AP US HISTORY ELMORE SPRING 2007 UNIT NINE: THE ROARING TWENTIES AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION The Great Depression was one of the most pivotal events in American history. During the 1920s, the United States isolated itself politically from the outside world. The dramatic changes initiated by the Progressive reformers and the social disruption caused by US involvement in World War I produced a counter-reaction toward a more laissez-faire approach to the economy and society and a “return to normalcy”, a phrase coined by Warren Harding during his campaign for the presidency in 1920. The economy was booming, the American people were content, and America seemed satisfied with following the credo of President Calvin Coolidge that “the business of America is business.” The Age of Jazz and the New Era of consumption were triumphant. Yet underneath the superficial gloss of prosperity and consensus lay the tensions and contradictions that would ultimately lead to the most severe and prolonged economic recession in American history- the Great Depression. This economic crisis was caused by several factors, but among the more important factors were the extreme disparities in wealth between social classes that became even more exacerbated during the 1920s, the increasing marginalization of groups like immigrants, industrial workers, African-Americans, and women, and the passive role of the government in addressing the country’s problems. Also underlying this era was a growing conflict between rural and urban America, along with those supporting “modern” and “traditional” values. All of this changed during the Great Depression. Politicians and national leaders were no longer able to ignore the crucial economic, political, and social issues of the day. The emergence of Franklin Roosevelt and his New Deal for the American people helped to bring the US out of depression, but more importantly, introduced changes into the American political system, economic system, and culture that are still felt today. By the time of Roosevelt’s death in 1945, the US had transformed itself from a country that was primarily isolationist to the world’s greatest superpower and policeman, from a laissez-faire government that favored businesses to a proactive government that saw improving the lives of all Americans as part of its fundamental mission, from a society in which elites were expected to be given more power and opportunity to a society in which citizens demanded and received a certain degree of equality, from a nation that sought to ignore its problems by pretending that they did not exist to a nation that tackled problems with energy, enthusiasm, and, to some extent, recklessness. These changes were not without controversy and have shaped the nature and substance of political debates and divisions in the latter half of the 20th Century. While one may not approve of all of the changes that or did not take place during this era, one can hardly dispute that the New Deal Era marks one of the most profound watersheds in American history. UNIT EXAM: Thursday, March 8th (100 points) READING ASSIGNMENTS: Brinkley, Chs. 24, 25, & 26
Friday, March 2nd (Chapters 24 and 25) 40 points Monday, March 5th (ATF Chapter 12 Quiz) 20 points Tuesday, March 6th (Chapter 26) 25 points
KEY TOPICS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Economic Prosperity during the Roaring 20s American Government in the 1920s: Retreat from Reform American Society during the Roaring 20s: Unity or Division? Causes of the Great Depression Life During the Great Depression Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal Critics of the New Deal Effects of the New Deal
WRITING ASSIGNMENTS: 1) ATF CHAPTER 11 WORKSHEET Due Wednesday February 28th (25 points) Complete the attached worksheet based on Chapter 11 of your ATF text. 2) IN-CLASS DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION: Friday, March 9th (75 points) You will be required to write a standard DBQ-essay based on the DBQ contained in this unit planner. You will be allowed to use your own copy of the DBQ with your own notations. EXAM REVIEW SHEET KEY TERMS: Warren G. Harding The New Economy early computers/ MIT General Motors Henry Ford pink collar jobs Issei/Nisei open shop parity automobile Hollywood Harry Emerson Fosdick companionate marriage The New Era radio Gregor Mendel trade associations Model T A. Philip Randolph barrios United Mine Workers McNary-Haughen Bill The Man Nobody Knows The Jazz Singer professional women Margaret Sanger Roaring 20s commercial aviation genetic research welfare capitalism William Green Great Migration the American Plan mechanized farming consumerism mass circulation magazines Al Jolson behaviorists birth control
