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					268                                        PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

Rad. 102 RADIOGRAPHIC POSITIONING AND TECHNIQUE I (2). Prepares the student for hospital
practical training: emphasizes ethics, professional conduct, patient care and topographic anatomy.
1 hr. lecture, 3 hrs. lab. Fee $5.00. Corequisite: Rad. 104.
Rad. 103 RADIOGRAPHIC POSITIONING AND TECHNIQUE II (4). Demonstration of the phenomena
and causes of image formation and visualization; emphasis on improving radiographic quality;
spine and pelvis radiography disussed and practiced. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Fee $4.00.
Corequisile: Rad. 102.
Rad. 104 INTRODUCTION TO RADIOGRAPHY (3). Orientation to X-ray equipment, radiographic
exposures and film processing. Special emphasis on radiation protection, medical terminology,
topographic anatomy and position of the extremities. 2 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Fee $5.00.
Corequisite: Rad. 102.
Rad. 203 RADIOGRAPHIC POSITIONING AND TECHNIQUE III (4). The fundamentals of X-ray physics
with the emphasis on X-ray machine transformers, rectifiers, circuits and of transformer ratios;
skull radiography discussed and practiced. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Fee J4.00. Corequisite:
Rad. 214.
Rad. 214 HOSPITAL RADIOGRAPHIC III (1). Practice in positioning, radiographic exposure and film
critique in the radiology department of a cooperating hospital, under the direct supervision of the
staff radiologist andeor registered radiologic technologist. 24 hrs. lab. Prerequisite: Rad. 101
and Hospital Radiographic Technique II, a summer graduation requirement. Corequisite: Rad.
203.
Rad. 23) RADIOGRAPHIC POSITIONING AND TECHNIQUE IV (4). Advanced instruction in effective
use of producing a satisfactory X-ray examination with and without contrast media; special tech-
niques and problems encountered in radiographing atypical patients. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab.
Fee $4.00. Prerequisite: Rad. 203.
Rad. 232 RADIATION THERAPY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (3). Review of X-ray physics; emphasis on
radiation biology; discussion of the use of radioactive isotopes in nuclear medicine and diagnostic
techniques. 3 hrs. lecture. Corequisite: Rad. 231, 251.
Rad. 231 HOSPITAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE IV (1). Advanced practice in positioning, radiographic
exposure and film critique in the radiology department of a cooperating hospital, under the direct
supervision of staff radiologist and/or registered radiologic technologists. 24 hrs. lab. Core-
quisite: Rad. 232. Student must complete Hospital Radiographic Technique V, a summer gradu-
ation requirement during the sophomore summer.
Rad. 252 SURVEY OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL DISEASES (2). Introductory physiopathology including
definitions, nature and cause of diseases, as well as lesions affecting organs and systems.
Related examinations where pathological conditions exist. Corequisite: Rad. 251.
Rad. 315 ADVANCED RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY (4). Radiation physics, radiation therapy, dosi-
metry and radiation protection. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Prerequisite: Rad. 231 or equivalent.
Rad. 334 RADIOGRAPHIC SENSITOMETRY LAB (4). Laboratory measurements and written reports
on film latitude and speed gamma; validity of the reciprocity law, the resolving power and exposure
time with screens demonstrated by student experiments. 2 hrs. lecture, 4 hrs. lab. Fee $5.00.
Prerequisite: Rad. 315.
Rad. 335 SPECIAL PROCEDURES (4). Discussion of special procedures with modern, sophisticated
radiological equipment on the nervous, urinary, digestive, circulatory and respiratory viscera.
3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Prerequisite: Rad. 334.
Rad. 401 EXPERIMENTS IN RADIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY (4). Opportunity for study and experiment
on subjects concerning radiological technology. 2 hrs. lecture, 4 hrs. lab. Fee $5.00. Prerequisite:
Rad. 335.
Rad. 108 FIELD WORK EXPERIENCE: HOSPITAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE II (1). Advanced practice
in positioning, radiographic exposure and film critique in the Radiology Department of a cooperating
hospital, under the direct supervision of the staff radiologist and/or registered radiologic tech-
nologist. A graduation requirement taught during the freshman summer. 40 hrs. lab. Prerequisite:
Rad. 101.
Rad. 408 FIELD WORK EXPERIENCE—ADVANCED HOSPITAL RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE (1). A con-
tinuing study of radiographic technique at a high level, but with the opportunity to specialize in
radiation therapy, isotope technology, teaching, or departmental management. The student may
take a test to pre-empt summer experience if approved by advisors. 20 hrs. lab.
Rad. 416 ADVANCED RADIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY II (4). New trends in radiologic technology, such
as thermovision, ultrasound and the latest technical equipment. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Pre-
requisite: Rad. 315.
Rad. 435 ADVANCED RADIATION THERAPY (4). Field planning, dosage calculation, X-ray beam
filtration, radiation absorption in tissue, measuring instruments and methods employed in radi-
ation therapy. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Prerequisite: Rad. 232.
Rad. 436 ADVANCED NUCLEAR MEDICINE (4). Demonstrations in radiation measurement and pro-
tection, biological effects of radiation, principles of radiation detection, considerations of counting
and imaging. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab. Prerequisite: Rad. 232.
PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE                                                     269


