indoor Air Quality
The program's emphasis on ecologically friendly building materials addresses 'up-stream'
resource consumption (for instance fewer toxins used in product manufacturing). This is also
essential to a key program result: improved air quality. Green Building provides for healthier
spaces, an important feature given the increasing concerns about indoor air pollution.

Economic Development
The Green Building program saves building owners money on their utility and maintenance bills.
It also reduces liability from future indoor air quality and water pollution litigation. The Program
has also stimulated new businesses. Businesses now sell new products such as Faswall, Rastra,
and low-VOC paints. Other businesses provide services such as installation of; autoclaved
aerated concrete, straw bale and cobb walls, and gray water and rainwater harvesting systems.
The program's emphasis on sustainability creates a shift towards maximizing use of local
products and services, which stimulates the local economy and minimizes transportation’s toll on
the environment. The Green Building Program benefits real estate and mortgage markets by
creating a new niche with 'green' homes and commercial buildings. This further supports the real
estate market through product differentiation and value-added services. Two local mortgage
companies now have special financing available for green buildings.

The concept of combating sprawl by encouraging remodeling before new construction, reducing
building size with better designs, developing in areas which already are serviced with electricity
and water, is basic to Green Building and healthy communities. By encouraging infill air quality
is enhanced through automobile trip reduction. One Green Building project, the Brown Building
could prevent—1040 pounds of hydrocarbons, 480 pounds of nitrogen oxides, 9020 pounds of
carbon monoxide, and 139,580 pounds of carbon dioxide from entering Austin’s atmosphere,
through tenants’ automobile trip reduction alone.
Austin's Green Building Program will not single-handedly alter the culture but it does attempt to
put key information in the hands of consumers as well as the mainstream building industry. This
is done with the belief that people will make the choices that have the best chance of improving
the quality of their lives. In reality, we have seen that a variety of forces drive green building
practices. Consumer demand, resulting from public education and awareness, is ever on the rise.
Environmental responsibility on the part of building professionals and our own municipality is
also growing. All of this serves to benefit the city government in its efforts to provide a well
managed city, and our citizens benefit with a better quality of life.

City of Portland Green Building Policy
Policy Statement
The City of Portland shall incorporate green building principles and practices into the design,
construction, and operations of all City facilities, City-funded projects, and infrastructure
projects to the fullest extent possible. Furthermore, the City will provide leadership and guidance
to encourage the application of green building practices in private sector development. This

policy is expected to yield long-term cost savings to the City’s taxpayers due to substantial
improvements in life-cycle performance and reduced life-cycle costs.

In addition, the City shall evaluate all land purchases for future development on the basis of
reducing environmental impacts that include but are not limited to transit and bicycle
accessibility, urban and brownfields redevelopment, solar access, on-site stormwater mitigation
capacity, and vegetation and habitat restoration.

Development and construction practices are main contributors to the depletion of natural
resources and a major cause of air and water pollution, solid waste, deforestation, toxic wastes,
health hazards, global warming, and other negative consequences. Buildings use one-quarter of
all the world’s wood harvest. Buildings consume two-fifths of all material and energy flows.
Fifty-four percent of U.S. energy consumption is directly or indirectly related to buildings and
their construction. Building construction and operations account for 35 percent of U.S. CO2

As Portland grows, so does the need to create additional strategies to counter the negative
impacts of rapid growth – degradation to air and water quality, natural resource depletion, and
inefficient land use practices. The built environment represents a major opportunity for the City,
along with local designers, engineers, developers, builders, lenders, appraisers, and other sectors
of the building trades, to address local and global environmental degradation. Promoting energy
and resource efficient building practices is one such strategy.

Green building practices provide the framework and tools to build in an efficient, healthy, and
ecologically responsible manner. Encouraging green building practices is in the public’s interest
because these techniques:
    Promote Portland’s energy, land use, environmental and growth-management policies.
    Conserve energy, water and other natural resources.
    Strengthen established goals related to increased density, mixed use and transit-oriented
       development, stormwater and erosion control; brownfield redevelopment, and increased
       bicycle and pedestrian access.
    Save building owners and tenants’ money through increased operation and maintenance
    Improve indoor air quality and the health, well being, and productivity of occupants.
    Help reduce public infrastructure costs related to development.
    Minimize local ecological degradation (habitat, air, soil, and water) through        efficient
       site and building design, sustainable construction practices, and low impact building
       materials and operational practices.
    Keeps money in the local economy and creates new local industries and jobs.

