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					                                       Chapter 13 Ensuring a Safe and Healthy Work Environment



                               CHAPTER 13
             ENSURING A SAFE AND HEALTHY WORK ENVIRONMENT


                                 CHAPTER OVERVIEW

The opening vignette is about workplace violence – an epidemic according the too
Centers for Disease Control. The author points out that although this is a serious
issue, many companies are not prepared to cope with worker violence. The chapter
itself deals with both traditional and new topics in health and safety. The first part of the
chapter provides information on the Occupational Safety and Health Act, including
requirements, punitive actions and a critique. Next, issues related to both safety and
health in the workplace are summarized, with separate sections on stress, employee
assistance programs and wellness programs.              Guidelines for the international
environment conclude the chapter.

Additional Features of this Chapter

       Exhibits 13-1, 13-2, 13-3 and “Workplace Issue: OSHA and Needlesticks”
       provide information related to OSHA.

       Exhibit 13-4 contains a “Material Safety Data Sheet”.

       Exhibit 13-5 provides suggested mechanisms to prevent accidents.

       “Ethical Issues in HRM: Safety and Health Programs” explores smoking as a
       right versus health issue.

       “Did You Know: Employees Wasting Time at Work” concerns the Internet’s
       impact on productivity.

       Exhibit 13-7 lists variable found to be related to burnout.

       “Workplace Issues: The Obese Need Not Apply” discusses the prevalence of
       obesity and raises questions concerning discrimination.


                ADDITIONAL LECTURE OR ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS

The material in this chapter may seem new and different and, in many organizations,
health and safety issues are managed by a separate department from Human
Resources. It’s helpful to point out the interdisciplinary nature of health and safety
activities; e.g. medical personnel, industrial hygienists and other technically-trained
personnel may work with the HR specialists and line managers to keep the workplace
safe. It’s also helpful to remind students about previous topics, such as planning and

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job design which are very relevant to the successful design and implementation of
health and safety programs.

Students often have good examples from their own work experiences of unhealthy or
unsafe employment conditions. For each example, discuss the employer’s and
employee’s responsibilities, as well as suggestions for making the workplace healthier.
Always bring up the question of how much it would cost to implement a suggestion, and
whether the benefits would justify the cost to the employer.


                  CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE SUGGESTIONS

I. Introduction

   A. Management has both legal and moral responsibilities to provide a safe and
      healthy workplace.

   B. Work-related accidents, injuries, and illnesses are costly.

II. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

   A. 1970 Federal legislation
      1. Established health and safety standards.
      2. Authorized inspections and fines for violations.
      3. Empowered OSH Administration to ensure standards are met.
      4. Requires employers to keep records of illnesses and injuries, and calculate
         accident ratios.
      5. Applies to almost every U.S. business engaged in interstate commerce.

   B. OSHA Enforcement Priorities
      1. Imminent danger: Where an accident is about to occur.
      2. Accidents that have led to serious injuries or death. Employer must report
         within 8 hours.
      3. Employee complaints: Employees have right to call OSHA.
      4. Inspection of industries with the highest injury or illness rates: chemical
         processing, roofing and sheet metal, meat processing, lumber and wood
         products, mobile homes and campers, stevedoring. Additionally, special
         emphasis is placed on the handling of hazardous waste.
      5. Random inspection: Supreme Court ruled (Marshall v. Barlow’s Inc., 1978)
         that employers are not required to let OSHA inspectors enter without search
         warrants. Most attorneys recommend companies cooperate with inspectors.

   C. OSHA’s Record-Keeping Requirements
      1. Basis for record-keeping is Form 300 (See Figure 13-2).
      2. Must report any work-related illness; report injuries that require medical
         treatment besides first aid, involve loss of consciousness, restriction of work
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         or motion, or transfer to another job. See decision-making schematic, Figure
         13-3.
      3. Incidence rate: Number of illnesses, injuries or lost workdays per 100 full-
         time workers.

   D. OSHA Punitive Actions
      1. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 allows fines up to $70,000 if
         violation is severe, willful and repetitive.
      2. Fines can be for safety violations or failure to keep adequate records.
      3. Courts have backed criminal charges against executives when they have
         willfully violated health and safety laws.

