The language of karate is chiefly Japanese by P0n4yuCe

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                           галузь підготовки 02.03 Гуманітарні науки
                           напрям 6.020303 Українська мова і література


                                              PABLO PICASSO
        On 25 October 1881 a little boy was born in Malaga, Spain. It was a difficult birth and to help him
breathe, cigar smoke was blown into his nose! But despite being the youngest ever smoker, this baby
grew up to be one of the 20th century's greatest painters – Pablo Picasso.
        Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent from a very young age. His first word was lapiz
«Spanish for pensil» and he learned to draw before he could talk. He was the only son in the family and
very good-looking, so he was thoroughly spoilt. He hated school and often refused to go unless his
doting parents allowed him to take one of his father's pet pigeons with him!
        Apart from pigeons, his great love was art, and when in 1891 his father, who was an amateur
artist, got a job as a drawing teacher at a college, Pablo went with him to the college. He often watched
his father paint and sometimes was allowed to help. One evening his father was painting a picture of
their pigeons when he had to leave the room. He returned to find that Pablo had completed the picture,
and it was so amazingly beautiful and lifelike that he gave his son his own palette and brushes and never
painted again. Pablo was just 13.
        From then onwards there was no stopping him. Many people realized that he was a genius but he
disappointed those who wanted him to become a traditional painter. He was always breaking the rules of
artistic tradition and shocked the public with his strange and powerful pictures. He is probably best
known for his 'Cubist' pictures, which used only simple geometric shapes. His paintings of people were
often made up of triangles and squares with their features in the wrong place. His work changes our
ideas about art, and to millions of people modem art means the work of Picasso. "Guernica", which he
painted in 1937, records the bombing of that little Basque town during the Spanish Civil War, and is
undisputedly one of the masterpieces of modern painting.
        Picasso created over 6,000 paintings, drawings and sculptures. Today a 'Picasso' costs several
million pounds. Once, when the French Minister of Culture was visiting Picasso, the artist accidentally
spilt some paint on the Minister's trousers. Picasso apologized and wanted to pay for them to be cleaned,
but the Minister said, 'Non! Please, Monsieur Picasso, just sign my trousers!'
        Picasso died of heart failure during an attack of influenza in 1973.
        1. Read the text about the painter and answer the questions about him.
1. Where was he born?
2. When was he born?
3. What do you learn about his childhood?
4. Which people played a part in this career?
5. What do you thinks were the most important events in this life?
6. What do you learn of his works?
7. When did he die?
        8. Which of the following numbers or dates relate to Pablo Picasso? What do they refer to? 1881
1891 13 1937 11 6,000 1973 1926 50
        2. Put the verbs in the correct form (be, do, have)
        1. Pablo Picasso __________________________ like going to school unless he        allowed to take
one of his father's pigeons with him.
        2. His father_____ paint again after Pablo _____completed the picture of the pigeons.
        3. Some paint _____________________ spilt on the French Minister's trousers when he visiting
Picasso.

                                        THE TRETYAKOV GALLERY
      In 2006 Moscow's Tretyakov Gallery will be 150 years old. It will be an important event in the
cultural life of the capital. This largest collection of Russian pictorial art bears the name of its founder,
Pavel Michailovich Tretyakov.
      The merchant Tretyakov was a man who devoted his life to the creation of a national art gallery. At
first, Tretyakov collected only the paintings of contemporary Russian masters and maintained
particularly close ties with the Peredvizhniki. The largest art society of Russia in the second half of the
19th century, this group united nearly all progressive artists of that time. It received its name when, after
its exhibitions in Moscow and Petersburg, it travelled from town to town and acquainted thousands with
the works of the most advanced artists.
        Tretyakov was personally connected with most of the Peredvizhniki, he attentively followed the
progress of their work and bought the best of their paintings. Many pictures of the finest Russian
painters, including Kramskoy, Repin, Surikov, Vereschagin, Victor Vasnetsov, Levitan, and Serov were
bought by Tretyakov as soon as they were finished.
        He also commissioned a series of portraits of outstanding men of Russian culture, a collection
which has retained its value to the present day.
        Ultimately, Tretyakov resolved to broaden the scope of his collection and began to acquire the
paintings of masters of the 18th and the early 19th centuries. To these he added a collection of the finest
works of the old Russian icon painters.
        The gallery grew, and soon Tretyakov's home in Lavrushinsky Street could no longer hold all the
pictures. The construction of a special hall for his paintings was begun in about 1870.
        The main building which houses the collection today was designed by the painter Victor
Vasnetsov, an authority on Old Russian architecture, and it is in this style that the gallery was built.
        The range of the gallery was considerably widened in Soviet times. It now included widely
representative collections of Russian sculptures, drawings, engravings, lithographs and water-colours.
        From time to time the gallery arranges one-man expositions of the works of outstanding Russian
artists and other masters. Other expositions are devoted to definite themes or genres: paintings on
historical subjects, caricature, water-colours, and so on.
        A Soviet art section added to the Tretykov Gallery originally contained the best works of artists
done in the first decades of the Socialist state. This collection is constantly renewed with the finest works
of modem artists. All-Russian Art Exhibitions, held at regular intervals to enable artists to demonstrate
their achievements before the entire country, are likewise arranged at the Tretyakov Gallery.
         Whereas the pictures were once hung side by side in three rows, the gallery long ago adopted the
 principle of widely spaced expositions: no more than two rows with wide intervals between the pictures.
 This enables the spectator to give undivided attention to each exhibit, to capture its individual meaning
 and character. The arrangement is chronological, except when it is desired to display the complete works
 of a single master.
         The staff of the gallery do their best to popularize the art treasures of their native land. The
 museum receives more than a million visitors every year including more than ten thousand organized
 groups of visitors. The groups who come to the gallery for the first time are conducted about on a
 general survey to acquaint them with the finest and most important works of art. Other groups are given
 a more detailed view of various phases of Russian art.
        The gallery besides arranging lectures for the visiting groups has a special auditorium where
research workers lecture on the works of classic Russian painters, sculptors and graphic artists. These
lectures are given in the halls exhibiting the works of the artist in question.
        Intensive scientific work is conducted in the library and archives of the gallery which has a large
fund of books and manuscripts.
        The national treasure house of Russian art has indeed become a school of culture.
        1. Answer the following questions
        1. How old is Moscow's Tretyakov Gallery?
        2. Who        was      the     founder       of     the       largest     collection    of    Russian
pictorial art?
        3. What did Tretyakov collect at first?
        4. Whom was Tretyakov personally connected with?
        5. When was the construction of a special hail begun for Tretykov paintings?
        6. How many people visit the Gallery?
        7. Has       the      gallery      got      a       special       auditorium        where     research
workers lecture on the works of classic Russian painters, sculptors and graphic artists?
        8. What is the Tretyakov Gallery now?
        9. Where is scientific work conducted in?
        2. Make up the plan of the text.
        3. Speak about Pavel Michailovich Tretyakov.
        4. Speak on each point of the plan by 2-3 sentences.
      5. Give a summary of this text.

                            A BRITISH PAINTER AND A RUSSIAN SCIENTIST
             The first ever Turner exhibition in the former USSR (oils and water-colours from British art
   galleries) at Moscow's Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts was devoted to the 200 th anniversary of Turner's
                                                birth (1775-1851).
        When one looks at his wonderful paintings, one cannot help thinking about another man – the
great Russian naturalist Kliment Timiryazev. He first saw Turner's work in reproduction, and later he
went to see his pictures every time he was in England. "Probably", Timiryazev said, "there is some sort of
an inner connection between the logic of the explorer of nature and aesthetic feelings of those who love
nature's beauty".
        That is why, even though being very busy with his research, Timiryazev, already well advanced in
years, decided to translate the book of an English art critic C.L. Hind, "Turner".
        Having a deep understanding of the English painter he also wrote a long preface to the book
"Natural Science and the Landscape" which is important from the scientific point of view and added his
own comments to the book expressing his own opinion and disagreeing with the author.
        The translation published in Russia in 1910 was a good present to Russian readers. It was
reprinted in Timiryazev's collected works published in 1940.
        Timiryazev, who spent his life solving the great mystery – the role of sunlight in the synthesis of
living plant tissue, which means the mystery of life on earth in general, – was interested in Turner all his
life. For light and colour were for Timiryazev in biology what they are for a painter in art. The study of
these factors has led to new revelations both in botany and art.
        Timiryazev was inspired in translating the book by his interest in Russian art in general and, above
all, in landscape painting, because he agreed with Dmitry Mendeleyev, the outstanding Russian chemist,
that "the study of outer nature helps in making correct assessments of even the inner nature of man".
        1. Agree or disagree.
        1. Having a deep understanding of the English painter he also wrote a long preface to the book
"Turner".
        2. The translation published in Russia in 1912 was a good
present to Russian readers.
        3. The first ever Turner exhibition in the country at St.
Petersburg's Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts was devoted to the 200th anniversary of Turner's birth.
        4. Timiryazev first saw Turner's work in reproduction, and later he went to see his pictures every
time he was in England.
        2. Answer the questions.
        1. Who was the exhibition devoted to?
        2. What is the bond between Timiryazev and Turner?
        3. What did Timiryazev decide to translate?
        4. Which book is important from the scientific point of view?
        5. When was the translation published in Russia?
        6. When and where was the translation reprinted?
        7. What did Timiryazev try to solve?
        8. What did Timiryazev do all his life?
        9. What was important for Timiryazev in biology what they are for a painter in art?

                                            TCHAIKOVSKY
       Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyich (1840-1893), Russian composer, the foremost of the 19th
century.Tchaikovsky was born in Votkinsk, in the western Ural area of the country. He studied law in
Saint Petersburg and took music classes at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. There his teachers included
Russian composer and pianist Anton Rubinstein, from whom Tchaikovsky subsequently took advanced
instruction in orchestration. In 1866 composer-pianist Nicholas Rubinstein, Anton's brother, obtained for
Tchaikovsky the post of teacher of harmony at the Moscow Conservatory. There the young composer met
dramatist Aleksandr Nikolayevich Ostrovsky, who wrote the libretto for Tchaikovsky's first opera, The
Voyevoda (1868). From this period also date Tchaikovsky’s operas Undine (1869) and The Oprichnik
(1872); the Piano Concerto no. 1 in B-flat Minor (1875); the symphonies no. 1 (called “Winter
Daydreams,”1868); and the overture Romeo and Juliet (1869; revised in 1870 and 1880).
       1812 As a composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky was greatly influenced by the prevailing sentiment of
nationalism among top Russian composers. From 1876 to 1890 Tchaikovsky was supported by a wealthy
patron, which allowed him the opportunity to produce a great deal of work, especially operas. He was a
supreme master of orchestral colour and used traditional Russian material, although it is shrouded in
Western art music tradition. His 1812 overture, composed in 1880, is a graphic musical description of the
forced retreat of Napoleon’s armies from Moscow.
          In 1876 Tchaikovsky became acquainted with Madam Nadezhda von Meck, a wealthy widow,
whose enthusiasm for the composer's music led her to give him an annual allowance. Fourteen years
later, however, Madame von Meck, believing herself financially ruined, abruptly terminated the subsidy.
Although Tchaikovsky's other sources of income were by then adequate to sustain him, he was wounded
by the sudden defection of his patron without apparent cause, and he never forgave her. The period of
his connection with Madame von Meck was one of rich productivity for Tchaikovsky. To this time belong
the operas Eugene Onegin (1879), Mazeppa (1883), and The Sorceress (1887); the ballets Swan Lake (1876)
and The Sleeping Beauty (1889); the orchestral works Marche Slave (1876), Capriccio Italien (1880),
Serenade (1880), Manfred symphony (1885), the fantasy overture Hamlet (1888); and numerous songs.
Meanwhile, in 1877,Tchaikovsky had married Antonina Milyukova, a music student at the Moscow
Conservatory who had written to the composer declaring her love for him. The marriage was unhappy
from the outset, and the couple soon separated.
        From 1887 to 1891 Tchaikovsky made several highly successful concert tours,conducting his own
works before large, enthusiastic audiences in the major cities of Europe and the United States.
        His most popular works are characterized by richly melodic passages in which sections suggestive
of profound melancholy frequently alternate with dancelike movements derived from folk music. Like
his contemporary, Russian composer Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky was an exceptionally
gifted orchestrator; his ballet scores in particular contain many striking effects of orchestral coloration.
His symphonic works, popular for their melodic content, are also strong (and often unappreciated) in
their abstract thematic development. In his best operas, such as Eugene Onegin and The Queen of
Spades, he used highly suggestive melodic passages to depict a dramatic situation concisely and with
poignant effect. His ballets, notably Swan Lake and The Sleeping Beauty, have never been surpassed for
their melodic intensity and instrumental brilliance. Tchaikovsky also extended the range of the
symphonic poem, and his works in this genre, including Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, are notable for
their richly melodic evocation of the moods of the literary works on which they are based.
        Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s work combined Russian and European influences. His music was the
first by a Russian to be included regularly in concert programs in Europe. Tchaikovsky’s music for the
ballets The Nutcracker (1891-1892) and Swan Lake (1876) is some of the best-known classical music of all
time.
        1. Answer the following questions:
        1. Where was Tchaikovsky born?
        2. What did Tchaikovsky study in Saint Petersburg?
        3. What was his first opera?
        4. From 1876 to 1890 who supported Tchaikovsky in producing a great deal of work?
        5. What role did Madam Nadezhda von Meck play in Tchaikovky’s life?
        6. Which period of life was one of rich productivity for Tchaikovsky?
        7. Did he make the concert tours abroad?
        8. What features are his most popular works characterized by?
        9. Have you ever listened to Tchaikovsky’s works? What is your favourite one?
        2. Make a plan to the text.
        3. Retell the text according your plan.

                                        LOUIS ARMSTRONG
      Armstrong, Louis (1901-1971), American jazz, cornet, and trumpet player, singer, bandleader, and
popular entertainer. Armstrong overcame poverty, a lack of formal education, and racism to become one
of the most innovative and influential musicians of the 20th century, and one of the most beloved
entertainers in the world.
      Armstrong influenced not only trumpeters but, directly or indirectly, nearly all subsequent
instrumental and vocal jazz music, as well as a wide range of popular music. He is perhaps best known
for helping to pioneer a style known as swing, which later formed the basis for most jazz and rhythm-
and-blues (R&B) music. In addition to his technical virtuosity and creative melodic ideas, Armstrong was
renowned for playing and singing with passionate, joyful feeling and an exuberant tone. He established
the expressive possibilities of the young art form of jazz and set fundamental standards for
improvisation.
       Born Louis Daniel Armstrong in New Orleans, Louisiana, he grew up in dire poverty and did not
attend school beyond the fifth grade. As a youth, Armstrong joined a vocal quartet and sharpened his
musical ear for harmony by singing with the group on the streets. From about 1912 to 1914 he was
incarcerated for delinquency at the Colored Waifs' home in New Orleans, where he was given a cornet to
play in the home's brass band. While there, he learned the cornet and other musical instruments and
dedicated himself to becoming a professional musician.
       About 1917 Armstrong attracted the attention of cornetist King Oliver, who played a style of jazz
known as New Orleans, and began a fruitful apprenticeship with the respected musician. In 1922
Armstrong made his first recordings with Oliver the following year. Armstrong moved to New York City
in 1924, where he joined the band of American pianist Fletcher Henderson and expanded his reputation
as a leading soloist in the style of music known as hot jazz.
       After 1925 Armstrong began leading his own band and also recorded with some of the most
renowned blues singers of the time, including American singer Bessie Smith. From 1925 to 1928 he led a
recording group called the Hot Fives.Their recordings include the songs “Cornet Chop Suey” and “Big
Butter and Egg Man” in 1926; “Potato Head Blues” and “Struttin' with Some Barbecue” in 1927; and, in
1928, “West End Blues,” and “Weather Bird,” a duet with American pianist Earl Hines. In these
recordings, which are considered some of the most seminal and enduring pieces in the history of jazz,
Armstrong abandoned the traditional collective improvisation of New Orleans-style jazz and almost
singlehandedly transformed the music from a group art into an art form for the individual soloist.
       In 1947, prompted by the commercial decline of big-band music, Armstrong formed a septet called
the All Stars. This band, which Armstrong led until 1968, became largely a vehicle for his own playing
and singing Armstrong accumulated affectionate nicknames over the course of his career, including
Dippermouth, Satchelmouth, Ambassador Satchmo, Satch, and Pops. He became an unofficial musical
ambassador from the United States, performing all over the world.
       Armstrong was one of the first artists to record scat singing (the singing of improvised wordless
sounds rather than formal lyrics), in the song “Heebie Jeebies” (1926), and eventually his voice became
one of the most recognizable of the 20th century. In part because of his vocals, a number of his records
became hits, including “Blueberry Hill" (1956), “Mack the Knife” (1956), “Hello Dolly” (1964), and “What
a Wonderful World” (1967). In 1976 a statue dedicated to Armstrong was erected in New Orleans and a
park was named in his honor.
        1. Answer the following questions:
        1. Who was Louis Armstrong?
        2. What was he renowned for?
        3. How did he sharpen his musical ear for harmony?
        4. Where did he learn the cornet?
        5. What respected musicians did Armstrong play with?
        6. What recordings of the Hot Fives are considered some of the most seminal pieces in the history
of jazz? Prove it.
        7. Did Armstrong have any nickname over the course of his career?
        8. Where was a statue dedicated to Armstrong erected?
        9. How do you understand the following expression “scat singing”?
        10. What songs of Louis Armstrong did you listen to?
        2. Make a plan to the text.
        3. Retell the text according to your plan.

