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					Modelling policy measures and company initiatives for
           sustainable urban distribution


                Final Technical Report
                     (Appendices)




     A research project funded by the EPSRC/DfT as part
        of the Future Integrated Transport Programme




                           Authors:
                         Julian Allen
                       Graham Tanner
                       Michael Browne
                      Stephen Anderson
                    Georgina Christodoulou
                         Peter Jones



               Transport Studies Group,
               University of Westminster

                      January 2003
Acknowledgements

The authors of the report would like to acknowledge the support and involvement of the following
organisations in the project:

-   Birmingham City Council
-   The CERT Group
-   Exel
-   Fitzmaurice Carriers Ltd
-   Hampshire County Council
-   Lenham Storage (Southern) Ltd
-   Norfolk County Council
-   Securicor Omega Express
-   TDG
-   Tradeteam

The views expressed in the report are entirely those of the authors.
APPENDICES

Appendix 1:   Vehicle delivery and collection round data collection sheet

Appendix 2:   Vehicle used on delivery/collection round

Appendix 3:   Vehicle time utilisation

Appendix 4:   Total vehicle fleet at the depot, total work performed during survey week and
              previous 12 months

Appendix 5:   On-street traffic survey work

Appendix 6:   Results of policy measures by company by urban area

Appendix 7:   Results of policy measures by indicator
             APPENDIX 1


VEHICLE DELIVERY AND COLLECTION ROUND
        DATA COLLECTION FORM
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Insert company and depot name




                                                                                   VEHICLE DELIVERY AND COLLECTION ROUNDS
Date of delivery/collection round: .......................................... Gross vehicle weight (tonnes): ……………………………..
Vehicle registration no.: ..........................................................

Complete at START of round – before leaving depot                                                                                      Complete at END of round – on return to depot
Vehicle load factor - Volume (%): ..................................................................                                   Vehicle load factor - Volume (%): ...................................................................
Vehicle load - (Kgs): .......................................................................................                          Vehicle load - (Kgs): ........................................................................................
Total N° of goods on vehicle (packages, boxes, pallets, etc): .........................                                                Total N° of goods on vehicle (packages, boxes, pallets, etc): ...............................
Odometer reading at start of round: .................................................................                                  Odometer reading at end of round: .......................................................................
Time vehicle left depot: ...................................................................................                           Time vehicle returned to depot: ............................................................................

 Delivery /      Delivery (D),       Start      Name & address of Delivery / Collection           Time of       Distance travelled        Quantity of goods          Where was vehicle parked         Time taken to        Any comments or problems
 Collection      Collection (C)     time of                    point                             arrival at          in vehicle          (e.g. Kgs, packages,        during delivery/collection:         deliver /
  number         Both (B), End        trip                                                       Delivery /     (please state miles,     pallets etc) and show            ON STREET or                    collect
                     (E) or                                                                      Collection       km or metres)            when Empty (E)                 OFF STREET?                   (minutes)
                   Other(O)

     1

     2

     3

     4

     5

     6

     7

     8

     9

     10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A1 - 1
             APPENDIX 2


VEHICLES USED ON DELIVERY ROUND DATA
          COLLECTION FORM
Delivery / collection round - vehicle data

Company and Depot: .....................................................

Date: ...............................................................................




                                                                    Vehicle data

  Vehicle registration

  Make and type of vehicle

  External size of vehicle(s)

  Internal load space (volume)

  Gross weight of vehicle(s)

  Maximum payload

  Fuel type:                                                                            Diesel / Petrol (circle fuel used)

  Vehicle fuel consumption rate
  (mpg or litres/100km)




                                                                                                                             A2 - 1
       APPENDIX 3


VEHICLE TIME UTILISATION
 DATA COLLECTION FORM
Data Collection form                                                 Daily vehicle utilisation (24 hour period)
  Insert company and depot name




Vehicle 1

Date: ......................................................
Registration number: .............................

                                                    Wednesday           Thursday                  Friday
           Utilisation                          Total hours during   Total hours during     Total hours during
                                                 24 hour period       24 hour period         24 hour period
Idle (empty and stationary)
at home depot
Vehicle out on
delivery/collection journey
Daily rest during
delivery/collection journey
Unloading / loading at
home depot
Loaded but awaiting
departure from home depot
Total                                                  24 hours          24 hours                24 hours




Vehicle 2
Registration number: .............................

                                                    Wednesday           Thursday                  Friday
           Utilisation                          Total hours during   Total hours during     Total hours during
                                                 24 hour period       24 hour period         24 hour period
Idle (empty and stationary)
at home depot
Vehicle out on
delivery/collection journey
Daily rest during
delivery/collection journey
Unloading / loading at
home depot
Loaded but awaiting
departure from home depot
Total                                                  24 hours          24 hours                24 hours




                                                                                                           A3 - 1
            APPENDIX 4


VEHICLE FLEET AND ACTIVITY AT DEPOT
      DATA COLLECTION FORM
                        Vehicle fleet and activity data at depot

Company name:……………………………..……...
Depot location:……………………………………...


Vehicle profile at depot and where vehicles are deployed

Please indicate the number of vehicles based at the depot in each weight class, and if possible
please indicate the geographical location in which these vehicles operate. If the vehicles are
used in a variety of geographical locations please just provide details of the total depot fleet
by weight class.

 Vehicle profile                Total vehicles Of which           Of which       Of which
                                in depot fleet working in         working in     working in
                                               inner urban        outer          rural areas
                                               area               urban area
 Vans up to 700 kg payload

 Other vans up to 3.5 tonnes
 gvw
 Rigids: 3.5 - 7.5 tonnes gvw

 Rigids: 7.5 - 12 tonnes gvw

 Rigids: 12 - 18 tonnes gvw

 Rigids: More than 18
 tonnes gvw

 Drawbars

 Articulated: Less than 41
 tonnes gvw
 Articulated: 41 tonnes gvw
 or greater
 Others (please specify)

 TOTAL


Note: Please include all franchise vehicles operating from your depot in your fleet data.




                                                                                            A4 - 1
Distribution activity during survey week

Please provide details of the distribution activity performed by all vehicles based at the depot
during the survey week.

 Survey week                     Total kilometres      Total deliveries       Total delivery
                                  travelled by all     made by vehicles           rounds
                                 vehicles at depot        at depot*           performed by
                                                                             vehicles at depot
 Monday
 Tuesday
 Wednesday
 Thursday
 Friday
 Saturday
 Sunday
 TOTAL DURING
 SURVEY WEEK

* Note: please state units used (for example, tonnes delivered, parcels delivered etc.)


Monthly distribution activity

Please provide details of the monthly distribution activity performed by all vehicles based at
the depot during the past 12 months.

                         Total kilometres travelled by          Total deliveries made by
                             all vehicles at depot                 vehicles at depot*
     October 2000
   November 2000
   December 2000
     January 2001
    February 2001
       March 2001
        April 2001
        May 2001
        June 2001
         July 2001
      August 2001
   September 2001
 TOTAL DURING 12
 MONTH PERIOD

* Note: please state units used (for example, tonnes delivered, parcels delivered etc.)




                                                                                          A4 - 2
            APPENDIX 5


ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC COUNT AND VIDEO
SURVEYS IN NORWICH, BIRMINGHAM AND
            BASINGSTOKE
Supplementary information about goods vehicle activity in the centres of the urban
areas studied

At one of the project meetings early in the study it was agreed that the it would be worthwhile to carry
out some traffic survey work in September/October 2001 to help inform the project team about the
interactions between goods vehicles, other road users and pedestrians in the three urban areas studied.
It was felt that collecting data total freight vehicle activity in a selected location in each of the three
urban areas could: (i) provide insights into the composition of freight vehicle activity in the chosen
location, and (ii) help to better understand some of the environmental impacts of freight vehicle
activity (in terms of interaction with pedestrians and other road users) in that location. Survey work
carried out by the local authorities in each of the urban areas consisted of:

•   A one-day manual traffic count (which included vehicle counts, pedestrian flow counts and
    parking surveys) on a selected road or roads with a high proportion of retail frontages in or near
    the centre of the urban area. The count aimed to identify as wide a range of different goods
    vehicle types as possible including vans;

•   Video capture of the freight activity on one of the roads on which the count takes place on the
    same day. The video provided images of as much of the road being counted as possible (rather
    than close up video of a particular part of the street). The video was then used to assess
    interactions between freight vehicles (both mobile and stationary) other road users, and
    pedestrians and also showed any interactions between freight vehicles.

The local authorities carried out this survey work and the University of Westminster carried out the
analysis.

Although not specified as part of the original project, this on-street survey work has proved very
helpful in providing insight into interactions between goods vehicles and other road users and
pedestrians.

The survey work took place in Birmingham and Basingstoke surveys on 25th September 2001 and in
Norwich on the 9th October (traffic count and parking survey) and 23rd October 2001 (video capture).

The following sections present firstly (in section 1-3), a background to the street(s) selection in each
urban area and a summary of the results of the on-street traffic counts and secondly (in section 4), the
results of the video survey work.

1. Norwich on-street survey work

1.1 Background

The road surveyed in Norwich was Bedford Street. It lies within the central city shopping area of
Norwich to the north of the Castle (see Figure 1). It is surrounded by narrow historic streets which
have been pedestrianised including London Street, Gentlemen’s Walk and a number of small
alleyways. The Bedford street area characteristically has a high proportion of independent retailers
offering a wide range of goods and services for example furniture, computer repairs, public houses,
travel agents and jewellers.

At present Bedford Street has the appearance of a pedestrianised street with pavement type surface.
However, vehicle access is permitted at all times in this narrow, one lane street. This resulted in
conflicts between goods vehicles, other road users and pedestrians, especially during the middle of the
day when pedestrian flows were at their peak. A voluntary delivery ban was introduced to help ease
these problems several years ago. This voluntary ban is in operation between 12- 3pm.




                                                                                                    A5 - 1
                                 Figure 1: Streets surveyed in Norwich


The consultation document on the City Centre Transport Plan in Sept 2000 proposed that Bedford
Street be formally pedestrianised. However, no strong view was expressed and consequently a
recommendation to maintain the status quo was put forward. However, following a discussion at the
Norwich Highways Agency Joint Committee, members felt that some action was required. It was
therefore proposed that further investigations took place into potential solutions with respect to freight
vehicle activities on Bedford Street. Therefore survey work took place as part of the FIT project.

1.2 Perceived problems

Norfolk County Council perceived that there were several traffic and delivery related problems on
Bedford Street. These were:
    Pedestrian / vehicle conflict;
    Congested with delivery / servicing vehicles / peaks in delivery;
    Used as a through route for taxis;
    Lack of delivery / parking bays – the only place to park servicing vehicles is on-street;
    Cyclists travelling wrong way;
    Customers need to make collections / drop offs;
    Need to maintain access for deliveries;
    Independent retailers cannot monitor / influence deliveries easily.

1.3 Survey work

The purpose of the survey was to:
    Establish traffic and pedestrian levels during the day;
    Identify the characteristics of freight deliveries, collections and servicing arrangements in the
    area;
    Identify problems experienced, by whom, and the degree of severity.

Three techniques were used to collect the information:
    Pedestrian flow count (manual count: 6am - 9pm – 9th October 2001);
    Traffic flow count (manual classified count: 6am - 9pm – 9th October 2001);
    Parking survey (manual count and observations: 6am - 9pm – 9th October 2001);


                                                                                                   A5 - 2
    Video survey (use of two CCTV cameras located on buildings in Bedford St: 24 hour period - –
    23rd October 2001).
    Questionnaires given to: (i) drivers and (ii) business premises during October 2001 for self-
    completion and returned to Norfolk County Council.

The results of the traffic count, pedestrian flow survey and parking survey work is presented in
section 1.4. The analysis of the video survey is presented separately in Section 4.2.

The questionnaire of goods vehicle drivers and premises on the selected street was carried by Norfolk
County Council in Norwich in order to:

    identify the characteristics of freight deliveries, collections and servicing arrangements in the
    area;
    identify problems experienced, by whom, and the degree of severity;
    put forward a range of possible solutions for further investigation which could potentially form
    the basis of a Freight Quality Partnership.

The two questionnaires were distributed to all premises in the study area (shown in red on Figure 1).
Each premises was asked to complete a ‘business questionnaire’. In addition, they were asked to
distribute ‘drivers questionnaires’ to anyone making a delivery, collection or providing servicing
requirements to the premises. Drivers’ questionnaires were also handed out on the street to drivers as
they arrived and parked their vehicles. Norfolk County Council carried out the questionnaires and the
University of Westminster assisted with the analysis of the survey data. Copies of the drivers and
premises questionnaires can be found at the end of this appendix.

Norfolk County Council is currently carrying out a pedestrian survey on Bedford Street, in order to
obtain their experiences and views. Once this survey work has been completed it will be possible to
determine how best to address the transport problems on Bedford Street and make available the results
of these three questionnaires.

1.4 Norwich traffic and pedestrian count data analysis

Figures 2 and 3 show the distribution of traffic and pedestrians in Bedford Street over the survey
period (6am to 9pm). It can be seen that the patterns are different with highest number of vehicles
using the street between 10am and 12 noon, while pedestrian presence is greatest between 12 noon
and 3pm.




                                                                                               A5 - 3
                                                                      Traffic Flow in Bedford Street, Norwich [9/10/01]


                            16

                            14

                            12
       Number of Vehicles




                            10

                            8

                            6

                            4

                            2

                            0
                                 06:00 - 07:00

                                                 07:00 - 08:00

                                                                 08:00 - 09:00

                                                                                 09:00 - 10:00

                                                                                                 10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                                 11:00 - 12:00

                                                                                                                                       12:00 - 13:00

                                                                                                                                                          13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                                           14:00 - 15:00

                                                                                                                                                                                            15:00 - 16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16:00 - 17:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17:00 - 18:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18:00 - 19:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19:00 - 20:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20:00 - 21:00
                                                                                                                                                 Time of Day


                                                                                                                                 Car                   Taxi               LGV              HGV


                                                                                 Figure 2: Traffic flow in Bedford Street


Of the vehicles using Bedford Street light and heavy goods vehicles were more common than cars and
taxis throughout the day. Car presence was highest in the afternoon.