   E. OSHA: A Critique
      1. OSHA has made organizations more aware of health and safety.
      2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been
         researching and setting standards for new areas; i.e. blood-borne pathogens,
         chemical process safety, motor vehicle safety, protective equipment, and
         ergonomics.
      3. Hazard Communication Standard, (1983), requires organizations to
         communicate information about hazardous chemicals on the job by labeling
         containers, distributing data sheets, and training employees in their safe
         handling.
      4. Since 9/11 has provided assistance on contingency planning to deal with
         emergencies.

III. Job Safety Programs

   A. Costs of Accidents
      1. Workers’ compensation premiums.
      2. Time lost due to injury.
      3. Time to investigate/report accidents.
      4. Damage to equipment/materials.
      5. Work stoppages/personnel changeover.

   B. Causes of Accidents:     Accidents are generally classified as human or
      environmental.
      1. Human causes responsible for majority of accidents.
      2. Environmental causes include tools, equipment, physical plant, general work
         environment.




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   C. Preventative Measures: Summarized in Table 13-5.
      1. Education
      2. Skill training
      3. Engineering
      4. Protection devices
      5. Regulation enforcement.

   D. Ensuring Job Safety
      1. Management needs feedback from inspections, reports, and observations.
      2. Safety should be part of organizational culture.
      3. Top management must be committed to safety.
      4. Safety committees empower employees to maintain a safe environment.

   E. A Safety Issue: Workplace Violence.
      1. Homicide is in the top three causes of work-related deaths in the USA. Two
         significant contributing factors:
         a. Domestic violence
         b. Disgruntled employees
      2. Recommended HRM actions:
         a. Develop a plan, including review of policies and employee treatment.
         b. Train supervisory personnel to identify and deal with troubled employees.
         c. Implement stronger security mechanisms.
         d. Prepare employees to deal with violent situations.

IV. Maintaining a Healthy Work Environment

   A. Sick buildings are office environments that contain harmful airborne chemicals,
      asbestos, or indoor pollution. Suggestions for keeping the environment healthy
      include:
      1. Making sure workers get enough fresh air.
      2. Avoiding suspect building materials and furnishings.
      3. Testing new buildings for toxins before occupancy.
      4. Providing a smoke-free environment.
      5. Keeping air ducts clean and dry.
      6. Paying attention to workers’ complaints.

   B. The Smoke-Free Environment
      1. Costs of smokers include increased health premiums, absenteeism, lost
         productivity due to smoke breaks, maintenance costs, harm to coworkers by
         second-hand smoke.
      2. Smoke-free policies at work include banning smoking or restricting it to
         properly ventilated designated areas.
      3. Employees should be involved in phase-in of programs.
      4. Some employers offer incentives and help for employees to stop smoking.


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   C. Repetitive Stress Injuries
      1. Also referred to as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Injuries resulting from
         continuous, repetitive movements, such as typing. The most frequent injury
         is carpal tunnel syndrome, which occurs in the wrist.
      2. Ergonomics, or fitting the work environment to the individual, can prevent
         repetitive motion injuries. Includes design of environment and furniture to fit
         the individual.

V. Defining Stress

   A. Definition
      1. Dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with opportunity,
         constraint or demand related to what he or she desires for which outcome is
         uncertain and important.
      2. May be caused by either positive factors (opportunities) or negative.
      3. The Japanese concept of karoshi, death from overworking, illustrates the
         pervasive nature of stress.

   B. Common Causes of Stress - Stress can be grouped into two major categories:
      organizational and personal.
      1. Organizational Factors
         a. Task demands include job design, working conditions, the physical layout,
            and work quotas.
         b. Role demands include role conflicts, role overload and role ambiguity.
         c. Interpersonal demands include lack of social support and poor
            interpersonal relationships.
         d. Organizational structure causes include excessive rules and lack of
            opportunity to participate.
         e. Organizational leadership causes include supervisory styles which cause
            unrealistic pressures, tight controls, and the threat of job loss.
      2. Personal Factors
         a. Family issues
         b. Personal economic problems
         c. Inherent personality characteristics: Some individuals may have a
            tendency to accentuate negative aspects of life. Type A employees are
            more likely to show symptoms of stress and typically have a chronic sense
            of time urgency and excessive competitive drive.

