American Government Final Exam Review by ZRz3NsCn

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									  American
Government
 Final Exam
   Review
Be able to answer
  the following
    questions!

             American Government Final Exam Review   0
    Chapter 2 / Unit 2
   The Origins of
American Government
       American Government Final Exam Review   1
What civilization is given credit for
the invention of democracy?


• Athens / Ancient Greece




                 American Government Final Exam Review   2
When did the ancient Greeks
experiment with democracy?


• Around 500 BC (roughly 2,500 years ago)




                  American Government Final Exam Review   3
What type of democracy did the
ancient Greeks experiment with?


• Direct Democracy – The people, themselves, were
  the government and made the rules.


                 American Government Final Exam Review   4
In ancient Greece not everyone
could participate in direct
democracy. Who was left out?

• Women
• Slaves
• Foreigners

               American Government Final Exam Review   5
In ancient Rome, which
philosopher advocate the concept
of limited government?

• Cicero




           American Government Final Exam Review   6
Following the fall of the Rome
Empire, Europe was plunged into a
period of cultural and educational
stagnation and decline. What is
this time period known as?
• The Dark Ages / Medieval Times




                 American Government Final Exam Review   7
In 1215 at Runnymede (England)
King John agreed to limit royal
power in return for financial
support from his barons so he
could again go to war. What is the
name of the document he signed?
• Magna Carta


                American Government Final Exam Review   8
As the Dark Ages came to an end,
Europeans began to embrace
education, philosophy, science, and
the arts once again. What is this
period known as?
• The Renaissance




                    American Government Final Exam Review   9
In the centuries following Magna
Carta, the English continued to
demand more rights. What two
documents help to highlight those
demands?
• The Petition of Rights (1682)
• The English Bill of Rights (1688)


                   American Government Final Exam Review   10
During the 18th Century, this era
embraced intellectualism and
reason as the primary source for
legitimacy and authority, especially
for government. What is this time
period known as?
• The Age of Enlightenment
• The Age of Reason

                 American Government Final Exam Review   11
What is Natural Law?

• Law that came directly from God/Nature and
  transcended human existence (eternal truths).
• Natural law refers to the use of reason to analyze
  human nature and deduce binding rules of moral
  behavior.

                   American Government Final Exam Review   12
What did Thomas Hobbes do?



• He articulated his theory of the “State of Nature”
  and the “Social Contract”.


                   American Government Final Exam Review   13
What did John Locke do?



• He rejected Hobbes version of the social contract.
• According to Locke, people are the sovereign power,
  not rulers.

                  American Government Final Exam Review   14
Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau
and what did he do?

• French Enlightenment philosopher
• Sovereignty should be in the hands of the people
• Advocated a form of direct democracy that was
  conducted in a assembly (legislature)


                  American Government Final Exam Review   15
Who was Voltaire and what did he
do?

• French Enlightenment philosopher
• Called for “Enlightened Despotism”
• Advocated religious toleration, freedom of speech,
  freedom of the press, and the right to hold private
  property

                  American Government Final Exam Review   16
English colonist who settled in
America in the 1600s brought two
important political concepts with
them from England. What were
they?
• Limited Government
• Representative Government


                American Government Final Exam Review   17
Identify the three types of British
colonies set up in North America

• Royal
• Proprietary
• Charter



                American Government Final Exam Review   18
What are the characteristics of a
Royal Colony?

• Ruled directly by the British crown
• The king appointed a royal governor and council to
  supervise the colony
• 8 of the 13 British colonies were royal colonies


                  American Government Final Exam Review   19
What are the characteristics of a
Proprietary Colony?

• Individuals or groups were granted land by the
  British crown
• Proprietors were subject to the crown but allowed to
  rule as they please
• Proprietors appointed the governor of the colony

                  American Government Final Exam Review   20
What is the best example of a
Proprietary Colony?

• Pennsylvania




                 American Government Final Exam Review   21
Who was Pennsylvania’s
Proprietor?