                                                BOXING
      Boxing, athletic contest between two persons, each of whom uses the fists to try to knock the other
unconscious or to inflict enough punishment to cause the opponent either to quit or to be judged beaten.
A boxing match is conducted under established rules and procedures and has a referee, judges, and
timekeeper. The primary aim of each participant is to strike blows to the head and torso of the opponent
that will knock down and render the boxer incapable of rising to a standing position and defending
himself within 10 seconds. Originally the term prize-fighting was used when money was at stake, but the
term professional boxing now bears the same meaning.
      In ancient Greece, boxing was a popular amateur competitive sport and was included in the first
Olympic Games. In ancient Rome, boxers often wore the cestus, a metal-studded leather hand covering
with which they maimed and even killed their opponents, sometimes as part of gladiatorial spectacles.
The sport declined in popularity after the fall of the Roman Empire. In the 18th century, boxing was
revived in London in the form of bare-knuckle prizefights in which the contestants fought for money and
the spectators made wagers on the outcome.
       The first boxer to be recognized as a heavyweight champion was James Figg, in 1719. In 1743 a
later champion, John Broughton, formulated a set of rules standardizing some practices and eliminating
others, such as hitting opponents when they are down or seizing opponents by the hair. Broughton's
rules governed boxing until 1838, when the Original London Prize Ring rules, based on those of
Broughton, were devised. Modifications known as the Revised London Prize Ring rules were drawn up
in 1853, and they controlled the sport until the end of the 19th century, when the Queensberry rules came
into use. These rules were drafted in 1857 by a boxer, John Graham Chambers, under the auspices of John
Sholto Douglas, 8th marquis of Queensberry.
       Emphasizing boxing skill rather than wrestling and agility over strength, the Queensberry rules
helped to undo the popular image of boxing as a savage, brutal brawl. The new rules prohibited bare-
fisted fighting, wrestling, hugging, hitting opponents while they are helpless, and fighting to the finish.
Under the Broughton rules, a downed man was allowed 30 seconds to square off at a distance of 1 yd (90
cm) from the opponent, aided by handlers if necessary. If the boxer failed to square off, that fighter was
considered beaten. Under the London Prize Ring rules, the boxer had to reach scratch (a mark located in
the middle of the ring) unaided within 8 seconds after the 30-second time lapse; and a round ended when
a boxer went down. Under the Queensberry rules, matches were divided into 3-minute rounds with 1-
minute intervals of rest between them. A contestant who remained down, either recumbent or on one
knee, after 10 seconds lost the match. The rules also stipulated that matches be conducted in a roped-in
square, called a ring, measuring 7.3 m on a side.
       The last bare-knuckle heavyweight champion was the American John L. Sullivan, who fought and
won the last sanctioned bare-knuckle fight in 1889, against Jake Kilrain. Fighting with gloves under the
Queensberry rules, the popular Sullivan lost the world heavyweight boxing championship to James J.
Corbett in New Orleans, Louisiana, on September 7, 1892. The Queensberry rules have remained the code
governing the conduct of professional boxing.
       1. Answer the following questions:
       1. What is “boxing”?
       2. What is the primary aim of each participant?
       3. Where did boxing appear?
       4. In ancient Rome, what did the boxers often wear?
       5. Where and when was boxing revived after the fall of the Roman Empire?
       6. Who was the first boxer to be recognized as a champion?
       7. Who formulated a set of rules standardizing some practices and eliminating others in 1743?
       8. How did the rules of boxing change later?
       9. Who is your favorite boxer?
       2. Make a plan to the text.
       3. Retell the text according to your plan.

                                            CLAUDE DEBUSSY
       Debussy, (Achille) Claude (1862-1918), French composer, whose harmonic innovations helped
pave the way for the musical upheavals of the 20th century. Debussy was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye
and studied at the Paris Conservatoire, which he entered at the age of 10. In 1879, as private musician to
Nadezhda von Meck, the patron of Russian composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Debussy traveled to
Florence, Italy; Venice, Italy; Vienna, Austria; and Moscow. While in Russia Debussy became acquainted
with the works of such Russian composers as Tchaikovsky, Aleksandr Borodin, Mily Balakirev, and
Modest Mussorgsky and with Russian folk and Romani (Gypsy) music. He studied in Rome for two
years, as required by the terms of the award, submitting new compositions regularly but unsuccessfully
to the Grand Prix committee.
       He used whole-tone scales, which are constructed by notes a whole step apart rather than the usual
patterns of whole steps and half steps used in traditional major or minor scales. In this excerpt from the
first movement, the whole-tone scales create a floating effect, which contrasts clearly with his return to
traditional harmonies at the end of the example.
       During the 1890s Debussy's works were performed with increasing frequency, and despite their
controversial nature, he began to gain some recognition as a composer. Outstanding pieces from this
period are the String Quartet in G Minor (1893) and the Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune (Prelude to the
Afternoon of a Faun, 1894), his first mature orchestral work, derived from a poem by French symbolist
Stephane Mallarme.
       From 1902 to 1910 Debussy wrote chiefly for the piano, rejecting the traditional percussive
approach to the instrument and emphasizing instead its capabilities for delicate expressiveness. His most
important works of this period include Estampes (Engravings, 1903), L'ile joyeuse (The Isle of Joy, 1904),
Images (two series, 1905 and 1907), and several preludes.
       In 1909 Debussy learned that he was afflicted with cancer. Most of his late works are chamber
music, including three extraordinary sonatas, for cello; for violin; and for flute, viola, and harp. Among
Debussy's numerous other important works are the ballet score Jeux (Games, 1912), the orchestral poem
La mer (The Sea, 1905), and the songs in Cinq poemes de Baudelaire (Five Poems of Baudelaire, 1889;).
       The innovations of French composer Claude Debussy make him among the greatest and most
important composers of the 20th century. His compositional style has often been associated with the
French impressionist painters who flourished at the end of the 19th century. His compositions were
different from most romantic era program music in that the point was not merely to express an idea or
tell a story, but rather to create an “atmosphere” through sound sketches and rich, though seemingly
subdued instrumentation.
         The music of Debussy's mature style was the forerunner of much modern music and made him
one of the most important composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His innovations were
chiefly harmonic. Although he did not devise the whole-tone scale, he was the first composer to exploit it
successfully. His treatment of chords was radical for its time: Taking advantage of their individual colors
and effects, he arranged them so as to weaken, rather than support, the illusion of any specified key. The
lack of fixed tonality in Debussy's music gives it a dreamy quality that some critics of his time referred to
as musical impressionism, after the resemblance they saw to the pictorial effect achieved by artists of the
impressionist school. The term impressionism is still used to describe Debussy's work. Debussy himself
did not create a school of composition, but he liberated music from the limitations of traditional harmony.
Moreover, the high quality of his output proved to later composers the validity of experimenting with
new ideas and techniques.
       1. Answer the following questions:
       1. What is Debussy’s nationality?
       2. Where was he born?
       3. Which works of Russian composers did he become acquainted with?
       4. Which new elements did he use in his works?
       5. When did he compose his first mature orchestral work?
       6. What kind of music did he write from 1902?
       7. Why was Debussy the greatest and most important composer of the 20th century?
       8. Is the term impressionism used to describe Debussy’s work?
       9. Have you ever listened to the works by Debussy?
       2. Make a plan to the text.
       3. Retell the text according to your plan.

                                                   KARATE
       Karate (Japanese, “empty hand”), martial art of unarmed self-defense in which directed or focused
blows of the hands and feet, accompanied by special breathing and shouts, are dealt from poised
positions. More than a method of combat, karate emphasizes self-discipline, positive attitude, and high
moral purpose. It is taught professionally at different levels, and under different Asian names, as a self-
defense skill, a competitive sport, and a free-style exercise.
       Karate students, dressed in the traditional garment, called gi, practice sparring. Besides being a
method of self-defense, karate is also a form of exercise, a competitive sport, and a mental discipline.
       The art of karate is more than 1000 years old and originated in eastern Asia, first as monastic
training and later as a defense method used by Chinese peasants against armed bandits. During the 17th
century it became highly developed as an art on the island of Okinawa, Japan. In 1922 karate was
introduced to the Japanese public by an Okinawan, Funakoshi Gichin, and the art is today chiefly
associated with Japan. It was introduced into the U.S. after World War II. Many types, including Korean
(tae kwon do) and Chinese styles, are taught in the U.S.
       Karate is related to judo and jujutsu, but stresses techniques for striking, with lethal kicks and
punches, rather than wrestling or throwing an opponent. The three elements of speed, strength, and
technique are vital to karate expertise. Constant alertness and a keen sense of timing and surprise are also
requisites.
       Great attention is given to knowing the most vulnerable points of the human body, which may be
attacked by the hands, elbows, knees, or feet. These areas include the face, neck, solar plexus, spinal
column, groin, and kidneys. In ordinary karate competitions or exhibitions, only the area of the body
above the waist is allowed as a target, and all blows are to be pulled.
       The karate trainee toughens hands and feet by driving them into containers of sand, rice, or gravel
and by striking sandbags and special punching boards. Constant exercises are important for limbering up
and for strengthening the muscles of the body. Deep-breathing exercises are also useful because
exhalation and sudden shouts accompany the directed blows, particularly the final or so-called killing
blows. Such breathing and cries help the rhythm of the karate attack, focus more force in each blow or
block, and psychologically invigorate a person while disconcerting the opponent.
       The language of karate is chiefly Japanese. A karate training hall or gym is called a dojo, and the
white, pajamalike garment worn in all training is called the gi. More than 200 specific Japanese terms are
used for the various blows and moves that are employed in formal exercises called kata.
       Degrees of achievement are formally recognized in karate training, each represented by a cloth belt
of a particular color worn around the gi, the usual colors being, in ascending order, white, green, purple,
brown, and black. Qualifications for belts differ from school to school, depending upon the style and
standard of karate taught. The black belt, or dan, signifies the highest proficiency in karate and, like the
other belts, is itself qualified by degrees of honor or skill, the highest dan being the ninth or tenth degree.
       1. Answer the following questions:
       1. What is it “karate”?
       2. What does karate emphasize?
       3. When and where did karate appear at first?
       4. What country is the art “karate” associated with?
       5. Does karate stress techniques for striking rather than wrestling and throwing an opponent?
       6. In karate what points is great attention given to?
       7. How does the karate trainee toughen hands and feet?
       8. Why are deep-breathing exercises very useful in karate?
       9. What is the language of karate?
       10. How can you recognize the degree of achievement in karate?
       2. Make a plan to the text.
       3. Retell the text according your plan.

                                              GYMNASTICS
       Gymnastics, competitive sport that tests an athlete's strength, rhythm, balance, flexibility, and
agility. There are three major forms of competitive gymnastics: artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics,
and trampoline. Artistic gymnastics and trampoline have men’s and women’s competitions. Rhythmic
gymnastics is open only to women.
       Artistic gymnastics consists of prescribed sets of events, each of which is scored separately by
judges to determine a winner. Rhythmic gymnastics consists of several events in which the gymnasts use
objects such as balls and hoops while performing choreographed routines, which are judged to determine
a winner. In trampoline, gymnasts bounce up and down on a trampoline and are judged on the
movements they perform while airborne.
       The term gymnastics also refers to a system of physical exercises used for therapeutic or
educational purposes. Therapeutic or remedial gymnastics is a series of selected exercises that help
relieve physical discomfort or restore function to disabled people. Educational gymnastics is a program
that challenges students to master tactics involving strength, flexibility, and conditioning.
       Artistic gymnastics competition has been part of the modern Olympic Games since the Games
began in 1896. Extensive television coverage helped the sport gain great popularity in the late 20th
century.
       Men compete in six different events in artistic gymnastics. The events are as follows: floor exercise;
pommel horse; rings; vault; parallel bars; horizontal bar.
       Women compete in four events in artistic gymnastics. The events are as follows: vault; uneven
bars; balance beam; floor exercise.
       In rhythmic gymnastics, which became an Olympic sport in 1984, gymnasts compete on a mat.
Using rope, a hoop, a ball, clubs, and a ribbon (in separate events), they perform choreographed
movements set to music. Some acrobatic movements are permitted, but no flight is allowed
       Trampoline first appeared in the Olympics as a medal sport at the 2000 Games in Sydney,
Australia, with a men’s individual event and a women’s individual event. Contestants bounce up and
down on a trampoline while performing somersaults, twists, and other movements. Athletes can bounce
up to 9 m high, and some gymnasts can stay in the air for up to two seconds.
        The first gymnasts were acrobats who performed in ancient Egypt. In the 2nd millennium bc, men
and women of Crete (Kriti) during the age of Minoan culture developed the art of bull leaping. In bull
leaping the performer would run toward a charging bull, grab its horns, and, upon being tossed into the
air, execute various midair stunts before landing on the bull's back, then dismount with a flip.
        In the early 1800s a form of gymnastics developed in Germany as a defined set of skills performed
both with and without specific kinds of apparatus. German educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, known as
the father of gymnastics, planned exercises using pieces of stationary apparatus to develop self-discipline
and physical strength. The Swedish system, devised by gymnast Pehr Henrik Ling, emphasized, on the
other hand, rhythm and coordination through routines practiced with hoops, clubs, and small balls.
        German and Swedish immigrants to North America in the 19th century brought their commitment
to gymnastics with them. A compromise between the German and Swedish system was introduced into
school physical education programs in the United States by the end of the 19th century. European
gymnastics did not, however, generally appeal to American and Canadian children. Rather, the
predominantly English cultural heritage had created an atmosphere in which games were preferred to
the rote patterns of exercise. In fact, gymnastics did not achieve popularity in North America until the
1970s, when gymnasts at the Olympics captured the public’s imagination.
        1. Answer the following questions:
        1. How many major forms of competitive gymnastics do you know?
        2. Does the term ‘gymnastics’ mean only the kind of competitive sport?
        3. What are men’s events in artistic gymnastics?
        4. What are women’s events in artistic gymnastics?
        5. What sport equipment does the gymnast use in rhythmic gymnastics?
        6. What is it ‘trampoline’?
        7. Where and when did gymnastics begin its existence?
        8. Who was the father of gymnastics?
        2. Make a plan to the text.
        3. Retell the text according to your plan.
                                                    TANGO
        Tango, Argentine dance and musical genre, rooted in a combination of African, European, and
native Argentine music and dance traditions.Often referred to by Argentines as "a sad feeling that can be
danced," the tango has become one of the most popular dance and musical forms worldwide. As a dance,
the tango requires a couple to be chest-to-chest, in a tight embrace. As a musical form, tango has evolved
from improvised dance pieces of the mid- to late 19th century – often performed by black and mulatto
instrumentalists – to the modern nuevo tango compositions of the late Argentine musician Astor
Piazzolla.
        The black community of Buenos Aires played an indirect but significant role in the creation of the
tango. By the mid-19th century, nearly a quarter of Buenos Aires's inhabitants were black, owing to the
city's role as a port of entry for the slave trade in the previous century. Argentine blacks, who resided in
poor neighborhoods, succeeded in preserving their culture through community events such as dance and
music festivals. The most popular Afro-Argentine dance was the candombe, which fused syncopated
rhythms and improvised steps from various African traditions. According to the early Argentine scholar
of tango, Jose Gobello, the candombe was the precursor of the tango.
        Gobello suggests that contact between Afro-Argentines and the compadritos – poor urban street
roughs, who recalled in their behavior and dress the 19th-century gaucho, or Argentine cowboy – gave
rise to the tango at a late 1870s dance venue. Many of the early tango musicians were Afro-Argentine: the
noted pianist Rosendo Mendizabal played a central role in the development of tango music, while
Sebastian Ramos Mejia became the first notable player of the bandoneon – an accordion-like instrument
of German origin that later became fundamental to tango music.
        The Argentine historian Ricardo Rodriguez Molas contends that the word "tango," which in certain
African languages means "closed place" or "reserved ground," is likely to be of African origin. Other
scholars have traced the word back to the Latin verb tangere, meaning to touch; they believe that African
slaves might have picked up the word "tango" from their European captors. In many parts of Latin
America, "tango" came to connote a place where blacks, both free and enslaved, gathered together to
dance; while in Argentina, "tango" came to be associated with black dances in general. "It was in this
sense," notes Collier, "that the word eventually reached Spain, as a name for African-American or
African-influenced dances of transatlantic provenance."
        Before World War II, the tango was developed in dance halls, cafes, and brothels in the working-
class barrios (districts) of Argentina's major cities. By 1913 the tango had become popular among the
Argentine middle classes, who contributed to the development of a tango craze in Europe and Russia.
Since the golden age of tango in the 1920s, tango music and dance have continued to gain popularity
worldwide.
      1. Answer the following questions:
      1. What is it ‘tango’?
      2. As a dance, what does tango require?
      3. As a musical form, what has tango evolved from?
      4. Who played the significant role in the creation of the tango?
      5. What musical instrument became fundamental to tango music?
      6. How many versions about the origin of the word ‘tango’ are there?
      7. How can you describe this style of dancing ‘tango’?
      8. Is it popular in our country?
      2. Make a plan to the text.
      3. Retell the text according to your plan.