   C. Symptoms of Stress
      1. Physiological symptoms (increased blood pressure, headaches, increased
         pulse rate, etc.) are the most difficult to observe.
      2. Psychological symptoms (increased tension and anxiety, boredom,
         procrastination, etc.) can lead to productivity decreases.
      3. Behavioral symptoms (increased smoking or substance consumption, sleep
         disorders, etc.) also affect the organization.

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  D. Reducing Stress – HRM’s Role
     1. HRM approaches include matching individuals to their jobs, clarifying
        expectations, redesigning jobs, and offering involvement and participation.
     2. Dilemmas for HRM include balancing the need to energize people with the
        need to minimize dysfunctional stress, and deciding how much an employer
        can intrude on employees’ personal lives.

  E. A Special Case of Stress: Burnout
     1. Burnout is a function of three concerns:
        a. Chronic emotional stress with emotional and/or physical exhaustion
        b. Lowered job productivity
        c. Dehumanizing of jobs
     2. Causes and symptoms of burnout:
        a. Organization characteristics
        b. Perceptions of organization
        c. Perceptions of role
        d. Individual characteristics
        e. Outcomes
     3. Reducing burnout - four techniques are proposed:
        a. Identification
        b. Prevention
        c. Mediation
        d. Remediation

VI. The Employee Assistance Program

  A. A Brief History of EAPs
     1. Extension of 1940-era programs to help employees with alcohol-related
        problems; now exist in about half of U.S. organizations.
     2. Cost-effective counseling to help employees overcome problems such as
        substance abuse, bereavement, child-parent problems, marriage problems,
        and remain productive on the job.

  B. EAPs Today
     1. Provides employees visits with counselors at company expense; usually visits
        are off-site.
     2. Help control rising health insurance costs.
     3. Employees and supervisors must be familiar with and trust the program and
        perceive EAPs as worthwhile.
     4. Confidentiality is guaranteed.
     5. For every dollar spent on EAP programs, studies estimate a return of $5.00 to
        $16.00 in savings.

  C. Wellness Programs/Disease Management: Programs to keep employees
     healthy and avoid certain diseases - include smoking cessation, physical fitness,
     weight control, etc.
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        1.   Designed to cut employer health costs and lower absenteeism.
        2.   Employees must view programs as having value.
        3.   Must have top management support.
        4.   Should also provide services for employees’ families.
        5.   Need opportunities for employee input.

VII.    International Safety and Health Issues

     A. Cultural differences exist in laws and expectations regarding safe working
        conditions.

     B. International Health Issues:
        1. An up-to-date health certificate providing records of employee vaccinations.
        2. General First Aid Kit should include over-the-counter and prescription
            medications and other supplies that might not be available to U.S. workers
            abroad.
        3. Emergency plans help expatriates anticipate medical needs and locate
            resources.

     C. International Safety Issues
        1. U.S. Department of State “hotline” provides travel alerts about such issues as
            terrorist activity or disease outbreaks.
        2. Security concerns prompt recommendations regarding travel modes, attire,
            and “blending in”.


             DEMONSTRATING COMPREHENSION: Questions for Review

1.      What are the objectives of the Occupational Safety and Health Act?

        The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) outlines comprehensive and
        specific safety and health standards. Its objectives are to ensure that the
        workplace is free from unnecessary hazards, and to enforce sanctions and
        penalties for violators.

2.      Describe the priorities of OSHA investigations.

        OSHA has a five-step priority enforcement process consisting of imminent
        danger, serious accidents, employee complaints, inspection of targeted
        industries, and random inspections. Imminent danger refers to a situation in
        which an accident is about to occur. Serious accidents means that when death
        or serious injury occurs, an organization has 8 hours to report the incident to
        OSHA. Employee complaints are used when a worker sees a violation of OSHA
        standards and may refuse to work until OSHA has investigated the complaint.
        Industries with high incidence rates are targeted for routine inspection: meat
        processing, chemical processing, roofing and sheet metal, lumber and wood
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     products, mobile homes and campers, and stevedoring. Random inspections are
     conducted as time permits. OSHA inspectors can enter a workplace to make
     sure the company is in compliance; however, employers are not required to let
     OSHA inspectors enter the premises unless they have search warrants.

3.   Identify three methods of preventing accidents.

     The text mentions five methods to prevent accidents: education, skills training,
     engineering, protection devices, and regulation enforcement.

