The Industrial Revolution: AB rief Introduction by HU30t88

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									    The Industrial Revolution: A Brief
              Introduction

Outline:                 Terms
Britain’s advantages     Enclosures
Four features of early   Canal Era
    industrialization    Combination Acts
Elsewhere in Europe      Luddism
Impact of                British Radicalism
    industrialization    Peterloo
   Britain’s Seven Advantages
• Agricultural Revolution
• Population growth
• Ready capital in entrepreneurial hands
   – Bank of England
• Access to minerals
• Improved transportation
   – “The Canal Era” (1760-1830)
• Governmental support
• Foreign trade via empire & naval
  dominance
The Canal Era (1760-1830)

                By 1800, some
                600-700 miles of
                canals connected
                existing navigable
                rivers.

                This created some
                2,000 miles of
                navigable inland
                waterways.
Four Features of Early-Industrial Britain

 • New ways to make things: shift from
   animate to inanimate forms of energy
 • New ways to organize production
 • Concentration in three main industries:
   textiles, mining & iron
 • Concentration geographically
    – Advantages
    – Disadvantages
   Industrial Revolution & Economic Transformations

• Cotton, Coal and Railways
• Cotton and Textiles
  – Role of Indian calicoes and British Navigation Acts
  – Trade and Connections between Harvest and Textile
    Production (distinction from Sugar)
  – Increasing Mechanization In Production by 19th century




                   The Cottager
                                    Women Spinning (1790s)
    Changing Technology, Changing Production




  The Spinning Jenny1760s
                                                              Textile mills-late 1800s




Steam Engine: James Watt: 1777, First used in coal industry
Geographical Connections between coal and iron deposits and
                 Manufacturing districts




      Steam enginge
                                             Coal Industry
250000
             Coalminers
200000

150000

100000

50000
                                        50
    0                                   45
           1770       1800       1850   40
                                        35
                                        30
                                        25
                                        20
                                        15
                                                            Coal Tonnage in
                                        10                  Millions
                                         5
                                         0
         Late 19th century coal mine          1831   1850
     Coal, Railroad, & Industrialization




Coal Transport:
1825: Stockton-Darlington Line (9 miles)

Passenger Travel:
1830: Manchester-Liverpool (32 miles)
1840: 2000 miles of track
1850: 7000 miles of track
       Industrial Development
          on the Continent
• Certain important areas
   – Belgium
   – Northern France
   – Northern Italy
• Differences from Britain
   – Ruhr Valley in Germany
   – Less concentrated geographically
   – Cultural variations
   – Market approaches
Understanding European Industrialization:
   Population Change Across Europe


                     Pop. Growth 1831     1850
                     in millions
                     France        32.5   35.8
                     +9.3%
                     Germany       26.5   33.5
                     +21%
                     England       16.3   20.8
                     22%
 Industrial Development on the Continent
• Certain important areas:
   Belgium, Northern France, Ruhr Valley in Germany
   & Northern Italy




Before 1850
Changes in Time and Space




            •Perception of time changes by 19th century
            •Regularized, mechanized, uniform
            •Role of factory time
            •Time = money
            •Role of railways:
                •1884: Prime Meridian Conference
                      Greenwich: zero meridian
                      Division of 24 time zones
                      Standard time
            •Experience of space changes with railroad
      Industrial Labor of Women and Children




•Is Child Labor New in the 19th Century?
     •No.
•Women & children work in pre-industrial period
•What has changed?
     •Family economy disrupted
     •Breakdown of paternalism
     •Idea of childhood emerges
•Moral outrage, reform & Factory and Mines Act
  Expectations of Change:
   New Faith in Progress




1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition
   “industry of all nations”
  Initial Impacts of these Changes
• Breakdown of paternalism
  – Development of “class” ideology
  – Luddism: hatred of technology
• Radicalism/Reform Movements
  – Response to economic dislocation
  – Middle-class reformers & working men
    together
  – Government unresponsive, political
    action leads to repression (Peterloo 1819)
Peterloo Massacre (1819)

								
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