APES Water Unit Review Key by xZsgeH

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									APES Water Unit Review

Name:_____________________________                          Date:_________                    Mods:_________

   1)     Put the following zones in the correct order from shoreline to the bottom and define characteristics of each. Benthic,
         limnetic, littoral, profundal
              a. _Littoral: Photosynthesis, adjacent to shoreline
              b. _Limnetic: photosynthesis, surface open water
              c. _Profundal: aphotic zone
              d. _Benthic: aphotic deepest, low temp, high pressure, low oxygen
   2)    List some characteristics of ocean currents.
              a. Influence climate
              b. Driven by water density
              c. Redistribute heat globally
              d. Moderate temp on land
   3)    Describe the Gulf Stream.
              a. Carries more water than all the rivers in the world
              b. Located in north Atlantic ocean
              c. Displaces colder denser water in the polar regions
              d. Transports warm water from equatorial regions northward
   4)    Define the following:
              a. Watershed: Land area surrounding a body of water from which runoff drains
              b. Aquifer: porous layers of rock and soil that store freshwater
              c. Runoff: precipitation which does not infiltrate the ground
              d. Surface water: Most usable source of freshwater
              e. Water Table: upper limit of the zone of saturation
              f. Natural Spring: the intersection of pressurized aquifer with ground surface results
   5)    Facts about the ocean
              a. Sea water is Not uniformly saline from one basin to the other
              b. Most water is salt water
              c. Saltier water is More dense and sinks to the ocean
              d. The average salinity is 3.5%
              e. Ocean basins do not have uniform surface elevations
   6)    What are some ways that humans disrupt the hydrolic cycle? Urbanization, destruction of wetlands, deforestation,
         global warming
   7)    Where do we get most of our fresh water from? Surface water Where is most of the fresh water that is inaccessible?
         Glaciers
   8)    What are some disadvantages of transferring water into dry places?
              a. Degrades rivers
              b. Increases salinity
              c. Threatens fisheries
              d. Alters climate
   9)    What is the major reason that desalination is not more prevalent? Expensive
   10)   What are some ways we can prevent flooding?
              a. Dams
              b. Straightening and widening channels
              c. Levees
   11)   Water consumption is less than water withdrawal.
   12)   What can result from depleting groundwater?
              a. Sinkholes
              b. Shrinking rivers
        c. Wells running dry
        d. Saltwater intrusion
13) Rates of industrial and agricultural water use vary widely from one country to another.
14) What do we use most of our water for? Agriculture
15) How do current irrigation techniques compare to drip irrigation?
        a. Flood irrigation and sprinkler systems are not efficient
        b. Water is lost in unlined irrigation canals
        c. Drip irrigation is a new expensive technology that reduces water loss