     Education: Create safety awareness by posting highly visible signs with safety
     slogans, placing articles on accident prevention in organization newsletters, and
     requiring periodic safety updates by supervisors. Posting the number of days
     without a lost-day accident and informing employees about accidents that do
     occur can increase awareness.

     Skills Training: Incorporate accident prevention measures into the job learning
     process.

     Engineering: Prevent accidents through both the design of the equipment and
     the design of the jobs themselves. This may also include eliminating those
     factors that promote operator fatigue, boredom, and daydreaming.

     Protection Devices: Provide protective equipment where necessary. This may
     include safety shoes, gloves, hard hats, safety glasses, and noise mufflers.
     Protection also includes performing preventative maintenance on machinery.

     Regulation enforcement: The best safety rules and regulations will be ineffective
     in reducing accidents if they are not enforced. Additionally, if such rules are not
     enforced, the employer may be liable for any injuries that occur.

4.   How are incidence rates calculated? What do the results indicate?

     Incidence rates are calculated: (N/EH) x 200,000, where

     N = number of injuries and/or illness or lost workdays
     EH = total hours worked by all employees during the year
     (200,000 is the base hour rate equivalent (100 workers x 40 hours a week x 50
     weeks per year).

     Incidence rates indicate the number of injuries, illnesses, or lost workdays as it
     relates to a common base of full-time employees. If a company’s incidence rate
     is higher than its industry average, OSHA may want to investigate.




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5.   What is stress? How can it be positive?

     Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an
     opportunity, constraint, or demand for which the outcome is perceived to be both
     important and uncertain. Stress can be positive when there is an opportunity for
     the individual to gain something. Being “psyched” is an example of positive
     stress.

6.   Differentiate between physiological, psychological and behavioral stress
     symptoms.

     Physiological symptoms include increased heart and breathing rates, increased
     blood pressure, headaches, increased risk of heart attacks and changes in
     metabolism.

     Psychological symptoms of stress include increased tension and anxiety,
     boredom, and procrastination.

     Behavioral symptoms of stress include changes in eating habits, rapid speech,
     sleep disorders, and increased consumption of alcohol or tobacco or other
     drugs.

7.   What can an organization do to help prevent workplace violence?

     An organization can help prevent workplace violence by ensuring that its policies
     are not adversely affecting employees, by developing a plan to deal with the
     issue, and by training its managers in identifying troubled employees.

8.    Describe how EAPs and wellness programs help an organization to
     control rising medical costs.

     Employee assistance and wellness programs are designed to offer employees a
     variety of services that will help them become mentally and physically healthy,
     which in turn reduces absenteeism and productivity losses due to accidents and
     decreases turnover. Healthier employees also use their medical benefits less,
     which keeps premium costs down.

9.   What must an organization do differently with respect to health and safety
     when operating in another country?

     Companies begin by preparing a health-related checklist which typically includes:
          1.    An up-to-date health certificate which includes a record of current
                inoculations and general physical condition.


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           2.     A general first aid kit equipped with all over-the-counter
                  medications that the employee usually takes, plus all prescription
                  medication.
           3.      Emergency plans which include medical and dental facilities, and
                  evacuation routes.
           2.     Security issues must also be addressed.


          LINKING CONCEPTS TO PRACTICE: Discussion Questions

1.   “Safety and health practices are good business decisions.”                      Build an
     argument supporting this statement.

     Accident costs can substantially add to the cost of doing business and affect a
     company’s profits. Aside from the direct costs of the accident, there are indirect
     costs as well. These include wages paid for time lost due to injury, damage to
     equipment and materials, personnel to investigate and report on accidents, and
     lost production due to stoppage and personnel changeover. Additionally,
     employee morale and productivity are negatively affected if employees feel their
     work environment is not as safe as it should be.

2.   “OSHA inspections can become a cat-and-mouse maneuvering activity for
     organizations. This doesn’t serve the interest of the organization, the
     employees, or OSHA.” Do you agree or disagree? Explain your response.

     Agree. While most companies do take a proactive stance on safety issues, there
     are a minority of companies who will skimp on safety if implementing safety
     features negatively affects the bottom line. These are the companies who will try
     to avoid OSHA inspections, or if one occurs, will try to cover up any known
     deficiencies. Everyone loses when a company takes that approach.

3.   “Employers should be concerned with helping employees cope with stress,
     both job-related stress and off-the-job-related stress” Do you agree or
     disagree? Discuss.