• William Penn




                 American Government Final Exam Review   22
What are the characteristics of a
Charter Colony?
• Operated under a colonial charter which was a grant
  of rights and privileges
• Colonist elected their own governors and members
  of both houses
• Proprietors appointed the governor of the colony
• Crowns approved the governor’s appointments
• Governor lacked veto power
                  American Government Final Exam Review   23
The English colonies help to set
many legal precedents that would
help the colonist learn to govern
themselves. Identify those
precedents.
• A written constitution that guarantees basic rights
  and limits government powers
• An elected legislature
• The separation of powers between the executive
  (governor) and the legislature

                   American Government Final Exam Review   24
What were the three contributing
factors that led to the American
Revolution?
• Mercantilism
• The French and Indian War
• Taxes



                 American Government Final Exam Review   25
How did mercantilism impact the
American colonies?
• Mercantilism was an economic system in which a
  nation’s power was measured by the amount of
  wealth they accumulated.
• European nations set up colonies in order to exploit
  the colony’s natural resources for the enrichment of
  the mother country.
• The British believed that the American colonies
  existed for the benefit of Great Britain – not for the
  colonists themselves

                   American Government Final Exam Review   26
When was the French and Indian
War fought?

• 1754 to 1763




                 American Government Final Exam Review   27
What was the conflict about?


• It was a war between the British / American colonists
  against the French / Native American allies
• The war was about control of the land area that
  today makes up western Pennsylvania and Ohio

                  American Government Final Exam Review   28
What role did the American
colonists play in starting the
conflict?
• Despite promises by the British that colonization and
  expansion would not proceed into Indian territory, it
  did
• The Indians turned to their French allies to help
  repulse what was an invasion of their country
• The colonists in turn demanded the British
  government protect the settlements from the French
  and Indians
                  American Government Final Exam Review   29
Who won the French and Indian
War?


• British & American colonists




                  American Government Final Exam Review   30
Who won the French and Indian
War?


• British & American colonists




                  American Government Final Exam Review   31
What was the outcome of the war?
• The French and Indians were pushed further West
• The British acquired vast tracks of territory that
  needed to be guarded from attack
• The British spent huge sums of money in order to
  fight and win the conflict
• The British government was heavily in debt and
  needed to raise revenue to pay for the cost of the
  war
• This resulted in parliament raising taxes on the
  colonies
                  American Government Final Exam Review   32
How did the colonists respond to
additional taxes?
• Americans were outraged; they did not believe the
  taxes were just
• Many Americans went to extreme measures to avoid
  paying them
• The colonists argued that since they did not have
  representation in Parliament that there was
  “taxation without representation”

                 American Government Final Exam Review   33
What was the Stamp Act?

• The first direct tax on the colonists
• Any legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers, dice
  or playing cards had to have a special stamp affixed
  to the contents




                   American Government Final Exam Review   34
What was the Boston Tea Party?

• A protest against taxes
• In 1773 members of the Sons of Liberty boarded a
  British ship in Boston’s harbor and dumped the
  cargo of tea into the water
• The British government was furious at the audacity
  of the action


                  American Government Final Exam Review   35
What was Great Britain’s response
to the Boston Tea Party and other
acts of colonial defiance?

• The passage of the Coercive Acts (called the
  Intolerable Acts by the colonists)



                  American Government Final Exam Review   36
What did the Coercive Acts do?
• Used the British fleet to closed Boston Harbor to
  commerce
• Revoked Massachusetts self-governed colonial
  government
• The measures were meant to put pressure on the
  colonists to relent from their defiance



                  American Government Final Exam Review   37
Why happened when the colonies
first try to unite to resist the
British?
• In 1774 twelve of the thirteen colonies meet to see if
  they could find common ground and present a
  united front to the British
• Georgia did not send a delegation
• The meeting was called the First Continental
  Congress
• The colonies failed to a consensus and the effort
  failed
                   American Government Final Exam Review   38
Who created the flag below?




• Benjamin Franklin

                 American Government Final Exam Review   39
Where were the first battles of the
American Revolution fought?


• Lexington and Concord (Massachusetts)




                 American Government Final Exam Review   40
After the rebellion commenced the
colonies again attempted to unite.
The second time was the charm.
What did the assembled body call
itself?

• The Second Continental Congress



                 American Government Final Exam Review   41
Where did the Second Continental
Congress meet?



• In Philadelphia, PA



                   American Government Final Exam Review   42
Who did the Second Continental
Congress appoint to be
commander of the new
Continental Army?


• George Washington



                American Government Final Exam Review   43
What important document was
adopted by the Second Continental
Congress?


• The Declaration of Independence



                 American Government Final Exam Review   44
Who wrote the Declaration of
Independence?