                                                 RUMBA
       Rumba, a secular Afro-Cuban performance ritual synthesizing dance, song, and music. During the
18th century, large numbers of slaves of Yoruba, Calabar, and Kongo descent were brought to Cuba to
work in the sugar-producing region of Matanzas. Following the abolition of slavery in 1886, these and
other liberated blacks headed to Cuba's urban centers in search of employment and settled on the
outskirts of the cities. The rumba was born out of festive social gatherings in the suburban environment
of Matanzas during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rumba synthesizes African-derived rhythms,
songs, and dances, in particular those of Bantu origin. Rumba soon spread to Havana and other parts of
Cuba and, after World War II, was exported to Europe and the United States, where it was modified into
a type of ballroom dance.
       A number of percussive instruments accompany the rumba. Originally, empty drawers turned
upside down, empty bottles, frying pans, and spoons were used to make music for the rumba.
Subsequently, rumba musicians replaced these instruments with wooden boxes, in particular those used
to package salted cod and candles. Although wooden boxes are still occasionally incorporated, today
rumba instrumentation usually features three conga drums, which are collectively referred to as the
tambores Other instruments in the rumba repertoire are the cata or guagua (a wooden tube played with
sticks), the guiro (a serrated wooden cylinder played with a metal pick-like object), and either the maruga
(an iron shaker) or the maracas. The claves (two hardwood sticks) are struck together to produce a
syncopated beat of the same name (clave), which provides a distinctive ground rhythm for the other
instruments.
       There are three types of rumba: yambu, guaguanco, and columbia, each with its own unique
rhythms, song format, and dance steps. Of these, the guaguanco is the most popular. It is faster than the
yambu, but slower than the columbia.
       The music for guaguanco has the following structure. After the claves have set the tempo for the
song, the drums and the other instruments gradually join in, and the singer enters with the diana, a short
string of melodic syllables. The singer, who is usually a man, then proceeds to sing an extended, lyrical
solo or duet, known in Spanish as the canto, which often recalls and comments upon a certain person or
event. The singer eventually indicates a phrase in the song that will be used as the chorus. The dancers
usually enter after the chorus has started. An animated call-response section begins in which the singer
begins to improvise lines, which alternate with the chorus. This exchange may continue for several
minutes before the song ends.
       In the guaguanco, a male dancer tries to attract the female dancer, but she flirtatiously avoids his
advances. While circling around her, the male dancer intermittently makes a quick gesture with his hand
or leg that symbolizes an attempt to "possess" the female dancer, who responds by quickly covering her
pelvic region with her hands or crossed arms. The ultimate possessive gesture is a pelvic thrust by the
male called the vacunao. The dance ends when the male has successfully caught the female off-guard
with the vacunao or when the female dancer proves herself to be impervious to the male dancer's efforts
to possess her.
       The yambu is a slower dance in which a male and female performers dance as if they were elderly.
The male does not do the vacunao in this dance. The yambu is the least-frequently performed type of
rumba.
       The columbia is the fastest and most acrobatic of the three types of rumba. Its rhythmic patterns
are short and sharp, and it is done by a solo male dancer. Some of the steps are closely related to those
performed by members of all-male secret societies known as Abakuas Unlike the other two forms of
rumba, columbia's lyrics sometimes include words and phrases in African languages, in particular
Yoruba.
      Rumba continues to be a vital tradition at the grassroots level, especially in and around Matanzas
and Havana.
      1. Answer the following questions:
      1. What is it ‘rumba’?
      2. How and when was rumba born?
      3. What does rumba synthesize?
      4. What happened to rumba in Europe and the United States?
      5. What percussive instruments does the rumba accompany?
      6. How many types of rumba do you know?
      7. How does the male dancer behave in the guaguanco?
      8. Is the yambu slower than the guaguanco?
      9. What is the structure of the columbia?
      10. Is rumba very popular in our country?
      2. Make a plan to the text.
      3. Retell the text according to your plan.

                                                  SAMBA
       Samba, Brazil’s most famous musical genre and dance, created by Brazilians of African descent
living in Rio de Janeiro during the late 1800s.To Brazilians, samba is many different things: abandon and
solace, celebration and exuberance, national identity and pride. Though samba is most closely associated
with the pre-Lent festivities known as Carnival, there are several forms of samba that are played year-
round in various contexts. Percussive instruments dominate samba and give it a highly syncopated,
layered sound. Technically, a 2/4 meter with the heaviest accent on the second beat and a stanza-and-
refrain structure characterize samba.
       Samba is rooted in the music and dance traditions of Angola, the African kingdom (now country)
that was home for many of the slaves brought to Brazil. The word samba is believed to have derived from
the Kimbundu word semba, a circle dance that features a navel-touching dance step. Many historians
trace the musical roots of samba to the lundu music tradition brought to Brazil by slaves from Angola.
This African dance and form of music are two of the numerous elements that were fused to create samba
in Rio de Janeiro during the late 1800s.
       Following the abolishment of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent decline of the plantation
economy, a large number of ex-slaves living in the northern region of Brazil migrated south to Rio de
Janeiro in search of opportunity. Some settled on the steep hillsides surrounding the city, the morros,
while others settled in a central part of the city in the neighborhood of Estacio near Praca Onze (Plaza
Eleven). Praca Onze and the houses of prominent black women known as tias (aunts), who sold African
food and led services for the worship of African gods, became meeting places for black musicians. The
music they played–lundu, polka, habanera as well as marcha and maxixe, two popular types of Brazilian
music–factored in the creation of samba music.
       Pioneering musicians such as Ismael Silva distinguished samba from marcha and maxixe by
slowing the tempo, and adding longer notes and two-bar phrasing. The traditional form of samba is
played on a four-stringed, ukulele-like instrument called cavaquinho; a shallow, covered drumhead with
jingling disks called the pandeiro; and its smaller, cymbal-less counterpart the tamborim, which is played
with a stick. This form of samba later became known as the samba de morro.
       Numerous forms of samba developed out of the traditional samba de morro. One of the earliest
was samba de breque, a style developed during the 1930s by singer Moreira da Silva. In songs such as
"Acertei no Milhar" (I Hit Upon Thousands, 1938), Silva would periodically stop the song in order to
dramatize the situation he was singing about through improvised dialogues.
       This form of samba became known as samba-cancao and is associated with composers such as
Noel Rosa and Ary Barosso. Barosso spawned yet another form of samba in 1939 when he recorded one
of the most famous Brazilian songs of all time, "Aquarela do Brasil" (Watercolor of Brazil). This song
launched a new category of samba called samba-exaltacao (samba of praise) that celebrated the natural
wonders of Brazil.
       In the 1970s several musicians living in Ramos, a suburb of Rio, espoused a form of samba known
as samba-pagode. They incorporated a type of drum called the tan-tan, exchanged the cavaquinho for a
banjo, and sang about daily life in a colloquial language that gave their music an unpolished, down-to-
earth quality. While it was initially limited to informal settings such as parties, singer Beth Carvalho
popularized samba-pagode through her 1983 album Beth Carvalho no Pagode. Numerous other forms of
samba thrive in Brazil today, including samba de gafieira, samba de roda, and samba-reggae.
      1.         Answer the following questions:
      1. What is it ‘sambo’?
      2. What is samba most closely associated with?
      3. What kind of musical instrument dominates in samba?
      4. Do you know the origin of the word ‘samba’?
      5. Who distinguished samba from marcha and maxixe?
      6. What is the traditional form of the samba de morro?
      7. How many forms of samba do you know?
      8. What song launched samba of praise?
      9. Can you describe the style of samba?
      10. Is it popular in our country?
      2.         Make a plan to the text.
      3.         Retell the text according to your plan.

                                            FЕЕLINGS AND EMOTIONS
    One day you feel good and the next you feel bad, and between those two poles are compressed all the
joys of heaven and the anguish of hell. The events that prompt feelings, the justification for the feelings, even
the reality of the perceptions that lead to them are all unimportant. It is the feeling that counts.
    Despite its importance, there is an incredible amount of confusion about feelings and emotions in both
the minds of the public and the attention of the "experts". "Emotion" is the general term which
encompasses the feeling tone, the biophysiological state, and even the chemical changes we are beginning
to understand underline the sensations we experience; "feeling" is our subjective awareness of our own
emotional state. It is that which we experience; that which we know about our current emotional condition.
Feelings, particularly the complex and subtle range of feelings in human beings, are testament to our
capacity for choice and learning. Feelings are the instruments of rationality, not as some – would
have it – alternatives to it. Because we are intelligent creatures, we are capable of, and dependent on, using
rational choice to decide our futures. Feelings become guides to that choice. We are just passive
responders, as some lower life forms are, to that which the environment offers us. We can avoid certain
conditions, select out others, and anticipate both and, moreover, via anticipate can even modify the nature
of the environment. Feelings are fine tunings directing the ways in which we will meet and manipulate our
environment.
     Feelings of anxiety, boredom, tension and agitation alert us the sense of something wrong, and, more
 importantly, by the subtle distinctions of their messages they indicate something of the nature of the
 impending danger and direct us to specific kinds of adaptive maneuvers to avoid, prevent, or change the
 incipient threat. Feelings of guilt allow us to model our behaviour against certain ideals and register when
 we have moved away from these ideals, or have not yet achieved them. If there is a common ingredient to
 the various sources and forms of pleasure, the only one that can be identified is that they all seem to
 contribute to an enhanced sense of self Pleasurable events either intensify our sense of ourselves or enlarge
 our view of ourselves. Joy stems from an altered sense of self and, in turn, alters our view of our world and the
 way we are viewed.
        1. Answer the following questions:
        1. How do you understand the statement "it is the feeling that counts"?
        2. Why is it difficult to classify sensations and what terms are suggested in this article?
        3. How does "emotion" differ from "feeling"?
        4. Do you agree that feelings are "the instruments of rationality, not alternatives to it"?
        5. How do feelings of anxiety, boredom, tension and agitation serve adoptive purposes?
        6. Of what importance are feelings of guilt?
        7. What do the positive feelings have in common?
        8. How do pleasurable events affect our feelings?
        2.         Make up the plan to the text.
        3.         Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                GIRLYOOD OF ANNA BRANGWEN
      Anna became a tall, awkward girl... She was sent to a young ladies school in Nottingham.
      And at this period she was absorbed in becoming a young lady. She was intelligent enough, but not
interested in learning. At first, she thought all the girls at school were ladylike and wonderful, and she
wanted to be like them. She came to a speedy disillusion: they failed and maddened her, they were petty
and mean. After the loose, generous atmosphere of her home, where little things did not count, she was
always uneasy in the world, that would snap and bite at every trifle.
      A quick change came over her. She mistrusted herself, she mistrusted the outer world. She did not
want to go on, she did not want to go out into it, she wanted to go no further.
      "What do I care about that lot of girls? " she would say to her father, contemptuously, "they are
nobody."
      The trouble was that the girls would not accept Anna at her measure. They would have her
according to themselves or not at all.
       So Anna was only easy at home, where the common sense and 3 supreme relation between her
parents produced a freer standard of being than she could find outside.
       At school, or in the world, she was usually at fault, she felt usually that she ought to be slinking in
disgrace. She never felt quite sure in herself, whether she were wrong or whether the others were
wrong. She had not done her lessons: well, she did not see reason why she should do her lessons, if she
did not want to.
       Was there some occult reason why she should? Were these people, schoolmistresses,
representatives of some mystic Right, some Higher Good? They seemed to think so themselves. But
she could not for her life see why a woman should bully and insult her because she did not know
thirty lines of "As You Like It". After all, what did it matter if she knew them or not. Nothing could
persuade her that it was of the slightest importance. Because she despised inwardly the coarsely working
nature of the mistress. The fore she was always at outs with authority. From constant she came almost
to believe in her own badness, her own intrinsic inferiority. She felt that she ought always to be in a state
of slinky disgrace, if she fulfilled what was expected of her. But she rebelled She never really believed in her
own badness. At the bottom of her heart she despised the other people, who carped and were lоud
over trifles. She despised them, and wanted revenge on them. She hated them whilst they had power
over her.
       Still she kept an ideal: a free, proud lady absolved from the petty ties, existing beyond petty
considerations. She would see such ladies in pictures: Alexandra, Princess of Wales, was one of her models.
This lady was proud and royal, and stepped indifferently over small, mean desires: so thought Anna, in her
heart. And the girl did up her hair high under a little slanting hat, her skirts were fashionably bunched up,
she wore an elegant, skin-fitting coat.
       She was seventeen, touchy, full of spirits, and very moody: quick to flush, and always uneasy,
uncertain. For some reason or other, she turned to her father, she felt almost flashes of hatred for her
mother. Her mother's dark muzzle and curiously insidious ways, her mother's utter surety and confidence,
her strange satisfaction, even triumph, her mother's way of laughing at things and her mother's silent
overriding of vexatious propositions, most of all her mother's triumphant power maddened the girl.
       She became sudden and incalculable ... the whole house continued to be disturbed. She had a
pathetic, baffled appeal. She was hostile to her parents, even whilst she lived entirely with them within
their spell.
                                                                    (From "The Rainbow" by D.H. Lawrence)
       1. Answer the following questions:
       1. What do we learn about Anna's relationship to the girls at school in Nottingham?
       2. In what kind of environment did girl grow up? How did it contribute to her personal
development?
       3. Was Anna a disciplined and hard-working pupil at school? How can you account for her lack
of interest in learning?
       4. What do think is an essential conflict in the girl's character? What made h er mistrust the
outside world?
       5. Was the girl entirely or partially right when despising her schoolmistresses, "who carped were
loud over trifles"?
       6. Why did she turn to a royal ideal to satisfy her ego?
       7. How did Anna's attitude to her parents change at the age of seventeen? What do you think
are the reasons it?
       8. What were the most remarkable traits of Anna's character at made her unlike the girls of her age?
       9. How can you apply the formation you obtained from the story to the problems which you are
facing or will have to face as a future parent (a teacher)?
       2. Find in the text the arguments to illustrate the following:
      Anna Brangwen was not what we call a "problem" child, but a child who was just having
problems like most young people of her age. Try and preserve the wording of the original. Add your
arguments as well.
      3. Summarize the text in four paragraphs specifying the role of the family background and
school experience in the moulding of a person's character.