           Center for Integrated Studies
                             Richard O. Davies, Director
PROFESSORS: J. Brathovde, R. Davies, R. Stevens; ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS:
H. Cahn, J. Lingerfelt, D. Mayo, T. Wenstrand; ASSISTANT PROFESSORS: D.
Campbell, W. Conway, J. Fitzmaurice, R. Foust, J. Griffen, W. Malm, C. Peek,
G. Reed, J. Schnorr, J. Teubner; INSTRUCTORS: J. Ferguson, D. Matthias, P.
Rawlings, P. Shutt; UNIVERSITY LECTURER: L. Poullada; DIRECTOR OF RE-
SEARCH AND GRANTS: A. Lee.
     As with the other Centers of the College, the Center for Integrated Studies
is an administrative umbrella for a variety of programs, related, in this case, by their
integration of various fields of knowledge around a problem area and by the
 orientation of the resultant programs of study to career goals.
     In addition to providing liberal arts courses to students majoring in the other
centers and in Business and Engineering, the Center for Integrated Studies offers
both interdisciplinary majors based on the interrelatedness of knowledge as it
 comes to bear on a specific area and alternative liberal arts major oriented to
specific career goals.
OBJECTIVES: As part of an institution which is student-centered, the Center seeks
to assist in the full moral, social, and intellectual development of the individual
student by fostering creative and critical intelligence conducive to the enjoyment
of life as well as to the solution of social ills. It provides courses in the University
Liberal Studies Program which are intended to be humanizing in the tradition of
liberal education; offers major programs of study which relate academic methods
and concerns to the life of the individual as a human being, a participant in a
culture, and a citizen; sponsors alternative majors in traditional disciplines which,
through merger with other courses of study, allow significant preparation for
assuming professional careers.


         THE AREAS OF ACADEMIC EMPHASIS
The Center for Integrated Studies in its undergraduate program offers a series of
Programs of study identified in the following as majors, extended majors, merged
majors and minors. The areas of academic emphasis follow:
Majors: American Enterprise*, American Studies, Chemistry*, English*, Environ-
mental Science, Environmental Studies*, History*, Mathematics, Political Science.
(Normally the starred majors will be taken only in conjunction with a second, or
"merged" major.)
Extended Majors: An extended major allows the student to take additional work
in the major area or in an area or areas closely related to the major. Often a
student electing to take an extended major does not take a minor. Extended majors
are offered in American Enterprise, American Studies, Environmental Science,
Mathematics, and Political Science. In addition, any major program offered in
the Center may be used to extend another major.
Merged Majors: It is possible to take any major offered through the Center for
Integrated Studies and merge it with another, traditional, academic major (for
instance, American Studies and Sociology); in such cases, the major advisors will
endeavor to correlate the studies of the two majors. Due to the "overlap" in such
cases, it is usual for the credit hour requirements of each major to be reduced.
Minors: Minors of 18 to 22 hours are offered in all Center programs.
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Projects: The Center for Integrated Studies offers the opportunity to take three or
four liberal studies courses together (either with one instructor or team-taught),
the objectives of these courses remaining the same but the content unified and
devoted to the exploration of a particular idea or problem. Among the traditional
project offerings is TIPS (Tutorials in Integrated Programs of Study) for honor's
students. In addition the current project offered is Project I: Pollution.
Multidisciplinary Courses: The Center for Integrated Studies makes it possible to
take two or more liberal studies courses together as a single multidisciplinary
course; in such cases the two courses are closely related academically and thus
offer the special advantages of similarity of emphasis and sharing of insights.


      THE CENTER FOR INTEGRATED STUDIES
           AND TEACHER EDUCATION
     The Center for Integrated Studies cooperates with the College of Education
in providing academic offerings for undergraduate students pursuing study leading
to the Bachelor of Science in Education. In addition, any Center major may be
taken as one half of a merged major. If the other half of the merged major has
an education component, the student may pursue his Bachelor of Science in Edu-
cation degree, using the requirements which apply to his other major field of study.


                    AMERICAN ENTERPRISE
ACADEMIC ADVISOR: Arthur Lee
OBJECTIVES: The program in American Enterprise is designed to provide an in-
depth understanding of the American capitalist free enterprise system as a concept
of social and economic organization and to prepare students for careers in teach-
ing, business, or government service as well as for graduate study. The program
seeks to study the American Enterprise system within the largest possible social
context and includes analysis of the organization and operation of the system,
study of the system's growth and development, consideration of major philosophical
and ethnical questions and of the system's impact upon American values, institu-
tions, and behavior.


                   DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
                             Bachelor of Science
MERGED MAJOR: A merged major consists of sixty hours of study to be divided
equally between American Enterprise and a related discipline. The core of fifteen
hours in American Enterprise (AE 101, 201, 301, 401, and Econ. 483) is required.
The additional courses may be selected from two or more related disciplines.
(Among the related disciplines are History, Political Science, Sociology, Business
Administration, and Economics.) Courses elected for the American Enterprise
component may not be from the discipline comprising the merged major.
EXTENDED MAJOR: An extended major consists of 53-55 hours. It may be
developed with the American Enterprise major with additional hours selected from
a related discipline. Courses elected for the American Enterprise component may
not be from the related area.
MINOR: The minor consists of 18 hours, including 12 hours to be selected from
the major core.
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                     Bachelor of Science in Education
MERGED MAJOR: When taken along with a related major approved for the
Degree of Bachelor of Science in Education, the American Enterprise major
should be an ideal preparation for teachers of the course Free Enterprise now
required in Arizona public secondary schools. Students considering enrollment
in this program should confer with the American Enterprise advisor.

