Native Texans Power Point by TK1wSQd


									Current Indian
Reservations in
  (They own
  a casino)
• The state name originates from
  the Caddo Indian word "teysha"
  meaning "friends" Texas comes
  from the Caddo Indian tribe.
  The Spanish Conquistadors
  encountered the Caddo Indians
  around 1540 in the area of East
  Texas. The Caddos referred to
  the Spanish as "tayshas,"
  which meant "friend" or
  "allies." The Spanish
  translation was "tejas." The
  Americans converted it to
1. The Caddo Indians- Most
Advanced Indians in Texas
Caddo Man
Caddo Woman
Caddo Village
•Caddo Village- Were part of the
    Mound Building Tribe
Caddo Village
•Caddo Indians- They farmed
 crops such as “Maize”- Corn
 •Caddo- Built their Villages on
the Red River; made it easier to
         gather water
•Caddo Pottery- helped to carry
 water, cook food, and trade or
   “barter” with other tribes
Caddo Pottery
Whitebread, Caddo chief (caddi)
       from 1902-1913
Mrs. Whitebread, wife of Caddo
   chief (caddi), 1902-1913
Jose Maria
     José Maria, famous chief of the
        Anadarko (Nadaco), who rose
        to become principal chief of all
        Caddo groups during the
        turbulent years of the mid-
        1800s. José Maria, whose
        Caddo name was Iesh
        (Aasch), was famed both as a
        warrior and statesman. It was
        he who led the Caddo from the
        short-lived Brazos Reserve in
        Texas to the Indian Territory in
        1859. This bronze bust by
        sculptor Leonard McMurry is
        on display at the National Hall
        of Fame for Famous American
        Indians in Anadarko,
Sho-We-Tit (Billy Thomas), a Caddo man
   photographed by Joseph Dixon on
            June 21, 1913
•The Caddo lived in beehive shaped huts.
 *Caddo Indians moved tons of dirt in
baskets to build their enormous temple
       mounds in East Texas.
•Caddo- Celebrated by having a
     Ceremonial Dance
Caddo Woman Arranges Daughter’s Hair
Caddo Woman & Daughter
Caddo Women Dance the Turkey
2. Coahuiltecan Indians
•Coahuiltecan men would pursue a
deer for an entire day until the deer
dropped from exhaustion!
-Lived in South
Texas where we live today
• Coahuiltecans often
  fought with other tribes
• They used hit and run
• They fought to secure
  better hunting land
3. Karankawa Indians
• Lived along the coast between Corpus
  Christi and Galveston Bay
• Cannibals- ate their enemies for “Strength”
• Migrated from California
    Perdiz Arrowpoints
Commonly found at Karankawa
     Excavation Sites
Karankawa Indian SmokingPipe
•Apache Indian Encampment
    Texas Hill Country
Lipan Apache Warrior
Lipan Apache
Apache Indians
Apache Devil Dance
Apache Wickiup
Apache P

      White Mountain Apache
Apache Men in Camp
Tonkawa Indians
Chiricahua Apache man,
Camp of the Lipans, as depicted in an idyllic scene
           by Theodore Gentilz, 1840s.
Lipan Apache brave
Hattie, Chiricahua Apache,
         circa 1899
San Juan, a Mescalero Apache
Lipan Apache girl
Bison of the Plains, 1906
Apache P