In the case of pedestrians, they were most present during the lunchtime period, with the peak being
between 1pm and 2pm.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A5 - 4
                                                                                                Pedestrian Flow in Bedford Street, Norwich [9/10/01]


                             1400

                             1200
  Number of Pedestrians




                             1000

                                      800

                                      600

                                      400

                                      200

                                               0
                                                    06:00 - 07:00


                                                                       07:00 - 08:00

                                                                                            08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                                                   09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                                             10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                                                                                        11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                        12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16:00 - 17:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:00 - 19:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               19:00 - 20:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20:00 - 21:00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Time of day



                                                                                                               Figure 3: Pedestrian flows in Bedford Street


In terms of vehicles stopping and parking in Bedford Street, most were light goods or heavy goods
vehicles (see Figures 4 and 7). Morning was the time of day when most stopped and the peak
coincides with that shown for the traffic flow data (Figure 1).


                                                                                       Parked vehicles in Bedford Street / Little London Street,
                                                                                                      (site 1) Norwich [9/10/01]

                                               8
                                               7
                          Number of vehicles




                                               6
                                               5
                                               4
                                               3
                                               2
                                               1
                                               0
                                                   06:00 - 07:00

                                                                    07:00 - 08:00

                                                                                       08:00 - 09:00

                                                                                                            09:00 - 10:00

                                                                                                                                   10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                                                                             11:00 - 12:00

                                                                                                                                                                                        12:00 - 13:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         14:00 - 15:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         15:00 - 16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16:00 - 17:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17:00 - 18:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:00 - 19:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               19:00 - 20:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20:00 - 21:00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Time of day


                                                                                                                                                                                                   Car                               LGV                                 HGV2

       Note for graphs with HGV2 and HGV3 in legend:
       HGV2 a rigid heavy goods vehicle with 2 axles
       HGV3 is a rigid heavy goods vehicle with 3 axles
                                                                        Figure 4: Parked vehicles in Bedford Street / Little London Street




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A5 - 5
Information regarding the length of time vehicles were parked for are shown in Figures 5 and 8. From
both figures it can be seen that a sizeable proportion of vehicles do not stop longer than 10 minutes.
Overall there is no significant difference in the length dwell time of light goods and heavy goods
vehicles, although more light goods vehicles stayed for longer than 40 minutes.


                                                         Vehicle Parking Duration in Bedford Street / Little London Street,
                                                                 (site 1) Norwich between 06:00 - 20:30 [9/10/01]

                          16
                          14
     Number of Vehicles




                          12
                          10
                           8
                           6
                           4
                           2
                           0
                                                         0-5                06-10               11-20          21-40              40+
                                                                                      Dw ell Time (minutes)


                                                                                          CAR   LGV     HGV2


                                                Figure 5: Vehicle parking duration in Bedford Street / Little London Street




                                                          Purpose of vehicle visit in Bedford Street / Little London Street
                                                                            (site 1), Norwich [9/10/01]

                                                    35
                                                    30
                               Number of vehicles




                                                    25
                                                    20

                                                    15
                                                    10

                                                     5
                                                     0
                                                                  Private             Collection/delivery         Servicing
                                                                                          Reason for stop


                                                                              Car   LGV     HGV2      HGV3

                                                    Figure 6: Purpose of vehicle visit in Bedford / Street Little London Street


The reason for a vehicle being in the street influences the length of time it will stay parked. From
Figures 6 and 9 it can be seen that light goods vehicles are not only present for delivery and collection
work, but also because the driver is carrying out some type of service activity at a premises. This
would account for them being the predominant vehicle parking for more than 40 minutes. However, in
Bedford Street light goods vehicles are also the most common vehicle involved in delivery work.




                                                                                                                                        A5 - 6
                                                                                                                    Parked vehicles in Bedford Street
                                                                                                                       (site 2), Norwich [9/10/01]

                            12

                            10
       Number of vehicles




                            8

                            6

                            4

                            2

                            0
                                                  06:00 - 07:00

                                                                  07:00 - 08:00

                                                                                   08:00 - 09:00

                                                                                                    09:00 - 10:00

                                                                                                                      10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                                                      11:00 - 12:00

                                                                                                                                                        12:00 - 13:00

                                                                                                                                                                          13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                                                           14:00 - 15:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                           15:00 - 16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             16:00 - 17:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             17:00 - 18:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18:00 - 19:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19:00 - 20:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20:00 - 21:00
                                                                                                                                                                 Time of day


                                                                                                                                                 Car                    LGV               HGV2                HGV3


                                                                                                   Figure 7: Parked vehicles in Bedford Street




                                                                                                     Vehicle Parking Duration in Bedford St
                                                                                                    (site 2) between 06:00 - 20:30 [9/10/01]
                                                  25


                                                  20
                             Number of Vehicles




                                                  15


                                                  10


                                                      5


                                                      0
                                                                                  0-5                                      06-10                                         11-20                                             21-40                                        40+
                                                                                                                                                      Dw ell Time (minutes)
                                                                                                                                            CAR                         HGV2              HGV3                       LGV

                                                                                   Figure 8: Parked vehicle duration in Bedford Street


The survey results suggest that cars are more likely to park for a reason other than the collection or
delivery of goods at premises.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A5 - 7
                                          Purpose of vehicle visit in Bedford Street
                                                (site 2), Norwich [9/10/01]

                               50
          Number of vehicles

                               40

                               30
                               20

                               10

                               0
                                    Private            Collection/delivery             Servicing
                                                           Reason for stop


                                                     Car     LGV    HGV2     HGV3



                                         Figure 9: Purpose of visit in Bedford Street


From the information gathered about traffic and pedestrians activity in Bedford Street and Little
London Street, it can be seen that there is a tendency for a significant proportion of goods vehicles to
be present during the morning before pedestrian flows build up. However, only the video analysis can
reveal whether there is any major conflict between the two groups.


2. Birmingham on-street survey work

2.1 Background

The area surveyed in Birmingham covered Cannon Street, Temple Street and Upper New Street (see
Figure 10). These roads are narrow historic streets in central city shopping area, some of which are
part of the pedestrian zone. The premises facing these street are a mix of multiple and independent
retailers and offices. At the time of the survey vehicle access was restricted to 10am-6pm, although it
was felt by Birmingham City Council that some cars and commercial vehicles ignored these access
restrictions.

One probable reason for this situation was that historically there had been a lack of parking
enforcement in the area. With the decriminalisation of parking it was planned to have more stringent
enforcement from late September 2001. An important reason for this survey was that Birmingham
County Council was keen to investigate the effects of new parking enforcement.




                                                                                                   A5 - 8
                                                                                  Cannon Street




                              Figure 10: Streets surveyed in Birmingham



2.2 Survey work

The purpose of the survey was to:
    Establish traffic and pedestrian levels on the surveyed streets
    Identify number of vehicles parking in the street
    Identify problems experienced, by whom, and the degree of severity
    Compare with Cannon St/Upper New St (not subject to access restrictions)

The techniques used in the survey carried out on the 25th September 2001 were:
    Traffic flow count (manual classified count: 7am - 7pm)
    Parking survey (7am - 7pm)
    Pedestrian flow count (7am - 7pm)
    Video survey on Cannon St (10.15am - 6pm)

The analysis of the video survey is presented separately in Section 4.3.

2.3 Birmingham traffic and pedestrian count data analysis

The traffic and pedestrian count revealed that more cars were present on the street throughout the day
than commercial vehicles and that a greater proportion of commercial vehicles were on the street in
the morning than the afternoon (see Figure 11).




                                                                                               A5 - 9
                                                                           Vehicle Flow on Cannon Street, Birmingham
                                                                                      Southbound [25/09/01]

                                        16
                                        14
                                        12
                     Nos. of Vehicles



                                        10
                                         8
                                         6
                                         4
                                         2
                                         0
                                             07:00 - 08:00

                                                             08:00 - 09:00

                                                                                 09:00 - 10:00

                                                                                                    10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                                          11:00 - 12:00

                                                                                                                                               12:00 - 13:00

                                                                                                                                                                      13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                                                              14:00 - 15:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15:00 - 16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 16:00 - 17:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               17:00 - 18:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                                          Time of Day


                                                                                   Car / Taxi                             LGVs <1.5T                                           LGVs <3T                                          HGV>3T

                                                                              Figure 11: Vehicle flow on Cannon Street


Of all the vehicles that visited Cannon Street during the survey period, light goods vehicles (recorded
as being less than 1.5 tonnes and 3 tonnes in size) were the most prevalent, with lorries over 3 tonnes
not so widespread.

Figure 12 shows that a higher numbers of pedestrians were on Cannon Street from 12 noon, with the
peak occurring between 1pm and 2pm, coinciding with the lunchtime period.



                                                                              Total Pedestrian Flow on Cannon Street,
                                                                                       Birmingham [25/9/01]

                                    1000
                                     900
          Number of Pedestrians




                                     800
                                     700
                                     600
                                     500
                                     400
                                     300
                                     200
                                     100
                                       0
                                             07:00-08:00


                                                             08:00-09:00


                                                                                09:00-10:00


                                                                                                 10:00-11:00


                                                                                                                      11:00-12:00


                                                                                                                                          12:00-13:00


                                                                                                                                                               13:00-14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                      14:00-15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                              15:00-16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       16:00-17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 17:00-18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18:00-19:00




                                                                                                                                          Time of Day
                                                                                                                    Peds - Southside                                         Peds - Northside


                                                                             Figure 12: Pedestrian flow on Cannon Street


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             A5 - 10
The times at which vehicles parked on Cannon Street coincided with the higher flow rates (see
Figure13). The survey did not distinguish between cars and commercial vehicles and only indicates
the total number of vehicles parked on street at any one time.


                                                       Parked Cars, LGVs & HGVs in Cannon Street,
                                                                  Birmingham [25/9/01]


                                 7
                                 6

                                 5
            Number of Vehicles




                                 4

                                 3
                                 2

                                 1
                                 0
                                     07:00 - 08:00




                                                           09:00 - 10:00




                                                                             11:00 - 12:00




                                                                                                     13:00 - 14:00




                                                                                                                      15:00 - 16:00




                                                                                                                                        17:00 - 18:00




                                                                                                                                                              19:00 - 20:00
                                                                                                 Time of Day



                                                           Figure 13: Parked vehicles on Cannon Street


The length of time that vehicles stopped was typically not very long and the survey indicated that
most parked for less than 5 minutes (see Figure 14).


                                                           Vehicle Parking Duration in Cannon Street,
                                                                     Birmingham [25/9/01]

                                 120

                                 100
            Number of Vehicles




                                 80

                                 60

                                 40

                                 20

                                     0
                                                     0-5                   6-10                      11-20                      21-40                   40+
                                                                                             Dw ell Times (minutes)


         Vehicle Parking Duration Graph:
             The number of vehicles shown above includes data for pedal cycles, which could not be extracted from the
             figure provided.




                                                                                                                                                                              A5 - 11
                 Duration times data provided the total number of vehicles, the mean, minimum and maximum dwell times.
                 As a result some dwell times are assumed to be an average of the difference between the min and max
                 times. This occurs on 9 times from a total of 72 records.
                                                    Figure 14: Vehicle parking duration on Cannon Street


Figure 15 shows the number of vehicles using Temple Street and Upper New Street. Cars and taxi
account for the greatest proportion of vehicles observed. Commercial vehicles mostly consisted of
vans below 1.5 tonnes.


                                                    Vehicle Flow on Temple Street / Upper New Street,
                                                                  Birmingham (25/09/01)

                               70

                               60
                               50
            Nos. of Vehicles




                               40
                               30
                               20
                               10
                               0
                                    07:00 - 08:00


                                                       08:00 - 09:00


                                                                       09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                           10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                           11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                           12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                           13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                           14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                           15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                           16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                           17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                           18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                           Time of Day


                                                                                       Car / Taxi               LGVs <1.5T                          LGVs <3T                   HGV>3T


                                    Figure 15: Vehicle flow on Temple Street / Upper New Street


Upper New Street experiences a high level of pedestrian use and at the peak time which is between
1pm and 2pm, nearly 3500 people were recorded as using the street eastbound.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A5 - 12
                                                                                           Pedestrian Flow on Upper New Street (Eastbound),
                                                                                                         Birmingham (25/09/01)


                                     4000

                                     3500

                                     3000
          Number of Pedestrians




                                     2500

                                     2000

                                     1500

                                     1000

                                           500

                                               0
                                                               07:00-08:00


                                                                             08:00-09:00


                                                                                                           09:00-10:00


                                                                                                                         10:00-11:00


                                                                                                                                                       11:00-12:00


                                                                                                                                                                      12:00-13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                    13:00-14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14:00-15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            15:00-16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16:00-17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   17:00-18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 18:00-19:00
                                                                                                                                                                      Time of Day



                                                                                   Figure 16: Pedestrian flow on Upper new Street


The survey revealed that relatively few vehicles parked in Upper New Street during most of the
working day, although there was a peak between 5pm and 6pm (see Figure 17).


                                                                             Parked Cars, LGVs & HGVs in Upper New Street,
                                                                                          Birmingham [25/9/01]

                                           6

                                           5
                      Number of Vehicles




                                           4

                                           3

                                           2


                                           1

                                           0
                                               07:00 - 08:00




                                                                                           09:00 - 10:00




                                                                                                                                       11:00 - 12:00




                                                                                                                                                                                    13:00 - 14:00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            15:00 - 16:00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   17:00 - 18:00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         19:00 - 20:00




                                                                                                                                                                     Time of Day



                                                                                  Figure 17: Parked vehicles on Upper New Street




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A5 - 13
The length of time that vehicles were parked on Upper New Street for was generally less than 10
minutes, with a large proportion (approx. 42%) of the total number being stopped for less than 5
minutes.