                         AMERICAN STUDIES
ACADEMIC ADVISORS: Dwight Mayo, Charles Peek, Leon Poullada, Glenn
Reed.
OBJECTIVES: It is the purpose of the program in American Studies to develop
students who have a sense of their own identity as participants in the American
experience and inheritors of American traditions; who have an interest in a deeper
understanding of the American phenomenon; who are motivated to strive for in-
creased skill in investigating and analyzing American life and thought; who are
capable of sound interdisciplinary analysis of the American experience; who develop
a deep understanding in at least one area of American history, culture, or society;
and who develop a capacity for recognizing and solving both social and academic
problems. It is the aim of the program to develop students who have both a per-
sonal and an academic interest in the future of the American community and
who have an understanding of and appreciation for the place of America in the
lives of its people and in international affairs. The program is devoted to develop-
ing students who are equipped for careers in education, the professions, business,
government, or community work, or for continued study in a graduate program
in American Studies, the humanities, or the behavioral sciences. It is also the
purpose of the program to cooperate with other academic areas in accomplishing
these objectives.

                     DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
    Courses in the American Studies curriculum are of three kinds: core courses
(Am.St. 100, 400); basic sequence courses (Am.St. 200, 250, 300, 350); supple-
mentary courses (courses listed in the catalogue and chosen to complement the
courses in the basic sequence).

                              Bachelor of Science
MAJOR: The 36 hours of requirements for the Bachelor of Science in American
Studies include Am.St. 100 (to be taken no later than the sophomore year), 200,
250, 300, 350, 400 (to be taken during the senior year), and eighteen hours of
supplementary courses (chosen in consultation with the American Studies Advisor)
in at least three disciplines, six hours of which must be at the 400 level or above.
EXTENDED MAJOR: An extended major for this degree requires 54 hours in-
cluding 36 hours of courses as described above for the Bachelor of Science plus
additional hours of supplementary courses in a single area or in related areas
selected with the approval of the American Studies Advisor.
MERGED MAJOR: A merged major consists of sixty hours to be divided equally
between American Studies and a related discipline. Courses elected for the
American Studies component may not be from the area comprising the other half
of the merged major.
MINOR: A minor in American Studies is comprised of 18 hours including three
hours of Am.St. 200 or 250 and three hours of Am.St. 300 or 350.
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                               Bachelor of Arts
MAJOR: The 36 hours of requirements for the Bachelor of Arts degree are the
same as those for the Bachelor of Science degree except the Bachelor of Arts de-
gree also requires a two-year college level proficiency in a foreign language.
EXTENDED MAJOR: The 54 hours of requirements for an extended major for
this degree are 36 hours described as above for the Bachelor of Arts, 18 hours of
supplementary courses in a single area or in related areas selected with the approval
of the American Studies Advisor, and a two-year college level proficiency in a
foreign language.
MERGED MAJOR: A merged major consists of sixty hours to be divided equally
between American Studies and a related discipline. Courses elected for the Amer-
ican Studies component may not be from the area comprising the other half of
the merged major.
MINOR: The 18 hours for the Bachelor of Arts minor are the same as those for
the Bachelor of Science minor.

                     Bachelor of Science in Education
AREAS OF EMPHASIS: A 36-hour major, a 30-hour merged major, and a minor
are available. Students considering enrollment in one of these programs should
confer with an American Studies advisor.

                     APPLIED MATHEMATICS
ADVISOR: J. Lingerfelt
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of applied mathematics is to contribute to
the understanding of "real-world" phenomena through the use of mathematical
concepts, methods and techniques. The program in applied mathematics is designed
to assist the student in learning to translate knowledge of some phenomena to
mathematical models, to solve the resulting mathematical problems, and to interpret
and utilize the results. Numerous careers in a variety of fields are open to people
with training in applied mathematics.

                             Bachelor of Science
MAJOR: A major in applied mathematics requires the completion of 35 semester
hours of mathematics and applied mathematics including Math. 239 and at least 18
semester hours chosen from courses numbered 300 and above. Nine of these must
be chosen from Ap.Ma. 367, 368, 372, 469 or Math. 361, 363, 373, 374. Up to 6
hours of Computer Science may be substituted provided such hours are not utilized
to satisfy the requirements for some other degree.
MINOR: A minor in applied mathematics requires the completion of 18 semester
hours of mathematics and applied mathematics including Math. 137 and at least
six semester hours chosen from Ap.Ma. 367, 368, 372, 469, or Math. 361, 363, 373,
374.

                                CHEMISTRY
ADVISOR: Richard Foust
OBJECTIVES: The basic chemistry major is designed to provide the student with
a strong background in chemistry that may be combined with other South Center
programs such as environmental science or microbiology. The extended major
PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE                                                  273

gives a broader chemistry background and does not require the completion of a
minor. The extended chemistry major includes an introduction to environmental
chemistry and is designed to give the student the background for a career in one
of the many areas of environmental science. The science-related electives are to
be chosen to support the student's individual program and must meet the approval
of the student's faculty advisor.

                     DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
                               Bachelor of Science
MERGED MAJOR: The 30-hours of requirements for the Bachelor of Science in
Chemistry include: Ch.Ph. 111, 112; Chem. 151, 250, 213, 251, 252, 271, 272,
330, 351, and 391, in addition to four credit hours of mathematics or science
electives.
EXTENDED MAJOR: The extended Chemistry Major includes all of the courses
listed above plus Chem. 408, or 485; Engr. 174; Env.S. 270; Phys. 410, 411, or
Mbio. 255, 470. In addition, 13 hours of upper-division electives in Chemistry
and Science-related courses are to be selected with the approval of the advisor.


