Cordoba and Toledo captured by Christians Granada remained Muslim till 1492 Inquisition King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted to unite Spain as a by Z2I0YM

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									  The
Crusades
   Europe’s
 Unsuccessful
Takeover of the
  Holy Land
               The Holy Land
► Jerusalem   – The Sacred City
   For Jews, it is the spiritual capital which
    Solomon’s Temple once stood.
   For Muslims, it is believed to be the place where
    Muhammad rose to heaven
   For Christians it is the place where Jesus Christ
    was crucified and rose from the dead.
► Jerusalem was under Muslim rule since the
 7th Century.
   Pilgrimage: A journey to a holy site
► During  the Middle
  Ages religious faith
  led pilgrims travel
  long distances. They
  sought cures to
  illnesses, forgiveness
  of sins and to show
  their devotion to God.
► Travel was dangerous
  and difficult: robbers
  were a constant
  threat.
Pilgrims
   Precursor to
    Crusades
► By1095, Turks advance
 borders to within 100
 miles of Constantinople


                           ► Byzantine Emperor
                             seeks help from Pope.
                           ► Pope Urban II calls on
                             European Kings to send
                             nobles to drive back
                             Muslims and reclaim
                             Jerusalem
  Motivations for
    Crusaders
► Nobles   wanted to gain new
  lands
► Power and Influence
► Faith – many wore a red
  Cross on their chest to
  symbolize devotion
   Crusades – Latin word crux
    meaning “cross”
► Merchants  – earn money
  through trade
       1st   Crusade 1099 C.E.
► Muslims   were surprised
   Christians were not as advanced, but Muslims
    were divided and weakened by war
► Frenchand Norman Knights took
 Jerusalem
   Crusaders massacred Jews, Muslims and even
    Christians living in the city
    ►Survivors   sold into slavery
   Jerusalem remained Christian for 80 years
           2nd Crusade 1148 C.E.
► German and French invaders were beaten badly by
 a more organized Muslim defense.
       3rd   Crusade 1187-1192 C.E.
► Salah  al-Din, Sultan
  of Egypt recaptured
  Jerusalem for the
  Muslims
► Does not slaughter
  Christians, he lets
  them pay for their
  freedom
► For this, he was
  well respected in
  Europe
3rd Crusade   ► King Richard I of England
                (Richard the Lionheart)
(Continued)     fought Salah al-Din for
                Jerusalem
                 Both armies weakened by
                  fighting
              ► Stalemate outside city walls –
                peace treaty
  Short Term Affect of the Crusades
► After 10 Crusades and
  over 100 years,
  Europeans only
  controlled Jerusalem
  briefly after the first
  Crusade.
    Long term Affects of the Crusades
► They weakened the remaining Byzantine Empire and left it
  open to Turkish attack.
► European kings gained authority while lords were on the
  Crusades.
► Contact with the Byzantines, the Muslims and Jewish
  communities in the East led to a greater interest in
  learning.
► Created demand for good from the East: silk,spices,
  lemons and cloth. (This demand for goods also led to a
  demand for NEW TRADE ROUTES.)

►   The Crusades help to breakdown feudalism in western
    Europe.
                   Reconquista
► Christians   plan to retake Spain from Muslim rule
   Muslims, Jews and Christians lived in some cities
    together in peace
        Reconquista (Continued)
► Muslims were divided and the Christians once again
  took advantage of weakness
► Cordoba
  and Toledo
  captured
  by
  Christians
► Granada
  remained
  Muslim till
  1492
                   Inquisition
► King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted
  to unite Spain as a Catholic country
► Muslims and Jews forced to convert were
  now called into question by judges
   Inquisitors used torture to find out if converts
    were practicing old religion
     ►Thousands   were burned at the stake
   Nearly 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain
Inquisition
              ► Circa 1500, A
               prisoner
               undergoing
               torture at the
               hands of the
               Spanish
               Inquisition.
              ► Monks in the
               background
               wait for his
               confession
               with quill and
               paper.

								
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