Integrated Design and Life Cycle Analysis
Successful green buildings depend on applying whole-systems strategies to rigorous life cycle
analysis. Effective integrated design strategies consider and solve a variety of relevant issues
simultaneously. Life cycle analysis helps assess the net present value of the design, construction,
operation, maintenance, and disassembly of a facility as well as the health and productivity of its

occupants. When integrated design and life cycle analysis are combined, better and more
affordable building strategies emerge. Currently, design and construction budgets for City-owned
facilities are established using square-foot formulas based on industry standards (facility type,
land value, and other factors affecting cost prior to design). In addition, construction and
operations budgeting occurs separately – making it difficult to invest in green building practices
that may have higher upfront costs. In order to develop green building strategies that have the
most beneficial economic and environmental benefits, the City needs to apply 20 to 30 year life
cycle costing that integrates construction and operations and maintenance budgets into all
building related capital improvements.

The Office of Management and Finance will lead a workgroup to include the Bureau of General
Services, Office of Sustainable Development, Fire Bureau, Bureau of Environmental Services,
Bureau of Parks and Recreation, Portland Department of Transportation, and Water Bureau to
develop a life cycle analysis tool for estimating the design, construction, and operations and
maintenance budgets for all City Capital Improvement Projects (CIP).

Why the LEED Rating System?
The City of Portland Green Building Policy is tied, in part, to the Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED ) rating system developed by the US Green Building Council
(USGBC). The USGBC was formed in 1993 to accelerate the adoption of green building
practices, technologies, policies, and standards. The USGBC developed LEED to help stimulate
green building market transformation. USGBC membership consists of more than 400
organizations including product manufacturers, environmental non profit organizations, building
and design professionals, building owners, and local and state governments. The City of Portland
joined the USGBC in 1999.

LEED is a third party certification system designed for rating new and existing commercial,
institutional, and high-rise residential buildings. The use of LEED helps to establish minimum
performance levels, create a common design and construction practices framework, and allows
Portland to measure its sustainable building performance relative to other jurisdictions using
LEED . In addition, USGBC provides technical rulings, training, networking and marketing to

Public Infrastructure Improvements
City-provided public infrastructure that supports development (such as streets, sewers, and water
facilities) needs to constructed, operated and maintained in such a way that is consistent with the
goals and objectives defined in this policy for City buildings. Over the years, the City’s primary
infrastructure bureaus have made significant changes in their construction, operation and
maintenance practices in order to conserve natural resources, reduce pollution, and minimize
health hazards. Where the Portland LEED Green Building Rating System provides an established
rating and certification system for new and major retrofit construction projects, there is currently
no known comparable rating system for sustainability with respect to infrastructure
improvements. The development of such a rating system shall be considered.

Green building: an integrated framework of design, construction, and operations practices that
encompasses the environmental, economic, and social impacts of buildings. Green building
practices recognize the interdependence of the natural and built environments and seek to
minimize the use of energy, water, and other natural resources and provide a healthy, productive
indoor environment.

Portland LEED Green Building Rating System: City performance-oriented green building
certification system designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high-rise
residential buildings based on the US Green Building Council’s LEED Rating System.
Guidelines will reflect existing local standards, evolving national and international guidelines,
and the priorities of the City of Portland and its residents.

Integrated design: A holistic process that considers the many disparate parts of a building
project, and examines the interaction between design, construction, and operations to optimize
the energy and environmental performance of the project.

LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system is a third party
certification system designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high-rise
residential buildings developed by the US Green Building Council.

LEEDTM Certification: Different levels of green building certification – certified, silver, gold, and
platinum - are awarded based on the total credits earned in each of several categories: sustainable
sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor
environmental quality.

Life-cycle: The consecutive, inter-linked stages of a product - beginning with raw materials
acquisition and manufacture, the product’s fabrication, construction, use, and ultimate waste
management (recovery, recycle or disposal).

Life-cycle analysis: an evaluation tool that assesses the net present value of the design,
construction, operation, maintenance, and disassembly of a facility as well as the health and
productivity of its occupants, the costs of measurable external environmental impacts, and the
cost of measurable and relevant social impacts.

Operations and maintenance: costs directly related to the operation, maintenance, repair, and
management of a property and the utilities that service it. These include insurance, property
taxes, utilities, maintenance, and management expenses.

Sustainable development: "Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs" - The World Commission on Environment and
Development, The Brundtland Commission, 1987. Sustainable development seeks to balance
human development, growth, and equity with ecological stewardship.

Whole-systems thinking: a process through which the interconnections of systems are actively
considered, and solutions are sought to address multiple problems at the same time.

