AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT
Guided Reading – Nigeria
The making of the Modern Nigerian State
1. Describe the Presidential election of 20007.
2. What are the two contradictory trends in Nigeria?
3. How many competing ethnic groups are there?
4. Nigeria has a population of ____ making it the largest in Africa. Nigeria was a ____________ colony.
5. Nigeria’s borders had ____________________. Instead, the borders marked where ____________. The British ruled
northern and southern Nigeria as ______________. In short, Nigeria was an ___________________.
6. Nigeria’s ethnic map can be divided into six zones. The northwest is dominated by the largest ethnic group, the
_____________. Both regions in the North are predominantly ______________. A large swath of territory called the
_______________ is home to _______________. The southwest is dominated by the second largest ethnic group, the
____________, which is 40% ____, 50% ______. The southeast is the _______ homeland who are primarily _________.
Critical Junctures Pre-colonial period
7. What shaped development in the
Colonial Rule and Its Impact
8. Colonial rule deepened the extraction of ________
9. Indirect rule
10. Warrant chiefs
11. The British played off ________________________ This dual standard left a conflicted idea:
_________________ Colonialism strengthened collective identities by fostering political competition among the three
12. ____________ was the party of the Hausa-Fulani. ____________ was the party of the Yoruba elites. ______ was the
party of the Igbo.
Divisive Identities: Ethnic Politics Under Colonialism
13. the British divided Nigeria into a federation of ____ regions with elected governments in 1954. Each of the regions
soon fell under the domination of one of the major ethnic groups and their _________.
The First Republic (1960-1955)
14. The British granted Nigeria independence in ______ to an elected ______ government. Nigerians adopted the British
Westminster model and the _________ and __________ levels with a prime minister chosen by __________.
15. _________ came to dominate the federal government by virtue of their greater population and the ruling ____
achieved a majority in the legislature. The NPC (Hausa-Fulani party) set out to do what?
16. When a political crisis in the western regional assembly in 1962, the NPC led national government did what?
___________________________ Violence escalated among the Yoruba factions as the NPC dominated government
engaged in ______________
17. What ensured NPC victory in 1965?
Civil War and Military Rule (1966-1979)
18. Who organized the coup? ________________ Gowan, a Middle belt Christian ___________
19. Because many northern officials had been killed in the coup, a backlash against Igbos flared up. Ethnic violence sent
20. By 1967 the predominately Igbo population attempted to _________ and form its own country named
21. Gowon built a military led government of national unity and after a bloody three year war of __________ and
_________ tactics, defeated Biafra. There were at least a ________ deaths.
22. After the war Gowon presided over a policy of ______ which proceeded fairly smoothly with the aid of
23. Gowon was overthrown by ______ who was assassinated. _______________peacefully ceded power to an elected
government in 1979 which became the Second republic.
The Second Republic (1979-1999)
24. Who was president of the Second Republic? ________ How did he capture majorities?_________ a few months later
the military led by ____________ seized power.
25. In August 1985 ___________ seized power.
26. In 1993 the election was won by ___________ but the election was annulled.
27. General Sani Abacha ________________ He prolonged military dominance, cracked down on ____________,
severely limited __________
28. Abubakar, Abacha’s successor _____________________
29. In May 1999 he handed power to an elected government led by ____________ and the ______ party.
The Fourth Republic (1999-present)
30. Obasanjo was from the North but a Christian. How did the Yoruba feel about him?
31. Within weeks, President Obasanjo did what to the military?
32. Obasanjo targeted the _____sector for new management and lobbied foreign governments to _________________
debts. The minimum wage was _______________and a ____________ commission was set up to address past abuses,
fight corruption and ______________.
33. Civil society groups _____________ and the media grew ____________.
34. Obasanjo had political debts to his party and his political survival required _______________
35. The PDP political machinery engaged in _______________________ including _____________ in the states of the
36. The media seized upon a document being circulated that proposed the idea of _________ the Constitution to
_________________. Yet the following year there was a package of more than _____ The ______ rejected the package.
37. A __________ election was planned for 2007. The President chose a little known reclusive governor from the north
with__________ to be his successor ________________________ of the ___________ state.
38. Obasanjo named himself _________ of the PDP.
39. President Yar’Adua remained burdened with a __________ from the _______ helped only in part by a split ___
decision in the ____________ upholding his election.
Historical Junctures and Political Themes
40. Nigeria is a unitary system in federal guise: a system with an __________________
41. When the military returned in 1999 it left an overdeveloped _________ at all levels of government at the expense of
weak _________ and ___________ institutions. ________________________________________ has encouraged the
arbitrary exercise of authority.
42. the ___________ remains the dominant figure in Nigerian politics.
Nigeria in the world of states
1. Nigeria is considered to be a regional power. Explain.
2. Nigeria is considered to be vulnerable in the world. Explain.
3. Nigeria’s economy remains dependent on _____. What is the impact?
Governing Nigeria’s economy
4. interventionist economy –
Democratic ideas amid Colonialism and Military Rule
5. This dualism promoted two public realms. Describe below:
6. The British policy of indirect rule had different impacts on the north/south. The south
_________________________________________________________________________. The coastal location of Lagos
were hubs for ____________ and the British built _____________.
