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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION INDRAPRASTHA ESTATE, RING ROAD NEW DELHI-110002
ANNUAL ESSAY PRIZE COMPETITION-2009
Entries are invited for the Annual Essay Prize Competion-2009. The value of the prize for the competition will be as under: First Prize Second Prize Third Prize Rs. 5,000/Rs. 3,000/Rs. 2,000/-
Any competitor who has got a prize on one occasion will not, on any subsequent occasion, be eligible for an equivalent or lower prize. The joint authorship of essays shall not be allowed and any essay under joint authorship shall not be considered for competition. The following subjects have been prescribed and it is open to competitors to choose any of them. 1. Domestic Violence in India: Causes, Consequences and Remedies 2. Globalisation and Economic Recession: The Indian Context 3. The Importance of Agriculture in Sustainable Economic Growth in India The essay writers are expected to cover the following aspects in their respective entries: Topic(1):Domestic Violence in India: Causes, Consequences and Remedies Background Note:
Domestic violence is a cognizable offence. It may be visible or invisible in subtle camouflaged forms. It may be said that any individual/or group subjected
2 to threat of coercion, verbal abuse or physical assault is subject to violence. Although women are more commonly victims of domestic violence it happens in all age groups, irrespective of gender, culture and socio-economic differences. Domestic violence comprises all acts of intimidation and aggression towards a family member. The violence can be psychological, physical, sexual or emotional. It can also be on “honour based violence” that includes female genital mutilation and forced marriage. According to an estimate, about 18 % of women are sexually abused in the U.S. It is reported that, in the U.S., 3 - 4 million women are battered by their husbands or partners. In Sweden, which ranks high in gender related indices. 66% of the reported cases of violence on women were of domestic assault. Wife battering is the commonest form of domestic violence and occurs worldwide, irrespective of class, religion and community. In India marital violence is associated with dowry disputes, son-preference and patriarchal notions of control over the female sex. Studies indicated that in India every day, 42 women are raped and 18 cases of dowry deaths occur every hour. History records violence against married women in India perpetrated by their husbands and relatives of husbands (Mother, sister or other elderly persons). It has been recognized as a criminal act in only the last two decades and a systematic effort has been made to estimate the magnitude of violence. It is found that domestic violence is influenced by attitudes towards women, socio-cultural norms, perceptions about their worth, position in the household and men’s self esteem rather than economic reasons. Violence against women varies among the States. More than 405 of women aged 15 to 49 reported having experienced physical or sexual violence in the States of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. While 20% women reported experiencing violence in Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka. A relatively high percentage of women battering reported in Tamil Nadu needs attention. According to the NFHS-2 survey in the country as a whole about 56% women said their husbands were justified in beating them while two out of three women in Tamil Nadu accepted violence as a justifiable act (NFHS-3). However about 16% of women reported that they were not permitted to meet even female friends. Drinking alcohol is associated with both physical and sexual violence. Seven out of 10 men who get drunk subjected their wives to violence against 3 out of 10 men who did not drink reported. Further studies reported that husbands who had witnessed their fathers beating their mothers as children were 4.7 times more likely to beat their wives and three times more likely to sexually coerce them than men who had not witnessed such violence – (Koening et al 2006).
3 The Domestic Violence Act (2005) is a significant law ensuring all aggrieved persons a safe residence in the shared household. This protects women from eviction by giving them the right to live in the same household. There are many features in this historical law that can prevent women from physical assault, abuse and harassment. Legal provisions are essential to fight this criminality but, along with legal protection, the community of a given society should be made alert and responsive, to address the crime. It is therefore a huge task that needs an integrated approach dealing with this heinous crime by educating people and enabling them to reduce the impact of such a malaise in the society. Domestic violence may occur in the family but soon it engulfs society as a whole. The present essay may highlight the issues that influence domestic violence in the light of the background note and analyze the root causes of such violence and their consequences for society. Topic (2): Globalisation and Economic Recession: The Indian Context Though the term globalization became popular since 1 January 1948 through the onset of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), it becomes a household name since 1 January 1995, when GATT was rechristened as the World Trade Organization (WTO). The basic objective of the WTO is to facilitate world trade by reducing and then eliminating both tariff and non tariff barriers to trade. Globalization is a misnomer. Its object is to enhance trade creation and minimize trade diversion through reduction in barriers, which results increase in income, employment and output of the partner countries. Finally it is welfare enhancing in that it increases employment, output and income of the nations by generating consumer and producers’ surplus and generating revenues for the countries which facilitate globalization by reducing trade barriers. Globalization can be defined as the process of worldwide integration of markets and economies. The process reflects the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, as well as the increased volume of international capital flows. It is based on today’s rapid and widespread diffusion of technology and ideas, and further promotes this process. It is mainly driven by technology and by the actions of individual economic actors. From its definition it is clear that globalization is an autonomous process of worldwide integration of markets and economies, which automatically facilitates free movement of goods and services as well as international capital flows. It is basically seen as an environment that no one can change, only to cope as it is not based on state induced policies in general, but rather on two
4 autonomous factors viz. (i) rapid and uninterrupted growth of technology, and (ii) individual economic actors without any national boundary. There has been host of studies showing the salutary effects of globalization in different countries viz. Vietnam, Cambodia, East European countries, China, other East Asian Countries and India. India has enjoyed uninterrupted growth of its economy since the early `nineties’ largely due to globalization, that a “brick and mortar economy” based on sound policies. Research is needed to find out in what ways globalization can enhance the prosperity of the global community in general and India in particular; how the modes of production can be optimal due to efficient allocation of resources based on comparative advantage rather than a purely “mercantilist approach”. A market economy is characterized by spurts and dips and is susceptible to different cyclical movements of real sectors of the economy. The process of globalization is not an exception to that. The success of globalization depends on how much open one’s economy is, and how best it is governed. Globalization ensures the free flow of international capital according to opportunity costs, coupled with a sound regulatory mechanism, to ensure optimal utilization based on transparency. Unfortunately, the USA’s overreliance of self-regulatory mechanisms failed to check skyrocketing consumption without being underpinned by matching income. The “Bretton Woods System” gave a licence to the USA to print dollars without any limit in order to meet ever burgeoning demand, because 60 per cent of the worlds tangible and non-tangible assets are held in terms of dollars, which perhaps it still the world’s numeraire or reserve currency. The USA’s involvement in long drawn out wars with Iraq and Afghanistan has drained much of its productive resources, which could otherwise have been used for productive purposes. Finally, the sub-prime crisis added fuel to the fire, where housing/mortgage loan provided by investment banks could not be recovered from the borrowers as their debt exceed their income. This led the collapse of several famous investment banks of the USA, and affected other sectors of the economy. Bad debts and reduced lending led to a lack of liquidity in the market and demand for goods and services plummeted. Alhough India its had a lower exposure to the external sector, its exports have been hard hit by reduced demand emerging from the USA and other western countries. The Indian stock market is the barometer of the investment climate in India received a serious setback, and some Flls sold Indian stocks in a panic, which brought the Sensex down. The RBI’s three Stimulus Packages have yet to take effect. The I.T. sector is mostly export dependent, but demand has plummeted.