                                           Vehicle Parking Duration in Upper New Street,
                                                       Birmingham [25/9/10]

                                40
                                35
           Number of Vehicles




                                30
                                25
                                20
                                15
                                10
                                5
                                0
                                     0-5            6-10           11-20            21-40      40+
                                                            Dw ell Time (minutes)


         Vehicle Parking Duration Graph:
            The number of vehicles shown above includes data for pedal cycles which could not be extracted from the
            figure provided.
            Duration times data provided the total number of vehicles, the mean, minimum and maximum dwell times.
            As a result some dwell times are assumed to be an average of the difference between the min and max times.
            This occurs on 3 times from a total of 89 records.


                                     Figure 18: Vehicle parking duration in Upper New Street


As with the Norwich survey the results from Birmingham indicate that a larger proportion of
commercial vehicles are visiting Cannon Street, Temple Street and Upper new Street in the morning.
Conversely the largest numbers of pedestrians do not use these streets until late morning and into the
afternoon. The survey results do not indicate the extent of conflict between the vehicles and
pedestrians that takes place. This is discussed in the video analysis in Section 4.


3. Basingstoke on-street survey work

3.1 Background

In addition to providing information about general commercial vehicle movements in Basingstoke
another impetus for the traffic and pedestrian survey in Basingstoke was that Hampshire County
Council would like to establish Freight Forum for the town. However, prior to this it is necessary to
establish whether there is a freight traffic and delivery problem in old part of town centre.

This part of the town consists of narrow historic streets some of which fall within a pedestrian zone -
London Street/Winchester St and roads off (no vehicle access 10am - 4pm). The businesses on these
roads are a mix of independent and multiple retailers, some of which receive their deliveries through
the front door, but with many other premises being serviced from rear access points.

Delivery and collection work destined for premises in the new town centre do not tend to result in
problems and conflicts with pedestrians as these vehicle movements take place on service roads that
lead to underground facilities and are therefore segregated from pedestrians.


                                                                                                             A5 - 14
3.2 Survey work

The purpose of the survey was to:
    Establish traffic levels in pedestrianised streets and on key approach roads;
    Identify number of vehicles parking in London Street and adjoining roads;
    Identify problems experienced, by whom, and the degree of severity.

Three techniques were used to collect the information on 25 September 2001:
   Commercial traffic flow on London Rd, Hackwood Rd, Winchester Rd (manual count: 7am -
   7pm);
   Goods vehicle traffic count and parking survey on New St, New Rd and London St (7am - 7pm);
   Video survey on London St (2 cameras: 7am - 7pm).


3.3 Basingstoke traffic count data analysis

The street survey at Basingstoke involved routes that either allowed vehicles to move around the
outside of the pedestrianised area or access these routes. The roads that go around the pedestrianised
area are, New Road and New Street, while London Rd, Hackwood Rd, Winchester Rd are adjoining
roads allowing traffic to enter or exist New Road and New Street. London Street is inside the
pedestrianised area. The roads surveyed are shown in Figure 19.




                               Figure 19: Streets surveyed in Basingstoke


Figures 20, 21 and 22 show the commercial traffic flows on London Road. If we compare the east and
westbound flows in Figures 20 and 21 it can be seen that the levels of traffic a fairly evenly balanced,
with both direction experiencing similar patterns.




                                                                                                A5 - 15
                                                       Commercial vehicle flow on London Road (eastbound),
                                                                     Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                 20
            Number of Vehicles   18
                                 16
                                 14
                                 12
                                 10
                                  8
                                  6
                                  4
                                  2
                                  0
                                       07:00 - 08:00


                                                         08:00 - 09:00


                                                                         09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                         10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                         11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                            12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                              13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                               14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                               15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                               16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                               17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                           Time of Day

                                                                                                                         LGVs               HGVs              Bus


                                      Figure 20: Commercial vehicle flow on London Road (eastbound)



                                                       Commercial vehicle flow on London Road (westbound),
                                                                      Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                 25

                                 20
            Number of Vehicles




                                 15

                                 10

                                 5

                                 0
                                       07:00 - 08:00


                                                         08:00 - 09:00


                                                                         09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                         10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                         11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                            12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                              13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                               14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                               15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                               16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                               17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18:00 - 19:00




                                                                                                                           Time of Day

                                                                                                                    LGVs                    HGVs              Bus


                                      Figure 21: Commercial vehicle flow on London Road (westbound)


From the graph (Figure 22) showing the total traffic flow for this road, most traffic uses this route
during the morning with a drop in volume during the early afternoon, before small rise between 4pm
and 6pm. Light goods vehicles are the predominant form of transport using the route.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               A5 - 16
                                                                                        Commercial vehicle flow on London Road (total traffic),
                                                                                                      Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                                   40
                                                   35
                              Number of Vehicles

                                                   30
                                                   25
                                                   20
                                                   15
                                                   10
                                                   5
                                                   0
                                                                        07:00 - 08:00


                                                                                                   08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                                                             09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                                                     10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                                                                                           11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                     13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                                                                                           Time of Day


                                                                                                                                                                                     LGVs                       HGVs                 Bus


                                                         Figure 22: Commercial vehicle flow on London Road (total traffic)


The pattern of commercial traffic flows on Winchester Road is slightly different to that of London
Road. The survey results in Figures 23, 24 and 25 indicate that there is an initial peak between 8am
and 9am before peaking again around the late morning / lunchtime period. The number of goods
vehicles then lessens for a couple of hours before rising to a second peak between 4pm and 5pm.


                                                                              Commercial Vehicle Flow on Winchester Road (eastbound),
                                                                                               Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                      25

                                      20
         Number of vehicles




                                      15

                                      10

                                               5

                                               0
                                                        07:00 - 08:00


                                                                                        08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                                                   09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                                             10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                                                                                     11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                                           12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18:00 - 19:00




                                                                                                                                                                                           Time of day
                                                                                                                                                                                       LGVs                     HGVs                 Bus


                                                        Figure 23: Commercial vehicle flow in Winchester Road (eastbound)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A5 - 17
                                                      Commercial Vehicle Flow on Winchester Road (westbound),
                                                                       Basingstoke [25/9/01]
                                30

                                25
           Number of vehicles



                                20

                                15

                                10

                                 5

                                 0
                                      07:00 - 08:00


                                                         08:00 - 09:00


                                                                          09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                          10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                           11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                              12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                               13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                               14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                             Time of day

                                                                                                                           LGVs               HGVs             Bus


                                     Figure 24: Commercial vehicle flow in Winchester Road (westbound)



                                                      Commercial Vehicle Flow on Winchester Road (total traffic),
                                                                       Basingstoke [25/9/01]
                                50
                                45
                                40
         Number of vehicles




                                35
                                30
                                25
                                20
                                15
                                10
                                 5
                                 0
                                     07:00 - 08:00


                                                        08:00 - 09:00


                                                                         09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                          10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                          11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                             12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                               13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                               14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                               15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18:00 - 19:00




                                                                                                                             Time of day
                                                                                                                           LGVs               HGVs             Bus


                                     Figure 25: Commercial vehicle flow in Winchester Road (total traffic)


Of the three access routes surveyed, overall Hackwood Road experiences the highest level of
commercial traffic over the day. Southbound traffic is higher than northbound, although this could be
explained by the road joining the main Ringway circular route around Basingstoke town centre. The
highest peak of commercial traffic on this road is between 5pm and 6pm.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A5 - 18
                                           Commercial Vehicle Flow in Hackwood Road (northbound),
                                                           Basingstoke [25/9/01]
                     30

                     25
Number of vehicles



                     20

                     15

                     10

                      5

                      0
                           07:00 - 08:00


                                             08:00 - 09:00


                                                             09:00 - 10:00


                                                                             10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                             11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                             12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                              13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                              14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                              15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                              16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                              17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                              18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                             Time of day
                                                                                                     LGVs                    HGVs                     Bus

                          Figure 26: Commercial vehicle flow in Winchester Road (northbound)



                                           Commercial Vehicle Flow in Hackwood Road (southbound),
                                                            Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                     60

                     50
Number of vehicles




                     40

                     30

                     20

                     10

                     0
                           07:00 - 08:00


                                             08:00 - 09:00


                                                             09:00 - 10:00


                                                                             10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                             11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                             12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                              13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                              14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                              15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                              16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                              17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                              18:00 - 19:00




                                                                                                             Time of day
                                                                                                      LGVs                   HGVs                     Bus

                          Figure 27: Commercial vehicle flow in Winchester Road (southbound)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A5 - 19
                                                                                  Commercial Vehicle Flow in Hackwood Road (total traffic),
                                                                                                  Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                       80
                                       70
                                       60
          Number of vehicles




                                       50
                                       40
                                       30
                                       20
                                       10
                                                0
                                                         07:00 - 08:00


                                                                                         08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                                                     09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                                                 10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                                                                                           11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                   12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                           13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                                                                                             Time of day
                                                                                                                                                                                           LGVs HGVs                                             Bus


                                                     Figure 28: Commercial vehicle flow in Hackwood Road (total traffic)


New Street is a road that borders the pedestrianised area on the west side and serves as a link to the
pedestrianised area service roads and main central spine road of Basingstoke. It has traffic accessing it
from Churchill Way, Winchester Road and New Road and consequently experiences quite high levels
of commercial traffic (see Figure 29). Since there are no access restrictions to the pedestrianised area
service bays, the flow of traffic along this road is fairly constant, with only a marginally quieter period
between 2pm and 3pm.


                                                                                                                     Commercial Vehicle Flow in New Street,
                                                                                                                            Basingstoke [25/9/01]


                                                    90
                                                    80
                               Number of Vehicles




                                                    70
                                                    60
                                                    50
                                                    40
                                                    30
                                                    20
                                                    10
                                                     0
                                                                         07:00 - 08:00


                                                                                                     08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                                                                 09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                                                           10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                                                                                                   11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                           12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18:00 - 19:00




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Time of Day


                                                                                                                                                                                                   LGV                     HGV


                                                                                                     Figure 29: Commercial vehicle flow in New Street




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A5 - 20
As Figure 30 shows, some on-street parking is experienced on New Street, although this is not that
high. The busiest parking period during the survey was between 11am and 12 noon, when 7 LGVs
stopped. The majority of vehicles stopping were light goods vehicles, with only eight HGVs parking
during the entire survey.


                                                                                                          Vehicles Parking in New Street,
                                                                                                              Basingstoke [25/9/01]


                                                    8
                                                    7
                               Number of Vehicles




                                                    6
                                                    5
                                                    4
                                                    3
                                                    2
                                                    1
                                                    0
                                                        07:00 - 08:00

                                                                          08:00 - 09:00

                                                                                          09:00 - 10:00

                                                                                                          10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                                          11:00 - 12:00

                                                                                                                                           12:00 - 13:00

                                                                                                                                                            13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                                            14:00 - 15:00

                                                                                                                                                                                            15:00 - 16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16:00 - 17:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17:00 - 18:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                                          Time of Day

                                                                                                                                           LGV                 HGV


                                                                                            Figure 30: Vehicles parking in New Street


The dwell time for most vehicles was less than 5 minutes (see Figure 31).


                                                                                             Vehicle Parking Durations in New Street,
                                                                                                      Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                        30

                                        25
          Number of Vehicles




                                        20

                                        15

                                        10

                                                5

                                                0
                                                                        0-5                                          6-10                                     11-20                                         21-40                                           40+

                                                                                                                                          Dwell Time (minutes)

                                                                                                                                                           LGV              HGV

                                                                                Figure 31: Vehicle parking durations in New Street



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A5 - 21
Vehicle flow rates on New Road are higher than those on New Street. There are two distinct peak one
the in the morning between 10am and 11am, and another later in the day between 3pm to 4pm, which
can be seen in Figure 32.


                                                                                          Commercial Vehicle Flow in New Road,
                                                                                                Basingstoke [25/9/01]


                                  120
                                  100
            Number of Vehicles




                                  80
                                  60
                                  40
                                  20
                                      0
                                                  07:00 - 08:00


                                                                          08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                                  09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                          10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                                                                  11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                           12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                    13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18:00 - 19:00
                                                                                                                                                                   Time of Day


                                                                                                                                                                  LGV                      HGV


                                                                      Figure 32: Commercial vehicle flow in New Road


Most of the commercial traffic on this is passing through and very little parking was recorded in the
survey (see Figure 33). The traffic that did stop was generally parked for less than 5 minutes (see
Figure 34).


                                                                                                              Vehicles Parking in New Road,
                                                                                                                  Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                                  4
             Number of Vehicles




                                  3

                                  2

                                  1

                                  0
                                          07:00 - 08:00


                                                                  08:00 - 09:00


                                                                                          09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                                                  10:00 - 11:00


                                                                                                                                          11:00 - 12:00


                                                                                                                                                                   12:00 - 13:00


                                                                                                                                                                                            13:00 - 14:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14:00 - 15:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            15:00 - 16:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17:00 - 18:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18:00 - 19:00




                                                                                                                                                                   Time of Day
                                                                                                                                                                    LGV HGV


                                                                                          Figure 33: Vehicle parking in New Road



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A5 - 22
                                             Vehicle Parking Durations in New Road,
                                                      Basingstoke [25/9/01]

                               6

                               5
          Number of Vehicles




                               4

                               3

                               2

                               1

                               0
                                   0-5             6-10          11-20           21-40      40+

                                                          Dwell Time (minutes)

                                                              LGV     HGV

                                         Figure 34: Vehicle parking durations in New Road


London Street is only accessible from Winchester Road, through Winchester Street. Vehicles
delivering to this road have to turn round and leave by the way they entered. There are also
unrestricted access areas at the rear of the premises on this road, which means that deliveries can be
made to these businesses throughout the day without vehicles having to come along the road.

It can be seen in Figure 35 that most vehicles arrive and leave London Street by 10am, the time the
access restriction comes into force. However, some vehicle continue to access the street after the
10am restriction. On the day of the survey a high proportion of vehicles were recorded as parking for
less than 10 minutes, while a similar proportion parked for longer than 40 minutes (Figure 36).