Policy Descriptions
Policy Strategy #1: The City of Portland shall incorporate green building practices into all
facilities projects constructed, owned, managed or financed by the City. They are broken down
by building types:

New Construction and Major Retrofits
New construction and major retrofit projects undertaken by the City or its contractors shall meet
the "Certified" level of Portland LEED Green Building Rating System. In addition, projects are
encouraged to obtain the highest Portland LEED rating (Silver, Gold, or Platinum) possible. All
projects must be registered and certified by the USGBC in accordance to its rules and
procedures. This applies to projects regardless of funding source or amount; applies to projects
accomplished both in-house or through architect/engineer (A-E) contracts (see Appendix A.);
and applies to design associated with all procurement methods, including design-build. Portland
LEED Green Building Rating System shall be adopted no later than February 2001.

Guidelines Development
    Lead: Office of Sustainable Development - Green Building Division
    Partners: Bureau of General Services, Bureau of Parks and Recreation, Bureau of Fire
       and Rescue, Bureau of Environmental Services, Water Bureau, Planning Bureau, Office
       of Planning and Development Review, Portland Development Commission
    Timeline: February 2001

Interior-Tenant Improvements (T/I)
Interior-tenant improvement projects undertaken by the City or its contractors shall apply the
Portland Interior - T/I Green Building Guidelines. This applies to projects regardless of funding
source or amount; applies to projects accomplished both in-house or through architect/engineer
(A-E) contracts (see Appendix A.); and applies to design associated with all procurement
methods, including design-build. Portland Interior - T/I Green Building Guidelines shall be
adopted no later than March 2001.

Guidelines Development
    Lead: Bureau of General Services
    Partners: Office of Sustainable Development – Green Buildings Division, Bureau of
       Parks and Recreation, Bureau of Fire and Rescue, Bureau of Environmental Services,
       Water Bureau, Office of Planning and Development Review
    Timeline: March 2001

Operations and Maintenance (O & M)
All City operations and maintenance practices undertaken by the City or its contractors shall
apply Portland Green Building Operations and Maintenance Guidelines. This applies to all
facilities, regardless of size and contract type (e.g. either in-house or outsourcing contracts).
Portland Green Building Operations and Maintenance Guidelines shall be adopted no later than
September 2001.

Guidelines Development
    Lead: Bureau of General Services
    Partners: Bureau of Parks and Recreation, Bureau of Environmental Services, Bureau of
       Fire and Rescue, Office of Sustainable Development - Green Building Division
    Timeline: September 2001

The Office of Sustainable Development Green Building Division will coordinate the activities of
all City agencies to develop, implement, and enforce the actions as described in the City of
Portland Green Building Policy. An inter-bureau Green Building Advisory Group shall help
develop and periodically update all City of Portland green building guidelines as described
above. The Directors of all City bureaus shall be responsible for ensuring that the facilities they
construct, manage or occupy meet these guidelines.

The City will develop an exemptions process to review any project where meeting the City’s
required green building guidelines is not appropriate. Such projects must submit documentation
in accordance with exemption process to the Office of Sustainable Development for review
during the project’s schematic design and cost estimating.
City facility construction projects that are unoccupied or serve specialized functions (e.g. pump
station, garage, storage building, etc.) are not subject to the City’s green building guidelines and
do not need to go through the exemption process
All exempt projects must still incorporate and document appropriate green building measures to
the maximum extent practicable. The exemption process shall be developed by the Office of
Sustainable Development no later than March 2001. Exemption criteria will address conflicts
related to project size, siting, building and zoning regulations, city policies, USGBC
certification, and project costs (based on life cycle analysis).

Exception Criteria Development
    Lead: Office of Sustainable Development - Green Building Division
    Partners: Bureau of General Services, Bureau of Parks and Recreation, Bureau of Fire
       and Rescue, Bureau of Environmental Services, Water Bureau, Planning Bureau, Office
       of Planning and Development Review
    Timeline: March 2001

The Office of Management and Finance and the Portland Development Commission will work
with the Office of Sustainable Development Green Building Division to collect buildings data
and issue a report to City Council reviewing the City’s progress in meeting the City of Portland
Green Building Policy as part of the City budget review process.

Policy Strategy #2: The Portland Development Commission (PDC) shall adopt Portland LEED
Green Building Rating System, City of Portland Green Building Policy goals and incorporate
green building practices into each of its ongoing and future program areas.