                                               LIVING BY SWORD
        When Cristina Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to become a bullfighter instead of a
hairdresser, they weren't too pleased. But when she was eighteen her parents realized that she was serious
and sent her to a bullfighting school in Madrid, where she trained with professionals.
        Since last July, Sanchez has been the most successful novice in Spain and is very popular with the
crowds. After brilliant performances in Latin America and Spain earlier this year, Sanchez has decided that
she is ready to take the test to become a matador de toros. Out of the ring, Sanchez does not look like a matador.
She is casually elegant, very feminine and wears her long blond hair loose. She seems to move much more
like a dancer than an athlete, but in the ring she is all power.
        When she was fourteen, Sanchez's father warned her that the world of bullfighting was hard enough
for a man and even harder for a woman. It seems he is right. "It really is a tough world for a woman," says
Sanchez. "You start with the door shut in your face. A man has to prove himself only once, whereas I
have had to do it ten times just to get my foot in the door."
        In perhaps the world's most masculine profession, it would seem strange if Sanchez had not met
problems. But even though Spanish women won the legal right to fight bulls on equal terms with men in
1974, there are still matadors like Jesulin de Ubrique who refuse to fight in the same ring as her, Sanchez
lives with her family in Parla, south of Madrid. Her family is everything to her and is the main support in
her life. "My sisters don't like bullfighting, they don't even watch it on TV, and my mother would be the
happiest person in the world if I gave it up. But we get on well. Mum's like my best friend." When Sanchez
is not fighting she has a tough fitness routine – running, working out in the gym and practicing with her
father in the afternoon. By nine she is home for supper, and by eleven she is in bed. She doesn't drink, smoke
or socialize. "You have to give up a lot," says Sanchez. "It's difficult to meet people, but it doesn't worry me –
love does not arrive because 37 you look for it."
        Sanchez spends most of the year travelling: in summer to Spanish and French bullfights and in
winter to Latin America. Her mother dislikes watching Sanchez fight, but goes to the ring when she can. If
not, she waits at home next to the telephone. Her husband has had to ring three times to say that their
daughter had been injured, twice lightly in the leg and once seriously in the stomach. After she has been
wounded, the only thing Sanchez thinks about is how quickly she can get back to the ring. "It damages your
confidence," she says "but it also makes you mature. It's just unprofessional to be injured. You cannot let it
happen." Sanchez is managed by Simon Casas, who says, "At the moment there is no limit to where she can
go. She has a champion's mentality, as well as courage and technique."
        1. Complete the sentences:
        1) When Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to be a bullfighter they …
        a) felt a little pleased.
        b) thought she was too young.
        c) thought she had a good sense of humour.
        d) were initially opposed to the idea.
        2) Sanchez thinks that …
        a) living in today's world is difficult for a woman.
        b) bullfighting is a difficult career for women.
        c) it is almost impossible to succeed as a female bullfighter.
        d) women have to demonstrate their skills as much as male bullfighters do.
        3) Sanchez's mother …
        a) is everything to the family.
        b) prefers to watch her daughter on TV.
        c) supports her more than the rest of her family.
        d) would prefer Cristina to leave the ring.
        4) What does "it" refer to?
        a) the fitness routine
        b) not socializing
        c) giving up
        d) smoking
        5) Sanchez doesn't socialize often because …
        a) she doesn't like cigarettes and alcohol.
      b)   her work takes up most of her time.
      c)   she is worried about meeting people.
      d)   it's too difficult to look for friends.
      6)   What does Sanchez think about after being injured?
      a)   her next chance to fight bulls
      b)   her abilities
      c)   her development
      d)   her skills
      2.   Make up the plan to the text.
      3.   Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                        HOW TO SUCCEED IN LIFE
        Life is a continual struggle. If you don't want to be lost, you'll struggle. Life is difficult and it
isn't very easy to achieve success. At first you should find the aim in your life and then work on it,
remembering that only tedious work can give good results. Besides, you should work at your
professional level, trying to be an ace at the sphere you have chosen.
        Never break your promise otherwise you will loose people's trust. Be a man of culture with such
person's values as intelligence, responsibility, kindness, generosity. Learn to rejoice with somebody and
also share his grief. A person is like a mirror: if you smile, all the world will give your smile back to you.
So don't knit your brows. Learn to see beauty, learn to get pleasure of the life, love your life because life
is beautiful. Of course, there is no ideal life. Each person has their problems to be solved. Work hard to
get a good result, succeed in your own life.
                                                        II
        Each of us tries to succeed in life. But everyone does it in their own way according to their style
of life, wishes, skills of communication, work. Some people believe that everything depends on their
destiny and they can do nothing about it, others are sure that 'to live long it is necessary to live slowly'.
But I don't belong to any of them. In my life f try to follow such a proverb: 'Your destiny is in your
hands'. And I am sure if I keep it, I will be successful.
        If you want to be successful, first of all you have to choose what you exactly want and divide the
long way to your dream into few stages having specific short-term goals.
        Achieving specific targets and objectives will give you a sense that you are really making progress.
Exude an aura of confidence, even if you feel unsure, broadcast your success. The main rule is: don't be idle!
Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Work on yourself: if you want to be successful, you
have to develop your skills, enrich your knowledge, create new ideas, always move on.
        Also, remember: communication is one of the most important sides of people's life, and being
friendly you get more chances to make people appreciate you.
        Becoming successful is not difficult, you just have to believe in yourself and never give way to
despair.
                                                       III
        There is no recipe for success, it's different for every person. I think that a successful man must
first of all have a good education.
        If we want to succeed, we have to develop restraint and patience in ourselves. Never funk hard jobs,
because laziness is a token of idlers, not winners. We have to learn ABC of success before we attempt to
scale its heights. They are patience, resolve, knowledge, being modest, kind, frank, strenuous,
determined, diligent and gifted. Never think that you know everything, always have the courage to say
to yourself "I know that I know nothing". I.P.Pavlov said, "Remember, the aim requires your whole life.
And even if you had two lives to give, it would not be enough".
        1. Explain the statements using the information from the texts above.
        1. If you believe you can you can.
        2. The greatest discovery of my generation is that human beings can alter their lives by altering
their attitude of mind.
                                                                                     William James, psychologist
        3. A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others have thrown at
him.
                                                                            David Brinkley, television journalist
        2. Make up the plan to the text.
        3. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.
                                              THE WILL TO WIN
        You are going to read an article about the Paralympic Games. Seven sentences have been
removed. Choose from sentences A – H the one which fits each gap (1 – 6). There is one extra
sentence you do not need to use. The first one has been done for you as an example.
       Athletes, if they want to reach the top of their chosen sport, have to train hard for hours every day.
Their commitment to the sport and their achievements certainly deserve praise.
       0 – C "We want to be recognized for our achievements, just like any other top class athletes. We are
not interested in hearing how brave and wonderful we are," says Isabel.
       1 – Another disabled athlete, Chris Holmes, is a swimmer with gold, silver and bronze medals won at
the Paralympics.
       2 – Competition among swimmers is so fierce that the difference between the record times of the
disabled and able-bodied in the 50-metre freestyle swimming event is only four seconds. With results like
these, more and more spectators have been attracted to the Paralympic Games.
       The opening ceremonies and most of the wheelchair basketball games were sold out long before
the start of I the Atlanta Games.
       3 – This new interest is especially pleasing for Bob Steadward, president of the International
Paralympic Committee, whose job it is to promote greater awareness of and more participation in the
disabled version of the Games.
       4 – "As a result of the money we had, and the money we received from the IOC (International
Olympic Committee), we were able to sponsor more than 100 athletes from 35 countries who would
otherwise not have had a chance to come."
       More and more sports are being added to the Paralympic Games as the range of the athletes' skills
and abilities becomes known. Sailing had not been a Paralympic sport before, but Andrew Cassell, the
captain of the British sailing team, helped it to be included. He was born with the lower part of both his
legs missing, but he never let this get in his way.
       5 – So far, there are events for the blind, amputees, and people with cerebral palsy as well as
wheelchair sports. Atlanta is the first Games to include mentally disabled athletes competing in swimming,
as well as track and field events. Many of the athletes have suffered accidents and illnesses which would be
enough to make most of us want to give up.
       6 – They are the ones who are catching the public eye and imagination, changing people's
perceptions of what "disability" means and what extraordinary abilities the so-called disabled actually
possess.
       A He started sailing when he was ten years old and since then he has proven himself time and time
again by winning races and even breaking world records.
       В This shows that disabled athletes can only participate in a small number of events, and are
unlikely to take on more sports in the near future.
       C This is true for both able-bodied athletes like Carl Lewis or Linford Christie, and for disabled
athletes like Isabel Newstead, who carried the United Kingdom flag at the Barcelona Paralympic Games in
1992.
       D He is blind and has to count his strokes to judge when he will reach the end of the pool, but this
does not lessen his speed.
       E I wanted to ensure that developing nations had the opportunity to send athletes to Atlanta," says
Steadward.
       F This is quite interesting if you bear in mind that in many past events, tickets had to be given
away to attract spectators.
       G "We are demonstrating our abilities in an environment where our disabilities don't count."
       H But they are pushing back the barriers which, until recently, kept the disabled from taking part
in sports.
       2. Answer these questions:
       a. What are the Paralympic Games and who takes part in them?
       b. How many and what kind of Paralympic events are mentioned in the text?
       c. How were Paralympic athletes helped to participate in the Games by the IOC?
       d. How are disabled/handicapped people treated in our society? Talk about this in terms of
education, mobility and employment.
       3. Match the following words and word combinations:
       а) досягнення                            1. to reach the top
       b) неспроможний                          2. achievements
       c) мати можливість                       3. interested in
       d) змінювати сприйняття                  4. disabled
      e) зацікавлений                         5. promote
      f) досягати вершин                      6. to have a chance
      g) просувати                            7. the range of skills and
                                                 abilities
      h) нація, що розвивається               8. to catch public eye
      i) перелік навичок та здібностей        9. to change perceptions
      j) звертати увагу суспільства           10. developing nation
      4. Give it the name:
      – strong desire;
      – devoted attitude to smth;
      – public admiration and approval;
      – be taught the skills of a particular job or activity;
      – very unusual or surprising.

                                             BOARDING SCHOOL
         1. Fill in the gaps in the model below using linking words or expressions from the list. For
each item there may be more than one answer.
       To sum up, Firstly, In my opinion, What is more, Contrary to what most/many people believe, In
addition, To begin with, In conclusion, Some people argue that, In my view, Finally
       Sending one's children to boarding school used to be the most acceptable way of educating them,
but over the past few years people's opinions have begun to change.
       (1) … however, sending one's children away to school can be extremely beneficial for them in later
life.
       (2) … children who go to boarding school learn at a young age to become independent and to live
without their parents. This means that they are better prepared to live on their own when the time comes
for them to go to university or start work after leaving school.
       (3) … boarding school teaches young people how to get along better with others, since they live
with their classmates twenty four hours a day. This can help them later on in life to cooperate with
colleagues at work and with people around them in general.
       (4) … boarding schools are bad for children because children need to be able to spend time with
their parents on a daily basis. It is said that this is especially true for younger children, who may feel that
their parents have abandoned them by sending them away.
       (5) … I feel that boarding schools have a lot to offer. This is shown by the fact that children who
have been to boarding school are often far better equipped for life than those who have not.
       2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such schools.
       3. Make up the plan to the text.
       4. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                         MARIA MONTESSORI
      1. Complete the following text with the correct derivatives of the words in bold. The first one
has been done as an example.
      Maria Montessori is not (0) ..primarily (primary) remembered for being Italy's first woman to
graduate in medicine, although this was the first of her many significant (1) … (accomplish). Montessori
went on to become one of the leading (2) … (educate) of the twentieth century. She worked with 3) …
(mental) disabled children at the beginning of the century, and in 1907 opened her first school for
children of "normal" (4) … (intelligent). What made her approach unique was her (5) … (believe) that
children learn more if their (6) … (create) talents are encouraged to develop. Individual, rather than
cooperative, learning was stressed. Montessori used (7) … (interest) objects to capture the (8) …
(attend) of her pupils.
      They were allowed to work on their own, exploring and discovering new ideas at their own pace.
(9) … (surprise), Montessori's schoolchildren did not become (10) … (bore) very easily, and undisciplined
children became much better behaved. Today, there are schools all over the world which bear Maria
Montessori's name and use her methods.
      2. Answer the questions:
      1. What helped Maria Montessori to become a leading educator?
      2. Why was her approach unique?
      3. What methods of teaching did she use in her work?
      4. How did she manage to change children for the better?
      5. Find Maria Montessori’s characteristics as a highly qualified teacher?
      3. Find the antonyms to the given words:
      ignorant -
      despair -
      destroy -
      to miss -
      to have a fun -
      disciplined -
      worse -
      4. Make up the plan to the text.
      5. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                 SENSES WITH WHICH TO ENJOY LIFE
       How do we know what is going on in the world around us? There are five main senses that help us
enjoy the world. These are the senses of seeing, hearing, smelling, touching and taste.
       With eyes we can see pictures, read words. We can see flowers and birds, the sun and the moon
and the stars. We can see our dearest and nearest.
       With ears we can hear our own voice and the voices of others. We can hear music that makes us
feel happy or sad.
       We are able to distinguish sweet from bitter, sour from fresh 'with our tongue.
       With the nose we can smell good food cooking. We can smell flowers. And with the sense of touch
one can find out if things are hot or cold.

