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									 Hydrogen Fuel Cells
April 5, 2004




 Gary Flomenhoft,
 BSME, MAPP, CEE
 Research Associate
 Gund Institute, SNR
 Owner:
 InnEVations.com
ENERGY STORAGE


 Performance of Energy Storage Systems
                           Specific Energy
 Fuel                      Wh/kg
 Gasoline                  12,300
 Natural gas               9,300
 Hydrogen                  33,000
 Lead-acid battery         30
 Advanced Lead Acid        48




                                     Gasoline:C8H18
             ENERGY STORAGE

              Performance of Advanced EV Battery Systems
                                          Energy Density   Power Density    Life
                                             Wh/kg            W/kg         Cycles
Source:
              Lead-acid battery                30              150         300
USABC         Advanced Lead Acid               48              150         800
              GM Ovonic nickel metal           70              220         >600
and others    hydride
              SAFT nickel metal hydride        70              150         1,500
              SAFT lithium ion                120              230         600
              Lithium polymer                 150              350         <600
              Evercel Nickel-zinc              60              255         500
              Zinc-Air                     160-220             low           ?
              Composite Flywheels             120
              Supercapacitors
           LITHIUM-ION BATTERY



SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.
           COMPOSITE FLYWHEELS




SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.
           SUPERCAPACITORS



SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.
           ZINC-AIR FUEL CELL




SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.
            MECHANICAL RECHARGE

             ZINC-AIR FUEL CELL




SOURCE:
METALLIC
POWER.COM
           ENERGY DENSITY BY WEIGHT AND VOLUME




SOURCE:
ELECTRIC
STORAGE
ASSOC.
               CARB DEFINITIONS
    Passenger car emissions reduction                        HC           CO           NOx
    TLEV- Transitional Low-Emission 50%                                   NR           NR
C   Vehicle
                                                             70%          NR           50%
L   LEV- Low-Emission Vehicle
    ULEV- Ultra-Low-Emission                                 85%          50%          50%
E   Vehicle (50% cleaner than the average new
    2003 model year vehicle. )

A   SULEV- Super-Ultra-Low-Emission 96%                                   70%          95%
    Vehicle (90% cleaner than 2003 average)
N   PZEV-Partial Zero-Emission-                              96%          70%          95%
E   Vehicle                                                  SULEV & 15 year/150K mile
                                                             warranty and 0 evaporative emissions.

R   AT PZEV-Advanced Technology 96%                                       70%          95%
    PZEV (CNG, hybrid-electric,                              PZEV & and include advanced
    methanol, fuel cell)                                     technology components.

    ZEV-Zero-Emission Vehicles (98%                          100%         100%         100%
    cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.)
What is a Fuel Cell Vehicle?
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2004 FORD




The Ford Focus FCV fuel cell system is efficient,
quiet, and produces zero emissions. Ford has
announced plans to have a three year
demonstration program of 5-10 fleet vehicles in
Vancouver, Canada in 2004.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2003 Honda




 Honda is delivering a family of new FCX fuel-
cell vehicles to its first customer, the city of Los
Angeles. Honda plans to lease approximately
30 fuel-cell cars in California and Japan
during the next several years. The fuel-cell
itself is propelled by electricity generated by a
hydrogen-oxygen chemical reaction—and its
only emission, remarkably, is water vapor.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-2003 TOYOTA



                               (NOT
                               AVAILABLE)




  Its only exhaust is water vapor. Its
 secret? A hydrogen fuel cell that
 harnesses the electricity of separated
 atoms and molecules as they strive to be
 electrically balanced. Developed entirely
 in-house, FCHV-4 shows Toyota on the
 leading edge of fuel-cell technology.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-NISSAN




  X-TRAIL FCV
 Nissan is actively developing fuel cell
 vehicles (FCVs) that have low
 environmental impact and save energy.
 Commercialization is scheduled for
 2003.(?????)
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-GM


                         PROTOTYPE




  The Hy-wire has no internal
  combustion engine, instrument
  panel, brake or accelerator
  pedals – but it does have
  ample power supplied by a
  GM fuel cell that runs on
  hydrogen.
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-DAIM/CHRYSLER
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-DAIM/CHRYSLER
FUEL CELL VEHICLES-HYUNDAI
                    HYDROGEN FUEL CELL OPERATION




SOURCE:
Schatz Energy Lab
Humboldt State U.
                    PEM HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS



SOURCE:
Schatz Energy Lab
Humboldt State U.




                    PEM= Proton Exchange Membrane (“Nafion”tm)
SOME SURPRISING FACTS ABOUT HYDROGEN

 Q1) IS HYDROGEN A revolutionary NEW
 ENERGY SOURCE?
 Where does hydrogen come from?
 Fossil: nat gas, propane, gasoline, methanol
 Renewable: electric wind, solar, etc. electrolyze water
 Methane (CH4), methanol(CH3OH), ammonia(NH3?)
A) HYDROGEN STORES & TRANSPORTS
   ENERGY. A CARRIER NOT A SOURCE.


 Q2) WHICH IS MORE EFFICIENT, FUEL
 CELL OR BATTERIES?
A) BATTERIES
H2 Fuel Cell Efficiency
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
oil (gasoline) -> IC engine 15%
BATTERY POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Oil-> power plant -> electricity ~=45%
transmission~=80%
battery charging ~=80%
electric drive system ~=80%

.45 x .8 x .8 x .8 = 23%
FUEL CELL POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Oil-> power plant-> electricity~=45%
electricity transmission ~=80%
H2 electrolyzer max efficiency ~=70%
H2 fuel cell max efficiency ~=50%
Electric drive system ~=80%

.45 x .8 x .7 x .5 x .8 = 10%
             SOLAR FUEL CELLS ?




SOURCE:
Schatz
Energy Lab
Humboldt
State U.




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