For all PDC program areas - including nine current urban renewal areas and development loan
and grant fund programs - PDC shall work with stakeholders to promote green building practices
and shall adopt the Portland LEED Green Building Rating System by September 30, 2001.
Projects and program areas shall adhere to these standards unless identified as exceptions. The
PDC Board shall approve exemption criteria for such projects or areas by September 30, 2001.
Commission staff shall work with staff from the Office of Sustainable Development to develop
strategies and tools for promoting green building techniques in Commission program areas.
Standards adopted in each program area shall apply to projects accomplished both in-house and
through architect/engineer (A-E) contracts (see Appendix A.); and shall apply to design
associated with all procurement methods, including design-build. Where life-cycle cost analysis
indicates that energy and resource-efficient practices, materials, and equipment are cost effective,
project managers will be encouraged to employ such practices.

Affordable Housing
In consultation with the Office of Sustainable Development's Green Building Division, PDC
shall issue mandatory Affordable Housing Green Building Guidelines to be considered in its
evaluation of requests for proposals and developer negotiations for all affordable housing
projects receiving PDC funding.

Policy Strategy #3: The construction, operation, and maintenance of public infrastructure that
serves building development shall be examined in order to determine the opportunity and need
for a sustainability rating system for infrastructure similar to Portland LEED Green Building
Rating System.

Initially, each of the City’s primary infrastructure bureaus shall document its previous and
ongoing efforts to improve practices that minimize the use of energy, water, and other natural
resources and provide a healthy, productive environment. Opportunities for additional changes in
construction, operation, and maintenance practices shall be reviewed. The primary infrastructure
bureaus shall work with the Office of Sustainable Development to determine the need for a
sustainability rating system and/or the development of a set of guidelines that would provide for
green practices for infrastructure improvements. A report to Council shall be provided regarding
these findings.

Report Development
    Lead: Office of Transportation
    Partners: Bureau of Environmental Services, Water Bureau, Office of Sustainable
    Timeline: December 2001

Policy Strategy #4: The City shall promote the voluntary application of the Green Building
Guidelines in private sector building design, construction, and operations.

The Office of Sustainable Development’s Green Building Division will facilitate the adoption of
green building practices in the private sector by:

      assembling and providing access to technical expertise and information about green
       building in the residential, commercial, and institutional building sectors;
      resolving code and other regulatory conflicts with green building practices;
      conducting workshops and training targeted at specific building-industry sectors;
      developing building type specific, green building resource guides; and
      expand market demand by educating Portland area residents and businesses.

Appendix A. Suggested Evaluation Factors for Determining A-E's Knowledge and Experience in
Green Building Design
    Preference should be given to A-E design teams with an in-house LEED Accredited
      Professional after the accreditation is available.
    Es should explain their expertise with environmentally responsible or sustainable facility
      design, and their specific expertise in applying "Integrated Design" concepts and
    In their application, the A-E should discuss opportunities for integrated design within
      team disciplines and how to effectively execute within industry standards. For example,
      firms that specify daylighting or energy efficient lighting but don't incorporate energy
      efficient building "skins" (exteriors) or mechanical systems have not accomplished
      "Integrated Design."
    The A-E should demonstrate experience with completed projects that use less heating and
      cooling energy than Oregon Energy Code.
    Es should indicate any projects they designed that met Portland General Electric’s Earth
      Smart Program, Energy Star, USGBC’s LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
      Design), BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment
      Method) or another green building rating system requirements.
    The A-E should demonstrate knowledge of the EPA Comprehensive Procurement
      Guidelines for recycled-content building materials or other industry sources and have
      written specifications requiring the use of recycled-content materials. If the A-E has
      developed a database of suppliers, extra credit should be given in recognition of the
      resources required to research the possible materials, determine their technical feasibility,
      and compare their costs with virgin-material products.
    The A-E should demonstrate experience using environmental life-cycle cost analysis
      techniques to select building materials and equipment that minimize environmental
      impacts throughout their life cycle (especially maintenance and ultimate disposal).
    The A-E’s submittal should provide a list of client references for green building.
    The A-E’s submittal should include a résumé of the Architect/Engineer who will be in
      charge of this project. Include the person’s experience with green building projects,
      including whether or not they are a LEED Accredited Professional.
    The A-E’s green design experience should either reside within the firm or be
      accommodated by means of a consultant with whom the A-E has had extensive
      sustainable design experience on previous projects.
    The A-E’s submittal should detail a sample sustainable project previously designed by
      the A-E. This information may include size of project and measures taken for:

           1.  Site planning measures that are sensitive to the natural environment.
           2.  Maximize building orientation for energy efficiency.
           3.  Effective use of natural daylighting and ventilation.
           4.  Strategies used to minimize stormwater runoff.
           5.  Strategies used to enhance energy conservation and efficiency.
           6.  Effective use of renewable energy resources.
           7.  Reduction or elimination of toxic and harmful substances within buildings and
               their surrounding environments.
           8. Improvements to interior and exterior environments leading to increased
               productivity and better health.
           9. Efficiency in resource and materials utilization, especially water conservation
           10. Selection of materials and products based on their life-cycle environmental
               impacts and use of materials and products with recycled content.
           11. Extensive recycling of construction waste and building materials after demolition.
           12. Reduction in harmful waste products produced during construction.
           13. Facility maintenance and operational practices that reduce or eliminate harmful
               effects on people and the natural environment during building occupancy.
Specification documentation illustrating communication of environmental design goals and
requirements to contractors, subcontractors, suppliers and on-site workers.

Urban Ecology Appendix 7: LEED Resources

Below you will find a checklist for environmentally responsible design and construction,
information on the LEED Certification System, and a Project Checklist, followed by
recommendations on how Columbus can promote Green Building.

Checklist for Environmentally Responsible Design and Construction
(From, Environmental Building News)

    Smaller is better: Optimize use of interior space through careful design so that the overall
       building size--and resource use in constructing and operating it--is kept to a minimum.
    Design an energy-efficient building: Use high levels of insulation, high-performance
       windows, and tight construction. In southern climates, choose glazings with low solar
       heat gain.
    Design buildings to use renewable energy: Passive solar heating, daylighting, and natural
       cooling can be incorporated cost-effectively into most buildings. Also consider solar
       water heating and photovoltaics--or design buildings for future solar installations.
    Optimize material use: Minimize waste by designing for standard ceiling heights and
       building dimensions. Avoid waste from structural over-design (use optimum-value
       engineering/advanced framing). Simplify building geometry.
    Design water-efficient, low-maintenance landscaping: Conventional lawns have a high
       impact because of water use, pesticide use, and pollution generated from mowing.
       Landscape with drought-resistant native plants and perennial groundcovers.
    Make it easy for occupants to recycle waste: Make provisions for storage and processing
       of recyclables: recycling bins near the kitchen, undersink compost receptacles, and the
    Look into the feasibility of graywater: Water from sinks, showers, or clothes washers
       (graywater) can be recycled for irrigation in some areas. If current codes prevent
       graywater recycling, consider designing the plumbing for easy future adaptation.
    Design for durability: To spread the environmental impacts of building over as long a
       period as possible, the structure must be durable. A building with a durable style
       ("timeless architecture") will be more likely to realize a long life.
    Design for future reuse and adaptability: Make the structure adaptable to other uses, and
       choose materials and components that can be reused or recycled.
    Avoid potential health hazards: radon, mold, pesticides: Follow recommended practices
       to minimize radon entry into the building and provide for future mitigation if necessary.
       Provide detailing that will avoid moisture problems, which could cause mold and mildew
       growth. Design insect-resistant detailing that will require minimal use of pesticides.

Siting and Land Use:
     Renovate older buildings: Conscientiously renovating existing buildings is the most
        sustainable construction.
     Create community: Development patterns can either inhibit or contribute to the
        establishment of strong communities and neighborhoods. Creation of cohesive
        communities should be a high priority.

      Encourage in-fill and mixed-use development: In-fill development that increases density
       is inherently better than building on undeveloped (greenfield) sites. Mixed-use
       development, in which residential and commercial uses are intermingled, can reduce
       automobile use and help to create healthy communities.
      Minimize automobile dependence: Locate buildings to provide access to public
       transportation, bicycle paths, and walking access to basic services. Commuting can also
       be reduced by working at home--consider home office needs with layout and wiring.
      Value site resources: Early in the siting process carry out a careful site evaluation: solar
       access, soils, vegetation, water resources, important natural areas, etc., and let this
       information guide the design.
      Locate buildings to minimize environmental impact: Cluster buildings or build attached
       units to preserve open space and wildlife habitats, avoid especially sensitive areas
       including wetlands, and keep roads and service lines short. Leave the most pristine areas
       untouched, and look for areas that have been previously damaged to build on. Seek to
       restore damaged ecosystems.
      Provide responsible on-site water management: Design landscapes to absorb rainwater
       runoff (stormwater) rather than having to carry it off-site in storm sewers. In arid areas,
       rooftop water catchment systems should be considered for collecting rainwater and using
       it for landscape irrigation.
      Situate buildings to benefit from existing vegetation: Trees on the east and west sides of a
       building can dramatically reduce cooling loads. Hedge rows and shrubbery can block
       cold winter winds or help channel cool summer breezes into buildings.