                                             OTHER SENSES
       We also have other kinds of senses. Deep inside the body are nerves that tell us of the body needs.
For example, we have a sense of hunger and thirst. These two senses let us know when it is time to eat
and drink.
       And we have a muscle sense that helps us compare the weight of two objects. If we lift two boxes
of the same size, the muscle sense tells us which box is heavier than the other. The muscle sense also
helps us control body movements. The muscle sense helps us walk or ride a bike without looking at our
legs.
       The muscle sense along with the sense of direction, helps us know which way is left and right, up
and down, backward and forward.
       One more sense we have is the sense of balance. In the inner ear are some hollow loops that are
filled with liquid. The loops are called semicircular canals. They help us keep the balance when we walk,
stand, or sit. When we twirl around, we shake up the liquid in the semicircular canals and then we feel
dizzy and unsteady.
       1. Answer the following questions.
       1. How do your five main senses help you?
       2. What can your senses tell you about objects?
       3. What can you see with your eyes?
       4. What        things       do      you       like      to     hear?      What       things     do
you not like to hear?
       5. What things taste sweet? Sour? Salty? Bitter?
       6. What do you especially like to smell?
       7. How do other senses help protect you?
       8. What part of the ear helps you keep your balance?
       2. Translate.
       1. Наш язик відрізняє солодке від гіркого, прокисше від свіжого.
       2. За допомогою дотику ми можемо визначити холодний предмет або гарячий.
       3. Почуття голоду або спраги подає нам сигнал про те, що настав час поїсти або попити що-
небудь.
       4. Якщо ми піднімаємо однакові за розміром коробки, напруга наших м'язів показує нам,
яка з коробок важче.
       5. Коли ми кружляємося, ми струшуємо рідину, що знаходиться в напівкружних каналах, і
тому почуваємо запаморочення і нестійкість.
       3. Make up the plan to the text.
       4. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                          WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT POP MUSIC?
      Everybody likes music: some people enjoy classical music, others are fond of pop music. For some
of them, music is a voice for their thoughts and feelings. For others, it's a harmless way to relax and have
fun. So many people, so many opinions; you can sometimes understand better the inner world of a
person when you speak on many different subjects, but that can take time. So music can be a shorthand
way to see if that person or your friend shares your values or not.
         Suppose that a friend of yours says the following about pop music:
         1."I don't understand why some people take music so seriously. I've got friends who are like that.
They criticize new records − analyse what lyrics mean – argue about which songs are better than others...
it drives me crazy! Why can't they just relax and have fun?"
         2. "For me, pop is a kind of global language. A really unusual, exciting one too. It cuts across all the
barriers − age, colour, class, sex, religion and brings people together. I think that's why everyone likes it
so much. It's a way of sharing all our hopes and fears."
         3. "I don't listen to much rock and pop these days, І prefer classical music. Why? Well pop has lost
its direction, I think. Everything's controlled by Machines and technology. Ten or twenty years ago there
were real artists writing real songs − now all you get is synthesizers and dance music. It's like everything
sounds the same."
         4. "I think pop music is better today than ever before. There are stars from all over the world − lots
of different styles and images – it's great! Yes, of course there's a lot of rubbish, too, but so what? There
always was and there always will be. What you have to do is choose, not complain. Pop's like a big fun-
fair. If уоu can't have a good time it's nobody's fault but yours.
         What words would you say to reply?
         Whose opinion can you share?
         1. Answer the following questions.
         1. What do you think about pop music?
         2. Is it an important art form?
         3. Does music play any role in your life?
         4. Does it influence your feelings or mood?
         5. What's your way to relax and have fun?
         6. Can you play any musical instrument?
         7. Have you ever dreamed of becoming a pop star?
         8. What kind of pop music do you prefer?
         9. What group do you like? What group are you a fan of?
         10. Is it fun to be a fan, or is it a serious matter?
         11. Are there any fans among your friends?
         2. Translate.
         1. Я не розумію, чому деякі люди занадто серйозно відносяться до музики.
         2. Навіщо сперечатися, чиї пісні краще? Можна просто розслабитися і насолоджуватися
музикою або не слухати ]її зовсім.
         3. Поп-музика – це грандіозно! Вона руйнує всі бар'єри і поєднує людей.
         4. Я віддаю перевагу класичній музиці. Я вважаю, що поп-музика в тупику. Вона цілком у
владі нової техніки. Років двадцять тому назад були справжні співаки, а тепер лише синтезатори і
танцювальна музика.
         5. А я вважаю, що сміття в поп-музиці, звичайно, багато, але і зірок теж чимало. Це справа
вибору.
         3. Make up the plan to the text.
         4. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                              COOPERATIVE KIDS
       The concept of cooperative learning is alien to all of us who were taught the traditional way, but it offers our
children the adventure of finding their own answers. Di Lilford reports,
       If you took a doctor from the 19th century and put her in a modern operating theatre, she would
have no idea what to do, but if you put a teacher from the 19th century into a modern classroom she
would be able to carry on teaching without pause. The idea remains that students are empty containers
which the teacher fills with knowledge, and that all students have to do is listen and write.
       Education consultant Alyce Miller says: "This approach does not work in today's changing world.
We are not teaching creative problem-solving. We encourage competition, believing that this brings out
the best in people." But this is not so. She goes on to say that the teacher's role is no longer to feed stu-
dents with information. "The facts are available in libraries, on CD ROMS and on the Internet. What stu-
dents need are the skills to find this information, to use it and to think creatively in order to solve the
problems of our world."
       Miller believes that cooperative learning is the future of education and thinks of it as the best way
to encourage responsibility, tolerance and helpfulness towards others.
        In cooperative learning classes, the traditional classroom physical layout is abandoned. Pupils
learn to work first in pairs, then in threes, and finally in teams of four. Students are required to
participate actively in discussing and shaping their own knowledge. The teacher, who is still very
important to the process, becomes the helper rather than the master.
        Aarnout Brombacher, head of the mathematics department at Westerford High School, says: "The
incorrect assumption that many people make about cooperative learning is that it is merely group work.
It is much, much more. With this technique, most of the time in the classroom is spent teaching them
these skills – life skills."
        Brett Melville, a 17-year-old pupil at the school, agrees. "You learn the same material as you would
using the normal method, but this way you learn how to work with others at the same time. In our class,
we are given enough time to discuss issues and problems in detail."
        One teacher, Lynne Gedye, has been using cooperative learning in her classes for two years. She
says, "This year we have several pupils in the class who can hardly speak a word of English. I was tearing
my hair out, wondering what to do, but I need not have worried. The children's response was amazing.
        All in all, it seems that cooperative learning turns the classroom from a competitive arena into a
place where learning facts and life skills is both more fun and more effective for pupils and teachers alike.
        1. Find in the text words and word combinations characterizing cooperation and professional
qualities of the people.
        2. Is it true or false?
        1. The concept of cooperative learning is alien to all of us who were taught the traditional way, but
it offers our children the adventure of finding their own answers. Prove.
        2. If you took a doctor from the 19th century and put her in a modern operating theatre, she
would" have no idea what to do, but if you put a teacher from the 19th century into a modern classroom
she would be able to carry on teaching without pause. Give your reasons.
        3. Cooperative learning is the future of education and thinks of it as the best way to encourage
responsibility, tolerance and helpfulness towards others. Comment on this statement.
        4. Cooperative learning turns the classroom from a competitive arena into a place where learning
facts and life skills is both more fun and more effective      for pupils and teachers alike. Prove.
        3. Explain what it means.
        1. The teacher's role is no longer to feed students with information.
        2. The teacher, who is still very important to the process, becomes the helper rather than the
process, becomes the helper rather than the master.
        3. You learn the same material as you would using the normal method, but this way you learn
how to work with others at the same time.
        4. Children do not sit in straight rows of desks facing the teacher, but rather face one another to
make it easier to share ideas.
        5. Teaching methods have hardly changed in one hundred years.
        6. Good relationships are the key to effective learning.
        4. Express the idea of the story using proverbs. Argue the choice.

                                       OLEKSANDR MURASHKO
                                                  (1875-1919)
                                      Painter, educator, public figure
       Oleksandr Murashko originated from an artistic family. His father ran an iconpainting studio and
participated in decorating St. Volodymyr Cathedral in Kyiv; his uncle, Mykola Murashko, was a painter
and a reputed educator, the founder of Kyiv Drawing School. The school was the place of Oleksandr
Murashko's initial training, which he continued at I.Repin's class of St. Petersburg Academy of Art. For
his graduation work, Funeral of the Kish Otaman, Murashko was awarded the artist's degree and the right
to travel abroad. He visited Paris, and later studied in Munich at A. Aschbe's studio.
       O.Murashko's works, starting from the earliest ones, displayed shrill observational skill, artistry,
and bright decorative pattern. The young painter skilfully applied techniques he learned from I. Repin, at
the same time practising the contemporary European artistic trends.
       His portraits attract with the diversity of expressive techniques, original compositional solutions,
wide use of colour planes and light reflexes. Sunlight radiates almost from every portrait. The critics
called the light the Murashko's special.
       O.Murashko gained European recognition in the 1910 s. The picture Carrousel sent to the 10th
International Art Show in Munich in 1909 was a sensation and won a gold medal. Since then,
O.Murashko's name became known to artistic circles of different countries, and his works, exposed in
Venice, Berlin, Dusseldorf and Cologne, were acquired by European galleries and private collectors. With
the artist's every new canvas his skill advanced, his strokes became freer and more energetic, his colours
richer and clearer, and his compositions more refined and expressive. His works Peasant Family; Washer-
woman, and Flower Sellers were the masterpieces of Ukrainian painting.
       Seeking to increase significance of Kyiv as a centre of culture and to stir up its artistic life,
Murashko initiated the establishment of the Kyiv Artists' Fellowship in 1916 and of the Ukrainian
Academy of Art in 1918, and opened his own training studio. O. Murashko tragically died at the peak of
his creative performance. The Self-Portrait, one of the painter's latest works (1918), was an exquisite piece
of artistic excellence, artistry and inspiration.
                                                         Glossary
reputed – відомий, colour plane – кольорова площина, special – особливість, canvas – полотно, shrill
– гострий, stroke – мазок, artistry – артистизм, Washer-woman – „Праля", diversity – розмаїття,
exquisite – досконалий, Funeral of the Kish Otaman – "Похорон кошового".
       1. Make the sentences true.
       1. Oleksandr Murashko originated from an artistic family.
       2. His father participated in decorating St.Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv.
       3. His uncle was the founder of St.Petersburg Academy of Art.
       4. O.Murashko was awarded the artist's degree at Paris Academy of Art.
       5. He gained world recognition in 1909.
       6. His picture Carrousel won a prize at the International Art Show.
       7. His works were exposed in different countries including America.
       8. O.Murashko initiated the establishment of the Ukrainian Gallery of Art.
       9. He died tragically at the decline of his creative performance.
       10. His latest work was Flower Sellers.
       2. Choose the words to complete the sentences.
       refined, colour, diversity, artistic, compositional, decorative, sunlight
       1. O. Murashko's works display bright... pattern.
       2. His portraits attract with the ... of expressive technique.
       3. They are original in ... solutions.
       4. O. Murashko was good at using ... and light.
       5. His paintings are full of... which outlines faces with warm glow.
       6. They are ... and expressive.
       7. The Self-portrait is an exquisite piece of ... excellence and aspiration.
       3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
       мистецька родина                      звання художника
       іконописна майстерня                  мистецькі кола
       рисувальна школа                      шедевр
       початкова освіта                      навчальна студія
       4. Define the base word of each of the following words.
       originate        earliest        energetic           training
       artistic         refined         expressive          joyfully
       decorating       skilfully       painting            graduation
       painter          practising      creative            recognition
       educator         diversity       tragically          performance
       5. Points for discussion.
       1. Murashko's formation as a painter.
       2. Murashko's artistic works.
       3. European recognition of the painter.

                                         PLATON MAIBORODA
                                                (1918-1989)
                                  Composer, cultural and public figure
       Platon Maiboroda went down in the history of Ukrainian musical culture as an artist of
unsurpassed talent, eminent composer, author of songs, person of steadfast artistic and aesthetic
principles. His music is a whole epoch of revival and flourishing of the Ukrainian song in the postwar
time.
       The classic of the Ukrainian song was born into a peasant family on the farm of Pelekhivschyna
(now Poltava oblast). The father of the future composer (later subjected to reprisals) left for Zaporizhia to
escape the famine, where Platon later joined him. There he finished a secondary school and worked at a
factory. In 1936, he entered Kyiv music school and in 1938 – Kyiv State Conservatoire (class of
L.Revutsky). The stormy war years did not pass by P.Maiboroda: he stopped studying at the
Conservatoire and went to the front as a volunteer. After the war the composer's talent was concentrated
on creating music.
       P.Maiboroda's songs touch the innermost strings of a soul in a miraculous manner. The composer's
legacy is a profoundly national phenomenon. Its sources are not only in folk songs, but, primarily, in the
old national spiritual tradition.
       The inimitable Maiboroda style is a flare of revelation, boundless melodiousness and openness of
melody that flies "from heart to heart." A character of a Mother to which a composer gave a true
devotional sounding became the composer's invention in song genre. The song Kyiv Waltz; We 'II go
Where Grasses Are Bent; Song of the Teacher; Footpath, created in collaboration with the poet A. Malyshko,
have really become classical song music independent of transitory fashion. They brought P. Maiboroda
worldwide recognition. A prominent place among them is occupied by the song My Dear Mother (Song of
the Embroidered Towel). Today it sounds all over the world as a symbol of Ukraine.
       The composer possessed a unique gift of generalising melody and intonation. Apart from songs,
choirs and solos these features are inherent in P. Maiboroda's vocal creations and symphonies.
       The composer spared no effort to carry out cultural and educational activities on a large scale,
giving concerts and organising meetings in various corners of Ukraine and beyond its borders. P.
Maiboroda's selfless labour in this field continued traditions of the famous Lysenko choir tours round
Ukraine.
       Platon Maiboroda was Chairman of the Arts Section of the Ukrainian Society for Protection of
Monuments of History and Culture.
       People's Artist of the USSR (1979), Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR (1950), he was the first,
among composers, winner of the State T.Shevchenko Prize of Ukraine (1962).
                                                     Glossary
teadfast – непохитний, devotional sounding – молитовне звучання, artistic – художній, subjected to
reprisals – репресований, farm – хутір, flare of revelation – спалах одкровення, innermost –
найпотаємніший, transitory fashion – скороминуща мода.
       1. Choose the correct completion.
       1. Platon Maiboroda was born-into a peasant family in Zaporizhia region / in Poltava region / in
Kyiv region.
       2. The family moved to Zaporizhia to escape the famine / to join their grandparents / to give their
son musical education.
       3. Platon Maiboroda finished a music school in Zaporizhia / in Poltava / in Kyiv.
       4. He stopped studying at the Conservatoire and went to work at a factory / went abroad / went
to the front.
       5. Platon Maiboroda went down in the history of Ukrainian musical culture as a song composer
and poet / a composer and teacher / a composer, a cultural and public figure.
       6. He created songs, choirs and symphonies / songs, solos and romances / songs, operas and
vocal creations.
       7. His songs are dedicated to the philosophy of transitory fashion / the philosophy of beauty and
hope / the philosophy of nature and society.
       8. The sources of his talent are primarily in the national classical music / in folk songs and
romances / in the old national spiritual traditions.
       9. One of the composer's songs has become a symbol of Ukraine. It is My dear Mother/ Kyiv waltz /
Footpath.
       10. Platon Maiboroda was People's Artist of the USSR / Laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine /
Winner of the State T.Shevchenko Prize of the USSR.
       2. Answer the choice-questions.
       1. Did P. Maiboroda go to the front at the call or as a volunteer?
       2. Did he create his music in the postwar or prewar time?
       3. Is the composer's music his personal or national phenomenon?
       4. Was a character of a Mother P.Maiboroda's or A.Malyshko's invention in song genre?
        5. Did the composer's songs bring him nationwide or worldwide recognition?
       3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
       митець неповторного таланту буремні роки
       вишиваний рушник                   докласти багато зусиль
       унікальний дар                     духовна традиція
       просвітницька діяльність           образ Матері
       подвижницька праця                 неповторний стиль
      за межами України                   всесвітнє визнання
      4. Odd one out.
      Artist, composer, author, person.
      Frequent, miraculous, beautiful, unique.
      Songs, romances, symphonies, solos.
      Exactly, stormy, primarily, profoundly.
      School, choir, factory, conservatoire.
      Eminent, unsurpassed, inimitable, separate.
      Effort, labour, gift, work.
      5. Points for discussion.
      The composer's long legacy.
      Platon Maiboroda as the classic of Ukrainian music of the 20th century.
      The main events of the composer's life.