                                   ENGLISH
ACADEMIC ADVISORS: James Fitzmaurice, Glenn Reed.
     A Career-Oriented English Major in the Center for Integrated Studies is
offered in co-operation with several North Center Departments, especially the
North Center English Department
OBJECTIVES: It is the purpose of the program in English to develop students
who are liberally educated through literature and capable of careers involving
written and oral communication: that is, students who are aware of the close as-
sociation between logical thought and effective expression; who are motivated to
strive constantly for increased skill in the oral and written use of language as a
medium for communication or artistic creation; who possess a sound critical and
aesthetic judgment which they may exercise in assessing the truthfulness, philosophic
implications and imaginative and artistic quality of material read during the re-
mainder of their lives; and who have an understanding of the cultural and social
background of America and other countries as it is revealed in literature.
      Though the study of English does not prepare one for a specific position as
does the study of dentistry, it does prepare one for any position requiring disci-
plined and imaginative use of the English language. There are many such posi-
tions. There are 1,800 daily newspapers, 900 weekly newspapers, 70,000 magazines
and journals, 10,000 house organs, 6,000 radio stations, 600 television stations,
 1,500 publishing houses, and a huge movie and legitimate theatre industry in this
country. All of these enterprises require writers. Many require persons with
ability in oral discourse as well.
      It is possible to prepare specifically and in depth for some of these positions.
The University offers Journalism, Theatre, and TV-Radio majors, for instance, and
a student who has a specific interest in one of these fields should elect the appro-
priate major. This Career-Oriented English major is for student* who wish to
sharpen their tools of communication as a general preparation for positions de-
 manding these tools.
 NOTE: The North and South Center English Programs differ in emphasis, but
 programs on both campuses may lead to careers.
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                    DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
                             Bachelor of Science
MAJOR: The 36 hours of requirements for the Bachelor of Science in English are
grouped into three categories: Core, Literature and Expression.
Core. All English majors must take all courses in this sequence. Engl. 212 should
be taken no later than the first semester of the sophomore year.
Literature. Students should select nine hours in one of the three literature sequences
including the first course in the sequence followed by two other courses in the
sequence. Normally courses would be taken in their general numerical sequence.
Normally courses would be taken in their general numerical order with 200 courses
preceding 300 courses, etc.
Expression. Students should select nine hours from one and six hours from another
of sequences D through L.
Note: At least six hours in the English major must be taken beyond the 300 level.
The student must plan ahead to meet this requirement since not all sequences have
courses beyond the 300 level.
EXTENDED MAJOR: An extended major for this degree requires 53 hours includ-
ing 35 hours of courses as described above for the Bachelor of Science, plus 18 ad-
ditional hours in American Studies courses selected with the approval of the ad-
visor. At least one half of the 18 hours should be in courses at the 300 level or
above.
MERGED MAJOR: The 30 hours of requirements are grouped into three cate-
gories: Core, Literature, and Expression. The Core and Literature requirements
are the same as for the 36-hour major described above. The requirements for the
Expression category are as follows: Nine hours from one of the sequences D
through L.
                              Categories in English
Cere: Engl. 212, Am. St. 300, Am. St. 350, Engl. 318.
Literature: Sequence A, English Literature
            Sequence A, English Literature
            Sequence B, American Literature
            Sequence C, Comparative Literature
Expression: Sequence D, Creative Writing: Engl. 207, 307, 407; or two of these
            and another course in Creative Writing as approved by the advisor.
            (Sequence E and F, omitted here, are listed in North Center offerings
            but are not accepted in the South Center English Major.)
            Sequence G, Technical Writing: Engl. 202, G.B. 350, and one other
            course in Technical Writing or Journalism as approved by the advisor.
            Sequence H, Writing for Advertising: Jlsm. 211, 311, 321, 411.
            Sequence I, Editorial, Opinion and Feature Writing: Jlsm. 301, 314, 408.
            Sequence J, Radio and TV Writing: Sp.Th. 121, 323, 325.
            Sequence K, Oral Expression: Sp.Th. 161, 261, 262, 361.
            Sequence L, Public Relations: Jlsm. 285, 385, 485.
 NOTE: No course may be used to satisfy more than one requirement.

                    DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
See course listings under American Studies (p. 278), English (p. 138), Journalism
(p. 189), and Speech-Theater (p. 199).
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                    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
ADVISORS: James R. Brathovde, Richard Foust, William Malm.
OBJECTIVES: It is the purpose of the program in Environmental Science to further
a harmonious relationship between man and his environment, to encourage scien-
tific research of environmental problems, and to offer a technically rigorous, under-
graduate, interdisciplinary program to students interested in preparing themselves
for vocational and professional careers in the field of environmental science in
government, industry or teaching.
The Environmental Science major should be taken concurrently with a major in
another discipline. It is recommended that the cognate discipline major be a sci-
ence. If professional status is desired and the cognate major is not a science, then
it is recommended that electives be selected from upper division science courses.

                      DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
                                 Bachelor of Science
MERGED MAJOR: The merged major in Environmental Science consists of Env.S.
101, 270, 301, 302, 408, 460, Math. 270, and Mbio. 255, plus electives approved
by the advisor to make up a total of 33 hours.
MINOR: A minor in Environmental Science consists of at least 18 hours, including
Env.S. 101, 270, Math. 270, and at least 7 hours to be chosen from Env.S. 301,
302, 420, and 460.