    Avoid ozone-depleting chemicals in mechanical equipment and insulation: CFCs have
       been phased out, but their primary replacements--HCFCs--also damage the ozone layer
       and should be avoided where possible. Avoid foam insulation made with HCFCs.
       Reclaim CFCs when servicing or disposing of equipment.
    Use durable products and materials: Because manufacturing is very energy-intensive, a
       product that lasts longer or requires less maintenance usually saves energy. Durable
       products also contribute less to our solid waste problems.
    Choose low-maintenance building materials: Where possible, select building materials
       that will require little maintenance (painting, retreatment, waterproofing, etc.), or whose
       maintenance will have minimal environmental impact.
    Choose building materials with low embodied energy: Heavily processed or
       manufactured products and materials are usually more energy intensive. As long as
       durability and performance will not be sacrificed, choose low-embodied-energy
    Buy locally produced building materials: Transportation is costly in both energy use and
       pollution generation. Look for locally produced materials. Local hardwoods, for example,
       are preferable to tropical woods.
    Use building products made from recycled materials: Building products made from
       recycled materials reduce solid waste problems, cut energy consumption in
       manufacturing, and save on natural resource use. A few examples of materials with
       recycled content are cellulose insulation, Homasote®, Thermo-ply®, floor tile made from
       ground glass, and recycled plastic lumber.

      Use salvaged building materials when possible: Reduce landfill pressure and save natural
       resources by using salvaged materials: lumber, millwork, certain plumbing fixtures, and
       hardware, for example. Make sure these materials are safe (test for lead paint and
       asbestos), and don't sacrifice energy efficiency or water efficiency by reusing old
       windows or toilets.
      Seek responsible wood supplies: Use lumber from independently certified well-managed
       forests. Avoid lumber products produced from old-growth timber unless they are
       certified. Engineered wood can be substituted for old-growth Douglas fir, for example.
       Don't buy tropical hardwoods unless the seller can document that the wood comes from
       well-managed forests.
      Avoid materials that will offgas pollutants: Solvent-based finishes, adhesives, carpeting,
       particleboard, and many other building products release formaldehyde and volatile
       organic compounds (VOCs) into the air. These chemicals can affect workers' and
       occupants' health as well as contribute to smog and ground-level ozone pollution outside.
      Minimize use of pressure-treated lumber: Use detailing that will prevent soil contact and
       rot. Where possible, use alternatives such as recycled plastic lumber. Take measures to
       protect workers when cutting and handling pressure-treated wood. Scraps should never be
      Minimize packaging waste: Avoid excessive packaging, such as plastic-wrapped
       plumbing fixtures or fasteners that aren't available in bulk. Tell your supplier why you are
       avoiding over-packaged products. Keep in mind, however, that some products must be
       carefully packaged to prevent damage--and resulting waste.

    Install high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment: Well-designed high-efficiency
      furnaces, boilers, and air conditioners (and distribution systems) not only save the
      building occupants money, but also produce less pollution during operation. Install
      equipment with minimal risk of combustion gas spillage, such as sealed-combustion
    Install high-efficiency lights and appliances: Fluorescent lighting has improved
      dramatically in recent years and is now suitable for homes. High-efficiency appliances
      offer both economic and environmental advantages over their conventional counterparts.
    Install water-efficient equipment: Water-conserving toilets, showerheads, and faucet
      aerators not only reduce water use, they also reduce demand on septic systems or sewage
      treatment plants. Reducing hot water use also saves energy.
    Install mechanical ventilation equipment: Mechanical ventilation is usually required to
      ensure safe, healthy indoor air. Heat recovery ventilators should be considered in cold
      climates because of energy savings, but simpler, less expensive exhaust-only ventilation
      systems are also adequate.