• Thomas Jefferson



                 American Government Final Exam Review   45
Much of Jefferson’s writing was
borrowed from what English
philosopher?


• John Locke



               American Government Final Exam Review   46
When was the Declaration of
Independence adopted?



• July 4, 1776



                 American Government Final Exam Review   47
What is the Declaration of
Independence?
• The formal declaration by the colonies that they
  were now independent of the British
• A list of grievances against King George and
  parliament
• A statement of the founding principles of the new
  nation
• A proclamation of human liberty

                  American Government Final Exam Review   48
What are the three parts that make
up the Declaration of
Independence?
• The preamble includes a statement of purpose and a
  description of basic human rights
• The main body lists 27 grievances – specific ways in
  which the colonists believed that the king had
  violated their political liberties
• The conclusion states the colonists’ determination
  to separate from Great Britain

                  American Government Final Exam Review   49
In order for the colonies to
transform into states what did they
need to do?

• Set up a new system of government (constitution)




                  American Government Final Exam Review   50
What common characteristics were
found amongst the newly forming
states?
• Establishment of three branches of government
  (executive, legislative, judicial) in order to have
  checks and balances
• 7 of 13 states adopted a Bill of Rights for their
  citizens

                    American Government Final Exam Review   51
The first government of the United
States was organized/established
under what document?


• The Articles of Confederation



                  American Government Final Exam Review   52
In what city were the Articles
adopted? ( . . . some PA trivia)


• York, PA (The Continental Congress was on the run
  from the British and felt safer on the other side of
  the Susquehanna River)

                   American Government Final Exam Review   53
What are some of the features of
the Articles of Confederation?
• It was a loose alliance of the states
• The central government was very weak with limited
  authority
• Real power was concentrated in the individual state
  legislatures
• The Articles referred to itself as a “League of
  Friendship”

                  American Government Final Exam Review   54
What were some of the
weaknesses of the Articles?
• Weak national government that was nearly
  powerless to act
• No national power to collect taxes
• No national power to regulate trade
• National government could not enforce laws
• No national court system
• No national executive
• 9 of 13 states needed to pass laws
• Amendments needed unanimous consent
                 American Government Final Exam Review   55
Why did the Continental Congress
adopt such a weak form of
government?
• The new states did not want to change one tyrant
  (King George) for a new tyrant (a powerful national
  government)
• The colonists did not have a unified national identify
  as we have today
• Loyalty was to a person’s state, not the nation as a
  whole

                   American Government Final Exam Review   56
Despite the weaknesses of the Articles
the U.S. managed to defeat Britain and
gain independence. However, the
weaknesses of the Articles soon plunged
the country into discontent and mob
rule. What event best highlighted the
problems of the Articles?
Shay’s Rebellion


                   American Government Final Exam Review   57
What are the key facts surrounding
Shay’s Rebellion?
• Caused by the Depression of 1786
• Farms were foreclosed by banks
• Armed farmers shut down courthouses to prevent
  the foreclosures of their farms
• Daniel Shay let a rebellion that shut down the
  Massachusetts Supreme Court
• The rebellion was eventually put down by the
  Massachusetts militia
• Viewed as a break down of law and order in society
                  American Government Final Exam Review   58
In 1787 the states agreed to send
representatives to Philadelphia
following the Shay’s Rebellion.
What was the purpose of the
gathering?
• To revise the Articles of Confederation to make the
  national government more responsive to the crisis

                  American Government Final Exam Review   59
Who were some of the key
individuals who attended the
convention?
•   George Washington
•   Ben Franklin
•   James Madison
•   Alexander Hamilton
•   James Wilson
•   George Mason

                   American Government Final Exam Review   60
After a few days of meeting what
did the delegates do that was so
controversial?
• The delegates concluded that the Articles of
  Confederation were so flawed that any amendments
  or changes to them would be in vain.
• The delegates decided to scrap the Articles in favor
  of creating a new constitution.
• Essentially the delegates overthrew the government


                  American Government Final Exam Review   61
Only one delegate brought a clear
plan of how a new government
should be organized. Who was
that delegate?


• James Madison


                  American Government Final Exam Review   62
What was the name of Madison’s
plan?



• The Virginia Plan


                  American Government Final Exam Review   63
What were the provisions of the
Virginia Plan?
• This plan favored the large states of Pennsylvania, New
  York, and Virginia since representation would be based
  on population and tax contribution
• Two-chamber legislature with the power to declare state
  laws unconstitutional
• Called for three branches of government
• The primary focus branch of government would be the
  legislature
• The legislature would select the executive and judiciary
                   American Government Final Exam Review   64
How did the small states respond
to the Virginia Plan?