flappers National Woman’s Party Alice Paul Equal Rights Amendment League of Women Voters Sheppard-Towner Act Education dance halls youth culture “self-made man” Thomas Edison Charles Lindbergh Lost Generation Ernest Hemingway H.L. Mencken Sinclair Lewis F. Scott Fitzgerald Charles and Mary Beard Harlem Renaissance Cotton Club Langston Hughes Claude McKay The Fugitives Prohibition Al Capone Nativism quota system National Origins Act of 1924 Ku Klux Klan D.W. Griffith The Birth of a Nation traditional values David Stephenson religious fundamentalism American Civil Liberties Union John Scopes Clarence Darrow William Jennings Bryan Alfred E Smith Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover the Ohio Gang Teapot Dome Scandal Albert Fall Robert LaFollette Andrew Mellon associationalism stock market boom Black Tuesday J.P. Morgan Great Depression lack of diversification maldistribution of wealth credit structure international trade international debt structure reparations banking collapse contraction global depression Federal Reserve Board Dow Jones Industrial Average unemployment rates bread lines personal responsibility Dust Bowl black blizzards Okies Black Shirts Scottsboro Boys NAACP Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Chicanos Japanese American Citizens League female employment success ethic Dale Carnegie John Steinbeck Farm Security Administration Richard Wright John Dos Passos radio comedies escapist programming Frank Capra Walt Disney The Wizard of Oz Gone with the Wind Margaret Mitchell American Communist Party John L. Lewis Francisco Franco Abraham Lincoln brigade Spanish Civil War Socialist Party of America Norman Thomas Southern Tenant Farmers Union The Grapes of Wrath voluntarism balanced budget Agricultural Marketing Act Hawley-Smoot Tariff Hoovervilles Reconstruction Finance Corporation Farmer’s Holiday Association Bonus March Douglas McArthur Franklin Delano Roosevelt banking crisis bank holiday fireside chats Emergency Banking Act Economy Act Twenty First Amendment Hundred Days Henry Wallace Agriculture Adjustment Act domestic allotment New Deal Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act Resettlement Administration Farm Security Administration Rural Electrification Administration National Industrial Recovery Act National Recovery Administration Hugh Johnson “blanket code” minimum wage Section 7(a) Public Works Administration Schecter Poultry Case Tennessee Valley Authority Glass-Steagall Act Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Truth in Securities Act
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Federal Emergency Relief Administration Harry Hopkins Civil Works Administration Civilian Conservation Corps Farm Credit Administration Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act Home Owners Loan Corporation Federal Housing Administration Second New Deal Keynesianism (“pump priming”) American Liberty League Dr. Francis Townshend Social Security system Father Charles Coughlin Senator Huey Long Share-Our-Wealth Plan Second New Deal income taxes National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) American Federation of Labor (AFL) industrial unionism John Lewis (United Mine Workers) United Auto Workers Little Steel Memorial Day Massacre Frances Perkins Social Security Act unemployment insurance Works Progress Administration Aid to Dependent Children Federal Writers Project Alf Landon Electoral realignment New Deal Coalition comic books court-packing plan “Roosevelt recession” of 1937 Fair Labor Standards Act “broker state” “black cabinet” Robert Weaver New Deal segregation Eleanor Roosevelt John Collier Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 Hattie Caraway New Deal and the West legacy of the New Deal welfare state ESSAY QUESTIONS: 1. “The business of government is business!” Explain the significance of this statement in terms of US government policies in the 1920s and the long term impact of those policies. 2. “While many Americans were enjoying economic prosperity during the 1920s, there was also increasing social conflict.” Assess the validity of this statement with regard to three of the following: fundamentalism, Ku Klux Klan, prohibition, nativism, or the Sacco and Vanzetti case. 3. Explain the immediate and long-term problems in the nation’s economy and world trade that led to the Great Depression. 4. Compare and contrast Herbert Hoover’s and Franklin Roosevelt’s approach to the Great Depression. Summarize the effectiveness of each approach. 5. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal represented a radical departure from previous American traditions in government and political economy. Assess the validity of this statement. 6. During the First New Deal, Franklin Roosevelt tried to provide for “Relief, Recovery, and Reform.” What did he do to try to accomplish this? 7. “Those on the right criticized the New Deal for attempting too much, while those on the left criticized it for not doing enough.” Illustrate this statement with reference to the views from each side.
8. “Roosevelt’s first New Deal favored business, while his second New Deal favored labor.” Assess the validity of this statement. 9. Describe and account for the rise of nativism in American society between 1900 and 1930. 10. How successful were the New Deal programs in solving the problems of the Great Depression? Assess with respect to TWO of the following: Relief, Recovery, Reform 11. Compare and contrast the programs and policies designed by reformers of the Progressive era to those designed by reformers of the New Deal period. Confine your answer to the programs and policies that addressed the needs of those living in poverty. 12. Historians have argued that Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920’s. Evaluate this statement with regard to TWO of the following: regulation of business; labor; immigrants. 13. How did TWO of the following shape American national culture in the 1920’s? Advertising; Entertainment; Mass production