                                                                                                  A5 - 23
                                                                         LGV & HGV Parking in London Street,
                                                                               Basingstoke [ 25/0/01]

                                 12

                                 10
            Number of Vehicles


                                  8

                                  6
                                  4

                                  2

                                  0
                                      07:00 - 08:00

                                                      08:00 - 09:00

                                                                      09:00 - 10:00


                                                                                      10:00 - 11:00

                                                                                                       11:00 - 12:00

                                                                                                                         12:00 - 13:00

                                                                                                                                         13:00 - 14:00

                                                                                                                                                         14:00 - 15:00

                                                                                                                                                                         15:00 - 16:00

                                                                                                                                                                                         16:00 - 17:00


                                                                                                                                                                                                         17:00 - 18:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:00 - 19:00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           19:00 - 20:00
                                                                                                                                    Time of Day



                                                      Figure 35: LGV and HGV parking in London Street


                                                           LGV & HGV Parking Durations in London Street,
                                                                     Basingstoke [ 25/0/01]

                                 16

                                 14

                                 12
            Number of Vehicles




                                 10

                                 8

                                 6

                                 4

                                 2

                                 0
                                                        0-5                                           6-10                                        11-20                                  21-40                                           40+
                                                                                                                       Dw ell Time (minutes)



                                      Figure 36: LGV and HGV parking durations in London Street


Commercial vehicle traffic in Basingstoke cannot use the London Street pedestrianised area as an
access route at any time as it has a physical restriction at one end. Also, it cannot park on London
Street during the 10am to 4pm restriction. Instead it has to travel round the two bordering roads, New
Road and New Street. Most vehicle parking occurs on New Street; stopping times for these vehicles
are generally short.


4. Video surveys at Norwich Birmingham and Basingstoke.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A5 - 24
As was mentioned previously, video surveys were also carried out in conjunction with the manual
traffic, parking and pedestrian counts. The purpose of the video survey was to provide a visual record
of the conflicts that take place between commercial traffic and other road users and pedestrians. Such
information is useful in understanding some of the problems that urban delivery vehicles can cause as
well as the difficulties that they experience.

4.1 Video survey approach

The video cameras used were either permanent CCTV equipment, as in the case of Norwich, or
specially errected for the survey (Birmingham and Basingstoke).

The cameras were used to record all traffic and pedestrian movements that took place on the streets
over a given time period on the survey day.

In analysing this video footage traffic conflicts were categorised in the following ways:
    Description of incident/conflict;
    Types of vehicle and/or pedestrians involved;
    Duration of incident;
    Severity of incident.

The analysis of the video footage was carried out by manually watching the videos and recording any
event that could be classed as an incident. An incident was considered to be a conflict between
vehicles or a vehicle(s) and pedestrians. These incidents were allocated to several different
(subjective) categories based on the severity of the incident. The categories of severity used were:
    Minor inconvenience – where a pedestrian might have to deviate from their chosen path or a
    vehicle might have to slow or stop for a short time.
    Major inconvenience – where a pedestrian might have to make a major deviation from their
    chosen path, stop and wait for a while, or where a vehicle would be restricted from moving for a
    length of time.
    Accident almost took place – where a pedestrian was in immanent danger of being hit by a
    vehicle or where two of more vehicles had to take avoiding action to prevent a collision (i.e. brake
    hard or swerve)
    Accident took place – where a vehicle hit a pedestrian or two or more vehicles collided.

The data recording form used when watching the videos to record incidents is provided at the end of
this appendix.

4.2 Video survey findings: Bedford St, Norwich

Two video cameras were used in Bedford Street, one at the west end looking east and the second
about half way along the street also looking east. The two cameras between them provided a near full
view of Bedford Street.

The analysis provided the following findings for the hourly period when goods vehicle arrivals are at
their peak (10.30 am to 11.30 am) and when pedestrian flows are approaching their peak and goods
vehicle arrivals are still relatively high (12.00-1.00 pm):
    10.30-11.30 am (peak goods vehicle flows)
    - 12 incidents took place
    - Duration of incidents ranged from 20 secs to 8 mins
    - 3 incl. LGVs, HGVs, cars; 3 incl. LGVs, HGVs, cars, pedestrians

    12-1pm: (greater pedestrian flows)
    - 2 incidents took place



                                                                                                A5 - 25
    -   both incl. HGVs, pedestrians
    -   More cars drove through street without stopping

    One incident caused minor inconvenience


4.3 Video survey findings: Cannon St, Birmingham

One video camera was used in Cannon Street, positioned on a building at the north end looking south.
The camera provided a near full view of the entire length of Cannon Street.

The analysis provided the following findings for the hourly period when goods vehicle arrivals are at
their peak (10.30 am to 11.30 am) and when pedestrian flows are approaching their peak and goods
vehicle arrivals are still relatively high (12.00-1.00 pm)
    10.30-11.30 am (peak goods vehicle flows)
    - 13 vehicle arrivals on street
    - 4 incidents took place
    - Duration of vehicles on street ranged from 20 secs to 13 mins

    12-1pm: (greater pedestrian flows)
    - 13 vehicle arrivals on street
    - 4 incidents took place
    - Duration of vehicles on street ranged from 30 secs to 41 mins

    all incidents were considered to be minor


4.4 Video survey findings: London St, Basingstoke

Two specially erected video cameras were used in London Street, one at the east end looking west and
the second about half way along the street also looking west. The two cameras between them provided
a near full view of the entire length of London Street.

The analysis provided the following findings:
    7am - 1pm analysed from both camera positions
    - 6 goods vehicles on-street 7am - 10am (prior to 10am ban)
    - 3 goods vehicles on-street 10am - 1pm (ban in force)
    - only 2 of the 9 vehicles observed caused any incident.

    incidents observed were considered to be minor


4.5 Video analysis conclusions

The video coverage provided a useful source of information about how urban delivery operations and
other street users interact. Several conflicts took place at each location; however, only one was
regarded as causing major inconvenience. Most incidents comprised goods vehicles having to wait for
a short time before being able to move, or pedestrians having to deviate from their chosen route due to
a goods vehicle being in their way or manoeuvring. The main type of incidents that were observed
from the video footage are:

•   Parked goods vehicles obstructing other goods vehicle, which prevents the other goods vehicle
    from moving and causes delay;



                                                                                               A5 - 26
•   A parked goods vehicle causing an obstruction to other non-commercial road users, by either
    blocking their route and causing them delay, or causing them to manoeuvre around the goods
    vehicle;
•   Pedestrians being unable to proceed along the pavement and instead having to walk around the
    goods vehicle, which may involve them having to walk in the road;
•   Pedestrians not waiting for a goods vehicle to finish parking or manoeuvring and placing
    themselves at risk from the goods vehicle or other traffic;
•   Conflicts that arise when a driver conveys or carries goods from the vehicle to the delivery point
    and in doing so has to cross a busy pavement;
•   In the case of Basingstoke it has helped to illustrate the types of conflicts that can occur in a
    pedestrianised street environment in which there is no demarcated path or raised walking surface
    for pedestrians.

These types of incidents cannot be researched through other types of traffic surveys. Using the video
survey technique provides detailed insight into the workings of a street and helps to enhance the
understanding of problems faced by good vehicles and other street users, and the incidents that arise
from their interaction.

This technique of information capture proved very valuable in highlighting the activities taking place
on busy urban streets where there is potential for a whole range of problems to occur.




                                                                                              A5 - 27
Video data – incident recording form


                                                                                                                                                Severity of
                                                                                                            No. of people &      Duration
   No.        Location          Time                            What is involved                                                                 incident
                                                                                                           vehicles involved   (mins or secs)
                                                                                                                                                   (1-4)
                                          Van    Lorry   Car    M'bike    Bicycle   Pedestrian




Key: Severity of incident
1= Minor inconvenience, 2 = Major inconvenience, 3 = Accident almost took place, 4 = Accident took place




                                                                                                                                                       A5 - 28
                             Bedford Street Drivers Survey
                         For delivery/ collection/ service vehicle drivers

Please return in the pre-paid envelope by 26 October 2001.

1.     Where did your delivery/ collection/ servicing journey start today? Where is it
       due to end?
       Today’s date…………………………………………...…………………….…………………..
       Start………………………………………………………………………….……………………
       End………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2      a) Approximately how many different premises will you visit today?…………….…
       b) How many of these premises are in Norwich?…………………………….….………
       c) How many of these premises are in / accessed via Bedford Street?……………..

3.     What is the purpose of your visit? (Please tick main task)
              Delivery of goods
              Collection of goods
              Carry out service tasks (please specify) …………………………………………….
              Other (please specify) ……………………………………………………………..….

       QUESTION 4A AND 4B FOR DELIVERY/ COLLECTION DRIVERS ONLY

4.     a) What type of goods do you deliver/ collect?
       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
       ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

       b) What are the means used for transferring goods from delivery vehicles to
       premises (or vice versa for collections)?


          By hand                                   By hand truck
          By wheeled cage                           By tray trolley
          By wheeled rail                           Other (please specify)……..……………..
          By pallet                              ……………………………………………………
                                                 ……………………………………………




                                                                                        A5 - 29
5.   Which route through the Norwich area do you generally use to access Bedford Street? If
     you use different routes give a typical day or the route you have used today. (Please
     give road names/numbers or illustrate on the attached map).
     ………………………………………………………………………………………...…….…….
     …………………………………………………………………………………….…..…………..
     ….…………………………………………………………………………………………………
     …………………………………………………………………………………………………….


6.   How often do you access Bedford Street? (Please tick one box)
       More than once a day                      Once a week
       7 days a week                             Once a fortnight
       4-6 days a week                           Once a month
       2-3 days a week                           Other (please specify)………...………….


7.   What time of day do you usually access Bedford Street? (If you visit more than once
     each day please tick the main times but no more than three boxes)
       Before 9am                                12-3pm
       9-10am                                    3-5pm
       10am-12 (Midday)                          After 5pm




                                                                                     A5 - 30
8.    a) Are you aware of the voluntary vehicle ban that operates in Bedford Street between
      12 and 3pm?                                     Yes
                                                      No

      b) Are you able to access Bedford Street outside of these hours?
            Yes. I could access Bedford Street (please tick all times that apply):
                            Before 12 (Midday)
                            After 3pm
                            At night (between 6pm and 8am)


            No. I cannot access Bedford Street at any other time (Please give reason)
      …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
      ………………………………………………………….…………………………………………
      ……….………………………………………………….………………….……………………..


      c) What are your views on this arrangement? Would you like to see the ban
      become formal (i.e. measures to ban traffic between certain times) or remain
      voluntary (i.e. no change from present)?
         Formal                                          Voluntary


      Views: …………………………………………………………………………………………….
      …………………………………….………………………………………………………………
      ………..………………………………………………………………………………………….
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………….………………………...…..


9.    On a typical day how long does it take you on average to carry out:
            a) each of your deliveries/collections/servicing tasks in Bedford Street?
            b) all of your deliveries/collections/servicing tasks in Bedford Street?
            (Please tick one box in each column)

                                  Each             All
      Less than 5 mins
      5-10 minutes
      11-20 minutes
      21-40 minutes
      41-60 minutes
      61-120 minutes
      More than 120 mins

10.   Do you regularly experience any of the following problems when delivering/
                                                                                        A5 - 31
      collecting/ servicing in the Bedford Street area? (Please tick the yes column if
      you regularly experience the problem and let us know if it is worse on certain
      days/ times of the day)

      Problem                                                   Bedford Street
                                                        Yes    Worst on day and/or time
      Lack of places to park
      Pedestrian conflict/ get in the way
      Congestion & delay
      Illegally parked vehicles obstructing
      Legal parking causing obstruction
      Difficulty in negotiating tight junctions
      Narrow street makes manoeuvring difficult
      Poor traffic signing
      Inappropriate/ unnecessary loading restrictions
      Bollards making manoeuvring difficult
      Hanging signs striking vehicle
      Others (please give details)
      ………………………………………………………                             ……    ………………………………………
      ………………………………………………………                             ……    ……………………………


11.   Of the problems you identified in question 10 which two do you consider to
      cause the greatest problems for you when delivering/ collecting/ servicing in
      Bedford Street?
      i)…………………………………………………………………………………………...
      ii)…………………………………………………………………………………………...


12.   Is there anything you would suggest to solve the problems you identified in
      Question 10 & 11?…………………………………...………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………




                                                                                    A5 - 32
13.       a) What do you consider to be the one most important thing that could be done by the
          local authority to make it easier for you to carry out deliveries/ collections/ service tasks
          in Norwich/ Norfolk?
          ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
          ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
          ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
          ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
          ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
          ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


14.       What kind of delivery/ collection/ servicing vehicle do you normally drive when
          accessing Bedford Street? (Please tick one)
             Car/Van                                        2 axle rigid over 7.5T gvw
             Transit type van up to 3.5 tonne gvw           Other vehicle (please specify)…………..
             Transit type van over 3.5 tonne gvw        …………………………………………………
             2 axle rigid up to 7.5T gvw




Thank you for your help. If you/ your company would like to be sent a copy of the
results of this survey or would be willing to discuss the issues further please complete
your details.

Name ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Company ………………………………………………………………………………………………...
Address …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Telephone number ……………………………………………………………………………………...


      Please send a copy of the results
      I would be willing to discuss the issues in more detail

Please feel free to use the space on the reverse of the map to include any other
relevant comments.




                                                                                               A5 - 33
                             Bedford Street Premises Survey
                For businesses and retailers serviced/ accessed via Bedford Street
Please return in the pre-paid envelope by 26 October 2001.
1.     a) Name of business…………………….…………………………………………………….
       b) Address……………………..……………...……..…………………………………………
       c) What is the nature of your business? …………………………………………..……...

2.     What are the opening hours of your business?
       Monday………………………………..                          Friday………………………………………….
       Tuesday……………………………….                          Saturday………………………………………

       Wednesday……………………………                          Sunday………………………………………...

       Thursday………………………………

3.     For delivery/ collection purposes from which street are your premises accessed?
       (Please tick one box)
          Bedford Street                                     Exchange Street
          London Street                                       Other (please specify)……………
4.     In general, who arranges the time that deliveries and collections take place at your
       premises?
          The supplier of the goods                   Other (please give details)
          The delivery/ collection company           ………………………………………………………
          Your premises                              ……………………………………………
5.     Approximately, how many vehicles make deliveries to your premises each week during:
       a) your busiest period of the year? ………………………………………….……………..
       b) a typical week? ……………………………………………………………….…………….
       c) your least busy period of the year? …………………………………………………….

