Biology EOC review

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					                     Study Guide for Biology End of Course Exam 2010

Chapter 1 - Science
  1. What is the scientific method (steps)?



   2. What is qualitative and quantitative observation?



   3. What is a controlled experiment?



   4. Define:

             a. control group:

             b. experimental group:

             c. variables:

             d. hypothesis:



Basic Chemistry/Water

   1. What is matter?



   2. List and describe the 3 atomic particles.



   3. What is atomic mass? Atomic number?



   4. What is an element? A compound?



   5. What is the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond?
  6. How many electrons go in each orbital?




  7. What are the properties of water? What type of bonds do they hold?




Organic Molecules

  1. What ions do acids and bases release?



  2. What is the pH scale? What range do acids fall under? Bases?.



  3. Draw a Venn diagram to compare and contrast organic and inorganic

     compounds.



  4. List and explain the functions of the 3 main groups of organic compounds found
     in living things.



  5. What is a monomer? A polymer? A macromolecule?



  6. What is a monosaccharide? A polysaccharide?



  7. Next to each macromolecule, give an example of it and list the monomer(s)
     which make it up.

           Lipids:
           Carbohydrates:
           Proteins:
           Nucleic acids:
The Cell

   1. What is the cell theory?



2. What are the parts of a basic cell structure and their functions? Be sure to know
these organelles and their function:

Cell membrane

Nucleus


Nucleolus

Nuclear envelope

Cytoplasm

Mitochondria

Vacuole

Chloroplast

Ribosomes

Lysosomes

Golgi apparatus


   3. What 2 things do plant cells have that animal cells do not?



   4. Draw a Venn diagram to compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.




   5. What is cell transport?
   8. Define: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport.




   9. . What does hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic mean? Describe what happens

      to the cell if it is placed in each type of solution? Draw diagrams.




Photosynthesis/Cellular Respiration

   1. Write the equation in words and the chemical formula for Photosynthesis.



   2. What are the requirements for photosynthesis? Why is photosynthesis

      important?



   3. Where does photosynthesis take place and in what kind of cells?



   4. What is chlorophyll?



   5. What are the products of photosynthesis? What are the reactants?



   6. What is cellular respiration? Its equation?



   7. What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration?
     8. What is glycolysis?



     9. What are the products of aerobic respiration? What are the reactants?



     10. Draw a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting aerobic and anaerobic

     respiration.



     11. Give 3 examples of organisms who do photosynthesis and 3 examples of

     organisms who do cellular respiration?



     12. Do plants do cellular respiration? Why or why not?



Cell Division

     1. What happens during the cell cycle? Draw the pie chart.



     2. What are the 4 phases of mitosis?



     3. How is the cell cycle regulated?



4. What is a chromosome? What are sister chromatids?



5. What type of cells do mitosis?



6.       If a cell has 24 chromosomes and goes through mitosis, how many
chromosomes will each of its daughter cells have?




7. Draw a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting meiosis and mitosis?




8.    Why is meiosis necessary?




9.     What type of cells do meiosis?



10.   If a cell has 24 chromosomes and goes through meiosis, how many

chromosomes will each of its daughter cells have?



DNA

1.    Describe the structure of DNA.



2.    What does a nucleotide for DNA consist of?



3.    What does a nucleotide for RNA consist of?



4.    Name the four nitrogen bases DNA can have and which can RNA have?
5.    Explain how DNA is replicated?



6.    How is the structure of chromosomes in eukaryotes different from the

      structure of chromosomes in prokaryotes?



7.    What are the three types of RNA and what is their function?



8.    What happens during transcription?



9.    What happens during translation?




10.   Describe the three main differences between RNA and DNA.



11.   If a code on a DNA molecule for a specific amino acid is CTA, what would be the

mRNA codon? The tRNA anticodon? The amino acid

      that’s coded for?



12.   What is a gene mutation? What is a chromosomal mutation?




13.   What is a point mutation?
14.   What scientists are credited with determining the double helix structure of DNA?




15.   What type of bonds hold the bases together?

      What type of bonds hold the sugar and phosphate groups together?



16.   What did Chargaff’s rule explain?




Genetics

1. What is Genetics the study of?



2. How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?



3. What are genes?



4. List and explain Mendel’s 3 Principles.
5. Using T = tall and t = short, record the following:

       Heterozygous genotype:

       Homozygous recessive genotype:

       Homozygous dominant genotype:

       Heterozygous phenotype:

       Homozygous recessive phenotype:

       Homozygous dominant phenotype:



6. What is incomplete dominance?



7. Cross a blue flowered plant with a yellow flowered plant – list genotypic and

phenotypic ratios (B-blue, Y- yellow)




8. What is codominance?




9. If a black chicken mates with a black and white chicken will they produce any white

chickens? Show the Punnett square (B – black, W – white)
10. What is a sex linked trait?



11. Write the genotypes for the following phenotypes.

       carrier:

       male with hemophilia:

       male without hemophilia:

       normal female:

       female with hemophilia:



12. Can a carrier female and a man without hemophilia have a child with hemophila?

Show the Punnett square.




13.What is a karyotype?



14. Which type of mutation can be seen on a karyotype?



15. What is nondisjunction?



16. What is an autosome?



17. If a woman with type O blood and a man with type AB blood have children, what are

the children’s possible phenotypes?
Evolution

1.    What is evolution? Why is it referred to as a theory?



2.    What is a fossil?



3.    According to Lamarck, how did species evolve?



4.    What two important ideas from geology were important to Darwin’s thinking?

What scientists contributed to these ideas?




5.    What is meant by evolution by natural selection?



6.    Natural selection is based on organisms having adaptations to their

      environment. What is an adaptation?



7.    What types of evidence support his theory of change over time?

8.    What is a vestigial organ? Give an example.



9.    What are some examples of homologous structures?



10.   Which are older? Fossils deeper in the ground or more shallow?



11.   What kind of evidence of evolution would similar DNA sequences be?
12.    Give an example of how geographic distribution of species can be evidence of

evolution.



13. What is a gene pool?



14. What is the relative frequency of an allele?



15. What are the 2 main sources of genetic variations?




16. What are the three main types of natural selection?

17. Draw a curve diagram to show each of the 3 ways that natural selection affects

phenotypes.




18. Are there any conditions under which evolution will not occur? What is this called?




19. What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?



20. What conditions need to be met for Evolution NOT to occur?
21. Describe how geographic and nongeographic isolation are similar and how they are

different.

				
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