Phonology by fahrudin.revolusioner

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									   Phonology is the study of the system of sound and sound combination in a language
   Phonetics is the study of the speech sound dealing with the production (how are speech sound
    produced by the organs of speech), transmission (how are speech sound transmitted from the
    speaker to the listener) and reception (how are speech sound heard from the speaker to the
    listener)
   Speech sound divided into voiced and voiceless:
   Voiced speech sound: are speech in which the air stream when passing the glottis makes the vocal
    cords vibrate. Ex. All vowels, some consonants, diphthongs
   Voiceless speech sound: are speech in which the air stream passes freely through the glottis without
    making vocal cords vibrate. Ex. Some consonants.
   The position of vocal cords causes the difference between vowels and consonants
    - Vowels are speech sound in which the air stream can pass freely through and out of the mouth
    - Consonants are speech sound in which the air stream after having passed the larynx is either
         stopped for a moment and release through a narrow opening that a friction is heard

   Consonants in English:
    /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /s/, /∫/, /z/, /ᶾ/, /f/, /v/, /r/, /l/, /dᶾ/, /t∫/, /m/, /n/, /ᶯ/, /h/, /Ө/, /ᶞ/.
   Voiced consonants are consonant that are produced with vibration of the vocal cords.
    /b/, /d/, /g/, /z/, /ᶾ/, /v/, /r/, /l/, /dᶾ/, /m/, /n/, /ᶯ/, /ᶞ/.
   Voiceless consonants are consonant that are produced without vibration of the vocal cords.
    /p/, /t/, /k/, /∫/, /f/, /t∫/,/h/, /Ө/,/s/
   Consonant can be classified based on the place of articulation
    1. Bilabial consonants: p,b -----articulated by the upper lip and the lower lip.
    2. Labiodental consonants: f, v -------- articulated by the lower lip against the upper teeth
    3. Dental consonants: Ө, ᶞ ---------- articulated by the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth
    4. Alveolar consonants: t, d, n, l, s, z ---------articulated by the tip of the tongue the teeth ridge
    5. Post-alveolar consonants: tr, dr, r --------- articulated by tip of the tongue against the back part
        of the teeth ridge
    6. Palate-alveolar consonants: t∫, dᶾ, ∫, ᶾ --------- articulated by tip of the tongue against the teeth
        ridge.
    7. Palatal consonants: j -------- articulated by the front of the tongue against the hart palate
    8. Velar consonant: k, g, ᶯ -------- articulated by the back part of the tongue against the soft palate
    9. Glottal or laryngeal consonants: h articulated in the glottis.
   Consonant can be classified based on the manner of articulation
    1. Plosive consonant: p, b, t, d, k, g ------------ formed by complete closure of the air passage and
        make plosive sounds or plosion
    2. Affricate consonant: t∫, dᶾ, tr, dr ------ formed as plosive consonant
    3. Nasal consonant: m, n, ᶯ --------- formed by complete closure in the mouth, the soft palate being
        lowered so that the air is free to pass out through the nose
    4. Lateral consonants: l ----------- formed by placing an obstacle in the center of the air channel , but
        leaving a free passage for the air on one or both sides of the obstacle.
    5. Rolled consonants: r -------- formed by rapid succession of taps of some elastic organs
    6. Flapped consonants: r -------- formed by a single tap of some elastic organs.
    7. Fricative consonants: f, v, Ө, ᶞ, s, z, r, ∫, ᶾ, h ------- formed by narrowing the air- passage to such
        an extend that produces audible friction.
    8. Semi-vowel: j, w ------- voiced gliding sound


								
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