6.     a) Are there variations from day to day during the week (Mon-Fri) in the number of
       vehicles making deliveries to your premises?
          Yes                                           No

       b) If YES, on which day do you usually receive:
       most deliveries? ……………………………………………………………….………………
       least deliveries? …………………………………………………………………….…………

       c) Do you receive deliveries on:
       Saturdays?               Yes           No
       Sundays?                 Yes           No




                                                                                         A5 - 34
7.    In minutes, how long does it take to receive each of your deliveries once the
      vehicle has arrived at your premises ?
      a) Minimum time taken for a delivery……………….…………….………………minutes
      b) Maximum time taken for a delivery……………...…..………………………...minutes
      c) Average time taken for a delivery.………………………….….……………….minutes


8.    a) What time of day do you receive the majority of your deliveries/ collections?
      b) What time of day would you like to receive the majority of your deliveries/
      collections? (Please tick one box in each column)
                                                          Deliveries              Collections
                                                      Receive    Preferred   Receive     Preferred
                                                       Now         Time       Now          Time
       Before opening
       During the morning (up to midday)
       During the afternoon (between 12 and 3)
       During the afternoon (after 3 until closing)
       After closing but before 8pm
       After 8pm
       Throughout the day

9.    Are there times during the working day that you do not accept deliveries and
      collections?            Yes          No
      If YES please explain why ……………………………………………………………………
      ………………………………………………………………………………………….…………
      ……….……………………………………………………………………………………………
10.   a) What type of deliveries do you receive? (Please tick all appropriate boxes)
         furniture                                     documents
         household goods                               food & drink (not temperature controlled)
         clothing                                      temperature controlled food & drink
         footwear                                      parcels
         records                                       other (please specify) ………………………
         books/newspapers/magazines                   …………………………………………………….
      b) What are the means used for transferring goods from delivery vehicles to
      premises (or vice versa for collections)?
         By hand                                         By hand truck
         By wheeled cage                                 By tray trolley
         By wheeled rail                                 Other (please specify)……..……………..
         By pallet                                     …………………………………………………




                                                                                            A5 - 35
11.   Do your customers need to make deliveries / collections at your premises by
      car?                        Yes                   No

12.   a) Are you aware of the voluntary vehicle ban that operates in Bedford Street
      between 12 and 3pm?            Yes                  No

      b) What are your views on this arrangement? Would you like to see the ban become
      formal (i.e. measures to ban traffic between certain times) or remain voluntary (i.e. no
      change from present)?
           Formal                    Voluntary
      Views: …………………………………………………………………………………………….
      ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…
      ………..…………………………………………………………………………………………...

13.   A list of servicing tasks that involve people visiting your premises is provided
      below. Which tasks do your premises require from servicing companies and
      how often (e.g. daily, weekly, monthly)? How long does the servicing task take?

                     Task              Tick box if required &         Approx. time taken
                                      give details of frequency     (e.g.mins/hours/ days)
      Computer equipment
      Photocopier
      Cash register/ tills
      Security/ fire alarms
      Lift/ escalator
      Air conditioning
      Vending machines
      Warm air hand dryers
      Window cleaning
      Telephones
      Florist/ plant care
      Ready prepared food catering
      Laundry/ dry cleaning
      Towel/ linen supplies
      Pest control
      Sales representatives
      Others (please give details)       …………………………               ……………………...………
      ….………………………………
                                         ……………………..…..            ……………….…..……
      ………………………………….
      ..




                                                                                       A5 - 36
14.       Have you regularly experienced/ witnessed any of the following problems in
          the Bedford Street area? (Please tick the yes column if you regularly
          experience/ witness the problem and let us know if it is worse on certain
          days/ times of the day)
          Problem                                           Yes    Worst on day and/or time
          Lack of places to park
          Pedestrian conflict/ get in the way
          Congestion & delay
          Illegally parked vehicles obstructing
          Legal parking causing obstruction
          Difficulty in negotiating tight junctions
          Narrow street makes manoeuvring difficult
          Poor traffic signing
          Inappropriate/ unnecessary loading restrictions
          Bollards making manoeuvring difficult
          Hanging signs striking vehicle
          Others (please give details)
          ……………………………………………………… ……                                ……………………………………
          ……………………………………………………… ……                                ………………………………


15.       Is there anything you would suggest to solve the problems you identified in Question
          14?
          .………………………………………………………………………………………………
          …………………………………………………………………………………………………
          …………………………………………………………………………………………………
          …………………………………………………………………………………………………
          …………………………………………………………………………………………………
          …………………………………………………………………………………………………
          …………………

Thank you for your help. If you would like to be sent a copy of the results of this
survey or would be willing to discuss the issues further please complete the details
below.
Name……………………………………………………………………………………………………...
Telephone number ……………………………………………………………………………………...
      Please send a copy of the results
      I would be willing to discuss issues in more detail

Please feel free to include any other relevant comments on a separate sheet of paper.




                                                                                        A5 - 37
                  APPENDIX 6


Results of policy measures by company by urban area
         (additional results for chapters 7-10)
Table 1: Results of LEZ scenario 1 by urban area (inner area, Euro III)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          1/5         0/2          0/2          1/1
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +1%           n/c         n/c          +3%
   Total CO emissions                        -10%          n/c         -6%          -17%          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c         n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c
   Total NOx emissions                       -33%        -31%         -15%          -48%         -9%           n/c         n/c         -31%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -49%        -29%         -32%          -68%         -6%           n/c         n/c         -28%

                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                31 / 41       8/9        10 / 17      13 / 15      33 / 45       4/4        19 / 27      10 / 14
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +4%          +4%         +4%           +4%
   Total CO emissions                        -12%        -31%          -2%          -18%          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                        -2%         -4%           n/c          -2%          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c
   Total NOx emissions                       -16%        -10%         -13%          -25%        -25%         -31%        -21%          -28%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -19%        -29%         -13%          -27%        -23%         -28%        -19%          -26%




                                                                                                                                               A6 - 1
Table 2: Results of LEZ scenario 2 by urban area (inner and outer area, Euro III)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          4/5         2/2          1/2          1/1
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +3%         +3%          +2%           +3%
   Total CO emissions                        -10%          n/c         -6%          -17%         -6%        -11%           n/c           n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c         n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c
   Total NOx emissions                       -33%        -31%         -15%          -48%        -34%        -41%         -14%          -31%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -49%        -29%         -32%          -68%        -40%        -55%         -10%          -28%

                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                41 / 41       9/9        17 / 17      15 / 15      45 / 45       4/4        27 / 27      14 / 14
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +5%          +4%         +5%           +5%
   Total CO emissions                        -18%        -40%          -7%          -26%          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                        -2%         -5%          -1%           -3%          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c
   Total NOx emissions                       -28%        -13%         -30%          -26%        -31%         -31%        -31%          -31%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -31%        -39%         -29%          -33%        -28%         -28%        -28%          -28%




                                                                                                                                         A6 - 2
Table 3: Results of LEZ scenario 3 by urban area (inner area, Euro IV)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          1/5         0/2          0/2          1/1
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c         1%          n/c          n/c          +3%
   Total CO emissions                        -61%        -90%         -29%          -92%        -21%          n/c          n/c         -90%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -2%         -3%          -1%           -3%         -1%          n/c          n/c          -3%
   Total NOx emissions                       -44%        -51%         -19%          -63%        -15%          n/c          n/c         -51%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -71%        -85%         -43%          -94%        -20%          n/c          n/c         -85%


                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                31 / 41       8/9        10 / 17      13 / 15      33 / 45       4/4        19 / 27      10 / 14
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +4%          +4%         +4%           +4%
   Total CO emissions                        -43%        -43%         -37%          -58%        -73%         -90%        -62%          -80%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -4%         -8%          -2%           -5%         -2%          -3%         -2%           -3%
   Total NOx emissions                       -29%        -43%         -22%          -48%        -41%         -51%        -35%          -45%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -46%        -55%         -36%          -66%        -68%         -85%        -58%          -78%



                                                                                                                                        A6 - 3
Table 4: Results of LEZ scenario 4 by urban area (inner area and outer, Euro IV)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          4/5         2/2          1/2          1/1
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +3%          +3%         +2%           +3%
   Total CO emissions                        -61%        -90%         -29%          -92%        -80%         -91%        -32%          -90%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -2%         -3%          -1%           -3%         -3%          -3%         -1%           -3%
   Total NOx emissions                       -44%        -51%         -19%          -63%        -50%         -58%        -22%          -51%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -71%        -85%         -43%          -94%        -77%         -91%        -29%          -85%

                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                41 / 41       9/9        17 / 17      15 / 15      45 / 45       4/4        27 / 27      14 / 14
   Total time taken
   Orig. driving time as % of total
   Orig. stationary time as % of total
   New driving time as % of total
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)
   Speed per round (excl. stops)
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs               n/c         n/c          n/c           n/c        +5%          +4%         +5%           +5%
   Total CO emissions                        -74%        -55%         -84%          -68%        -90%         -90%        -90%          -90%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -6%        -10%          -4%           -7%         -3%          -3%         -3%           -3%
   Total NOx emissions                       -52%        -56%         -51%          -52%        -51%         -51%        -51%          -51%
   Total PM10 emissions                      -80%        -71%         -84%          -75%        -85%         -85%        -85%          -85%



                                                                                                                                        A6 - 4
Table 5: Results of congestion charging scenario 1 by urban area (inner area, £5 daily fee, no effect on driving time)

                                                              Company B                                           Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds    Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          1/5           0/2           0/2         1/1
   Total time taken                            n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c         n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 65%     Was: 70%     Was: 63%     Was: 67%    Was: 68%       Was: 72%      Was: 62%    Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 35%     Was: 30%     Was: 37%     Was: 33%    Was: 32%       Was: 28%      Was: 38%    Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +1%         +3%          +1%          +1%           n/c            n/c          n/c        +1%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c


                                                              Company F                                           Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds    Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                31 / 41       8/9        10 / 17      13 / 15      31 / 45         4/4         17 / 27     10 / 14
   Total time taken                             n/c        n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c         n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 41%     Was: 40%     Was: 43%     Was: 39%    Was: 38%       Was: 59%      Was: 37%    Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 59%     Was: 60%     Was: 57%     Was: 61%    Was: 62%       Was: 41%      Was: 63%    Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c         n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +5%         +5%          +3%          +6%          +2%           +2%           +2%         +3%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c         n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c         n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c         n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c         n/c



                                                                                                                                          A6 - 5
Table 6: Results of congestion charging scenario 2 by urban area (inner area, £5 daily fee, 15% reduction in driving time)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham       Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          1/5          0/2              0/2         1/1
   Total time taken                            n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 65%     Was: 70%     Was: 63%     Was: 67%    Was: 68%     Was: 72%       Was: 62%       Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 35%     Was: 30%     Was: 37%     Was: 33%    Was: 32%     Was: 28%       Was: 38%       Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +1%         +3%          +1%          +1%           n/c          n/c              n/c        +1%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c         n/c

                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham       Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                31 / 41       8/9        10 / 17      13 / 15      31 / 45        4/4            17 / 27     10 / 14
   Total time taken                           -3%         -2%          -3%          -4%          -4%          -3%              -3%         -5%
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 41%     Was: 40%     Was: 43%     Was: 39%    Was: 38%     Was: 59%       Was: 37%       Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 59%     Was: 60%     Was: 57%     Was: 61%    Was: 62%     Was: 41%       Was: 63%       Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total        Now: 38%     Now: 38%     Now: 40%     Now: 36%    Now: 36%     Now: 57%       Now: 35%       Now: 31%
   New stationary time as % of total     Now: 62%     Now: 62%     Now: 60%     Now: 64%    Now: 64%     Now: 43%       Now: 65%       Now: 69%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +4%         +2%          +3%          +5%          +5%         +6%              +4%          +6%
   Speed per round (excl. stops)             +12%        +10%          +9%         +15%         +11%         +9%             +11%         +13%
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +2%         +3%          +1%           +2%         -1%           n/c             -1%          -1%
   Total CO emissions                         -4%         -1%          -3%           -8%         -1%           2%              -3%          -1%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -3%         -1%          -2%           -6%         -4%          -6%              -4%          -1%
   Total NOx emissions                        -5%         -1%          -3%          -15%         -4%          -5%              -5%          -1%
   Total PM10 emissions                       -4%          n/c         -3%          -11%         -4%          -5%              -4%          -1%




                                                                                                                                            A6 - 6
Table 7: Results of congestion charging scenario 3 by urban area (inner area, £15 daily fee, 15% reduction in driving time)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham      Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          1/5        n/c/ 2             0/2        1/1
   Total time taken                            n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 65%     Was: 70%     Was: 63%     Was: 67%    Was: 68%     Was: 72%       Was: 62%      Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 35%     Was: 30%     Was: 37%     Was: 33%    Was: 32%     Was: 28%       Was: 38%      Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +3%        +10%          +2%          +3%          +1%           n/c              n/c       +3%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c              n/c        n/c

                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham      Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                31 / 41       8/9        10 / 17      13 / 15      31 / 45       4/4          17 / 27       10 / 14
   Total time taken                           -3%         -2%          -3%          -4%          -4%         -3%            -3%           -5%
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 41%     Was: 40%     Was: 43%     Was: 39%    Was: 38%     Was: 59%       Was: 37%      Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 59%     Was: 60%     Was: 57%     Was: 61%    Was: 62%     Was: 41%       Was: 63%      Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total        Now: 38%     Now: 38%     Now: 40%     Now: 36%    Now: 36%     Now: 57%       Now: 35%      Now: 31%
   New stationary time as % of total     Now: 62%     Now: 62%     Now: 60%     Now: 64%    Now: 64%     Now: 43%       Now: 65%      Now: 69%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +4%         +2%          +3%          +5%          +5%         +6%               +4%        +6%
   Speed per round (excl. stops)             +12%        +10%          +9%         +15%         +11%         +9%              +11%       +13%
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs             +11%        +13%          +7%         +14%          +4%         +5%              +4%         +6%
   Total CO emissions                         -4%         -1%          -3%          -8%          -1%         +2%              -3%         -1%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -3%         -1%          -2%          -6%          -4%         -6%              -4%         -1%
   Total NOx emissions                        -5%         -1%          -3%         -15%          -4%         -5%              -5%         -1%
   Total PM10 emissions                       -4%          n/c         -3%         -11%          -4%         -5%              -4%         -1%