             Apache Camp
The Tonkawa Indians were actually a group of independent bands, the
Tonkawas proper, the Mayeyes, and a number of smaller groups that
may have included the Cava, Cantona, Emet, Sana, Toho, and Tohaha
Indians. The remnants of these tribes united in the early eighteenth
century in the region of Central Texas near Austin. The Tonkawa were
hunters and fishermen, they did not farm. They hunted buffalo, deer,
turkey and rabbits and caught fish, mussels and fresh water prawns.
They also gathered and ate a number of herbs, roots, fruit, seeds,
acorns, and pecans. When Anglo settlers moved into their region,
pecans became an item of barter.
In aboriginal days the Tonkawas lived in short, squat tepees covered
with buffalo hides. As the buffalo became scarce, brush arbors,
resembling the tepee in structure but covered with brush branches
and grass, replaced the buffalo-skin tepee. Still later, these structures
were replaced with simple flat-topped huts covered with brush. The
Tonkawas intermarried with Lipans and other Indians or whites to the
extent that they were no longer distinguishable as a separate tribe by
Tonkawa Woman
     The Tonkawan Indians of Texas
The Tonkawa were a nomadic buffalo hunting people roaming from somewhere around what is now Hillsboro, Texas to
     the vicinity of present day San Antonio, Texas. They lived in scattered villages of tepees constructed from buffalo
     hides or arbors made from brush and grass. They ate most kinds of small game, fish and shellfish. They excepted
     the coyote and wolf from their diet for religious reasons. They collected nuts (especially pecans), herbs, acorns
     and fruits to supplement their meats. They even attempted some farming in the latter part of the eighteenth
Their tribal culture was similar to many Plains Indian tribes, especially the Crow. Each band of Tonkawa elected a chief
     to lead them under an elected tribal head chief. Clan membership, determined by the mother's clan, was another
     important aspect of Tonkawa society. Marriage came with little ceremony, but funeral rites were extensive.
     Mourning lasted three days and was followed by a four day pipe smoking purification.DressThe Tonkawa were
     notable warriors who used bows, spears and firearms. The warriors wore protective leather jackets and caps
     decorated with horn and brilliant plumage. They traded tallow, deerskins and buffalo robes to the Spanish to obtain
     their first firearms in the late 18th century. The Tonkawa are known to have worn breastplates, chokers and ear
     pendants made with hair pipes. Breechclout, leggings and moccasins completed their warm weather clothing. A
     buffalo robe would be added on top for cold weather.
Male and female Tonkawans tattoed and painted their bodies for adornment or religious purposes. A picture taken in
     1871 shows Castile, a Tonkawan, with a long belt made of linked silver conchos, each an oval of about four by six
     inches. A line of small silver buttons or beads runs down the outside of each of his leggings. He is wearing a
     beaded feather hanging from over his right ear and dangling in front of his shoulder. Castile is reported to have
     been chief of the Tonkawas and a scout for both the Texas Rangers and the U.S. Army.
Reports of cannibalism among the Texas tribes were often applied to the Karankawa and the Tonkawa.
Apache on Horseback
Apache Man & Woman
Plains Indians Relied on the Buffalo
Atakapan in Dugout Canoe
Comanche Horsemanship
Women Cut Buffalo Strips to Dry
Comanche Village
Comanche Teepee
Comanche Braves
Quanah Parker
     Cynthia AnnParker
and her daughter, Topsannah
Comanche Woman
Comanche Woman
Comanche chief "Ee-shah-ko-nee"
     (the bow and quiver).
       From Catlin 1926.
                Plains Indian Woman

Artist Friedrich Richard Petri painted a variety of people and scenes in the area of his
Fredericksburg home in the Texas Hill Country.
Battle of Plum Creek
Comanche Indians Chasing Buffalo
      by George Catlan
Tonkawa Beaded Moccasin
Wichita Grass House
Wichita Camp 1904
 Wee-Ta-Ra-Sha-Ro, Head Chief of the
Wichita. Painted by George Catlin in 1834
  Kiowa painting of Koba (Wild Horse) wearing
feathered headdress on horseback with group of
men including Etahdeleuh (Boy Hunting), carrying
           lances. Watercolor, 1875
Kiowa brave. Tow-An-Kee, son of Lone
    Wolf. Killed in Texas in 1873
Kiowa boy, wearing bone breastplate and
        striped cotton clothing.
        Photo circa 1867-1874,
Kiowa Man & Wife
Kiowa Woman
Beaded Kiowa Moccasins
Kiowa Beaded Horse Halter
Kiowa on Reservation
     Circa 1900
Kiowa Baby
Kiowa Women
Kiowa camp, ca. 1867-1874.
  Making Medicine." Kiowa drawing by
Mopope, reflecting importance of buffalo to
                the Indian
Topin Tone-oneo, daughter of Kicking Bird.
  The only one of the great Kiowa chief's
         children to survive him.
     Enchanted Rock near
Fredericksburg was considered a
sacred (holy) place for the Native
   Americans that lived there.

    During the winter the Karankawas stayed near the coast. Large
    schools of fish would come into the shallow bays, making them easy
    to catch. Clams and oysters were also available on the coast and
    were safe to eat in the winter.
    In the summer, when the fish moved too far out to sea to catch, the
    Karankawas moved inland. They survived by hunting deer, rabbits,
    turkeys, and turtles, and by gathering berries, plants, and a special
    root that grew in shallow water.

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