16) How does a dam affect the amount of regional water? It increases the amount available to the region
17) How will global warming effect mid-latitude regions like Arizona?
         a. High evaporation rates
         b. Water shortages
         c. Crop loss
         d. Severe droughts
18) How will lowing water prices effect water depletion? How can we slow ground water depletion?
         a. Low prices increases depletion
         b. We can slow depletion by reducing waste water, diverting water to recharge aquifers, restriction water
            intensive crops, limiting water use
19) What is the benefit of building a dam and reservoir system?
         a. Has a large capacity for runoff storage
         b. Control flooding
         c. Supply irrigation water
         d. Producing electricity
20) Rank domestic water use from least to greatest. (laundry and dishes, toilet flushing, bathing, drinking and cooking)
         a. Drinking and cooking, laundry and dishes, bathing, toilet flushing
21) List some effects of droughts
         a. Reduced stream flow
         b. Increase competition for resources
         c. Reduced primary productivity
         d. Lowered water table
22) What are the disadvantages of using salts to seed clouds?
         a. Causes decreased rainfall elsewhere
         b. Contamination from salts used
23) What would be the best way to conserve personal water use? Using low flow toilets
24) Define xeriscaping: Xeriscaping and xerogardening refer to landscaping and gardening in ways that reduce or
    eliminate the need for supplemental water from irrigation.
25) List examples of point sources
         a. Sewage treatment plant
         b. Leaking storage tank
         c. Oil tanker
         d. Mine
26) List examples of non-point sources
         a. Fertilizer from cropland
         b. Urban runoff
27) How does the water today compare to the water quality 40 years ago? Clean
28) What is the primary source of water pollution? Agriculture
29) What is the hardest water source to cleanse? What factors make it difficult?
         a. Aquifer
         b. High cost
           c. Long residence
           d. Difficult to monitor
           e. Few decomposing bacteria
30)   What are some factors that influence the ability for the water to cleanse themselves?
           a. Rate of flow
           b. Water volume
           c. Time
           d. Temperature
31)   Name the organisms that you would find in each zone
           a. Highly sensitive (Intolerant):Trout, perch, bass
           b. Sensitive: Car, gar , leeches
           c. Highly tolerant: fungi, worms, bacteria
32)   Label the picture and describe the zones
      New Book pg 425 new 4 19 old book
33)   List characteristics of a eutrophic lake
           a. Nutrient richness
           b. Highly productivity
           c. Organism richness
           d. Algal blooms
34)   What are the impacts of eutrophication?
           a. Change in species composition
           b. Fish kills
           c. Red tides
           d. Dead zones
35)   Describe the following types of pollution
           a. Heavy metals: this
           b. Thermal pollution: increases temperature and reduces DO outside of the range of tolerance that harms and
               kills organisms
           c. Inorganic and organic chemicals: Causes increase cancer and impaired immune and endocrine systems
           d. Pathogenic microbes: Major sources are human and animal wastes, spreads disease. Cholera
           e. Sediment: This blocks light, reduces DO, and smothers gravel beds, source land erosion
36)   When testing for total oxygen content WITHOUT regard to any specific factors you would test for DO.
37)   When drilling into deposits Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic chemical that can contaminate drinking water.
38)   Most people in rural America have a septic system to treat waste water.
39) What step in treatment are nitrates and phosphates removed from waste water? tertiary treatment (hint: are they in
      your waste water?)
40) Septic depend of decomposing bacteria organisms to degrade sewage.
41) List the benefits of artificial wetlands
          a.   Lower in cost than conventional wastewater treatment
          b. Simpler
          c. Treat industrial cooling water
          d. Their effluent (outflowing water) is useful for crop irrigation
42) Describe an effluent sewage system. Who would this be good for?
          a.   Effluent sewer systems, also called septic tank effluent drainage (STED) or solids-free sewer (SFS)
               systems, have septic tanks that collect sewage from residences and businesses, and the effluent that comes out
               of the tank is sent to either a centralized sewage treatment plant or a distributed treatment system for further
             treatment. Most of the solids are removed by the septic tanks, so the treatment plant can be much smaller
             than a typical plant.
        b. Developing countries…. It is cheap and low cost
43) Describe the following treatments of sewage. Indicate which are required by law
        a.   Primary: ( required, Filtration screens, grit chambers, remove sediment
             ______________________________________________________________________________
        b. Secondary: Required, aeration and bacteria decompose waste
             ____________________________________________________________________________
        c. Tertiary:(Advanced treatment) Not required, necessary for waste heavy in nitrogen and phosphates


44) List the ways to disinfect water to destroy microbial contaminants
        a.   Ozonation
        b. Chlorination
        c. UV radiation
        d. Hydrogen peroxide


45) Put the following terms in the correct steps for conventional sewage treatment system
        a.   Filtration of solids
        b. Sedimentation
        c. Bacterial decomposition
        d. Disinfection
46) Describe the following terms
        a.   Dead zones : sedimentation and algae overgrowth block out sunlight to aquatic plants and reducing DO
             available to other organisms
        b. Oil spills: incidence of releasing oil in to the ocean, can be prevented/ reduced by ships with double hulls
        c. Toxic sediment :Toxic pollutants like nuclear waste and heavy metals, difficult to remediate
        d. Red tides: Explosive growth of toxic algae caused by an influx of nitrate and phosphate chemicals
        e. Beach pollution: Garbage, sewage and contaminated runoff wash up on shorelines
47) What is the function of the World Bank?
        a.   Treat AIDS
        b. Build schools
        c. Preserve wild life
        d. Improve sanitation