                                                                                                                                           A6 - 7
Table 8: Results of congestion charging scenario 4 by urban area (inner and outer area, £5 daily fee, no effect on driving time)

                                                               Company B                                              Company D
                                         All rounds    Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich       All rounds    Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected               3/5           1/1          1/3           1/1           4/5           2/2          1/2           1/1
   Total time taken                              n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 65%      Was: 70%      Was: 63%     Was: 67%      Was: 68%      Was: 72%      Was: 62%     Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 35%      Was: 30%      Was: 37%     Was: 33%      Was: 32%      Was: 28%      Was: 38%     Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total                n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)                 n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)                 n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +1%          +3%           +1%          +1%            +1%          +1%           +2%          +1%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c

                                                               Company F                                              Company G
                                         All rounds    Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich       All rounds    Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                41 / 41        9/9         17 / 17      15 / 15        43 / 45        4/4         25 / 27      14 / 14
   Total time taken                             n/c         n/c            n/c          n/c            n/c         n/c            n/c          n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 41%      Was: 40%      Was: 43%     Was: 39%      Was: 38%      Was: 59%      Was: 37%     Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 59%      Was: 60%      Was: 57%     Was: 61%      Was: 62%      Was: 41%      Was: 63%     Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total                n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)                 n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)                 n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c           n/c           n/c          n/c           n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +6%          +6%           +6%          +7%            +3%          +2%           +3%          +4%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c            n/c          n/c           n/c          n/c




                                                                                                                                                 A6 - 8
Table 9: Results of congestion charging scenario 5 by urban area (inner area and outer area, £5 daily fee, 15% reduction in driving time)

                                                              Company B                                          Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham     Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  3/5         1/1          1/3          1/1          4/5         2/2            1/2              1/1
   Total time taken                            n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c         n/c            n/c              n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 65%     Was: 70%     Was: 63%     Was: 67%    Was: 68%     Was: 72%      Was: 62%       Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 35%     Was: 30%     Was: 37%     Was: 33%    Was: 32%     Was: 28%      Was: 38%       Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c              n/c
   New stationary time as % of total
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c              n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)               n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c           n/c              n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +1%         +3%          +1%          +1%          +1%         +1%            +2%             +1%
   Total CO emissions                          n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c         n/c            n/c             n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c         n/c            n/c             n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c         n/c            n/c             n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c         n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c         n/c            n/c             n/c

                                                              Company F                                          Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich     All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham     Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                41 / 41       9/9        17 / 17      15 / 15      43 / 45       4/4          25 / 27       14 / 14
   Total time taken                           -5%         -2%          -6%          -6%          -5%         -3%            -5%           -5%
   Orig. driving time as % of total      Was: 41%     Was: 40%     Was: 43%     Was: 39%    Was: 38%     Was: 59%      Was: 37%       Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total   Was: 59%     Was: 60%     Was: 57%     Was: 61%    Was: 62%     Was: 41%      Was: 63%       Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total        Now: 37%     Now: 38%     Now: 39%     Now: 35%    Now: 35%     Now: 57%      Now: 34%       Now: 31%
   New stationary time as % of total     Now: 63%     Now: 62%     Now: 61%     Now: 65%    Now: 65%     Now: 43%      Now: 66%       Now: 69%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +5%         +2%          +7%          +6%          +6%         +6%            +6%              +7%
   Speed per round (excl. stops)             +15%        +10%         +18%         +18%         +16%         +9%           +16%             +18%
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +1%         +4%           n/c          +2%         -1%          n/c           -1%               n/c
   Total CO emissions                         -8%         -1%         -10%          -10%         -3%         +2%            -6%              -1%
   Total CO2 emissions                        -5%         -1%          -7%           -7%         -6%         -6%            -7%              -1%
   Total NOx emissions                       -10%         -1%          -9%          -15%         -7%         -5%            -9%              -2%
   Total PM10 emissions                       -9%          n/c         -9%          -12%         -6%         -5%            -8%              -1%




                                                                                                                                              A6 - 9
Table 10: Results of weight restriction scenario 1 by urban area (inner area, no vehicle over 7.5 tonnes)

                                                                  Company B                                                          Company D
                                        All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham          Norwich
  Total number of rounds                Was: 5 rounds    Was: 1 rounds   Was: 3 rounds    Was: 1 rounds    Was: 5 rounds    Was: 2 rounds    Was: 2 rounds    Was: 1 rounds
  Total number of rounds                Now: 11 rounds   Now: 1 rounds   Now: 3 rounds    Now: 7 rounds    Now: 5 rounds    Now: 2 rounds    Now: 2 rounds    Now: 1 rounds
  Number of rounds affected                    1/5               0/1             0/3                1/1           0/5               0/2              0/2              0/1
  Total time taken                            +1%                 n/c             n/c              +2%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 65%         Was: 70%        Was: 63%          Was: 67%        Was: 68%         Was: 72%         Was: 62%         Was: 74%
  Orig. stationary time as % of total
                                         Was: 35%         Was: 30%        Was: 37%          Was: 33%        Was: 32%         Was: 28%         Was: 38%         Was: 26%
  New driving time as % of total         Now: 64%                 n/c             n/c       Now: 64%               n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  New stationary time as % of total
                                         Now: 36%                                           Now: 36%
  Speed per round (incl. Stops)
  Speed per round (excl. stops)
  Total distance travelled                    +2%                n/c             n/c              +5%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  Total vehicle operating costs               -2%                n/c             n/c              -4%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  Total CO emissions                          +1%                n/c             n/c              +3%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  Total CO2 emissions                         +1%                n/c             n/c              +2%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  Total NOx emissions                         +1%                n/c             n/c              +2%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c
  Total PM10 emissions                        +2%                n/c             n/c              +3%             n/c               n/c              n/c             n/c


                                                                  Company F                                                          Company G
                                        All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham          Norwich
 Total number of rounds                 Was: 41 rounds   Was: 9 rounds   Was: 17 rounds   Was: 15 rounds   Was: 45 rounds   Was: 4 rounds    Was: 27 rounds   Was: 14 rounds
 Total number of rounds                 Now: 41 rounds   Now: 9 rounds   Now: 17 rounds   Now: 15 rounds   Now: 77 rounds   Now: 10 rounds   Now: 45 rounds   Now: 22 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                    0/41                0/9           0/17               0/15         18/45                3/4           10/27             5/14
 Total time taken                               n/c               n/c            n/c                n/c         +26%             +69%             +20%             +17%
 Orig. driving time as % of total        Was: 41%         Was: 40%        Was: 43%           Was: 39%       Was: 38%         Was: 59%         Was: 37%         Was: 34%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total
                                         Was: 59%         Was: 60%        Was: 57%           Was: 61%       Was: 62%         Was: 41%         Was: 63%         Was: 66%
 New driving time as % of total                 n/c               n/c            n/c                n/c     Now: 45%         Now: 74%         Now: 45%         Now: 38%
 New stationary time as % of total
                                                                                                            Now: 55%         Now: 26%         Now: 55%         Now: 62%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                      n/c               n/c             n/c                n/c         +76%            +124%             +64%             +39%
 Total vehicle operating costs                 n/c               n/c             n/c                n/c         +12%             +37%              +9%              +1%
 Total CO emissions                            n/c               n/c             n/c                n/c         +29%             +45%             +27%              +7%
 Total CO2 emissions                           n/c               n/c             n/c                n/c         +15%             +23%             +16%              -4%
 Total NOx emissions                           n/c               n/c             n/c                n/c         +19%             +29%             +19%              -1%
 Total PM10 emissions                          n/c               n/c             n/c                n/c        +110%            +188%             +91%             +61%



                                                                                                                                                                    A6 - 10
Table 11: Results of weight restriction scenario 2 by urban area (inner area, no vehicle over 12 tonnes)

                                                                 Company B                                                          Company D
                                       All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham         Norwich           All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham         Norwich
 Total number of rounds                 Was: 5 rounds   Was: 1 rounds   Was: 3 rounds    Was: 1 rounds      Was: 5 rounds   Was: 2 rounds   Was: 2 rounds    Was: 1 rounds
 Total number of rounds                 Now: 8 rounds   Now: 1 rounds   Now: 3 rounds    Now: 4 rounds      Now: 5 rounds   Now: 2 rounds   Now: 2 rounds    Now: 1 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                      1/5              0/1             0/3               1/1               0/5             0/2             0/2             0/1
 Total time taken                              -1%               n/c             n/c              -4%                n/c             n/c             n/c              n/c
 Orig. driving time as % of total        Was: 65%         Was: 70%        Was: 63%         Was: 67%          Was: 68%         Was: 72%       Was: 62%         Was: 74%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total     Was: 35%         Was: 30%        Was: 37%         Was: 33%          Was: 32%         Was: 28%       Was: 38%         Was: 26%
 New driving time as % of total          Now: 62%                n/c             n/c       Now: 57%                  n/c             n/c             n/c             n/c
 New stationary time as % of total       Now: 38%                                          Now: 43%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                      +1%               n/c             n/c               +2%              n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c
 Total vehicle operating costs                 -2%               n/c             n/c               -6%              n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c
 Total CO emissions                             n/c              n/c             n/c               +1%              n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c
 Total CO2 emissions                            n/c              n/c             n/c               +1%              n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c
 Total NOx emissions                            n/c              n/c             n/c               +1%              n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c
 Total PM10 emissions                          +1%               n/c             n/c               +1%              n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c


                                                                 Company F                                                           Company G
                                       All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich           All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham         Norwich
 Total number of rounds                Was: 41 rounds   Was: 9 rounds   Was: 17 rounds   Was: 15 rounds    Was: 45 rounds   Was: 4 rounds   Was: 27 rounds   Was: 14 rounds
 Total number of rounds                Now: 41 rounds   Now: 9 rounds   Now: 17 rounds   Now: 15 rounds    Now: 61 rounds   Now: 7 rounds   Now: 36 rounds   Now: 18 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                     0/41               0/9            0/17               0/15          16/45               3/4            9/27             4/14
 Total time taken                                n/c              n/c             n/c                n/c          +17%              +49%           +14%             +10%
 Orig. driving time as % of total        Was: 41%         Was: 40%        Was: 43%            Was: 39%       Was: 38%         Was: 59%        Was: 37%         Was: 34%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total
                                         Was: 59%         Was: 60%        Was: 57%            Was: 61%       Was: 62%         Was: 41%        Was: 63%         Was: 66%
 New driving time as % of total                  n/c              n/c             n/c                n/c     Now: 44%         Now: 71%        Now: 44%         Now: 36%
 New stationary time as % of total
                                                                                                             Now: 56%         Now: 29%        Now: 56%         Now: 64%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                       n/c              n/c             n/c                 n/c         +52%              +87%            +44%             +22%
 Total vehicle operating costs                  n/c              n/c             n/c                 n/c          +6%              +24%             +5%              -3%
 Total CO emissions                             n/c              n/c             n/c                 n/c         +19%              +32%            +18%              -1%
 Total CO2 emissions                            n/c              n/c             n/c                 n/c         +10%              +17%            +11%              -8%
 Total NOx emissions                            n/c              n/c             n/c                 n/c         +18%              +29%            +18%              -2%
 Total PM10 emissions                           n/c              n/c             n/c                 n/c         +92%             +161%            +75%             +48%



                                                                                                                                                                   A6 - 11
Table 12: Results of weight restriction scenario 3 by urban area (inner and outer area, no vehicle over 7.5 tonnes)

                                                                  Company B                                                         Company D
                                        All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham         Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham          Norwich
  Total number of rounds                Was: 5 rounds    Was: 1 rounds   Was: 3 rounds    Was: 1 rounds    Was: 5 rounds    Was: 2 rounds    Was: 2 rounds    Was: 1 rounds
  Total number of rounds                Now: 11 rounds   Now: 1 rounds   Now: 3 rounds    Now: 7 rounds    Now: 12 rounds   Now: 3 rounds    Now: 8 rounds    Now: 1 rounds
  Number of rounds affected                    1/5               0/1             0/3              1/1              2/5               1/2             1/2              0/1
  Total time taken                            +1%                 n/c             n/c           +2%             +54%             +48%            +139%                n/c
  Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 65%         Was: 70%        Was: 63%         Was: 67%         Was: 68%         Was: 72%         Was: 62%         Was: 74%
  Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 35%         Was: 30%        Was: 37%         Was: 33%         Was: 32%         Was: 28%         Was: 38%         Was: 26%
  New driving time as % of total         Now: 64%                 n/c             n/c      Now: 64%         Now: 73%         Now: 71%         Now: 76%                n/c
  New stationary time as % of total      Now: 36%                                          Now: 36%         Now: 27%         Now: 29%         Now: 24%
  Speed per round (incl. Stops)
  Speed per round (excl. stops)
  Total distance travelled                    +2%                n/c             n/c            +5%             +44%             +35%            +167%               n/c
  Total vehicle operating costs               -2%                n/c             n/c            -4%             +27%             +26%             +74%               n/c
  Total CO emissions                          +1%                n/c             n/c            +3%             +38%             +26%            +122%               n/c
  Total CO2 emissions                         +1%                n/c             n/c            +2%             +18%             +15%             +59%               n/c
  Total NOx emissions                         +1%                n/c             n/c            +2%             +18%             +17%             +51%               n/c
  Total PM10 emissions                        +2%                n/c             n/c            +3%             +51%             +36%            +155%               n/c