7. In Northern Nigeria the British _________________________________
8. A pattern of what resulted?
Nigeria’s Fragile Collective Identity
9. What is clientelism?
Implications for Comparative Politics – State and Economy
10. Through direct ownership of industry and services, the Nigerian state _____________
11. Rents –
Origins of Economic Decline
12. What was the colonial economy centered on?
13. What three things undermined this?
14. In the 1970s Nigeria increased its spending on what?
15. By 1978 what occurred?
18. In 1993 General Abacha allowed what absurd thing to occur?
19. How is oil a “double edged sword” for Nigeria?
From 1985 to Present
20. Who introduced Structural Adjustment (SAP)?______ What organizations supported this? ____
21. Beginning in 1970’s what parastatls were established? ___________________
22. What has been privatized?
23. What type of economic planning has been common?
24. How did Obasanjo move away from economic planning?
25. What was Obasanjo’s greatest achievement?
26. Economic reform such as austerity programs hurt which groups the most?
27. Describe how Nigeria performs poorly in meeting basic needs:
28. How has the HIV/AIDS impacted the Nigerian population?
29. what is the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)?
Ethnic and Religious Cleavages
30. Competition among the largest groups is centered on access to what? ____ Dominance of the three main ethnic groups
causes conflicts among who? _______________.
31. These fears have increased since 1999 when several northern states expanded _________________
32. Youths from the Niger delta communities primarily the ____ have occupied ______________ on several occasions to
34. The Obasanjo government has sometimes responded to these protests with __________. After Ijaw militias killed
________ the military ______.
35. A host of new militant groups have arisen, engaging in oil ______ and _______ to make money and attack oil
installations. The largest such group is _________________________________________ which has threatened to
36. Women are prevented from what?
37. What is true of female representation in Nigeria?
38. Describe women’s groups in Nigeria. What challenges are there for women who want more rights?
Nigeria in the Global Economy
39. Economic Community of West African States –
Nigeria and the Political Economy of the West
40. How much oil does Nigeria sell to the US?
41. Nigeria remains a visible and influential member of _________________
42. NEPAD –
Governance and Policy-Making/Organization of the State/Federalism
43. Like the United States, Nigeria also features a federal structure comprised of _____________ The judicial system also
___________________ Unlike the United States, Nigeria allows __________________
44. In this skewed federalism the states ________________.
45. What is the “ethnic rotation” principle?
46. The parties practice ethnic rotation as well, doing what?
47. Federal character calls for what?__________________ and this was formally codified by the ____ Constitution.
48. How is the President selected? _____________ what is the significance of this?
The Executive under Military Rule
49. How did each of the military rulers differ?
The Obasanjo Administration
50. What were Obasanjo’s initiatives?
52. An impediment to reform, was what?
53. President Yar Adua spent much of his first year doing what? _____________ The National Assembly instigated a
series of investigations into ________________ and discovered _________
54. As the government was increasingly “Africanized” (moved away from colonialism) the bureaucracy became a way to
reward individuals for _____________ Increasingly individuals were appointed on the basis of _______ rather than
55. The salaries of bureaucrats consume _____ of all government expenditures.
56. Parastatls –
56. Why are parastatls established?
57. Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) –
58. Which industries were privatized?
58. The Buhari, Babangida, and Abacha regimes did what?
59. The execution of Ken Sarwo Wiwa proved what about the judiciary?
60. With the return of civilian rule in 1999 the courts have began to ______
State and Local Judiciaries
61. sharia law-
62. Where is sharia law practiced?
63. All courts are based on _______ tradition and all courts are ultimately bound by decisions handed down by the
64. In the northern state of Zambara what happened in the courts?
State and Local Government
65. How does the federal government disburse funds? ____________ How is this utilized to keep state governments under
66. Why are Nigerians reluctant to pay taxes to the state governments?
67. A number of governors have turned to what to provide security for their states?
The Policy Making Process
68. What is the “loyalty pyramid”? (prebendalism)
Representation and Participation/The Legislature
69. How are Senators elected? ____ How many Senators per state? ____
70. How are members of the House elected? ________
71. Since independence, the same party that won the presidency has won the ________. Consequently the executive has
been able to influence the legislature by _________________
72. A critical difference between the Nigerian and the US system of government: In Nigeria _____________ controls and
disburses public revenues. The Nigerian Constitution says _________ has the power of the purse. In practice, the
president receives ______________ and has refused to place the revenues in the Federation Account.
The Party System and Elections
73. The three major parties in the early republics were based around what?
Old Roots and New Alignments: The PDP and the Other Parties of the Fourth Republic
74. (page 294) The parties of the Fourth Republic are primarily alliances of convenience among the ____________ of
Nigeria. Their sole purpose is to ___________. They have no ideological differences or party platforms.
75. The parties of the Fourth Republic have one major difference – they are ___________.
76. Identify the three main parties in Nigeria (as of the 2007 election).
77. What have the multiethnic parties “done fairly well at”?
78. The Nigerian press as long been what?
79. state corporatism –
Other Social Groups
80. What is true of civil society in Nigeria?
Nigerian Politics in Transition
81. What evidence is there that Nigerians want democracy over military rule? What challenges remain?