                                               SERGE LYFAR
                                                 (1905-1986)
                          Ballet dancer, choreographer, educator, dance theorist
       Serge (Serhiy) Lyfar was bom in Kyiv into a noble family. His admiration for ballet brought him to
the studio of B.Nizhynska, a prima ballerina and choreographer at the Kyiv Opera Theatre. However, she
did not see a ballet dancer in him. In 1923, S.Lyfar secretly crossed the border of Bolshevik Russia and
came to Paris, the dream of his life. His studies under the wellknown Italian teacher E.Cecchetti, who
introduced him to S.Diaghilev, the leader of the famous private theatrical company Russian Seasons,
determined his further destiny.
       After his successful debut in the main part in S.Prokofiev's ballet The Prodigal Son, S.Lyfar became
the leading dancer in the Russian Ballet company. His first choreographic production was in 1929, when
he debuted with I.Stravinsky's ballet The Fable about the Fox, the Cock, the Cat and the Ram.
       In 1930-58, S.Lyfar worked as a dancer, choreographer and director of the Paris Grand Opera's
ballet company, one of the most prominent ballet companies in the world. The choreographer produced
over 200 ballets at the Grand Opera and danced the main parts in many of them (including Giselle by
A.Adam, By the Dnipro by S.Prokofiev The Suite in White by E.Lalo, and The Firebirdby I. Stravinsky).
       In 1945-47, S.Lyfar was the artistic director of The New Ballet of MonteGarlo! He was the first to
receive one of the most prestigious ballet awards the Golden Shoe – for his great creative achievement
(1955).
       The choreographer worked out the so-called principle of "three choreographic levels" according to
which the performance is considered a complete progcess, a supple leitmotif and a psychologically
motivate pas. The style of S.Lyfar, which he himself described as choreographic Neo-Romanticism,
determined the development of European ballet art in the second half of the 20th century.
       Teaching also occupied an important place in Lyfar's creative activity. In 1947, he founded the
French Academy of Dance (from 1958, Paris University of Dance). From 1955, he taught history and
theory of dance at the Sorbonne according to his own system of ballet dancers’ training.
       The great dancer died in Lausanne and was buried in Sainte-Genevieve-de-Bois near Paris. The
inscription on his gravestone reads: "Serge Lifar from Kiev." Serge Lyfar always remembered his
Ukrainian roots and propagated the history and culture of his people with enthusiasm. The International
Serge Lifar Ballet Competition has been held in Kyiv since 1994, and the "Serge Lyfar de la danse" festival
since 1995, in honour of our famous countryman.
                                                     Glossary
noble family -дворянська сім'я, supple leitmotif -пластична лейт-тема, E.Cecchetti – Е.Чеккетті,
Sainte-Genevieve-de-Bois – Сен Женев'ев-де-Буа, The Prodigal Son -„Блудний син", pas –
танцювальне па, ballet company – балетна трупа, The Firebird – „Жар-птиця", The Suite in White –
„Сюїта в білому" Serge Lyfar de la danse festival – фестиваль „Серж Лифар де ля данс”, Golden
Shoe – „Золота туфелька”
       1. Answer the questions.
       1. What family was Serge Lyfar born into?
       2. What education did he get?
       3. How did his career as a ballet dancer and a choreographer start?
       4. What did he do in 1930-58?
       5. What did he receive the Golden Shoe award for?
       6. What principle did he work out?
      7. How is S.Lyfar's dancing style described?
      8. What were his achievements as an educator?
      9. Where was Serge Lyfar buried?
      10. How is Serge Lyfar remembered and honoured in Ukraine?
      2. What events took place at these times?
      in 1923            in 1945-47       from 1955        in 1930-58
      in 1995            in 1929          in 1955          in 1994
      in 1947
      3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
      подальша доля                       творчий доробок
      провідний танцівник                 неоромантизм
      хореографічна постановка            балетне мистецтво
      театр „Гранд-Опера"                 підготовка артистів балету
      престижна нагорода                  співвітчизник
      4. Choose the word associated with the given one from the text
      Verb             Noun               Noun             Adjective
      admire            ...              fame           ...
      produce           ...              theatre         ...
      dance             ...              success          ...
      direct            ...              art             ...
      perform           ...              prestige         ...
      develop           ...              nobility
      inscribe                           privacy
      5. Points for discussion.
      Serge Lyfar's contribution in the development of European ballet art.
      Serge Lyfar's teaching activities.
      The dancer's links with Ukraine.

                                           Oksana PETRUSENKO
                                                  (1900-1940)
                                          Opera and chamber singer
       Petrusenko was born into a family of poor peasants in the city of Balaklia (Kharkiv region). Soon
her father died and mother came back to Sevastopol to her relatives. The talented siriger spent her
childhood and youth there. At first little Oksana went to a church parish school, then to a gymnasium,
which she left at the age of 14 because of severe hardships. She earned her living working at a shoe
factory, and in the port. In 1917, she took an active part in an amateur drama society; mastered
complicated vocal parts. In spring 1918, Oksana Petrusenko as a member of the S.Hlazurenko's Ukrainian
company moved to Kherson. There she met a prominent Ukrainian author, P. Saksahansky, whom she
called "godfather in art", "a tireless teacher." She gained experience working in different musical drama
companies. The singer's opera debut was in Kazan – in 1927 and since 1934 she had been a soloist of the
Kyiv Opera and Ballet Theatre.
       Oksana Petrusenko is a unique phenomenon of Ukrainian opera and drama theatre of the 20th
century. Nature endowed the singer with an exceptional talent – a remarkable Voice with boundless
sounding, rich, grand and clear as a tear, sparkling with warm and, beaming colours.
       During 22 years of her creative work Oksana Petrusenko created a gallery of unsurpassed stage-
portraits: Tetiana, Liza, Oksana (Eugene Onegin; Queen of Spades; Shoes by Tchaikovsky), Marfa (Tsar’s
Bride by N.Rymsky-Korsakov), Aida and Tosca in the operas of the same name by G.Verdi and G.Puccini,
Nedda {Pagliaciby R.Leoncavallo). The part of Aida became a masterpiece of her creative work. This
image was very close to the singer, she often confessed: "The feelings thrilling through Aida's heart as if
reside in me."
       Oksana Petrusenko's solos in operas and music drama works of Ukrainian composers and writers –
M.Lysenko, S.Hulak-Artemovsky, M.Arkas, M.Kropyvnytsky, M.Starytsky, have become unforgettable.
Ukrainian folk songs and romances performed by the singer were remarkable for their truthfulness,
sincerity and emotionality. She became People's Artist of Ukraine in 1939. According to Z.Haiday: "She
was a truly people's singer. I don't know any other singer whom the title of "a pedple's artist" would fit
better. The whole nation loved her."
                                             THE WILL TO WIN
        You are going to read an article about the Paralympic Games. Seven sentences have been
removed. Choose from sentences A – H the one which fits each gap (1 – 6). There is one extra
sentence you do not need to use. The first one has been done for you as an example.
       Athletes, if they want to reach the top of their chosen sport, have to train hard for hours every day.
Their commitment to the sport and their achievements certainly deserve praise.
       0 – C "We want to be recognized for our achievements, just like any other top class athletes. We are
not interested in hearing how brave and wonderful we are," says Isabel.
       1 – Another disabled athlete, Chris Holmes, is a swimmer with gold, silver and bronze medals won at
the Paralympics.
       2 – Competition among swimmers is so fierce that the difference between the record times of the
disabled and able-bodied in the 50-metre freestyle swimming event is only four seconds. With results like
these, more and more spectators have been attracted to the Paralympic Games.
       The opening ceremonies and most of the wheelchair basketball games were sold out long before
the start of I the Atlanta Games.
       3 – This new interest is especially pleasing for Bob Steadward, president of the International
Paralympic Committee, whose job it is to promote greater awareness of and more participation in the
disabled version of the Games.
       4 – "As a result of the money we had, and the money we received from the IOC (International
Olympic Committee), we were able to sponsor more than 100 athletes from 35 countries who would
otherwise not have had a chance to come."
       More and more sports are being added to the Paralympic Games as the range of the athletes' skills
and abilities becomes known. Sailing had not been a Paralympic sport before, but Andrew Cassell, the
captain of the British sailing team, helped it to be included. He was born with the lower part of both his
legs missing, but he never let this get in his way.
       5 – So far, there are events for the blind, amputees, and people with cerebral palsy as well as
wheelchair sports. Atlanta is the first Games to include mentally disabled athletes competing in swimming,
as well as track and field events. Many of the athletes have suffered accidents and illnesses which would be
enough to make most of us want to give up.
       6 – They are the ones who are catching the public eye and imagination, changing people's
perceptions of what "disability" means and what extraordinary abilities the so-called disabled actually
possess.
       A He started sailing when he was ten years old and since then he has proven himself time and time
again by winning races and even breaking world records.
       В This shows that disabled athletes can only participate in a small number of events, and are
unlikely to take on more sports in the near future.
       C This is true for both able-bodied athletes like Carl Lewis or Linford Christie, and for disabled
athletes like Isabel Newstead, who carried the United Kingdom flag at the Barcelona Paralympic Games in
1992.
       D He is blind and has to count his strokes to judge when he will reach the end of the pool, but this
does not lessen his speed.
       E I wanted to ensure that developing nations had the opportunity to send athletes to Atlanta," says
Steadward.
       F This is quite interesting if you bear in mind that in many past events, tickets had to be given
away to attract spectators.
       G "We are demonstrating our abilities in an environment where our disabilities don't count."
       H But they are pushing back the barriers which, until recently, kept the disabled from taking part
in sports.
       2. Answer these questions:
       a. What are the Paralympic Games and who takes part in them?
       b. How many and what kind of Paralympic events are mentioned in the text?
       c. How were Paralympic athletes helped to participate in the Games by the IOC?
       d. How are disabled/handicapped people treated in our society? Talk about this in terms of
education, mobility and employment.
       3. Match the following words and word combinations:
       а) досягнення                            1. to reach the top
       b) неспроможний                          2. achievements
       c) мати можливість                       3. interested in
       d) змінювати сприйняття                  4. disabled
       e) зацікавлений                          5. promote
      f) досягати вершин                      6. to have a chance
      g) просувати                            7. the range of skills and
                                                 abilities
      h) нація, що розвивається               8. to catch public eye
      i) перелік навичок та здібностей        9. to change perceptions
      j) звертати увагу суспільства           10. developing nation
      4. Give it the name:
      – strong desire;
      – devoted attitude to smth;
      – public admiration and approval;
      – be taught the skills of a particular job or activity;
      – very unusual or surprising.

                                             BOARDING SCHOOL
         1. Fill in the gaps in the model below using linking words or expressions from the list. For
each item there may be more than one answer.
       To sum up, Firstly, In my opinion, What is more, Contrary to what most/many people believe, In
addition, To begin with, In conclusion, Some people argue that, In my view, Finally
       Sending one's children to boarding school used to be the most acceptable way of educating them,
but over the past few years people's opinions have begun to change.
       (1) … however, sending one's children away to school can be extremely beneficial for them in later
life.
       (2) … children who go to boarding school learn at a young age to become independent and to live
without their parents. This means that they are better prepared to live on their own when the time comes
for them to go to university or start work after leaving school.
       (3) … boarding school teaches young people how to get along better with others, since they live
with their classmates twenty four hours a day. This can help them later on in life to cooperate with
colleagues at work and with people around them in general.
       (4) … boarding schools are bad for children because children need to be able to spend time with
their parents on a daily basis. It is said that this is especially true for younger children, who may feel that
their parents have abandoned them by sending them away.
       (5) … I feel that boarding schools have a lot to offer. This is shown by the fact that children who
have been to boarding school are often far better equipped for life than those who have not.
       2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such schools.
       3. Make up the plan to the text.
       4. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                         MARIA MONTESSORI
      1. Complete the following text with the correct derivatives of the words in bold. The first one
has been done as an example.
      Maria Montessori is not (0) ..primarily (primary) remembered for being Italy's first woman to
graduate in medicine, although this was the first of her many significant (1) … (accomplish). Montessori
went on to become one of the leading (2) … (educate) of the twentieth century. She worked with 3) …
(mental) disabled children at the beginning of the century, and in 1907 opened her first school for
children of "normal" (4) … (intelligent). What made her approach unique was her (5) … (believe) that
children learn more if their (6) … (create) talents are encouraged to develop. Individual, rather than
cooperative, learning was stressed. Montessori used (7) … (interest) objects to capture the (8) …
(attend) of her pupils.
      They were allowed to work on their own, exploring and discovering new ideas at their own pace.
(9) … (surprise), Montessori's schoolchildren did not become (10) … (bore) very easily, and undisciplined
children became much better behaved. Today, there are schools all over the world which bear Maria
Montessori's name and use her methods.
      2. Answer the questions:
      1. What helped Maria Montessori to become a leading educator?
      2. Why was her approach unique?
      3. What methods of teaching did she use in her work?
      4. How did she manage to change children for the better?
      5. Find Maria Montessori’s characteristics as a highly qualified teacher?
      3. Find the antonyms to the given words:
      ignorant -
      despair -
      destroy -
      to miss -
      to have a fun -
      disciplined -
      worse -
      4. Make up the plan to the text.
      5. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                 SENSES WITH WHICH TO ENJOY LIFE
       How do we know what is going on in the world around us? There are five main senses that help us
enjoy the world. These are the senses of seeing, hearing, smelling, touching and taste.
       With eyes we can see pictures, read words. We can see flowers and birds, the sun and the moon
and the stars. We can see our dearest and nearest.
       With ears we can hear our own voice and the voices of others. We can hear music that makes us
feel happy or sad.
       We are able to distinguish sweet from bitter, sour from fresh 'with our tongue.
       With the nose we can smell good food cooking. We can smell flowers. And with the sense of touch
one can find out if things are hot or cold.