                                                                 Company F                                                          Company G
                                        All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham           Norwich
  Total number of rounds                Was: 41 rounds   Was: 9 rounds   Was: 17 rounds   Was: 15 rounds   Was: 45 rounds   Was: 4 rounds    Was: 27 rounds   Was: 14 rounds
  Total number of rounds                Now: 41 rounds   Now: 9 rounds   Now: 17 rounds   Now: 15 rounds   Now: 91 rounds   Now: 10 rounds   Now: 55 rounds   Now: 26 rounds
  Number of rounds affected                   0/41              0/9            0/17             0/15            26/45               3/4           16/27             7/14
  Total time taken                              n/c             n/c              n/c              n/c           +34%             +69%             +32%            +20%
  Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 41%        Was: 40%         Was: 43%         Was: 39%         Was: 38%         Was: 59%         Was: 37%         Was: 34%
  Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 59%        Was: 60%         Was: 57%         Was: 61%         Was: 62%         Was: 41%         Was: 63%         Was: 66%
  New driving time as % of total                n/c             n/c              n/c              n/c       Now: 49%         Now: 74%         Now: 50%        Now: 40%
  New stationary time as % of total                                                                         Now: 51%         Now: 26%         Now: 50%        Now: 60%
  Speed per round (incl. Stops)
  Speed per round (excl. stops)
  Total distance travelled                     n/c              n/c             n/c              n/c            +99%           +124%            +101%             +47%
  Total vehicle operating costs                n/c              n/c             n/c              n/c            +15%            +37%             +15%              +1%
  Total CO emissions                           n/c              n/c             n/c              n/c            +39%            +45%             +43%              +8%
  Total CO2 emissions                          n/c              n/c             n/c              n/c            +20%            +23%             +25%              -5%
  Total NOx emissions                          n/c              n/c             n/c              n/c            +25%            +29%             +30%              -1%
  Total PM10 emissions                         n/c              n/c             n/c              n/c           +144%           +188%            +145%             +72%



                                                                                                                                                                    A6 - 12
Table 13: Results of weight restriction scenario 4 by urban area (inner and outer area, no vehicle over 12 tonnes)

                                                                 Company B                                                          Company D
                                       All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham         Norwich
 Total number of rounds                Was: 5 rounds    Was: 1 rounds   Was: 3 rounds    Was: 1 rounds     Was: 5 rounds   Was: 2 rounds   Was: 2 rounds    Was: 1 rounds
 Total number of rounds                Now: 8 rounds    Now: 1 rounds   Now: 3 rounds    Now: 4 rounds     Now: 9 rounds   Now: 3 rounds   Now: 5 rounds    Now: 1 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                   1/5                0/1             0/3                1/1           2/5               1/2             1/2             0/1
 Total time taken                           -1%                 n/c             n/c               -4%         +39%              +48%            +69%                n/c
 Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 65%         Was: 70%        Was: 63%           Was: 67%        Was: 68%        Was: 72%        Was: 62%         Was: 74%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 35%         Was: 30%        Was: 37%           Was: 33%        Was: 32%        Was: 28%        Was: 38%         Was: 26%
 New driving time as % of total        Now: 62%                  n/c             n/c       Now: 57%        Now: 72%         Now: 71%        Now: 73%                 n/c
 New stationary time as % of total     Now: 38%                                            Now: 43%        Now: 28%         Now: 29%        Now: 27%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                   +1%                n/c             n/c              +2%            +31%            +35%            +84%                n/c
 Total vehicle operating costs              -2%                n/c             n/c              -6%            +21%            +28%            +34%                n/c
 Total CO emissions                          n/c               n/c             n/c              +1%            +28%            +28%            +65%                n/c
 Total CO2 emissions                         n/c               n/c             n/c              +1%            +13%            +18%            +25%                n/c
 Total NOx emissions                         n/c               n/c             n/c              +1%            +15%            +20%            +25%                n/c
 Total PM10 emissions                       +1%                n/c             n/c              +1%            +40%            +40%            +88%                n/c


                                                                 Company F                                                         Company G
                                       All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich
 Total number of rounds                Was: 41 rounds   Was: 9 rounds   Was: 17 rounds   Was: 15 rounds   Was: 45 rounds   Was: 4 rounds   Was: 27 rounds   Was: 14 rounds
 Total number of rounds                Now: 41 rounds   Now: 9 rounds   Now: 17 rounds   Now: 15 rounds   Now: 68 rounds   Now: 7 rounds   Now: 41 rounds   Now: 20 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                   0/41               0/9           0/17              0/15           23/45               3/4          14/27             6/14
 Total time taken                             n/c               n/c            n/c                n/c         +23%              +49%            +22%            +11%
 Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 41%         Was: 40%        Was: 43%          Was: 39%        Was: 38%         Was: 59%        Was: 37%         Was: 34%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 59%         Was: 60%        Was: 57%          Was: 61%        Was: 62%         Was: 41%        Was: 63%         Was: 66%
 New driving time as % of total               n/c               n/c            n/c                n/c      Now: 46%         Now: 71%        Now: 47%        Now: 38%
 New stationary time as % of total                                                                         Now: 54%         Now: 29%        Now: 53%        Now: 62%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                     n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c           +67%            +87%            +69%             +26%
 Total vehicle operating costs                n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c            +8%            +24%             +9%              -4%
 Total CO emissions                           n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c           +25%            +32%            +29%              -1%
 Total CO2 emissions                          n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c           +14%            +17%            +18%              -9%
 Total NOx emissions                          n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c           +24%            +29%            +28%              -3%
 Total PM10 emissions                         n/c              n/c             n/c               n/c          +120%           +161%           +120%              56%



                                                                                                                                                                 A6 - 13
Table 14: Results of time restriction scenario 1 by urban area (affected rounds carried out 8-10am or 4-6pm)

                                                                 Company B                                                          Company D
                                       All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham           Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke   Birmingham         Norwich
 Total number of rounds                Was: 5 rounds    Was: 1 rounds    Was: 3 rounds    Was: 1 rounds     Was: 5 rounds   Was: 2 rounds   Was: 2 rounds    Was: 1 rounds
 Total number of rounds                Now: 7 rounds    Now: 1 rounds    Now: 3 rounds    Now: 3 rounds     Now: 5 rounds   Now: 2 rounds   Now: 2 rounds    Now: 1 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                     1/5               0/1              0/3                1/1            0/5               0/2            0/2              0/1
 Total time taken                             -2%                n/c              n/c               -5%             n/c               n/c            n/c              n/c
 Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 65%          Was: 70%         Was: 63%           Was: 67%       Was: 68%         Was: 72%       Was: 62%         Was: 74%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 35%          Was: 30%         Was: 37%           Was: 33%       Was: 32%         Was: 28%       Was: 38%         Was: 26%
 New driving time as % of total         Now: 61%                 n/c              n/c        Now: 54%               n/c               n/c            n/c              n/c
 New stationary time as % of total      Now: 39%                                             Now: 46%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                      n/c              n/c              n/c                +1%             n/c              n/c            n/c              n/c
 Total vehicle operating costs                -3%               n/c              n/c                -7%             n/c              n/c            n/c              n/c
 Total CO emissions                            n/c              n/c              n/c                +1%             n/c              n/c            n/c              n/c
 Total CO2 emissions                           n/c              n/c              n/c                 n/c            n/c              n/c            n/c              n/c
 Total NOx emissions                           n/c              n/c              n/c                 n/c            n/c              n/c            n/c              n/c
 Total PM10 emissions                          n/c              n/c              n/c                +1%             n/c              n/c            n/c              n/c


                                                                 Company F                                                          Company G
                                       All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham           Norwich          All rounds       Basingstoke  Birmingham          Norwich
 Total number of rounds                Was: 41 rounds   Was: 9 rounds    Was: 17 rounds   Was: 15 rounds   Was: 45 rounds   Was: 4 rounds   Was: 27 rounds   Was: 14 rounds
 Total number of rounds                Now: 59 rounds   Now: 12 rounds   Now: 24 rounds   Now: 23 rounds   Now: 54 rounds   Now: 4 rounds   Now: 32 rounds   Now: 18 rounds
 Number of rounds affected                   29/41               6/9            10/17             13/15           19/45              3/4           11/27            5/14
 Total time taken                            +10%               +6%            +10%              +13%              +9%                n/c           +9%            +13%
 Orig. driving time as % of total        Was: 41%         Was: 40%         Was: 43%          Was: 39%        Was: 38%         Was: 59%        Was: 37%         Was: 34%
 Orig. stationary time as % of total     Was: 59%         Was: 60%         Was: 57%          Was: 61%        Was: 62%         Was: 41%        Was: 63%         Was: 66%
 New driving time as % of total          Now: 46%         Now: 44%         Now: 48%          Now: 45%        Now: 41%                 n/c     Now: 41%         Now: 36%
 New stationary time as % of total       Now: 54%         Now: 56%         Now: 52%          Now: 55%        Now: 59%                         Now: 59%         Now: 64%
 Speed per round (incl. Stops)
 Speed per round (excl. stops)
 Total distance travelled                    +21%             +12%             +20%               +35%           +20%                n/c          +25%             +34%
 Total vehicle operating costs                +7%              +7%              +5%               +11%            +1%                n/c           +2%              -2%
 Total CO emissions                            n/c            +12%             -10%               +11%            +7%                n/c          +11%              +5%
 Total CO2 emissions                           n/c            +12%             -10%                +9%            +3%                n/c           +7%              -5%
 Total NOx emissions                         -32%             +12%             -34%               -42%            +5%                n/c           +9%              -2%
 Total PM10 emissions                        -15%             +12%             -23%               -13%           +30%                n/c          +37%             +53%



                                                                                                                                                                  A6 - 14
Table 15: Results of time restriction scenario 2 by urban area (inner area, night delivery, reduction in driving time: 15% in urban area, 5% outside
urban area, no extra wages)

                                                              Company B                                           Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich      All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  1/5          0/1         0/3           1/1          0/5          0/2          0/2            0/1
   Total time taken                           -1%           n/c         n/c          -3%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 65%     Was: 70%     Was: 63%     Was: 67%     Was: 68%    Was: 72%      Was: 62%      Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 35%     Was: 30%     Was: 37%     Was: 33%     Was: 32%    Was: 28%      Was: 38%      Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c          n/c         n/c      Now: 66%          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   New stationary time as % of total                                             Now: 33%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +1%           n/c         n/c          +3%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)              +1%           n/c         n/c          +5%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              -1%           n/c         n/c          -2%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total CO emissions                          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c

                                                              Company F                                           Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich      All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                29 / 41        6/9       10 / 17       13 / 15      19 / 45        3/4        11 / 27         5 / 14
   Total time taken                           -3%          -2%         -3%           -4%          -3%          -4%          -2%            -4%
   Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 41%     Was: 40%    Was: 43%      Was: 39%     Was: 38%     Was: 59%     Was: 37%       Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 59%     Was: 60%    Was: 57%      Was: 61%     Was: 62%     Was: 41%     Was: 63%       Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total         Now: 38%     Now: 38%    Now: 40%      Now: 36%     Now: 37%     Now: 57%     Now: 36%       Now: 33%
   New stationary time as % of total      Now: 62%     Now: 62%    Now: 60%      Now: 64%     Now: 63%     Now: 43%     Now: 64%       Now: 67%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +4%         +2%          +3%          +5%           +4%         +7%           +3%            +3%
   Speed per round (excl. stops)             +12%        +10%          +9%         +15%           +7%        +11%           +7%            +6%
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              -3%          -2%         -3%           -4%          -2%          -3%          -2%            -3%
   Total CO emissions                         -4%          -1%         -3%           -8%          -2%          -1%          -3%             n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                        -3%          -1%         -2%           -6%          -5%          -9%          -4%             n/c
   Total NOx emissions                        -5%          -1%         -3%          -15%          -5%         -10%          -4%             n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                       -4%           n/c        -3%          -11%          -4%          -9%          -4%             n/c



                                                                                                                                            A6 - 15
Table 16: Results of time restriction scenario 3 by urban area (inner area, night delivery, reduction in driving time: 15% in urban area, 5% outside
urban area, 20% higher wages)
                                                              Company B                                           Company D
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich      All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                  1/5          0/1         0/3           1/1          0/5          0/2          0/2           0n/ 1
   Total time taken                           -1%           n/c         n/c          -3%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 65%     Was: 70%     Was: 63%     Was: 67%     Was: 68%    Was: 72%      Was: 62%      Was: 74%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 35%     Was: 30%     Was: 37%     Was: 33%     Was: 32%    Was: 28%      Was: 38%      Was: 26%
   New driving time as % of total              n/c          n/c         n/c      Now: 66%          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   New stationary time as % of total                                             Now: 33%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +1%           n/c         n/c          +3%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Speed per round (excl. stops)              +1%           n/c         n/c          +5%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +1%           n/c         n/c          +3%           n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total CO emissions                          n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                         n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total NOx emissions                         n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                        n/c          n/c         n/c           n/c          n/c          n/c          n/c            n/c

                                                              Company F                                           Company G
                                         All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham   Norwich      All rounds   Basingstoke  Birmingham    Norwich
   Total number of rounds
   Number of rounds affected                29 / 41        6/9       10 / 17       13 / 15      19 / 45        3/4        11 / 27         5 / 14
   Total time taken                           -3%          -2%         -3%           -4%          -3%          -4%          -2%            -4%
   Orig. driving time as % of total       Was: 41%     Was: 40%    Was: 43%      Was: 39%     Was: 38%     Was: 59%     Was: 37%       Was: 34%
   Orig. stationary time as % of total    Was: 59%     Was: 60%    Was: 57%      Was: 61%     Was: 62%     Was: 41%     Was: 63%       Was: 66%
   New driving time as % of total         Now: 38%     Now: 38%    Now: 40%      Now: 36%     Now: 37%     Now: 57%     Now: 36%       Now: 33%
   New stationary time as % of total      Now: 62%     Now: 62%    Now: 60%      Now: 64%     Now: 63%     Now: 43%     Now: 64%       Now: 67%
   Speed per round (incl. Stops)              +4%         +2%          +3%          +5%           +4%         +7%           +3%            +3%
   Speed per round (excl. stops)             +12%        +10%          +9%         +15%           +7%        +11%           +7%            +6%
   Total distance travelled
   Total vehicle operating costs              +4%         +4%          +3%           +6%          +3%          +2%          +3%            +3%
   Total CO emissions                         -4%         -1%          -3%           -8%          -2%          -1%          -3%             n/c
   Total CO2 emissions                        -3%         -1%          -2%           -6%          -5%          -9%          -4%             n/c
   Total NOx emissions                        -5%         -1%          -3%          -15%          -5%         -10%          -4%             n/c
   Total PM10 emissions                       -4%          n/c         -3%          -11%          -4%          -9%          -4%             n/c