                     ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
ACADEMIC ADVISORS: James R. Brathovde, Dwight Mayo.
OBJECTIVES: It is the purpose of the program in Environmental Studies to pro-
vide an awareness of environmental problems and concerns and to provide the
environmental knowledge needed for full competence in such professions as that
of political scientist, geographer, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, or teacher.
The emphasis of the program is upon the economic, political, social and philosoph-
ical aspects of environmental questions.
Environmental Studies is intended as a supplemental or complementary program
to be taken concurrently with a discipline major such as Sociology, Business Ad-
ministration, Journalism, Education, History, Geography, Biology, Humanities,
Political Science, or Engineering. Students interested in this interdisciplinary ap-
proach should consult with both their discipline advisor and an Environmental
Studies advisor in the Center for Integrated Studies. Students seeking careers as
environmental scientists should elect the program in Environmental Science.

                       DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
                                 Bachelor of Science
MERGED MAJOR: A merged major consists of Env.S. 101, 201, 270, and Math.
270; major electives chosen from the following, including at least two of those
marked by the asterisk: *Env.S. 420, *Env.S. 460, *Mbio. 255, Biol. 481, Engr.
430, 492:493, Geog. 150 or 250, Geog. 321, G.B. 306, Hist. 495, 496, Phil. 323,
Phys. 410:411, *Soc. 341, Soc. 342; other courses are to be taken with the approval
of the advisor.
MINOR: A minor in Environmental Studies consists of at least 18 hours, including
Biol. 270, Env.S. 101, 201, and Math. 270, with the remaining hours from Env.S.
420, 460, and Soc. 341.
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                                  HISTORY
ADVISORS: Richard O. Davies, Dwight Mayo.
     The major in History provides students with an introduction to the methodolo-
gies of the historian and affords an opportunity to study contemporary society from
the perspectives of the past. A 36 hour major may be elected, or a student may
take a 30 hour major in history and "merge" it with one of the several interdisci-
plinary programs available in the Center for Integrated Studies, such as American
Studies or American Enterprise. The emphasis of both programs is upon those
phases of American History which are relevant to and assist in the understanding
of contemporary life in the United States and which examine American History
and traditions in a world setting.

                    DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
               Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science
MERGED MAJOR: The merged major includes courses in components I through
IV (below) as indicated.
MAJOR: The major includes courses in components I through V (below) as indi-
cated.
MINOR: The minor includes component I and 12 units from Component II.
Component I: History as a Discipline. Hist. 191, 192.
Component II: U.S. Emphasis. 12 units selected from Hist. 391, 407, 493, 494,
                496; Am.St. 350.
Component III: World Emphasis. 9 units selected from Hist. 326, 331, 376, 381,
                396, 444, 451, 480.
Component IV: Hist. 498, Colloquium.
Component V: This component is for students who wish an independent 36-hour
                major. It is composed of two additional elective courses in history.

                         POLITICAL SCIENCE
ADVISORS: Richard O. Davies, Leon Poullada.
      The Political Science program is offered by the Center for Integrated Studies
in cooperation with the Department of Social Science. It is designed to provide
the student with career opportunities in the fields of government service and foreign
trade as well as to prepare the student for advanced graduate study. The program
also features several options designed to be paired with the programs in American
Studies, American Enterprise, Environmental Studies, Business Administration and
Public Management. The curriculum features an introduction to modern research
methods in Political Science, including quantification, and includes opportunities for
utilization of the University Computer Center.

                    DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
               Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science
MAJOR: The major includes the Core and the courses as indicated in Track I or II.
MERGED MAJOR: The merged major includes the Core and the courses as indi-
cated in Tracks III, IV, or V.
MINOR: The minor includes Math. 270, Pol. Sci. 201 and 202 from the Core and
2 courses from one of the Tracks as selected in consultation with an advisor.
CORE: Math. 270; Pol. Sci. 201, 202, 498.
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TRACK I (36 hour program): The following set of courses is designed for the stu-
dent interested in pursuing a career in the area of Public Administration or Man-
agement. A total of 18 hours is to be selected from the following courses: Pol.
Sci 324, 341, 342, 408, 420, 421, plus Political Science electives to complete a 36-
hour major. A Data Processing and/or Accounting minor is also required.
TRACK II (36 hour program): The following set of courses is designed for the
student interested in a career in the area of International Relations. A total of 18
hours is to be selected from the following courses: Am.St. 200; Econ. 486; P.S.
380, 381, 480, 482, 483; Soc. 430, plus electives to complete a 36-hour major. A
Foreign Language Minor is also required.
TRACK HI (30 hour program): The following set of courses is for students pur-
suing a dual major in American Enterprise. A total of 15 hours to be selected
from the following courses: Hist. 495, 496; Pol. Sci. 324, 408, 420-421; Soc. 430,
plus Political Science electives to complete 30-hour major.
TRACK IV (30 hour program): The following program is for students majoring
in American Studies who wish a dual major with Political Science. A total of 15
hours to be selected from the following courses: Am.St. 200; Hist. 291, 292, 390,
391; Pol. Sci. 422, 423, 443, 444; Soc. 430, plus Political Science electives to
complete 30-hour major.
TRACK V: (30 hour program): The following is for students wishing to pursue a
dual major with Environmental Studies. 18 hours are to be selected from the
following courses: Env.S. 460; P.S. 324, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424; Soc. 430, plus
Political Science electives to complete 30-hour major.

                      SOUTHWEST STUDIES
ADVISORS: Richard Davies, John Duncklee, Joseph Ferguson, Joyce Griffen,
William Griffen, Keith Pearson, Andrew Wallace.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the Southwest Studies program is to develop knowl-
edge about and understanding of the unique nature of the Southwest and of the
special place of the Southwest in the life of the United States and in the history
of civilizations; to develop studtnts whose academic understanding of the South-
west and whose desire to know ways of thinking other than their own lead to a
social concern for the quality of life in the Southwest.