Job Site and Business:
    Protect trees and topsoil during sitework: Protect trees from damage during construction
        by fencing off the "drip line" around them and avoiding major changes to surface grade.
    Avoid use of pesticides and other chemicals that may leach into the groundwater: Look
        into less toxic termite treatments, and keep exposed frost walls free from obstructions to

       discourage insects. When backfilling a foundation or grading around a house, do not bury
       any construction debris.
      Minimize job-site waste: Centralize cutting operations to reduce waste and simplify
       sorting. Set up clearly marked bins for different types of usable waste (wood scraps for
       kindling, sawdust for compost, etc.). Find out where different materials can be taken for
       recycling, and educate your crew about recycling procedures. Donate salvaged materials
       to low-income housing projects, theater groups, etc.
      Make your business operations more environmentally responsible: Make your office as
       energy efficient as possible, purchase energy-efficient vehicles, arrange carpools to job
       sites, and schedule site visits and errands to minimize unnecessary driving. In your office,
       purchase recycled office paper and supplies, recycle office paper, use coffee mugs instead
       of disposable cups. On the job, recycle beverage containers.
      Make education a part of your daily practice: Use the design and construction process to
       educate clients, employees, subcontractors, and the general public about environmental
       impacts of buildings and how these impacts can be minimized.

LEED Certification System
This is directly from the United States Green Building Council’s website about the LEED
Certification System (

Project Registration
Register Projects in development with the USGBC.
    One year free access to the LEED Credit Interpretation Ruling web page
    Two (2) free credit interpretation requests per registered project
    Sets up access to "pay as you go" technical credit interpretation support

Technical Support
LEED Credit Interpretation Ruling Page.
    Viewable by all registered projects and/or Rulings Page subscribers.
    Organized by five LEED design categories.
    Real-time database of rulings made on all LEED credit interpretations.
    First step for project teams to get credit questions answered by reviewing other teams
       past experiences.

LEED Credit Interpretation Submission
    Available to design teams for credit interpretations not already addressed on the rulings
    On-line submission with a two-week turn-around-time for decision.
    Decisions posted to the rulings page for all registered projects to view.

Certification Application
Three ring binder, electronic media, or combination including:
    Application Form and LEED Project Scorecard.
    Completed documentation checklist and specified documentation per credit (tabbed).
    Review will commence when application and documentation are complete.

LEED™ Certification Costs
LEED™ Building Certification
                                                                        Member Price
Project Registration
Registers projects in development w/ USGBC; sets up access for
technical credit interpretation support; 1-year free access to ruling
web page; 2 free credit interpretation requests

Building Certification
Includes 2-4 hrs technical review; certification committee review;
certificate and brass plaque; media kit; listing on USGBC web site;
1-2 media announcements in trade magazines

Technical Support
On-line ruling page access (1-year)
Credit interpretation (per submission)                                  Free/$125

Project Checklist
Project Totals                                                              69 possible points
    Certified                                                              26-32 points
    Silver                                                                 33-38 points
    Gold                                                                   39-51 points
    Platinum                                                               52-69 points

Sustainable Sites                                                        14 possible points
Projects receive points for being located on urban infill or brownfield sites rather than farmland
or ecologically sensitive areas such as flood plains, wetlands, or endangered species habitats.
Compact development, increased density, access to transit, accommodations for bicyclists, and
transportation and parking-management programs earn points. More points are earned for
designs that minimize site disturbance and storm-water runoff, promote biodiverisity, and by
reducing roof and paved surface areas, emit less heat into the atmosphere. (Lewis H06)
Following is the complete breakdown:
     Erosion & Sedimentation Control                                               Required
     Site Selection                                                                        1
     Urban Redevelopment                                                                   1
     Brownfield Redevelopment                                                              1
     Alternative Transportation, Public Trans. Access                                      1
     Alternative Transportation, Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms                          1
     Alternative Transportation, Alternative Fuel Refueling Stations                       1
     Alternative Transportation, Parking Capacity                                          1

      Reduced Site Disturbance, Protect or Restore Open Space                           1
      Reduced Site Disturbance, Development Footprint                                   1
      Stormwater Management, Rate or Quantity                                           1
      Stormwater Management, Treatment                                                  1
      Landscape & Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Islands, Non-Roof                      1
      Landscape & Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Islands, Roof                          1
      Light Pollution Reduction                                                         1

Water Efficiency                                                          5 possible points
Points are given for water-efficient landscaping that reduces or eliminates use of potable water
for irrigation, and for reduction of both potable water demand and wastewater generation. High-
efficiency plumbing fixtures, composting toilets and use of graywater (water that is undrinkable
because it has already been used for things such as showers) for non-potable water needs are
among the most effective tactics. (Lewis H06) Following is the complete breakdown:
     Water Efficient Landscaping, Reduce by 50%                                                 1
     Water Efficient Landscaping, No Potable Use or No Irrigation                               1
     Innovative Wastewater Technologies                                                         1
     Water Use Reduction, 20% Reduction                                                         1
     Water Use Reduction, 30% Reduction                                                         1

