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Goals of Modern psychology

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					       Goals of Modern psychology

1-Description : how people think, feel and act in
  specific situation. Psychologists try to observe the
  behavior of interest, (collection of data)
2-Explanation : “ why and how” that behavior
  happened based on the different psychological
  perspectives.
3-Predication: The ability to say in advance how
  someone is likely to act .

                                                         1
Contemporary fields of Specialization

1-Experimental psychology :
-Experimental psychologists frequently use
  animals rather than human as their
  experimental subjects .
• studies basic processes e.g. (hearing,
  perception, learning, and communication).


                                              2
 2-Neuro- psychology:
• Focus on study how basic processes are
  controlled by nervous system, also use
  animals.
Examples :
* to explain why memory sometimes declines
  in old age, (breakdown in the network of
  nerve cells that involves in remembering).
* Adults with history of hyperactivity had
  reduced activity in areas of the brain that
  control body movement and attention.
                                                3
         Goals of Modern psychology…cont.


3-Personality psychology :
• Personality: (relatively stable style of
  thinking, acting, and responding
  emotionally of a person).
-Concerned individual differences in behavior



                                                4
           Goals of Modern psychology…cont.



4-Social psychology:
• factors especially presence of other people,
  that affect personal response, thinking ,
  motivation and behavior in a given social
  situation.
- Show that behavior that not just the results
  of personality traits.

                                                 5
5-Developmental psychology :
- describe and explain the systematic changes
   that occur in people throughout the life
   cycle.
• -How thinking , perception, memory,
   intelligence, language, problem solving,
   motivation, and social interaction change as
   people grow older .
                                              6
             Goals of Modern psychology…cont.

6-Industrial and Organizational Psychology:
• -Concerns with all aspects of behavior that
  relate to the work place .
• -One aspect: How work can be made more
  satisfying and more productive.
• -A major issue facing industrial and
  organizational psychologists now is findings ways
  to help working women deal with stress of
  handling their dual responsibilities at home and at
  office.
                                                    7
             Goals of Modern psychology…cont.

7-Educational and school psychology:
• Specialize in analyzing and improving formal
   education,
* concerned with aspects of educational process as:
- Factors affect performance in the classroom?
- Importance of motivation?
- Using of reward and punishment .
 - Size of classroom &interaction between students
   and teachers
- Designing and administering tests of various kinds .
                                                     8
           Goals of Modern psychology…cont.



8-Clinical and counseling psychology :
*Deals with diagnosis and treatment of
  psychological disorder. (psychotherapy).

*Counseling helps normal people with milder
  problems of social and emotional
  adjustment like marriage and family life.

                                              9
            Goals of Modern psychology…cont.



9-Health psychology :
- Deals with the relationship between
  personality and health .
• Believe that psychological factors as (stress,
  hostility, and depression) plays a role in
  onset and progress of many physical
  disorders like peptic ulcer, heart diseases .
• -Try to identify psychological strategies to
  cope with serious illness .                   10
            Goals of Modern psychology…cont.

10-Environmental psychology:
• -Focus on the relationship between people
  and their physical, social surroundings like
  air pollution, noise, overcrowdings,
  poverty, and natural disasters as
  earthquakes, volcanoes, and tornadoes etc.
• These environmental conditions lead to
  psychological distress especially if the poor
  person lives in civilization city.

                                               11
           Goals of Modern psychology…cont.

11- Peace psychology:
• Study how war, especially nuclear war, can
  be avoided.
* focus on personality of war leaders,
  misconception in international conflicts, and
  negotiations and bargaining among political
  officials.
* How people's fears and anxieties can be
  transformed into effective political action.
                                              12
           Goals of Modern psychology…cont.



12- Forensic psychology:
• Concerned with the application of
  psychological methods to legal questions
  and issues.
* Assessment of some specific psycho-legal
  question as if the criminal has an mental
  illness as psychosis which make him
  unaccountable for his actions.
                                              13
           Goals of Modern psychology…cont.



13- Sport psychology:
• Seeks to understand psychological/mental
  factors that affect performance .
• It deals with increasing performance by
  managing emotions and minimizing the
  psychological effects of injury.


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posted:2/9/2013
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