                   DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
                Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science
MAJOR: 36 hours are required including 4 of the core courses listed below and
24 hours selected from American Studies, Anthropology, Art, Economics, English,
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies, Geography, Geology, History, Hu-
manities, Linguistics, Modern Languages, Music, Philosophy, Political Science,
Sociology, Transportation.
EXTENDED MAJOR: An extended major requires 54 hours including 36 hours of
courses as described above plus additional hours of supplementary courses in a
single area or related areas selected with the approval of an advisor.
MERGED MAJOR: A merged major consists of 60 hours to be divided equally
between Southwest Studies and a related discipline. The Southwest Studies Core
is required plus 12 hours selected from related disciplines. Courses elected for the
Southwest Studies component may not be from the area comprising the other half
of the merged major.
278                                      PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

      In coordination with the Department of Modern Languages a merged major
with a program in translation and interpretation in Spanish leading to professional
certification is available to students demonstrating fluency in the target language.
Writing and speaking proficiency can be attained through the immersion language
program in Spanish. Courses and practice in translation, consecutive, and simul-
taneous interpretation are in the process of being developed.
MINOR: 18 hours are required, including Southwest Studies 100 and an additional
9 hours to be selected from the core, plus 6 hours to be selected in consultation
with an advisor.
For work in Southwest Studies one of the living languages of the Southwest is
strongly recommended, especially Spanish or Navajo. The option of supervised
field work is available in certain programs.
CORE COURSES: Sw.St. 100, 200, 250, 300, 350, 498.

                     DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
Am. En. 101 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FOUNDATIONS OF AMERICAN ENTERPRISE (3). An introductory
survey of the origins, development and contemporary structure of the American Enterprise system.
Am. En. 150 T H E AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT MARKET (3). The changing nature of the American
labor market; change from an agrarian to an industrial economy; rise of specialization and profes-
sionalism; transformation from a self-employed to a corporate job market; emergence of the
post-industrial economy and its implications for employment patterns; role of work and leisure
in American life; correlation of contemporary employment patterns with projections for the
future; introduction to manpower survey techniques.
Am. En. 201 ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF AMERICAN ENTERPRISE SYSTEM (3). Description
and analysis of nature, structure and operation of American Enterprise system.
Am. En. 301 MAJOR ISSUES OF AMERICAN ENTERPRISE (3). Major concepts and issues of American
Enterprise, including protectionism, colonialism, mercantilism, Keynesian economics, consumer
interests, unionism and public regulation.
Am. En. 401 COLLOQUIUM IN AMERICAN ENTERPRISE (3). An interdisciplinary consideration of
contemporary issues and problems.
Am. St. 100 INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN STUDIES (3). Treatment of the American experience
from both historical and contemporary points of view; investigation of particular areas of the
American experience and of the concepts and problems of American Studies; introduction to the
American Studies Program and to careers in American Studies.
Am. St. 200 ISSUES IN AMERICAN STUDIES (3). Broad investigation of a particular element of
the American experience in its historical, sociological, environment or aesthetic contexts; the
skills necessary for investigation in American Studies. One of the following issues chosen for
study and emphasis in a given semester: popular chronicles of American culture; relationship
of the United States and Europe; relationship of the United States and the Third World; ethnic
studies. Credit limited to 6 hours.
Am. St. 250 THEMES IN AMERICAN STUDIES (3). Survey of an area of the American experience;
one of the following themes chosen for study emphasis in a given semester: the pluralistic society;
the American Frontier experience; American resources and their use; the uses of power in
America; law in America. Credit limited to 6 hours.
Am. St. 300 Topics IN AMERICAN STUDIES (3). In depth investigation of a particular area of
the American experience; one of the following topics chosen for emphasis in a given semester:
heritage and development of communications in American society; imaginative expression in
America; culture patterns of North America; American science and technology.
Am. St. 350 PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN STUDIES (3). Analysis of an area of the American experi-
ence; definition of a problem area and development of response to that area through use of suitable
analytic tools; one of following problems chosen for study and emphasis in a given semester:
communications in a technological age; patterns of American thought; American institutions;
cities and buildings in America. Credit limited to 6 hours.
Am. St. 400 SENIOR COLLOQUIUM IN AMERICAN STUDIES (3). Development, completion, and presen-
tation of projects synthesizing work done in American Studies and based on a comprehensive view
of the American experience; possible careers in American Studies.
Anth. 290 ANTHROPOLOGY: NAVAJO PROJECT II (3). Three tenths of the learning module called
Navajo Studies. Combines portions of Anth. 152, 301, 375 and 516 into the Anthropology part
of the 10 hour interdisciplinary Project 11: Navajo Studies, that also includes Sociology and Navajo
Language.
PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE                                                               279