5 The paper writer is expected to establish a linkage between globalization and world recession. It should also mention the pros and cons of globalization and how India is getting integrated with the ongoing process of globalization and in what ways it becomes a member of the global village. What are the negative spillovers of globalization and the role of the government to minimize them. What are the developmental dimensions of globalization and how it is addressed by governments? It is also pertinent to examine whether the crisis is governance or market future. Finally, the paper writer has to say where India stands in the face of global financial meltdown and how it can rejuvenate its economy. Topic (3): The Importance of Agriculture in Sustainable Economic Growth in India For long it was believed that India was essentially an agrarian society and the share of agriculture in the GDP was also, until recently, quite high. This general perception of India, however, has undergone a major change during the last two decades. There has been a sudden spurt in the service sector, accounting for a little over half of the total GDP, while the manufacturing sector has not registered an impressive growth during the corresponding period. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP has progressively declined over the last few years. In this changing scenario, the economic growth in India is no longer conditioned by the growth of its agriculture sector, though two-thirds of the people reside in the villages. Non-agriculture employment has significantly expanded over the years, creating additional employment opportunities for the redundant agricultural labour and marginal farmers, but there is still distress migration (both intra and inter-state) in the country. A question which arises, is whether there are too many people engaged in agriculture, and whether migration to the cities is a) inevitable and b) desirable Agricultural growth has stagnated, and this is contributed to erratic rainfall, the collapse of agriculture extension services, a largely dysfunctional institutional credit system and a shrinking base of canal irrigation. It may also be mentioned that the `green revolution’ of the 1970s did not cover the entire farm landscape in the country. It brought prosperity to the north-western part of the country.
6 The agriculture extension services were long forgotten with the creation of multiple structures, either duplicating or combining the role of revenue officials with that of agricultural development The institutional credit system may have contributed to farmers’ suicides during the last few years and because of its inadequate financial support, farmers were driven to the arms of money lenders. Again, while millions go hungry, warehouses are overflowing. Would this be the fault of agriculture pricing which creates distortions? There is also a social dimension The educated children of farmers are no longer interested in adopting their parent's back-breaking occupation. This can lead to migration, or the transfer of land to industry, by acquisition of farm land for setting up industries, or 'special economic zones' (SEZs). ♣ To improve agricultural production, should we focus on land reforms the average farm size in India already too small? or is
♣ Will employment schemes like NREGS help agriculture, or enhancing food processing capacity, contract farming, crop insurance and loan waivers, B.T. crops, export support or price support? A competitor may attempt a comprehensive survey of all these factors or may opt for focusing only on problems of a specific sector. These are flexible guidelines, illustrative rather than comprehensive. The competitors may not feel in any way rigidly bound with them. Essay should be based on personal research or experience of the competitors and show evidence of original thinking and scholarship as well as a critical analysis of the subject. Broad generalizations should be avoided. The essay should be in English or Hindi. The length of an essay should approximately be 5000 words and the competitors must indicate the total number of words of the essay contributed by them. Essays exceeding 5,500 words will not be accepted. The contestants must indicate the total number of words of the failing which it will not be accepted. All essays must be typed in double space on one side of the paper only and those entries which do not adhere to the stipulation can be rejected. It should be submitted in triplicate under a “nom-deplume” or alias. The full name and address of the competitor should be given on a separate sheet and enclosed in a sealed envelope bearing the nom-deplume on the outer cover with the following inscription.
7 “Annual Essay Prize Competiton-2009, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. All essays should be sent to the Director, Indian Institute of Public Administration, Indraprastha Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi-110002, by Registered Post, so as to reach him not later than the 31st August, 2009. The envelope should be marked “Annual Essay Prize Competition 2009”. The entries received after the due date may not be entertained. The essays will be adjudged by a body of judges selected by the Executive Council of the institute and the award of the judges shall be final. The institute reserves the right not to make any award if none of the essays submitted meets the necessary standard. Any essay which receives an award shall become the joint intellectual property of the author and IIPA. _______________________________________________________________ N.B.: Intending competitors who wish to seek any further clarification may write to The Director, Indian Institute of Public Administration, Indraprastha Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi-110002.