7th Semester One review by E3G1Xf

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									Safety
Three times when you should wear
  safety goggles are:
   1. heat
   2. liquids
   3. glass
Measurement
Basic units of measurement are:
    Distance – meter
    Volume – liter
    Mass – gram
Tools
Tools used to measure the following:
    Meter – metric ruler
    Volume – graduated cylinder /
  very small amounts dropper
    Mass – triple beam
     balance
Scientific Method
   The best way to solve a problem is
    to use the scientific method.
Graphing
   Dependant variable – factor that is
    being measured during the
    experiment.
     D - dependant variable
     R - responding variable
     Y - graph information on the
    vertical (y) axis
Graphing
   Independent variable – factor that
    can be changed during an
    experiment.
     M – manipulated variable
     I - independent variable
     X – graph information on the
    horizontal (x) axis
Graphing
   Make sure your graph “TALKS”
    T – title
    A – axis
    L – labels
    K – key
    S – scale
Seasons
   List the seasons in order starting with
    winter:
      1. winter
      2. spring
      3. summer
      4. fall/autumn
Seasons
   Solstice - Earth at its greatest
    distance from the Sun.
      Dates this happens June 21st or
    22nd and December 21st or 22nd.
      This marks the first days of summer
    and winter.
Seasons
   Equinox – when the Sun is directly
    over the Earth’s equator, day and
    night are equal.
      Dates this happens March 21st or
    22nd and September 21st or 22nd.
      This marks the first days of
    fall/autumn and spring.
Seasons

Moon Phases
   There are 8 moon phases.
   You see a moon phase for about 3
    days.
   It takes about 27.3 days for the
    moon to complete all of it’s phases.
Moon Phases
   1 – waxing Crescent
   2 – first quarter
   3 – waxing gibbous
   4 – full moon
   5 – waning gibbous
   6 – third quarter
   7 – waning crescent
   8 – new moon
Weathering/Erosion
   Erosion – movement of particles
    from one place to another.
   Weathering – breaking down into
    smaller particles.
Resources
   “Clean” resources are :
     1. wind
     2. water
     3. sun
   “Dirty” resources are:
     1. coal
     2. oil
     3. gas
Resources
   Non-renewable – not able to be
    recreated after it is gone.
   Renewable – can make more of
    when they are gone.
   Inexhaustible – will never run out of
    them.
Potential & Kinetic Energy
   Energy at rest is potential energy.
   Energy in motion is kinetic energy.
   High temperature = high kinetic and
    low potential energy.
Potential & Kinetic Energy
   F – potential G – kinetic
   H – potential K – kinetic
   Kinetic       potential     potential
Energy Transformations
   An energy transformation occurs if
    energy changes from one form to
    another.
   During an energy transformation,
    the total amount of energy stays
    the same. No energy is created or
    destroyed.
Physical/Chemical
   Physical property – can be observed
    with the five senses. Do not have to
    change anything to observe these.
      The five senses are : see, hear, taste,
    smell, and touch.
   Chemical property – characteristic that
    cannot be observed without altering the
    sample.
Physical/Chemical
   Physical change – the way
    something looks is changed but not
    its chemical make-up.
       Examples:
   Breaking a glass
   Folding paper
   State change – ice melting, water
    evaporating
Physical/Chemical
   Chemical change – change in
    which the substance of an object
    changes.
     Examples:
   odor change
   burning
   new substance created
   color change
Periodic Table
   Compound – when two or more
    elements combine and take on new
    characteristics.
   Element – on the periodic table, cannot
    be broken down anymore, has its own
    unique properties.
   Atom – very small particle that makes up
    most kinds of matter and consists of
    smaller parts called protons, neutrons,
    and electrons.
Periodic Table
   Metal – most elements on the periodic
    table. Good conductors of electricity,
    shiny or metallic luster.
   Nonmetal – elements that are usually
    gases or brittle solids and poor
    conductors of heat, the basis of the
    chemicals of life.
   Metalloid – elements that has
    characteristics of both metals and
    nonmetals and is a solid at room
    temperature.
Periodic Table
   Columns and families go up and
    down. Periods and rows go left to
    right.
   Atomic Number = Number of
    protons and electrons.
   Mass number – atomic number =
    number of neutrons.
Periodic Table – Colors see back of book
   Nickel     Element
              Atomic
     28      Number

     Ni       Symbol

              Atomic Mass
   58.693
Compounds
   Small number tells you how many
    atoms of that elements there are.
   Every capital letter means the start
    of a new element.
   If there is no number that means
    there is one atom.
Compounds

     H
     H
 O


     H
Test strategies
   1. cross off wrong answers and write
    why they are wrong.
   2. make notes on pictures.
   3. draw a picture to help you
    understand the question.
   4. circle or underline key words.
    (not, except, all of the above,
    difference, same, etc.)

								
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