Ap. Ma. 367:368 MATHEMATICS FOR DECISION MAKING (3:3). Concept of a mathematical model,
its utility and limitations, construction and use of models including deterministic, stochastic
and structural types, linear programming, combinatorics graph theory, game theory; Markov
processes; applications to growth, inventory, survival, scheduling, prediction, resource allocation,
learning, spatial activity, land use, and economic models. Prerequisites: Math. 136 and Math.
130 or 238.
Ap. Ma. 372 INTERMEDIATE APPLIED STATISTICS (3). Sampling techniques; simple random, sys-
tematic, stratified, and cluster sampling; nonparameuric statistics; binomial, sign, Kolmogorov-
Smimov type, and other nonparametric tests; instroduction to experimental design. Prerequi-
sites: Math. 112, 270.
Ap. Ma. 469 TOPICS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS (3). Each semester one topic in Applied Mathe-
matics chosen according to student interest from the following list of topics: operations research,
systems analysis, quantitative methods, mathematical modeling.
Ap. Ma. 485 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH (1-6). See page 91.
Chem. 105 GENERAL CHEMISTRY (3). A survey of chemical processes. Chem. 151 (Integrated Chem.
Lab. I) may be taken concurrently. Prerequisite: High-school chemistry.
Engl. 102 MULTIDISCIPLINARY FRESHMAN ENGLISH AND HUMANITIES (3). English part of a 5-hour
thematic multidisciplinary course combining English and Humanities. Hum. 231a Multidiscipli-
nary Freshman English and Humanities (2) must be taken concurrently.
Engl. 102 MULTIDISCIPLINARY FRESHMAN ENGLISH AND SPEECH (3). English part of a 6-hour
thematic multidisciplinary course combining English and Speech. Spch. 161 Multidisciplinary Fresh-
man English and Speech (3) must be taken concurrently.
Engl. 103 MULTIDISCIPLINARY FRESHMAN ENGLISH AND JOURNALISM (3). English part of a 6-hour
thematic multidisciplinary course combining English and Journalism. Jlsm. 101 Multidisciplinary
Freshman English and Journalism (3) must be taken concurrently.
Engl. 103 MULTIDISCIPLINARY FRESHMAN ENGLISH AND SPEECH (3). English part of a 6-hour
thematic multidisciplinary course combining English and Speech. Spch. 161 Multidisciplinary
Freshman English and Speech (3) must be taken concurrently. Spch. 161 Multidisciplinary Fresh-
man English and Speech (3) may be taken only one semester with either Engl. 102 or Engl. 103
but not both.
Engl. 214 MAJOR ISSUES IN AMERICAN LITERATURE (3).
Env. S. 101 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE (4). Integrated approach to environmental problems;
introduction to air, water, biocide, noise, solid waste, radiation, thermal and space pollution.
Fee $5.00. 3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab.
Env. S. 201 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (4). Problems of environmental control and planning;
techniques of planning, projection and utilization of resources. Fee $5.00. 3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs.
lab.
Env. S. 270 FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY (4). Organisms interacting within the environmental
matrix, ecosystem energetics, biogeochemical cycles, community and population concepts, quanti-
fication of field data, and the role of man in natural ecosystems. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab.
Env. S. 301:302 APPLIED ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE (4:4). Application of scientific theory, instru-
mentation, methodology and laboratory techniques associated with air pollution, water quality,
sewage disposal and solid waste management. 3 hrs. lecture, 3 hrs. lab. Prerequisite: Chem. 152
and Env. S. 101.
Env. S. 408 FIELD WORK (3:6). Supervised field experience with an applicable agency, organi-
zation or summer field work. Prerequisite: Env. S. 301-302.
Env. S. 420 BIOLOGY OF PARTIALLY DEGRADED SYSTEMS (3). Ecological approach to impact of
human and industrial pollutants on biological systems; case study approach to major ecological
systems. Prerequisite: Env. S. 270.
Env. S. 460 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS (4). Historical and con-
temporary aspects of environmental problems as reflected in society, politics and business.
Hist. 191 T H E STUDY OF HISTORY (3). Nature of history and the methodology of historians;
search for and use of source materials, quantitative methods, techniques of historical analysis,
and the writing of history.
Hist. 192 HISTORY AND HISTORIANS (3). Various schools of historians and historical inter-
pretation using selected phases of the past.
Hist. 107 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICAN LIFE (3). Historical role of science and
technology in American life; major technological and scientific developments as they affected
America and were affected by Americans, the institutionalization of science in America, and the
rise of the research and development system.
Hum. 231a:b MAN T H E ARTS (2:2). First semester not prerequisite to the second.
Hum. 231a MULTIDISCIPLINARY FRESHMAN       ENGLISH AND HUMANITIES (2). Humanities part of a
5-hour thematic multidisciplinary course combining English and Humanities. Engl. 102 Multi-
disciplinary Freshman English and Humanities (3) must be taken concurrently.
 280                                      PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