     Agree. Individuals have different tolerances for, and attitudes toward, stress.
     When an employee’s reaction to stress affects work, the supervisor can step in.
     The supervisor is not expected to be a counselor, but should take appropriate
     steps to keep job performance on target and to offer available help to the
     employee. Proactive employers recognize the benefits of preventing negative
     stress, and try to design jobs and work environments to minimize its occurrence.
     They also recognize the costs of stress, and may provide help in the form of
     counseling or wellness programs to help those employees who are experiencing
     stress. Off-the-job stress can certainly impact job performance, so it is
     worthwhile to provide resources to help employees manage all forms of stress,
     and to monitor job performance.
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4.    “Supervisors should know which employees are having troubles and may
     ultimately cause harm to other employees. When they identify such an
     individual, they should take some action to ensure that the employee
     receives assistance before a disaster strikes.”   Build an argument
     supporting this statement and one that does not.

     In support. Supervisors should be trained in how to identify troubled employees.
     If they believe an employee may pose a problem and needs assistance, they
     should not deal with the employee themselves, but should notify the human
     resource office and let them determine how to proceed. Trained supervisors can
     help prevent violence in the workplace.

     Not in support. Employees need to leave their personal problems at home. If
     they can’t function effectively at work, they should leave. Supervisors are not
     trained mental health professionals and could do more harm than good if they try
     to interfere.

5.   Some medical experts believe that regular daily exercise results in better
     health, improved conditioning, and greater tolerance of stressful
     situations. What would you think about being employed by a company that
     required you to work out daily on company time? Do you think this would
     help or hurt the company’s recruiting ability? Explain your position.

     Individuals are likely to vary in their reactions to this type of program. Some may
     view it as an extra benefit, and, if the program led to improved employee health
     and productivity, the entire company could benefit from the cost-savings. Others
     may view such a requirement as an unfair imposition, or even illegal
     discrimination if older individuals or those with disabilities were barred from work
     because of the requirement.


            CASE APPLICATION 13-A: PROTECTION OSHA STYLE

CASE SUMMARY

     OSHA inspectors see their role as contributing to employee safety, not just as
     regulations and bureaucratic red tape. Death and injury are the two most serious
     consequences to companies and employees who may feel time and money
     pressure to cut corners, thus jeopardizing safety. OSHA is a check on this
     impulse.

1.   What roles do OSHA inspections p[lay in preserving sage and healthy work
     environments?


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     OSHA inspections serve as a check on employer/employee impulses to
     jeopardize safety in order to satisfy time or money pressures.

2.   OSHA shouldn’t have to inspect every worksite. Employers should act as
     their own safety inspectors and take action that is warranted. Build an
     argument supporting this statement, and one opposing this statement.

     Student answer will vary. Focus on critical thinking. Some suggestions:

     Supporting: Employers must build safety in their daily operations to be effective.
     Inspectors cannot be on-site as often or have the commitment that the company
     and its employees do.

     Opposing: Employers have values that may compete with safety. They cannot
     always be trusted to do what is right.

3.   Had any of the five events listed above led to serious injury or death, do
     you believe the employer was liable? Why or why not? If you believe the
     employer is liable, do you believe any of these could be construed as
     willful and severe? Defend your position.

     Student answers will vary. Focus on the strength of the students’ defense.

                     CASE APPLICATION 13-B: TEAM FUN!

CASE SUMMARY

     Stress, burnout, and violence in the workplace are all brought up as potential
     subjects to address at TEAM FUN!. Management discusses whether they can
     do anything else to ensure a safe work environment and healthy/happy
     employees.

1.   Do you agree with Tony’s statement about workplace violence? Should
     TEAM FUN! take any further actions to prevent workplace violence?
     Identify the preventive measures already in place.

     Workplace violence can occur for more reasons than troubled employees.
     Customers, spouses and ex-spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends, and the random
     act of violence all have the potential for disrupting the workplace. Tony needs to
     focus on the big picture. First, the company needs to have a plan on how to deal
     with violence in the workplace should it occur. If TEAM FUN! implements use of
     the Smart Card discussed in Chapter 4, it can help improve security against
     unauthorized entry by outsiders. Supervisory employees should be trained to
     identify troubled individuals.