                                             OTHER SENSES
       We also have other kinds of senses. Deep inside the body are nerves that tell us of the body needs.
For example, we have a sense of hunger and thirst. These two senses let us know when it is time to eat
and drink.
       And we have a muscle sense that helps us compare the weight of two objects. If we lift two boxes
of the same size, the muscle sense tells us which box is heavier than the other. The muscle sense also
helps us control body movements. The muscle sense helps us walk or ride a bike without looking at our
legs.
       The muscle sense along with the sense of direction, helps us know which way is left and right, up
and down, backward and forward.
       One more sense we have is the sense of balance. In the inner ear are some hollow loops that are
filled with liquid. The loops are called semicircular canals. They help us keep the balance when we walk,
stand, or sit. When we twirl around, we shake up the liquid in the semicircular canals and then we feel
dizzy and unsteady.
       1. Answer the following questions.
       1. How do your five main senses help you?
       2. What can your senses tell you about objects?
       3. What can you see with your eyes?
       4. What        things       do      you       like      to     hear?      What       things     do
you not like to hear?
       5. What things taste sweet? Sour? Salty? Bitter?
       6. What do you especially like to smell?
       7. How do other senses help protect you?
       8. What part of the ear helps you keep your balance?
       2. Translate.
       1. Наш язик відрізняє солодке від гіркого, прокисше від свіжого.
       2. За допомогою дотику ми можемо визначити холодний предмет або гарячий.
       3. Почуття голоду або спраги подає нам сигнал про те, що настав час поїсти або попити що-
небудь.
       4. Якщо ми піднімаємо однакові за розміром коробки, напруга наших м'язів показує нам,
яка з коробок важче.
       5. Коли ми кружляємося, ми струшуємо рідину, що знаходиться в напівкружних каналах, і
тому почуваємо запаморочення і нестійкість.
       3. Make up the plan to the text.
       4. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                             WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT POP MUSIC?
      Everybody likes music: some people enjoy classical music, others are fond of pop music. For some
of them, music is a voice for their thoughts and feelings. For others, it's a harmless way to relax and have
fun. So many people, so many opinions; you can sometimes understand better the inner world of a
person when you speak on many different subjects, but that can take time. So music can be a shorthand
way to see if that person or your friend shares your values or not.
         Suppose that a friend of yours says the following about pop music:
         1."I don't understand why some people take music so seriously. I've got friends who are like that.
They criticize new records − analyse what lyrics mean – argue about which songs are better than others...
it drives me crazy! Why can't they just relax and have fun?"
         2. "For me, pop is a kind of global language. A really unusual, exciting one too. It cuts across all the
barriers − age, colour, class, sex, religion and brings people together. I think that's why everyone likes it
so much. It's a way of sharing all our hopes and fears."
         3. "I don't listen to much rock and pop these days, І prefer classical music. Why? Well pop has lost
its direction, I think. Everything's controlled by Machines and technology. Ten or twenty years ago there
were real artists writing real songs − now all you get is synthesizers and dance music. It's like everything
sounds the same."
         4. "I think pop music is better today than ever before. There are stars from all over the world − lots
of different styles and images – it's great! Yes, of course there's a lot of rubbish, too, but so what? There
always was and there always will be. What you have to do is choose, not complain. Pop's like a big fun-
fair. If уоu can't have a good time it's nobody's fault but yours.
         What words would you say to reply?
         Whose opinion can you share?
         1. Answer the following questions.
         1. What do you think about pop music?
         2. Is it an important art form?
         3. Does music play any role in your life?
         4. Does it influence your feelings or mood?
         5. What's your way to relax and have fun?
         6. Can you play any musical instrument?
         7. Have you ever dreamed of becoming a pop star?
         8. What kind of pop music do you prefer?
         9. What group do you like? What group are you a fan of?
         10. Is it fun to be a fan, or is it a serious matter?
         11. Are there any fans among your friends?
         2. Translate.
         1. Я не розумію, чому деякі люди занадто серйозно відносяться до музики.
         2. Навіщо сперечатися, чиї пісні краще? Можна просто розслабитися і насолоджуватися
музикою або не слухати ]її зовсім.
         3. Поп-музика – це грандіозно! Вона руйнує всі бар'єри і поєднує людей.
         4. Я віддаю перевагу класичній музиці. Я вважаю, що поп-музика в тупику. Вона цілком у
владі нової техніки. Років двадцять тому назад були справжні співаки, а тепер лише синтезатори і
танцювальна музика.
         5. А я вважаю, що сміття в поп-музиці, звичайно, багато, але і зірок теж чимало. Це справа
вибору.
         3. Make up the plan to the text.
         4. Give the summary of the text according to the plan.

                                              COOPERATIVE KIDS
       The concept of cooperative learning is alien to all of us who were taught the traditional way, but it offers our
children the adventure of finding their own answers. Di Lilford reports,
       If you took a doctor from the 19th century and put her in a modern operating theatre, she would
have no idea what to do, but if you put a teacher from the 19th century into a modern classroom she
would be able to carry on teaching without pause. The idea remains that students are empty containers
which the teacher fills with knowledge, and that all students have to do is listen and write.
       Education consultant Alyce Miller says: "This approach does not work in today's changing world.
We are not teaching creative problem-solving. We encourage competition, believing that this brings out
the best in people." But this is not so. She goes on to say that the teacher's role is no longer to feed stu-
dents with information. "The facts are available in libraries, on CD ROMS and on the Internet. What stu-
dents need are the skills to find this information, to use it and to think creatively in order to solve the
problems of our world."
       Miller believes that cooperative learning is the future of education and thinks of it as the best way
to encourage responsibility, tolerance and helpfulness towards others.
        In cooperative learning classes, the traditional classroom physical layout is abandoned. Pupils
learn to work first in pairs, then in threes, and finally in teams of four. Students are required to
participate actively in discussing and shaping their own knowledge. The teacher, who is still very
important to the process, becomes the helper rather than the master.
        Aarnout Brombacher, head of the mathematics department at Westerford High School, says: "The
incorrect assumption that many people make about cooperative learning is that it is merely group work.
It is much, much more. With this technique, most of the time in the classroom is spent teaching them
these skills – life skills."
        Brett Melville, a 17-year-old pupil at the school, agrees. "You learn the same material as you would
using the normal method, but this way you learn how to work with others at the same time. In our class,
we are given enough time to discuss issues and problems in detail."
        One teacher, Lynne Gedye, has been using cooperative learning in her classes for two years. She
says, "This year we have several pupils in the class who can hardly speak a word of English. I was tearing
my hair out, wondering what to do, but I need not have worried. The children's response was amazing.
        All in all, it seems that cooperative learning turns the classroom from a competitive arena into a
place where learning facts and life skills is both more fun and more effective for pupils and teachers alike.
        1. Find in the text words and word combinations characterizing cooperation and professional
qualities of the people.
        2. Is it true or false?
        1. The concept of cooperative learning is alien to all of us who were taught the traditional way, but
it offers our children the adventure of finding their own answers. Prove.
        2. If you took a doctor from the 19th century and put her in a modern operating theatre, she
would" have no idea what to do, but if you put a teacher from the 19th century into a modern classroom
she would be able to carry on teaching without pause. Give your reasons.
        3. Cooperative learning is the future of education and thinks of it as the best way to encourage
responsibility, tolerance and helpfulness towards others. Comment on this statement.
        4. Cooperative learning turns the classroom from a competitive arena into a place where learning
facts and life skills is both more fun and more effective      for pupils and teachers alike. Prove.
        3. Explain what it means.
        1. The teacher's role is no longer to feed students with information.
        2. The teacher, who is still very important to the process, becomes the helper rather than the
process, becomes the helper rather than the master.
        3. You learn the same material as you would using the normal method, but this way you learn
how to work with others at the same time.
        4. Children do not sit in straight rows of desks facing the teacher, but rather face one another to
make it easier to share ideas.
        5. Teaching methods have hardly changed in one hundred years.
        6. Good relationships are the key to effective learning.
        4. Express the idea of the story using proverbs. Argue the choice.

                                        OLEKSANDR MURASHKO
                                                  (1875-1919)
                                      Painter, educator, public figure
       Oleksandr Murashko originated from an artistic family. His father ran an iconpainting studio and
participated in decorating St. Volodymyr Cathedral in Kyiv; his uncle, Mykola Murashko, was a painter
and a reputed educator, the founder of Kyiv Drawing School. The school was the place of Oleksandr
Murashko's initial training, which he continued at I.Repin's class of St. Petersburg Academy of Art. For
his graduation work, Funeral of the Kish Otaman, Murashko was awarded the artist's degree and the right
to travel abroad. He visited Paris, and later studied in Munich at A. Aschbe's studio.
       O.Murashko's works, starting from the earliest ones, displayed shrill observational skill, artistry,
and bright decorative pattern. The young painter skilfully applied techniques he learned from I. Repin, at
the same time practising the contemporary European artistic trends.
       His portraits attract with the diversity of expressive techniques, original compositional solutions,
wide use of colour planes and light reflexes. Sunlight radiates almost from every portrait. The critics
called the light the Murashko's special.
       O.Murashko gained European recognition in the 1910 s. The picture Carrousel sent to the 10th
International Art Show in Munich in 1909 was a sensation and won a gold medal. Since then,
O.Murashko's name became known to artistic circles of different countries, and his works, exposed in
Venice, Berlin, Dusseldorf and Cologne, were acquired by European galleries and private collectors. With
the artist's every new canvas his skill advanced, his strokes became freer and more energetic, his colours
richer and clearer, and his compositions more refined and expressive. His works Peasant Family; Washer-
woman, and Flower Sellers were the masterpieces of Ukrainian painting.
       Seeking to increase significance of Kyiv as a centre of culture and to stir up its artistic life,
Murashko initiated the establishment of the Kyiv Artists' Fellowship in 1916 and of the Ukrainian
Academy of Art in 1918, and opened his own training studio. O. Murashko tragically died at the peak of
his creative performance. The Self-Portrait, one of the painter's latest works (1918), was an exquisite piece
of artistic excellence, artistry and inspiration.
                                                         Glossary
reputed – відомий, colour plane – кольорова площина, special – особливість, canvas – полотно, shrill
– гострий, stroke – мазок, artistry – артистизм, Washer-woman – „Праля", diversity – розмаїття,
exquisite – досконалий, Funeral of the Kish Otaman – "Похорон кошового".
       1. Make the sentences true.
       1. Oleksandr Murashko originated from an artistic family.
       2. His father participated in decorating St.Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv.
       3. His uncle was the founder of St.Petersburg Academy of Art.
       4. O.Murashko was awarded the artist's degree at Paris Academy of Art.
       5. He gained world recognition in 1909.
       6. His picture Carrousel won a prize at the International Art Show.
       7. His works were exposed in different countries including America.
       8. O.Murashko initiated the establishment of the Ukrainian Gallery of Art.
       9. He died tragically at the decline of his creative performance.
       10. His latest work was Flower Sellers.
       2. Choose the words to complete the sentences.
       refined, colour, diversity, artistic, compositional, decorative, sunlight
       1. O. Murashko's works display bright... pattern.
       2. His portraits attract with the ... of expressive technique.
       3. They are original in ... solutions.
       4. O. Murashko was good at using ... and light.
       5. His paintings are full of... which outlines faces with warm glow.
       6. They are ... and expressive.
       7. The Self-portrait is an exquisite piece of ... excellence and aspiration.
       3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
       мистецька родина                      звання художника
       іконописна майстерня                  мистецькі кола
       рисувальна школа                      шедевр
       початкова освіта                      навчальна студія
       4. Define the base word of each of the following words.
       originate        earliest        energetic           training
       artistic         refined         expressive          joyfully
       decorating       skilfully       painting            graduation
       painter          practising      creative            recognition
       educator         diversity       tragically          performance
       5. Points for discussion.
       1. Murashko's formation as a painter.
       2. Murashko's artistic works.
       3. European recognition of the painter.

                                         PLATON MAIBORODA
                                                (1918-1989)
                                  Composer, cultural and public figure
       Platon Maiboroda went down in the history of Ukrainian musical culture as an artist of
unsurpassed talent, eminent composer, author of songs, person of steadfast artistic and aesthetic
principles. His music is a whole epoch of revival and flourishing of the Ukrainian song in the postwar
time.
       The classic of the Ukrainian song was born into a peasant family on the farm of Pelekhivschyna
(now Poltava oblast). The father of the future composer (later subjected to reprisals) left for Zaporizhia to
escape the famine, where Platon later joined him. There he finished a secondary school and worked at a
factory. In 1936, he entered Kyiv music school and in 1938 – Kyiv State Conservatoire (class of
L.Revutsky). The stormy war years did not pass by P.Maiboroda: he stopped studying at the
Conservatoire and went to the front as a volunteer. After the war the composer's talent was concentrated
on creating music.
       P.Maiboroda's songs touch the innermost strings of a soul in a miraculous manner. The composer's
legacy is a profoundly national phenomenon. Its sources are not only in folk songs, but, primarily, in the
old national spiritual tradition.
       The inimitable Maiboroda style is a flare of revelation, boundless melodiousness and openness of
melody that flies "from heart to heart." A character of a Mother to which a composer gave a true
devotional sounding became the composer's invention in song genre. The song Kyiv Waltz; We 'II go
Where Grasses Are Bent; Song of the Teacher; Footpath, created in collaboration with the poet A. Malyshko,
have really become classical song music independent of transitory fashion. They brought P. Maiboroda
worldwide recognition. A prominent place among them is occupied by the song My Dear Mother (Song of
the Embroidered Towel). Today it sounds all over the world as a symbol of Ukraine.
       The composer possessed a unique gift of generalising melody and intonation. Apart from songs,
choirs and solos these features are inherent in P. Maiboroda's vocal creations and symphonies.
       The composer spared no effort to carry out cultural and educational activities on a large scale,
giving concerts and organising meetings in various corners of Ukraine and beyond its borders. P.
Maiboroda's selfless labour in this field continued traditions of the famous Lysenko choir tours round
Ukraine.
       Platon Maiboroda was Chairman of the Arts Section of the Ukrainian Society for Protection of
Monuments of History and Culture.
       People's Artist of the USSR (1979), Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR (1950), he was the first,
among composers, winner of the State T.Shevchenko Prize of Ukraine (1962).
                                                     Glossary
teadfast – непохитний, devotional sounding – молитовне звучання, artistic – художній, subjected to
reprisals – репресований, farm – хутір, flare of revelation – спалах одкровення, innermost –
найпотаємніший, transitory fashion – скороминуща мода.
       1. Choose the correct completion.
       1. Platon Maiboroda was born-into a peasant family in Zaporizhia region / in Poltava region / in
Kyiv region.
       2. The family moved to Zaporizhia to escape the famine / to join their grandparents / to give their
son musical education.
       3. Platon Maiboroda finished a music school in Zaporizhia / in Poltava / in Kyiv.
       4. He stopped studying at the Conservatoire and went to work at a factory / went abroad / went
to the front.
       5. Platon Maiboroda went down in the history of Ukrainian musical culture as a song composer
and poet / a composer and teacher / a composer, a cultural and public figure.
       6. He created songs, choirs and symphonies / songs, solos and romances / songs, operas and
vocal creations.
       7. His songs are dedicated to the philosophy of transitory fashion / the philosophy of beauty and
hope / the philosophy of nature and society.
       8. The sources of his talent are primarily in the national classical music / in folk songs and
romances / in the old national spiritual traditions.
       9. One of the composer's songs has become a symbol of Ukraine. It is My dear Mother/ Kyiv waltz /
Footpath.
       10. Platon Maiboroda was People's Artist of the USSR / Laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine /
Winner of the State T.Shevchenko Prize of the USSR.
       2. Answer the choice-questions.
       1. Did P. Maiboroda go to the front at the call or as a volunteer?
       2. Did he create his music in the postwar or prewar time?
       3. Is the composer's music his personal or national phenomenon?
       4. Was a character of a Mother P.Maiboroda's or A.Malyshko's invention in song genre?
        5. Did the composer's songs bring him nationwide or worldwide recognition?
       3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
       митець неповторного таланту буремні роки
       вишиваний рушник                   докласти багато зусиль
       унікальний дар                     духовна традиція
       просвітницька діяльність           образ Матері
       подвижницька праця                 неповторний стиль
       за межами України                  всесвітнє визнання
      4. Odd one out.
      Artist, composer, author, person.
      Frequent, miraculous, beautiful, unique.
      Songs, romances, symphonies, solos.
      Exactly, stormy, primarily, profoundly.
      School, choir, factory, conservatoire.
      Eminent, unsurpassed, inimitable, separate.
      Effort, labour, gift, work.
      5. Points for discussion.
      The composer's long legacy.
      Platon Maiboroda as the classic of Ukrainian music of the 20th century.
      The main events of the composer's life.