Hum. 360 AFRICAN IDEAS AND VALUES (3).
Hum. 362 LATIN AMERICAN IDEAS AND VALUES (3).
Hum. 481 RECENT TRENDS (3). The most recent developments in scientific thought and method-
ology, social science, philosphy, education, technology, and the arts and impact .of these on con-
temporary life.
Jlsm. 101 MULTIDISCIPLINARY FRESHMAN ENGLISH AND JOURNALISM (3). Journalism part of a 6-
hour Multidisciplinary Freshman English and Journalism course. Engl. 103 Multidisciplinary
Freshman English and Journalism (3) must be taken concurrently.
Ling. 269 INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS (3). Combines portions of Ling. 291 and 369.
Math. 130 FINITE MATHEMATICS (3-4).
Math. 136 CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY I (4).
Math. 137 CALCULUS AND ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY II (4).
Math. 238 LINEAR ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS (4).
Math. 239 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (4).
Math. 270 APPLIED STATISTICS (3).
Mus. 116 G I F F CLUB (1). Membership open to all students. No formal audition is necessary;
only a love of singing is required.
Mus. 293 AESTHETICS OF MUSIC (2).
Nav. 101 FIRST YEAR NAVAJO: NAVAJO PROJECT II (4). Four tenths of the learning module called
Navajo Studies, Navajo language part of the 10-hour interdisciplinary Project II: Navajo Studies;
that also includes Anthropology and Sociology.
P. S. 160 POLITICAL-ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS (3).
 P.S. 202 RESEARCH METHODS AND POLITICAL SCIENCE (3). An introduction to the basic techniques of
research design, data collection, and data analysis; contemporary methodologies such as survey-
research.
P. S. 312 INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS (Federalism) (3). Relationships between federal, state,
and local government; ways in which each level shapes policy and shares power and responsibility.
Psyr. 200 ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR (3).
Psyc. 230 EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (3).
Psyc. 273 DYNAMICS OF BEHAVIOR (3).
Phys. 213 ELEMENTARY PHYSICS (3).
Phys. 261 ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENCE STUDENTS (3).
Sci. 101:102 NATURAL SCIENCES (4:4). Combines portions of Astr. 180, Biol. 101, Geol. 101,
Phys. 123. 3 hrs. lecture and 2 hrs. lab.
Soc. 160 SOCIOLOCY: NAVAJO PROJECT II (3). Three tenths of the learning module called Navajo
Studies. Combines portions of Soc. 152, 210, and 301 into the Sociology part of the 10-hour inter-
disciplinary Project II: Navajo Studies, that also includes Anthropology and Navajo language.
Sw. St. 100 GEOGRAPHY AND CULTURE OF THE SOUTHWEST (3). An introduction into the general
region of the Southwest from geographical, cultural and social perspectives; an analysis of
[interns of demographic, economic, and political development, and their variations as related to
historical and environmental factors.
Sw. St. 200 COMMUNITIES OF THE SOUTHWEST (3). Introduction to different types of communities;
cross-cultural analysis of cultural processes at different levels of community life; the nature
of communiiy development and other kinds of change programs, and their analysis and evaluation.
Sw. St. 250 IMAGES OF THE SOUTHWEST (J). Literature, art and music produced in and about the
Southwest, including the contributions of indigenous cultures.
Sw. St. 300 T H E ECONOMY OF THE SOUTHWEST (3). Forces, both natural and man-made, that shape
the economy of the Southwest.
Sw. St. 350 T H E SOUTHWEST IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (3). Historical forces which have pro-
duced ihe cuilization of the Southwest.
Sw. St. 198 COLLOQUIUM (3). Development, completion and presentation of projects synthe-
sizing work done in Southwest Studies; students will be introduced to possible careers in Southwest
Studies.
Sp. Th. 102 VOICE AND DICTION (2-3).
Sp. Th. 161   FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION (3).
Sp. Th. 161 MULTIDISCIPLINARY ENGLISH AND SPEECH (3). Speech part of the 6-hour Multidici-
plinary English and Speech course. Engl. 102 or Engl. 103 Multidisciplinary English and Speech
(3) must be taken concurrently.
PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE                                                              281


                                 Two Learning Modules
PROJECT: POLLUTION (12)
P. S. 160 POLITICAL SCIENCE: POLLUTION PROJECT (3).
Eng. 102 FRESHMAN ENGLISH (3).
Hum. 231a MAN AND T H E ARTS: POLLUTION PROJECT (2).
Sci. 101 SCIENCE: POLLUTION PROJECT (4).


PROJECT: NAVAJO STUDIES (10)

Anth. 290 ANTHROPOLOGY: NAVAJO PROJECT (3).
Nav. 101 NAVAJO LANGUAGE: NAVAJO PROJECT (4).
Soc. 150 SOCIOLOGY: NAVAJO PROJECT (3).




           Center for Public Management
                       PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
ADVISORS: W. Conway, O. Crenwelge, T. Hoff, J. Lingerfelt.
OBJECTIVES of the program in public transportation are to involve qualified
and capable students in a study of transportation and to place them in positions
involving transportation upon graduation; to generate practical or applied research
in transportation; to upgrade the quality and scope of instruction in transportation;
to develop cooperative and meaningful relationships between universities and trans-
portation agencies in the community and the surrounding region.
MINOR PROGRAM: A student may take a minor in public transportation in con-
junction with any major. The minor requires the successful completion of 18
semester hours in public transportation.

                      DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
P. T. 410 T H E ECONOMICS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION I (3). Methods of financing public trans-
portation, costs, revenues, fare structures, role and estimation of social costs and benefits,
economic theory, empirical studies of operating systems.
P. T. 111 T H E ECONOMICS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION II (3). Continuation of P. T . 410, utili-
zation of methodologies studied in evaluation of operating and proposed systems.
P. T. 412 SOCIAL ASPECTS OF TRANSPORTATION I (3). Transportation as a social process assisting
the integration and malintegration of human activity over space; causes and consequences of the
exchange of people, goods, and services in human society.
P. T. 413 SOCIAL ASPECTS OF TRANSPORTATION II (3). Sociological problems related to transpor-
tation systems in contemporary urban America; methodological and theoretical emphasis on
problem resolution.
P. T. 414 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I (3). Methodology of engineering analysis and design of
urban and interurban transportation systems, identification of problems associated with trans-
portation requiring engineering and interdisciplinary solutions, existing and future transportation
technology.
P. T. 415 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II (3). Identification, analysis, and solution of existing
transportation problems, development of acceptable criteria for use in design and problem solution,
design of improved transportation systems.
P. T. 416 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING I (3). Physical, social, economic and
institutional considerations and constraints in transportation planning; methodology of planning,
decision making processes and aids in decision making, urban growth, land use planning and
transportation.
P. T. 417 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING, AND DECISION MAKING II (3). Application of planning and
of alternative transportation plans, generation of urban transportation plans.
P. T. 480 SEMINAR IN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION (1). Interdisciplinary seminar required of all
students enrolled in a transportation (P. T.) course. May be repeated for credit.

				
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