Energy and Atmosphere                                                     17 possible points
The largest LEED point category has three prerequisites: properly commission all building
systems to ensure that they are correctly engineered, installed, and calibrated for efficient
operation; satisfy minimum energy consumption criteria established by applicable building codes
and industry standards; and use no ozone-depleting, CFC-based refrigerants in any building
equipment. Then, to earn points, the building must conserve even more energy, use alternative,
renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass) and be regularly monitored and
fine-tuned for optimum energy conservation and systems performance. (Lewis H06) Following
is the complete breakdown:
      Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning                                   Required
      Minimum Energy Performance                                                   Required
      CFC Reduction in HVAC&R Equipment                                            Required
      Optimized Energy Performance, 20% New/10% Existing                                   2
      Optimized Energy Performance, 30% New/20% Existing                                   2
      Optimized Energy Performance, 40% New/30% Existing                                   2
      Optimized Energy Performance, 50% New/40% Existing                                   2
      Optimized Energy Performance, 60% New/50% Existing                                   2
      Renewable Energy, 5%                                                                 1
      Renewable Energy, 10%                                                                1
      Renewable Energy, 20%                                                                1
      Additional Commissioning                                                             1
      Ozone Depletion                                                                      1
      Measurement & Verification                                                           1
      Green Power                                                                          1

Materials & Resources                                                     13 possible points
Providing for storage and collection of recyclables in an existing building is a prerequisite in this
category. Reuse of existing buildings, building components and materials earns points, as does
the use of building products manufactured with recycled content or rapidly renewable raw
materials, such as wool or linoleum. LEED points are tallied up for using wood-based materials
derived from properly managed forests and for materials manufactured locally, which minimizes
the impact of transporting it. Adoption of a construction waste management plan to keep debris
out of landfills through recycling can be worth two points. (Lewis H06) Following is the
complete breakdown:
     Storage & Collection of Recyclables                                          Required
     Building Reuse, Maintain 75% of Existing Shell                                                1
     Building Reuse, Maintain 100% of Shell                                                        1
     Building Reuse, Maintain 100% Shell & 50% Non-Shell                                           1
     Construction Waste Management, Divert 50%                                                     1
     Construction Waste Management, Divert 75%                                                     1
     Resource Reuse, Specify 5%                                                                    1
     Resource Reuse, Specify 10%                                                                   1
     Recycled Content, Specify 25%                                                                 1
     Recycled Content, Specify 50%                                                                 1
     Local/Regional Materials, 20% Manufactured Locally                                            1
     Local/Regional Materials, of 20% Above, 50% Harvested Locally                                 1
     Rapidly Renewable Materials                                                                   1
     Certified Wood                                                                                1

Indoor Environmental Quality                                             15 possible points
Prerequisites in this category are, first, to meet minimum indoor air-quality standards established
by building codes. Second, to prevent exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Only then do
points accumulate for further enhancing a building's air quality, thermal comfort, views and
daylighting. Credit is given for augmenting natural and mechanical ventilation, monitoring
carbon dioxide, minimizing contaminant-emitting materials, preventing exposure to hazardous
substances and allowing occupants to individually control temperature, light, and air flow.
(Lewis H06) Following is the complete breakdown:
     Minimum IAQ Performance                                                      Required
     Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control                                    Required
     Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Monitoring                                                      1
     Increase Ventilation Effectiveness                                                   1
     Construction IAQ Management Plan, During Construction                                1
     Construction IAQ Management Plan, Before Occupancy                                   1
     Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives & Sealants                                         1
     Low-Emitting Materials, Paints                                                       1
     Low-Emitting Materials, Carpet                                                       1
     Low-Emitting Materials, Composite Wood                                               1
     Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control                                           1
     Controllability of Systems, Perimeter                                                1
     Controllability of Systems, Non-Perimeter                                            1

      Thermal Comfort, Comply with ASHRAE 55-1992                                     1
      Thermal Comfort, Permanent Monitoring System                                    1
      Daylight & Views, Daylight 75% of Spaces                                        1
      Daylight & Views, Views for 90% of Spaces                                       1

Innovation & Design Process                                      5 possible points
This extra-credit category awards additional points by encouraging project owners and designers
either to exceed the LEED requirements or to devise new strategies and tactics not currently
envisioned by the system. (Lewis H06) Following is the complete breakdown:
     Innovation in Design: Specific Title                                               1
     Innovation in Design: Specific Title                                               1
     Innovation in Design: Specific Title                                               1
     Innovation in Design: Specific Title                                               1
     LEED Accredited Professional                                                       1


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