• Negatively
• Many threaten to leave the convention



                 American Government Final Exam Review   65
What plan did the small states
submit to counter the Virginia
Plan?

• The New Jersey Plan




                 American Government Final Exam Review   66
What were the provisions of the
New Jersey Plan?
• The New Jersey Plan advocated amending the
  Articles of Confederation instead of doing away with
  them completely
• Unicameral (one house) legislature in which every
  state got one vote regardless of it’s population
• The executive would be a multi-person person which
  was selected by the legislature


                  American Government Final Exam Review   67
As both sides clashed, it appeared
that the convention was doomed
to failure. How was it saved?

• Roger Sherman of Connecticut offered a compromise
  that would combine elements from both plans.



                 American Government Final Exam Review   68
What was this plan called?


• The Great Compromise
• The Connecticut Compromise



                American Government Final Exam Review   69
What are the provisions of the
Great Compromise?
• Bi-cameral (two house) legislature
• Senate (represents the states – equal representation)
• House (represents the people – proportional
  representation)
• 3/5th Compromise on the issue of slavery
• Chief Executive (President) chosen by the people
  independent of the legislature
• President elected by the Electoral College


                  American Government Final Exam Review   70
What was the 3/5ths Compromise?
• Northern and Southern states battled over whether
  slaves should be counted as part of a state’s
  population when allotting representatives
• The South wanted all slaves to count
• The North did not
• The 3/5ths Compromise was reached between the
  North and South
• A slave would count as 3/5ths of a person for
  representation and taxation purposes

                 American Government Final Exam Review   71
Why is the U.S. Constitution
sometimes referred to as a bundle
of compromises?
• Because that is exactly what is was
• In order to get a document that was acceptable to
  enough delegates compromises had to be made on a
  whole host of topics from representation to slavery
• The Framers did not think it was a perfect document
  but was better than the Articles had been


                  American Government Final Exam Review   72
Acknowledging that the U.S.
Constitution was not perfect, what
mechanism was included in the
document to allow the
Constitution to be modified?

• The amendment process



                American Government Final Exam Review   73
What was the final document
called?

• The U.S. Constitution




                  American Government Final Exam Review   74
Not all the delegates were happy
with the final result. Of the 55
delegates how many actually
signed the final document?
• 39




           American Government Final Exam Review   75
The primary author of the
Constitution is sometimes called
the Father of the Constitution.
Who was that person?
• James Madison




                  American Government Final Exam Review   76
The Constitution was not the law
of the land until what happened?

• It was ratified by 9 of the 13 states




                    American Government Final Exam Review   77
Which state was first to ratify the
U.S. Constitution?

• Delaware




             American Government Final Exam Review   78
Pennsylvania was the ______ state
to ratify the U.S. Constitution?

• second




           American Government Final Exam Review   79
A fierce debate raged across the
nation as to whether the new
constitution should be adopted or
not. Who were the two groups
involved?
• Federalists (favored the new constitution)
• Anti-Federalists (did not favor the new constitution)



                   American Government Final Exam Review   80
The Federalists believed that a
strong national government was
needed for what reasons?

• Only a strong national government could protect the
  nation from enemies or solve internal problems
  between states


                  American Government Final Exam Review   81
The Anti-Federalists believed that a
strong national government was
not needed for what reasons?

• They feared liberty would be trampled on by a
  powerful national government
• They warned that without a Bill of Rights the national
  government could take away liberties won in the
  Revolution


                   American Government Final Exam Review   82
Why was the Bill of Rights added to
the U.S. Constitution by the First
Congress of the United States?


• It was a compromise that was needed to ensure
  enough states would ratify the Constitution
• It helped to address the fears of the Anti-Federalists


                   American Government Final Exam Review   83
Those who supported the new
constitution wrote a series of
pamphlets in support of its
ratification. What were these
documents collectively know as?

• The Federalist Papers



                  American Government Final Exam Review   84
Who were the primary authors of
the Federalist Papers?


• James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay



                 American Government Final Exam Review   85
Today the U.S. Constitution is
considered ________________.


• The highest law in the land



                  American Government Final Exam Review   86

								
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