                                                                                                                                            A6 - 16
            APPENDIX 7


Results of policy measures by indicator
 (additional results for chapters 7-10)
                                                         Effect of Low Emission Zone measures on Total Vehicle Operating Cost                                                                                         Effect of Congestion Charging measures on Total Vehicle Operating Cost

                                   30%                                                                                                                                                             30%



                                   25%                                                                                                                                                             25%



                                   20%                                                                                                                                                             20%




                                                                                                                                                                 Percent change on original cost
 Percent change on original cost




                                   15%                                                                                                                                                             15%



                                   10%                                                                                                                                                             10%



                                    5%                                                                                                                                                              5%



                                    0%                                                                                                                                                              0%
                                          Company A         Company B        Company C           Company D              Company E      Company F     Company G                                            Company A      Company B       Company C             Company D          Company E            Company F   Company G


                                    -5%                                                                                                                                                            -5%



                                   -10%                                                                                                                                                            -10%

                                                                              Scenario 1    Scenario 2    Scenario 3     Scenario 4                                                                                                  Scenario 1   Scenario 2    Scenario 3   Scenario 4   Scenario 5




                                                      Effect of Vehicle Weight Restriction measures on Total Vehicle Operating Cost                                                                                   Effect of Vehicle Access Time measures on Total Vehicle Operating Cost

                                   30%                                                                                                                                                             30%



                                   25%                                                                                                                                                             25%



                                   20%                                                                                                                                                             20%
Percent change on original cost




                                                                                                                                                                 Percent change on original cost
                                   15%                                                                                                                                                             15%


                                   10%                                                                                                                                                             10%


                                    5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5%


                                    0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    0%
                                          Company A         Company B       Company C           Company D              Company E      Company F    Company G
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Company A      Company B        Company C            Company D           Company E           Company F   Company G

                                   -5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -5%


                                   -10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -10%
                                                                             Scenario 1    Scenario 2    Scenario 3    Scenario 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scenario 1    Scenario 2   Scenario 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A7 - 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect of Congestion Charging measures on Total time Taken

                                                                                                                                                                                                60%



                                                                                                                                                                                                50%




                                                                                                                                                        Percent change on original time taken
                                                                                                                                                                                                40%



                                                                                                                                                                                                30%



                                                                                                                                                                                                20%



                                                                                                                                                                                                10%




                                                                                                                                                                                                 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Company A     Company B       Company C             Company D          Company E            Company F      Company G


                                                                                                                                                                                                -10%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Scenario 1   Scenario 2    Scenario 3   Scenario 4   Scenario 5



                                                           Effect of Vehicle Weight Restriction measures on Total time Taken                                                                                       Effect of Vehicle Access Time Restriction measures on Total time Taken


                                        60%                                                                                                                                                     60%




                                        50%                                                                                                                                                     50%




                                                                                                                                                        Percent change on original time taken
Percent change on original time taken




                                                                                                                                                                                                40%
                                        40%



                                                                                                                                                                                                30%
                                        30%



                                                                                                                                                                                                20%
                                        20%


                                                                                                                                                                                                10%
                                        10%


                                                                                                                                                                                                 0%
                                         0%                                                                                                                                                            Company A     Company B       Company C             Company D          Company E            Company F      Company G
                                               Company A   Company B       Company C          Company D            Company E    Company F   Company G
                                                                                                                                                                                                -10%
                                        -10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scenario 1    Scenario 2   Scenario 3
                                                                            Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3   Scenario 4




                                        There is no graph for Low Emissions Zones as this measure has no effect on total time taken.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               A7 - 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Effect of Vehicle Time Restriction measures on Distance Travelled
                                                               Effect of Vehicle Weight Restriction measures on Distance Travelled

                                                                                                                                                                                                      120%
                                         120%




                                         100%                                                                                                                                                         100%




                                                                                                                                                             Percentage change on original distance
Percentage change on original distance




                                         80%                                                                                                                                                          80%




                                         60%                                                                                                                                                          60%




                                         40%                                                                                                                                                          40%




                                         20%                                                                                                                                                          20%




                                          0%                                                                                                                                                           0%
                                                   Company A    Company B       Company C          Company D            Company E    Company F   Company G                                                   Company A   Company B       Company C          Company D          Company E   Company F   Company G

                                                                                 Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3   Scenario 4                                                                                                             Scenario 1    Scenario 2   Scenario 3




                                                There are no graphs for Low Emissions Zones and Congestion Charging as these measures have no effect on distance travelled.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A7 - 3
                                                                                                                                                      Effect of Congestion Charging measures on Speed per round

                                                                                                                   20%


                                                                                                                   18%


                                                                                                                   16%




                                                                                Percent change on original speed
                                                                                                                   14%


                                                                                                                   12%


                                                                                                                   10%


                                                                                                                    8%


                                                                                                                    6%


                                                                                                                    4%


                                                                                                                    2%


                                                                                                                    0%
                                                                                                                             Company A            Company B             Company C            Company D             Company E            Company F              Company G

                                                                                                                                    Scenario 1: Incl. Stops    Scenario 1: Excl. stops   Scenario 2: Incl. Stops   Scenario 2: Excl. stops     Scenario 3: Incl. Stops
                                                                                                                                    Scenario 3: Excl. stops    Scenario 4: Incl. Stops   Scenario 4: Excl. stops   Scenario 5: Incl. Stops     Scenario 5: Excl. stops




                                                                                                                                                              Effect of Vehicle Time Restriction measures on Speed

                                                                                                                   20%


                                                                                                                   18%


                                                                                                                   16%




                                                                                Percent change on original speed
                                                                                                                   14%


                                                                                                                   12%


                                                                                                                   10%


                                                                                                                    8%


                                                                                                                    6%


                                                                                                                    4%


                                                                                                                    2%


                                                                                                                    0%
                                                                                                                              Company A            Company B             Company C               Company D           Company E               Company F           Company G

                                                                                                                   Scenario 1: Incl. Stops   Scenario 1: Excl. stops   Scenario 2: Incl. Stops     Scenario 2: Excl. stops   Scenario 3: Incl. Stops     Scenario 3: Excl. stops



There are no graphs for Low Emissions Zones and Weight Restrictions as these measures have no effect on average speed (including and excluding stops).


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A7 - 4
                                                             Effect of Low Emission Zone measures on CO emissions                                                                                                   Effect of Congestion Charging measures on CO emissions

                                       40%                                                                                                                                                    40%



                                       20%                                                                                                                                                    20%
Percent change on original emission




                                                                                                                                                       Percent change on original emission
                                        0%                                                                                                                                                     0%
                                              Company A   Company B     Company C          Company D             Company E     Company F   Company G                                                 Company A   Company B       Company C              Company D            Company E            Company F    Company G


                                      -20%                                                                                                                                                    -20%



                                      -40%
                                                                                                                                                                                              -40%



                                      -60%
                                                                                                                                                                                              -60%



                                      -80%
                                                                                                                                                                                              -80%



                                      -100%
                                                                                                                                                                                             -100%
                                                                          Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3    Scenario 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Scenario 1    Scenario 2     Scenario 3    Scenario 4   Scenario 5




                                                          Effect of Vehicle Weight Restriction measures on CO emissions                                                                                           Effect of Vehicle Time Restriction measures on CO emissions

                                       40%                                                                                                                                                    40%



                                       20%                                                                                                                                                    20%
Percent change on original emission




                                                                                                                                                       Percent change on original emission
                                        0%                                                                                                                                                     0%
                                              Company A   Company B      Company C          Company D            Company E     Company F   Company G                                                 Company A   Company B      Company C               Company D           Company E         Company F       Company G


                                      -20%                                                                                                                                                   -20%



                                      -40%                                                                                                                                                   -40%



                                      -60%                                                                                                                                                   -60%



                                      -80%                                                                                                                                                   -80%



                                      -100%                                                                                                                                                  -100%

                                                                          Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3    Scenario 4                                                                                                              Scenario 1     Scenario 2    Scenario 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A7 - 5
                                                             Effect of Low Emission Zone measures on CO2 emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect of Congestion Charging measures on CO2 emissions


                                      25%                                                                                                                                                         25%




                                      20%                                                                                                                                                         20%
Percent change on original emission




                                                                                                                                                            Percent change on original emission
                                      15%                                                                                                                                                         15%



                                      10%                                                                                                                                                         10%



                                       5%                                                                                                                                                          5%



                                       0%                                                                                                                                                          0%
                                             Company A   Company B      Company C            Company D              Company E      Company F    Company G                                                Company A   Company B       Company C              Company D             Company E            Company F       Company G


                                       -5%                                                                                                                                                         -5%



                                      -10%                                                                                                                                                        -10%

                                                                          Scenario 1    Scenario 2    Scenario 3     Scenario 4                                                                                                  Scenario 1    Scenario 2     Scenario 3    Scenario 4   Scenario 5




                                                         Effect of Vehicle Weight Restriction measures on CO2 emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect of Vehicle Time Restriction measures on CO2 emissions

                                      25%                                                                                                                                                         25%



                                      20%                                                                                                                                                         20%
Percent change on original emission




                                                                                                                                                            Percent change on original emission
                                      15%                                                                                                                                                         15%




                                      10%                                                                                                                                                         10%




                                       5%                                                                                                                                                          5%




                                       0%                                                                                                                                                          0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Company A   Company B      Company C               Company D           Company E             Company F      Company G
                                             Company A   Company B      Company C           Company D              Company E      Company F    Company G

                                                                                                                                                                                                  -5%
                                      -5%



                                                                                                                                                                                                  -10%
                                      -10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scenario 1     Scenario 2    Scenario 3
                                                                         Scenario 1    Scenario 2    Scenario 3    Scenario 4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A7 - 6
                                                            Effect of Low Emission Zone measures on NOx emissions                                                                                                                                        Effect of Congestion Charging measures on NOx emissions

                                      40%                                                                                                                                                                     40%


                                      30%                                                                                                                                                                     30%


                                      20%                                                                                                                                                                     20%
Percent change on original emission




                                                                                                                                                     Percent change on original emission
                                      10%                                                                                                                                                                     10%


                                       0%                                                                                                                                                                                        0%
                                             Company A   Company B      Company C         Company D             Company E    Company F   Company G                                                                                      Company A     Company B        Company C             Company D           Company E             Company F   Company G
                                      -10%                                                                                                                                                          -10%


                                      -20%                                                                                                                                                          -20%


                                      -30%                                                                                                                                                          -30%


                                      -40%                                                                                                                                                          -40%


                                      -50%                                                                                                                                                          -50%


                                      -60%                                                                                                                                                          -60%


                                      -70%                                                                                                                                                          -70%

                                                                         Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3   Scenario 4                                                                                                                                         Scenario 1   Scenario 2    Scenario 3    Scenario 4    Scenario 5




                                                         Effect of Vehicle Weight Restrictions measures on NOx emissions                                                                                                                                Effect of Vehicle Time Restrictions measures on NOx emissions


                                      40%                                                                                                                                                                                         40%


                                      30%                                                                                                                                                                                         30%


                                      20%                                                                                                                                                                                         20%




                                                                                                                                                                                           Percent change on original emission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10%
Percent change on original emission




                                      10%


                                       0%                                                                                                                                                                                         0%
                                             Company A   Company B      Company C          Company D            Company E    Company F   Company G                                                                                        Company A    Company B         Company C            Company D           Company E            Company F   Company G

                                      -10%                                                                                                                                                                                       -10%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -20%
                                      -20%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -30%
                                      -30%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -40%
                                      -40%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -50%
                                      -50%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -60%
                                      -60%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -70%
                                      -70%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Scenario 1    Scenario 2    Scenario 3
                                                                         Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3   Scenario 4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               A7 - 7
                                                             Effect of Low Emission Zone measures on PM10 emissions                                                                                                Effect of Congestion Charging measures on PM10 emissions

                                      160%                                                                                                                                                    160%

                                      140%                                                                                                                                                    140%

                                      120%                                                                                                                                                    120%

                                      100%                                                                                                                                                    100%




                                                                                                                                                        Percent change on original emission
Percent change on original emission




                                       80%                                                                                                                                                     80%

                                       60%                                                                                                                                                     60%

                                       40%                                                                                                                                                     40%

                                       20%                                                                                                                                                     20%


                                        0%                                                                                                                                                      0%
                                              Company A   Company B      Company C          Company D             Company E     Company F   Company G                                                 Company A   Company B       Company C             Company D          Company E            Company F     Company G
                                      -20%                                                                                                                                                    -20%


                                      -40%                                                                                                                                                    -40%


                                      -60%                                                                                                                                                    -60%

                                                                                                                                                                                              -80%
                                      -80%

                                                                                                                                                                                              -100%
                                      -100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Scenario 1   Scenario 2    Scenario 3   Scenario 4   Scenario 5
                                                                           Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3    Scenario 4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect of Vehicle Time Restriction measures on PM10 emissions
                                                          Effect of Vehicle Weight Restriction measures on PM10 emissions

                                                                                                                                                                                              160%
                                      160%

                                                                                                                                                                                              140%
                                      140%

                                                                                                                                                                                              120%
                                      120%

                                                                                                                                                                                              100%
                                      100%




                                                                                                                                                        Percent change on original emission
Percent change on original emission




                                                                                                                                                                                               80%
                                       80%

                                                                                                                                                                                               60%
                                       60%

                                                                                                                                                                                               40%
                                       40%

                                                                                                                                                                                               20%
                                       20%

                                                                                                                                                                                                0%
                                        0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Company A   Company B       Company C             Company D          Company E            Company F     Company G
                                              Company A   Company B       Company C          Company D            Company E     Company F   Company G
                                                                                                                                                                                              -20%
                                      -20%

                                                                                                                                                                                              -40%
                                      -40%

                                                                                                                                                                                              -60%
                                      -60%

                                                                                                                                                                                              -80%
                                      -80%

                                                                                                                                                                                              -100%
                                      -100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Scenario 1    Scenario 2   Scenario 3
                                                                           Scenario 1   Scenario 2   Scenario 3    Scenario 4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A7 - 8

				
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