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The Crusades Europe’s Unsuccessful Takeover of the Holy Land The Holy Land ► Jerusalem – The Sacred City For Jews, it is the spiritual capital which Solomon’s Temple once stood. For Muslims, it is believed to be the place where Muhammad rose to heaven For Christians it is the place where Jesus Christ was crucified and rose from the dead. ► Jerusalem was under Muslim rule since the 7th Century. Pilgrimage: A journey to a holy site ► During the Middle Ages religious faith led pilgrims travel long distances. They sought cures to illnesses, forgiveness of sins and to show their devotion to God. ► Travel was dangerous and difficult: robbers were a constant threat. Pilgrims Precursor to Crusades ► By1095, Turks advance borders to within 100 miles of Constantinople ► Byzantine Emperor seeks help from Pope. ► Pope Urban II calls on European Kings to send nobles to drive back Muslims and reclaim Jerusalem Motivations for Crusaders ► Nobles wanted to gain new lands ► Power and Influence ► Faith – many wore a red Cross on their chest to symbolize devotion Crusades – Latin word crux meaning “cross” ► Merchants – earn money through trade 1st Crusade 1099 C.E. ► Muslims were surprised Christians were not as advanced, but Muslims were divided and weakened by war ► Frenchand Norman Knights took Jerusalem Crusaders massacred Jews, Muslims and even Christians living in the city ►Survivors sold into slavery Jerusalem remained Christian for 80 years 2nd Crusade 1148 C.E. ► German and French invaders were beaten badly by a more organized Muslim defense. 3rd Crusade 1187-1192 C.E. ► Salah al-Din, Sultan of Egypt recaptured Jerusalem for the Muslims ► Does not slaughter Christians, he lets them pay for their freedom ► For this, he was well respected in Europe 3rd Crusade ► King Richard I of England (Richard the Lionheart) (Continued) fought Salah al-Din for Jerusalem Both armies weakened by fighting ► Stalemate outside city walls – peace treaty Short Term Affect of the Crusades ► After 10 Crusades and over 100 years, Europeans only controlled Jerusalem briefly after the first Crusade. Long term Affects of the Crusades ► They weakened the remaining Byzantine Empire and left it open to Turkish attack. ► European kings gained authority while lords were on the Crusades. ► Contact with the Byzantines, the Muslims and Jewish communities in the East led to a greater interest in learning. ► Created demand for good from the East: silk,spices, lemons and cloth. (This demand for goods also led to a demand for NEW TRADE ROUTES.) ► The Crusades help to breakdown feudalism in western Europe. Reconquista ► Christians plan to retake Spain from Muslim rule Muslims, Jews and Christians lived in some cities together in peace Reconquista (Continued) ► Muslims were divided and the Christians once again took advantage of weakness ► Cordoba and Toledo captured by Christians ► Granada remained Muslim till 1492 Inquisition ► King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted to unite Spain as a Catholic country ► Muslims and Jews forced to convert were now called into question by judges Inquisitors used torture to find out if converts were practicing old religion ►Thousands were burned at the stake Nearly 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain Inquisition ► Circa 1500, A prisoner undergoing torture at the hands of the Spanish Inquisition. ► Monks in the background wait for his confession with quill and paper.
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