48) What contributes to the tragedy of the commons? (Goldfish)
        a.   Exploit common resource
        b. Some are easier to control than others
        c. Costs of depletion is shared by all
        d. Environmental decisions are long term, economic decisions are short term
49) Describe the following laws and regulations
        a.   Fish and Wildlife Act (1956)
             Establishes a comprehensive national fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources policy with emphasis on the
             commercial fishing industry but also with a direction to administer the Act with regard to the inherent right
             of every citizen and resident to fish for pleasure, enjoyment, and betterment and to maintain and increase
             public opportunities for recreational use of fish and wildlife resources.
        b. Clean Water Act (1972)
             Primary goal to make water fishable and swimmable
             Regulates point pollutants entering surface water
        c. Ocean Dumping Act ( 1988)
             Regulates the dumping of sewage sludge or industrial waste into the ocean
        d. CITES (1975)
             Regulates international trade of plant and animal species that may be endangered
        e. Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001)
             International agreement to reduce or eliminate the production, use and release of 12 persistent organic
             pollutants
        f.   International Whaling commission
             Responsible for regulating the international whaling industry to prevent extinction
50) Describe the following vocabulary words
        a.   Aquaculture: Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish and even plants.
             The term aquaculture refers to the cultivation of both marine and freshwater species and can range
             from land-based to open-ocean production.
        b. By-catch the portion of a commercial fishing catch that consists of marine animals caught unintentionally
        c. Capture fisheries: refers to all kinds of harvesting of naturally occurring living resources in both marine and
             freshwater environments
        d. Commercial extinction: A term usually referring to marine animals, commercial extinction is the depletion of
             a population of species to the point where fisherman cannot catch enough of them to earn profit
        e. Fishprint______________________________________________________________________________
             _____________________________________________________________________________________
        f.   Bottom trawling Bottom trawling involves dragging huge, heavy nets along the sea floor. Large metal plates
             and rubber wheels attached to these nets move along the bottom and crush nearly everything in their path.
             All evidence indicates that deep water life forms are very slow to recover from such damage, taking decades
             to hundreds of years - if they recover at all.
        g. Drift netting are lengthy, free-floating, 26-49 ft (8-15 m) deep nets, each as long as 55 mi (90 km). Drift nets
             are used to snare fish by their gills in pelagic, open-water situations. Because drift nets are not very selective
             of species, their use results in a large by-catch of non-target fish, sharks, turtles, seabirds, and marine
             mammals, which are usually jettisoned, dead, back to the ocean. Drift nets are an extremely destructive
             fishing technology.
        h. Long line A longline is a fishing line usually made of monofilament. The length of the line generally ranges
             from 1.6km (1 mile) to as long as 100km (62 miles). The line is buoyed by styrofoam or plastic floats. Every
             hundred or so feet, there is a secondary line attached extending down about 5m (16 feet). This secondary line
             is hooked and baited with squid, fish, or in cases we have discovered, with fresh dolphin meat.

             The baited hooks can be seen by albatross from the air and when they dive on the hooks, they are caught and
             they drown. Other forms of marine wildlife see the bait from the waters below and get hooked when they try
             to eat the bait.

             The lines are set adrift from vessels for a period of 12 to 24 hours.

        i.   Purse seine


             Purse seining establishes a large wall of netting to encircle schools of fish. Fishermen pull the bottom of the
             netting closed—like a drawstring purse—to herd fish into the center. This method is used to catch schooling
             fish, such as sardines, or species that gather to spawn, such as squid. There are several types of purse seines
             and, depending on which is used, some can catch other animals (such as when tuna seines are intentionally set
             on schools of dolphins).

51) What is the proportion of by-catch?1/3 of annual fish catch

								
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