# 7th Semester One review by E3G1Xf

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```									Safety
Three times when you should wear
safety goggles are:
   1. heat
   2. liquids
   3. glass
Measurement
Basic units of measurement are:
    Distance – meter
    Volume – liter
    Mass – gram
Tools
Tools used to measure the following:
    Meter – metric ruler
    Volume – graduated cylinder /
very small amounts dropper
    Mass – triple beam
balance
Scientific Method
   The best way to solve a problem is
to use the scientific method.
Graphing
   Dependant variable – factor that is
being measured during the
experiment.
     D - dependant variable
     R - responding variable
     Y - graph information on the
vertical (y) axis
Graphing
   Independent variable – factor that
can be changed during an
experiment.
     M – manipulated variable
     I - independent variable
     X – graph information on the
horizontal (x) axis
Graphing
   Make sure your graph “TALKS”
    T – title
    A – axis
    L – labels
    K – key
    S – scale
Seasons
   List the seasons in order starting with
winter:
      1. winter
      2. spring
      3. summer
      4. fall/autumn
Seasons
   Solstice - Earth at its greatest
distance from the Sun.
      Dates this happens June 21st or
22nd and December 21st or 22nd.
      This marks the first days of summer
and winter.
Seasons
   Equinox – when the Sun is directly
over the Earth’s equator, day and
night are equal.
      Dates this happens March 21st or
22nd and September 21st or 22nd.
      This marks the first days of
fall/autumn and spring.
Seasons

Moon Phases
   There are 8 moon phases.
   You see a moon phase for about 3
days.
   It takes about 27.3 days for the
moon to complete all of it’s phases.
Moon Phases
   1 – waxing Crescent
   2 – first quarter
   3 – waxing gibbous
   4 – full moon
   5 – waning gibbous
   6 – third quarter
   7 – waning crescent
   8 – new moon
Weathering/Erosion
   Erosion – movement of particles
from one place to another.
   Weathering – breaking down into
smaller particles.
Resources
   “Clean” resources are :
     1. wind
     2. water
     3. sun
   “Dirty” resources are:
     1. coal
     2. oil
     3. gas
Resources
   Non-renewable – not able to be
recreated after it is gone.
   Renewable – can make more of
when they are gone.
   Inexhaustible – will never run out of
them.
Potential & Kinetic Energy
   Energy at rest is potential energy.
   Energy in motion is kinetic energy.
   High temperature = high kinetic and
low potential energy.
Potential & Kinetic Energy
   F – potential G – kinetic
   H – potential K – kinetic
   Kinetic       potential     potential
Energy Transformations
   An energy transformation occurs if
energy changes from one form to
another.
   During an energy transformation,
the total amount of energy stays
the same. No energy is created or
destroyed.
Physical/Chemical
   Physical property – can be observed
with the five senses. Do not have to
change anything to observe these.
      The five senses are : see, hear, taste,
smell, and touch.
   Chemical property – characteristic that
cannot be observed without altering the
sample.
Physical/Chemical
   Physical change – the way
something looks is changed but not
its chemical make-up.
       Examples:
   Breaking a glass
   Folding paper
   State change – ice melting, water
evaporating
Physical/Chemical
   Chemical change – change in
which the substance of an object
changes.
     Examples:
   odor change
   burning
   new substance created
   color change
Periodic Table
   Compound – when two or more
elements combine and take on new
characteristics.
   Element – on the periodic table, cannot
be broken down anymore, has its own
unique properties.
   Atom – very small particle that makes up
most kinds of matter and consists of
smaller parts called protons, neutrons,
and electrons.
Periodic Table
   Metal – most elements on the periodic
table. Good conductors of electricity,
shiny or metallic luster.
   Nonmetal – elements that are usually
gases or brittle solids and poor
conductors of heat, the basis of the
chemicals of life.
   Metalloid – elements that has
characteristics of both metals and
nonmetals and is a solid at room
temperature.
Periodic Table
   Columns and families go up and
down. Periods and rows go left to
right.
   Atomic Number = Number of
protons and electrons.
   Mass number – atomic number =
number of neutrons.
Periodic Table – Colors see back of book
Nickel     Element
Atomic
28      Number

Ni       Symbol

Atomic Mass
58.693
Compounds
   Small number tells you how many
atoms of that elements there are.
   Every capital letter means the start
of a new element.
   If there is no number that means
there is one atom.
Compounds

H
H
O

H
Test strategies
   1. cross off wrong answers and write
why they are wrong.
   2. make notes on pictures.