                                               SERGE LYFAR
                                                 (1905-1986)
                          Ballet dancer, choreographer, educator, dance theorist
       Serge (Serhiy) Lyfar was bom in Kyiv into a noble family. His admiration for ballet brought him to
the studio of B.Nizhynska, a prima ballerina and choreographer at the Kyiv Opera Theatre. However, she
did not see a ballet dancer in him. In 1923, S.Lyfar secretly crossed the border of Bolshevik Russia and
came to Paris, the dream of his life. His studies under the wellknown Italian teacher E.Cecchetti, who
introduced him to S.Diaghilev, the leader of the famous private theatrical company Russian Seasons,
determined his further destiny.
       After his successful debut in the main part in S.Prokofiev's ballet The Prodigal Son, S.Lyfar became
the leading dancer in the Russian Ballet company. His first choreographic production was in 1929, when
he debuted with I.Stravinsky's ballet The Fable about the Fox, the Cock, the Cat and the Ram.
       In 1930-58, S.Lyfar worked as a dancer, choreographer and director of the Paris Grand Opera's
ballet company, one of the most prominent ballet companies in the world. The choreographer produced
over 200 ballets at the Grand Opera and danced the main parts in many of them (including Giselle by
A.Adam, By the Dnipro by S.Prokofiev The Suite in White by E.Lalo, and The Firebirdby I. Stravinsky).
       In 1945-47, S.Lyfar was the artistic director of The New Ballet of MonteGarlo! He was the first to
receive one of the most prestigious ballet awards the Golden Shoe – for his great creative achievement
(1955).
       The choreographer worked out the so-called principle of "three choreographic levels" according to
which the performance is considered a complete progcess, a supple leitmotif and a psychologically
motivate pas. The style of S.Lyfar, which he himself described as choreographic Neo-Romanticism,
determined the development of European ballet art in the second half of the 20th century.
       Teaching also occupied an important place in Lyfar's creative activity. In 1947, he founded the
French Academy of Dance (from 1958, Paris University of Dance). From 1955, he taught history and
theory of dance at the Sorbonne according to his own system of ballet dancers’ training.
       The great dancer died in Lausanne and was buried in Sainte-Genevieve-de-Bois near Paris. The
inscription on his gravestone reads: "Serge Lifar from Kiev." Serge Lyfar always remembered his
Ukrainian roots and propagated the history and culture of his people with enthusiasm. The International
Serge Lifar Ballet Competition has been held in Kyiv since 1994, and the "Serge Lyfar de la danse" festival
since 1995, in honour of our famous countryman.
                                                     Glossary
noble family -дворянська сім'я, supple leitmotif -пластична лейт-тема, E.Cecchetti – Е.Чеккетті,
Sainte-Genevieve-de-Bois – Сен Женев'ев-де-Буа, The Prodigal Son -„Блудний син", pas –
танцювальне па, ballet company – балетна трупа, The Firebird – „Жар-птиця", The Suite in White –
„Сюїта в білому" Serge Lyfar de la danse festival – фестиваль „Серж Лифар де ля данс”, Golden
Shoe – „Золота туфелька”
       1. Answer the questions.
       1. What family was Serge Lyfar born into?
       2. What education did he get?
       3. How did his career as a ballet dancer and a choreographer start?
       4. What did he do in 1930-58?
       5. What did he receive the Golden Shoe award for?
       6. What principle did he work out?
       7. How is S.Lyfar's dancing style described?
      8. What were his achievements as an educator?
      9. Where was Serge Lyfar buried?
      10. How is Serge Lyfar remembered and honoured in Ukraine?
      2. What events took place at these times?
      in 1923            in 1945-47       from 1955        in 1930-58
      in 1995            in 1929          in 1955          in 1994
      in 1947
      3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
      подальша доля                       творчий доробок
      провідний танцівник                 неоромантизм
      хореографічна постановка            балетне мистецтво
      театр „Гранд-Опера"                 підготовка артистів балету
      престижна нагорода                  співвітчизник
      4. Choose the word associated with the given one from the text
      Verb             Noun               Noun            Adjective
      admire            ...              fame           ...
      produce           ...              theatre         ...
      dance             ...              success          ...
      direct            ...              art             ...
      perform           ...              prestige         ...
      develop           ...              nobility
      inscribe                           privacy
      5. Points for discussion.
      Serge Lyfar's contribution in the development of European ballet art.
      Serge Lyfar's teaching activities.
      The dancer's links with Ukraine.

                                           Oksana PETRUSENKO
                                                  (1900-1940)
                                          Opera and chamber singer
       Petrusenko was born into a family of poor peasants in the city of Balaklia (Kharkiv region). Soon
her father died and mother came back to Sevastopol to her relatives. The talented siriger spent her
childhood and youth there. At first little Oksana went to a church parish school, then to a gymnasium,
which she left at the age of 14 because of severe hardships. She earned her living working at a shoe
factory, and in the port. In 1917, she took an active part in an amateur drama society; mastered
complicated vocal parts. In spring 1918, Oksana Petrusenko as a member of the S.Hlazurenko's Ukrainian
company moved to Kherson. There she met a prominent Ukrainian author, P. Saksahansky, whom she
called "godfather in art", "a tireless teacher." She gained experience working in different musical drama
companies. The singer's opera debut was in Kazan – in 1927 and since 1934 she had been a soloist of the
Kyiv Opera and Ballet Theatre.
       Oksana Petrusenko is a unique phenomenon of Ukrainian opera and drama theatre of the 20th
century. Nature endowed the singer with an exceptional talent – a remarkable Voice with boundless
sounding, rich, grand and clear as a tear, sparkling with warm and, beaming colours.
       During 22 years of her creative work Oksana Petrusenko created a gallery of unsurpassed stage-
portraits: Tetiana, Liza, Oksana (Eugene Onegin; Queen of Spades; Shoes by Tchaikovsky), Marfa (Tsar’s
Bride by N.Rymsky-Korsakov), Aida and Tosca in the operas of the same name by G.Verdi and G.Puccini,
Nedda {Pagliaciby R.Leoncavallo). The part of Aida became a masterpiece of her creative work. This
image was very close to the singer, she often confessed: "The feelings thrilling through Aida's heart as if
reside in me."
       Oksana Petrusenko's solos in operas and music drama works of Ukrainian composers and writers –
M.Lysenko, S.Hulak-Artemovsky, M.Arkas, M.Kropyvnytsky, M.Starytsky, have become unforgettable.
Ukrainian folk songs and romances performed by the singer were remarkable for their truthfulness,
sincerity and emotionality. She became People's Artist of Ukraine in 1939. According to Z.Haiday: "She
was a truly people's singer. I don't know any other singer whom the title of "a pedple's artist" would fit
better. The whole nation loved her."
                                                   Glossary
church parish school – церковно- парафіяльна школа, unsurpassed – неперевершений, sparkling
with warm and beaming colours – вигрававати теплими й променистими барвами, hardships –
нестатки, злидні, godfather in art- „хрещений батько у мистецтві, Gueen of Spades – „Пікова дама",
endow – наділяти, Shoes – „Черевички", boundless – безмежний, Tsar's Bride – „Царева
наречена",grand – величний, Раglіасі – „Паяци"
      1. What did you find out about Oksana Petrusenko's
      – parents?                        – unique voice?
      – childhood?                      – creative work?
      – educational background?         – part of Aida she performed?
      – working experience?             – singing style?
      – opera debut?                    – way of performing folk songs?
      2. How are the following items related to Oksana Petrusenko?               the city of Balaklia
P.Saksahansky
      Sevastopol             M.Lysenko
      Kherson                Z.Haiday
      Kazan                  the Ukrainian people
      3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
      заробляти на життя                         творча діяльність
      аматорський драматичний гурток            сценічний портрет
      вокальна партія                           однойменна опера
      музично-драматична трупа                  правдивість
      оперний дебют                             щирість
      унікальне явище                          народна артистка
      5. Match the adjectives to the nouns.
      talented        part           creative            solos
      severe          singer         unsurpassed         name
      warm            phenomenon same                    songs
      drama           hardships      unforgettable       nation
      vocal           author         folk                work
      prominent       colours        whole               peak
      unique          voice          highest             recognition
      remarkable      society        national            stage portraits
      5. Points for discussion.
      Oksana Petrusenko's young years.
      Oksana Petrusenko's singing experience.
      Oksana Petrusenko as a symbol of spiritual beauty of the Ukrainian nation.

                                           IVAN MYKOLAICHUK
                                                   (1941-1987)
                                      Actor, film director and scriptwriter
        Ivan Mykolaichuk was bom in the village of Chortoryia (now Chernivtsi oblast). He studied at
Kyiv Karpenko-Kary Institute of Theatre Arts (1961-65). His teacher, wellknown filmmaker V.Ivchenko,
advised director S.Paradzhanov to pay attention to the gifted thirdyear student from Bukovyna. Thus
Ivan Mykolaichuk's work on the role of Ivan Paliychuk, the main hero of Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors
(1964), began that brought him international acclaim.
        In his work as an actor, I.Mykolaichuk was a co-author rather than simply an executor of the film
director's will. His handsome looks, the open stare of his blue eyes and his proud stance embodied
spiritual beauty and inner wealth of his people. His talent for artistic transformation helped him create
forceful and versatile characters, in particular, Taras Shevchenko (The Dream) and Commissar Hromov
(Commissars).
        It is with his name that the distinctive phenomenon called "Ukrainian poetic cinema" is associated.
This is evident from his work as one of the main characters (Petro) and a co-author of the scenario of The
White Bird with a Black Mark (Gold Medal of the 7th International Film Festival in Moscow, 1971). His
other milestones as an actor include the roles of Davyd Motuzka (The Weeds), Cossack Vasyl (The Lost
Certificate), the God's Fool (Rebellious Month of September), and Uncle Lev (The Forest Song).
        His creative career was short, and yet he showed his talent of a film director, too. In 1980, he made
a film entitled Babylon of the 20th Century after V.Zemliak's novel The Swan Flock. The film was awarded a
prize for the best directorship at the Dushanbe All Union Film Festival. He also played the part of the
village philosopher Fabian, co-authored the script and composed music for the movie.
        A man of a versatile gift, he was an excellent painter and played several musical instruments, was
an active scriptwriter. One of his last scenarios was for the film Tall Stories about Ivan (1983).
        Being "deterred" by the numerous army of editors and censors, he could not use his creative
abilities at full potential. He never realised his dream of creating a contemporary and those of
H.Skovoroda and M. Lysenko. That was his drama as an artist.
        Ivan Mykolaichuk is Honoured Artist of Ukraine (1968), Laureate of the State T. Shevchenko Prize
of Ukraine (1988, posthumously).
                                                     Glossary
proud stance – велична постать, The Weeds -„Бур'ян", artistic transformation – художнє
перевтілення, The God's Fool – Юродивий, The Swan Flock – „Лебедина зграя", versatile characters –
різнопланові образи, directorship – режисура, national identity – національна самобутність, Tall
Stories about Ivan... – „Небилиці про Івана...", milestone – етап, The Lost Certificate- „Пропала
грамота"
        1. Complete the statements.
        1. Ivan Mykolaichuk studied filmmaking at... .
        2. Director S.Paradzanov paid attention to.....
        3. Ivan's first role in the film Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors brought him ....
        4. Ivan embodied beauty and ....
        5. He created forceful and versatile characters, in particular,.....
        6. His name is associated with the distinctive phenomenon called ....
        7. As a film director in 1980, he made ....
        8. A man of versatile gift, he could ....
        9. Ivan Mykolaichuk never realized his dream ... .
        10. He has succeeded in fulfilling the main task – ... .
        2. Odd one out about Ivan Mykolaichuk.
        1. He was an actor, a film director, a teacher, a script writer.
        2. He was handsome, blue-eyed, proud, wealthy.
        3. He created the versatile characters, in particular, T.Shevchenko, H.Skovoroda, Cossack Vasyl,
philosopher Fabian.
        4. He played in the films Tall Stories about Ivan, Such Late and Warm Autumn, Commissars, The
Dream.
        3. Find the English equivalents in the text.
        красиве обличчя                   сценарій
        відкритий погляд очей             грати роль
        режисер                           ставити фільм
        духовна краса                     багатогранне обдарування
        внутрішнє багатство               творчі можливості
        4. Insert the articles a, an, the where necessary.
        Ivan Mykolaichuk was__gifted personality. He could paint. He played__several musical
instruments. He was__talented actor. He wrote__scenarios for__films. His best part was Petro
from__White Bird with__Black Mark. He staged__two films. One of__films was awarded__prize for__best
directorship.
        5. Points for discussion.
        Ivan Mykolaichuk's film characters.
        Ivan Mykolaichuk as a film director and script writer.
        Ivan Mykolaichuk as a personality.

                                             IVAN PIDDUBNY
                                                  (1870-1949)
                              Professional wrestler, multiple world champion
       Ivan Piddubny was born into a peasant family in the village of Krasenivka (nowadays Cherkasy
oblast), where his childhood and youth had passed. In Piddubny's family, that of Cossack descendants,
everyone was marked by powerful strength. His father, Maksym I.Piddubny, was also a strong man, and
Ivan considered him to be stronger than he himself. Nobody in the village could contend with the
Piddubny's strength.
       The future champion began his labour activity as a docker in Sevastopol port. In 1.895, he moved to
Feodosia where he took a great interest in weight lifting. Afterwards I.Piddubny started performing on
circus rings of Sevastopol, Odesa, Kyiv and soon gained his first victory in circus championship. In Kyiv
club of athletes he was familiarised with French wrestling which later brought him worldwide fame,
participated in circus tours all over the country.
       The Ukrainian Hercules went for triumphal tours over European countries. In world
championships of 1905-09 that took place in Paris, Milan, Vienna, Frankfurt, each time Ivan Piddubny
won an honorary title of the world champion in Graeco-Roman wrestling among professionals, beating
the strongest wrestlers of Europe and the world. The outstanding sportsman was a heavyweight wrestler;
he weighed 120 kg, possessed perfect wrestling technique, endurance and mastery of choosing correct
tactics of fighting. He was called "the champion of champions."
       The secret of the prominent sportsman's invincibility consists in the combination of his exceptional
physique with constant enduring training, keeping a balanced diet, healthy way of life and self-
development. Due to this I.Piddubny had remained an invincible wrestler for 25 years running in the
world and till the age of 55 he successfully participated in international competitions.
       For many years the sixfold world champion was not only a symbol of invincibility, strength,
brilliant skills, but also a true example of knighthood, decency and sports honour. More than once sports
swindlers addressed the Ukrainian giant offering big money for the" planned defeat, and he always
rejected them.
       In 1925, I.Piddubny undertook a victorious tour over large cities of the United States of America.
Although the Americans had not recognised French wrestling yet and the wrestler was forced to master
freestyle wrestling, he was invincible again.
       The last appearance of the Ukrainian Hercules took place in 1941 when he was 70 years old. Ivan
Piddubny lived a beautiful, fair sporting life, which serves as an example to young sportsmen until the
present. He was awarded the title of Honoured Artist of the Russian Federation (1939) and Honoured
Master of Sports (1945).
                                                    Glossary
weight lifting – гирьовий спорт, invincibility – непереможність, ring – арена, physique – фізичні
дані, familiarize – познайомитися,                   sixfold – шестиразовий, beat- перемагати, класти на
лопатки, sports swindlers – ділки від спорту, heavyweight – важка вага,                           freestyle
wrestling – боротьба вільного стилю, endurance – витривалість, mastery – майстерність, longevity –
довголіття
       1. Recall the facts to prove the following statements.
       1. Powerful strength is a hereditary feature of the Piddubny family.
       2. I.Piddubny was familiarised with different styles of wrestling.
       3. His tours over European countries were triumphal.
       4. He was famous for sports longevity.
       5. He was a symbol of decency and sports honour.
       2. Find the English equivalents in the text.
богатирська сила             раціональне харчування почесне звання
цирковий чемпіонат здоровий спосіб життя                 переможне турне
французька боротьба блискуча майстерність                техніка боротьби
світова слава                чесне спортивне життя       зразок мистецтва
       3. Match the adjectives to the nouns.
       peasant           title           heavyweight         longevity
       powerful          ring            wrestling           physique
       labour            strength        prominent           way of life
       weight            fame            exceptional         life
       circus            wrestling       healthy             tour
       French            championship    sports              wrestler
       worldwide         lifting         victorious          sportsman
       world             activities      freestyle           technique
       honorary          family          sporting            wrestling
       4. Points for discussion.
       The wrestler's young years.
       Ivan Piddubny as a circus performer.
       Ivan Piddubny as a prominent world wrestler.

								
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