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      The “play breaks” promote open communication, and a wellness program helps
      reduce stress and contributes to decreasing the likelihood of violence.

2.    Is Tony too complacent about stress and burnout? Outline for Kenny and
      Norton any symptoms of stress and burnout that merit notice.

      As the first HR person at TEAM FUN!, Tony has lots to deal with. Given the
      company’s emphasis on making work fun, Tony doesn’t see stress and burnout
      as priority issues. However, he doesn’t need to ignore them because they can
      occur. Family situations can bring stress to the workplace.

      Symptoms of stress can be categorized into three types: physiological,
      psychological, and behavioral. Physiological symptoms typically must be
      identified by medical personnel. However, other symptoms such as increased
      tension and anxiety, boredom and procrastination, changes in eating habits,
      increased smoking, and rapid speech can be observed by supervisors.

3.    What benefits would wellness programs and an employee assistance plan
      provide TEAM FUN!?

      Wellness programs are designed to keep employees healthy. This can lead to
      increased productivity and decreased usage of health insurance. Both of these
      events can improve the company’s bottom line. Employee assistance programs
      are designed to help employees and their families deal with personal problems.
      Helping employees resolve problems an result in increased productivity, lower
      absenteeism, and lower turnover.


                  WORKING WITH A TEAM: HEALTH AND SAFETY

OVERVIEW

A brief case describes the behavior of a machinist with serious personal problems
whose work has been deteriorating, who has shown several signs of stress, and who
threatens a co-worker. The employee’s supervisor is looking for advice from the human
resource manager.

SUGGESTIONS/VARIATIONS

Student teams can role play the interactions between the human resource manager
and supervisor (Charlie), and between the supervisor and employee (Billy Jo).

What should Charlie do?

As the supervisor, Charlie must take immediate action. In addition to talking to Billy Jo,
Charlie may want to talk to Terry, the threatened co-worker, to find out Terry’s
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perspective on the situation, to advise Terry not to escalate the situation, and to assure
Terry that he is aware of what has happened and is taking care of it. He should request
that Terry keep him informed.

What advice would you, as the human resource manager, give Charlie.
Charlie should document what he has observed and heard, and should immediately sit
down to talk to Billy Jo. The focus of their discussion should be Billy Jo’s inappropriate
behaviors and Charlie must clearly state that these behaviors (the threats, excessive
absences, high rejects) must stop. Charlie should listen to Billy Jo’s side of the story,
and should ask Billy Jo whether he can be of help. (Charlie’s help should be limited to
job-related assistance or referrals -- he should not become involved in Billy Jo’s
personal problems.) He should convey to Billy Jo that he has been a valued employee
and that the company will support him if he does not behave inappropriately.

The HR manager should advise Charlie on the availability of an Employee Assistance
Program or other company counseling services. The HR manager may also offer to sit
in on the meeting between Charlie and Billy Jo, especially if Charlie believes that Billy
Jo might be threatening, violent or very defensive. The HR manager may also be able
to help negotiate a plan to support Billy Jo, such as extra time off or a temporary
transfer to a less stressful position. The manager can also review company policies on
sick leave, disciplinary actions for inappropriate behaviors, and drug and alcohol abuse.

How should Charlie respond to the immediate situation?

If Billy Jo agrees to change his behavior and obtain the help he needs, Charlie should
continue to closely monitor the situation. He should be especially aware of any
additional evidence that Billy Jo is drinking during work or behaving in a threatening or
violent manner. Once Billy Jo understands that those behaviors will result in immediate
disciplinary action, Charlie should not hesitate to follow through. Even if no subsequent
infractions occur, Charlie needs to schedule follow-up meetings with Billy Jo and to pay
attention to Billy Jo’s performance. If Billy Jo does turn around, he needs to recognize
and reinforce Billy Jo’s efforts.

If Billy Jo refuses to recognize his problem behavior and doesn’t cooperate with Charlie,
immediate disciplinary action may be necessary. If there is any hint of violence, the
plant security should be alerted and Billy Jo escorted off the premises.

How can you apply the assessment questions regarding violence to help Charlie
and other supervisors handle future situations more effectively?

Charlie should not have waited until he observed violent behavior to take some action.
Billy Jo’s deterioration in performance, absenteeism and alcohol breath should have
motivated Charlie to talk to him before the additional overtime and confrontation with a
coworker escalated the situation.



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