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					                                                                                                                         Basic Education

                             Figure 3.3: School Attendance Profile by Age (PSMS-II)







              5 yrs         6 yrs              7 yrs                8 yrs                9 yrs                10 yrs           11 yrs

                      Currently attending              Attended in the past                  Never attended school

Do enrollment rates of 78–79 percent among 6–                           has also narrowed somewhat over this period (Figure
10-year-olds mean that one-fifth of all children in                     3.4). Finally, while the rural-urban gap in enrollment
UP receive no schooling? Not necessarily—as Figure                      has actually risen for children aged 14–15 years
3.3 shows, the age of entry into schooling in the                       during the two rounds, this is mainly because of a
state appears to be a bit higher than the six year                      sharp rise in enrollment in urban areas rather than
target of policymakers. By age 9, roughly 85 percent                    due to a decline in enrollment in rural areas (Table
of children in UP enroll in school (Table 3.5).                         3.7).

Why do 15 percent of children in UP never attend                        As one might expect, the survey data from both
schools? In the PSMS-II round, all children aged 5                      rounds clearly show that there is a strong positive
to 18 years who never attended school were asked                        relationship in UP between school attendance and
the two main reasons why they did not. ‘Cannot                          household income (see Figure 3.5). In other words,
afford it’ (59.7 percent) and ‘education not useful’                    the richer the household, the more likely it is that its
(14.4 percent) were the two main reasons cited for                      members are attending school. For example, on
not attending school (Table 3.6).                                       dividing the overall population of rural Uttar Pradesh
                                                                        into three equal groups ranked by income level,10
3.3 Characteristics of School
Enrollment by Region, Income and                                            Figure 3.4: Rural-Urban Gap in Enrollment
An encouraging finding of PSMS-II has been the                         13
virtual elimination of the rural-urban gap in                           11
enrollment rates in UP among children aged 6–10                         9
years (i.e., from a 9 percent gap in Round I to less                    7
than one percent in Round II). Similarly, the rural-                    5
urban enrollment gap for children aged 11–13 years                      3
   Throughout this report, per capita monthly household                  1
expenditures derived from the NSS schedule 1.0 are used as the          -1
preferred welfare metric to rank households by income level in                  6-10 years            11-13 years       14-15 years
rural and urban areas separately.                                                                 PSMS -I   PSMS - II

  Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Uttar Pradesh and World Bank

                                                     Figure 3.5: Enrollment Rates for Children Aged 6–15 Years by Income Level

                                                                     Rural Areas                                                                                             Urban Areas

                                            90                                                                                                           100
      Percent of children aged 6-10 years

                                                                                                              Percent of children aged 6-10 years
                                            80                                                                                                           90

                                            70                                                                                                           80
                                            30                                                                                                           30
                                            20                                                                                                           20
                                            10                                                                                                            10
                                             0                                                                                                            0
                                                         Poor                Middle Income           Rich                                                           Poor          Middle Income         Rich
                                                                     PSMS-I     Round-II                                                                                     PSMS-I     Round-II

only 72 percent of children aged 6–10 years from                                                                              gender gap in enrollment has remained more or less
the poorest one-third (first quintile) of UP’s rural                                                                          unchanged among children aged 11–13 and 14–15
population was found to be attending school,                                                                                  years, it has narrowed somewhat among the primary
compared to 86 percent of children from the richest                                                                           school target age group. If enrollment rates for girls
one-third (third quartile). An even sharper                                                                                   aged 6–10 years continue to catch up with those for
differential pattern is evident in urban areas of the                                                                         boys, the gap in educational attainment of the female
state. Closer examination of the enrollment rate                                                                              and male population of UP will likely also disappear
estimates, presented in Table 3.8, reveals that in rural                                                                      over time.
areas, the rise in enrollment rates for the poor over
this period have been somewhat higher than for the                                                                            3.4 Government-Private School
rich, particularly among the primary and middle                                                                               Attendance Rates and Expenditures
target age groups.
                                                                                                                              The estimates of school enrollment of children of
An important policy objective of the 10th Plan                                                                                different age groups can be broken down by sector
targets set by the GoI Planning Commission is to                                                                              to investigate how the government and non-
boost school enrollment of girls. As illustrated by                                                                           government sectors have been performing in recent
Figure 3.6, the two surveys show girls’ school                                                                                years. Analysing school enrollment in the state by
enrollment in UP to have increased considerably for                                                                           type of school reveals that the share of children
all age groups of children (Table 3.2). While the                                                                             attending private schools in UP has increased quite

                                                                                                                                                               Figure 3.7: Share of Private School
                         Figure 3.6: School Enrollment (percent)
                                                                                                                                                                     Enrollment (percent)
 90                                                                                                                                       60

 40                                                                                                                                       30
 20                                                                                                                                       20
  0                                                                                                                                                 10
                                            Girls       Boys         Girls       Boys        Girls     Boys
                                                 6-10 years            11-13 years             14-15 years                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                6-10 years            11-13 years      14-15 years
                                                                PSMS Round 1       Round 2
                                                                                                                                                                                PSMS -I     PSMS -II

                                                                                                                                                                             Basic Education

rapidly for all age groups (see Figure 3.7). For                                                                             Figure 3.8: Private School Enrollment
instance, the survey data show that the share of                                                                                     (Children 6-10 years)
children aged 6–10 years attending private schools                                                                          80
in UP rose from around 31 percent to 37 percent                                                                             70
between the two rounds. The proportion of children                                                                          60
attending private schools rises with age level: half


the children aged 14–15 years covered in Round II                                                                           40

were found to be enrolled in private schools (Table                                                                         30

3.10).                                                                                                                      20

Focusing on children aged 6–10 years, both PSMS                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                    Rural Areas                         Urban Area
rounds show a sharp contrast in the share of private                                                                                           PSMS-I     PSMS-II
school enrollment across rural and urban areas of the
state (Figure 3.8). In rural areas of UP, the share of                                 government schools have continued to remain an
total enrollment accounted for by private schools is                                   important source of education for poor children in
still quite low compared to urban areas, but has                                       UP. A similar pattern is evident for children aged
increased quite rapidly in recent years (from around 22                                11–13 and 14–15 years (Table 3.11).
percent in Round I to 30 percent in Round II). In urban
areas, the total share of private enrollment is                                        The PSMS-II collected detailed information on
considerably higher than that in rural areas: about three-                             education expenses for all children currently enrolled
fourths of children aged 6–10 years in urban UP were                                   in school. These data reveal a number of interesting
enrolled in private schools in Round II (Table 3.10).                                  insights into the pattern of expenditure on education
                                                                                       in UP (Table 3.12). For instance, these data help explain
The two PSMS rounds also show a sharp contrast                                         why government schools continue to be such an
in the pattern of school enrollment across different                                   important source of education for children from poor
income groups (Figure 3.9). Thus, while about four-                                    economic backgrounds. Average per-pupil annual
fifths of children from the poorest one-third of rural                                 expenditure on education is much higher for students
UP were enrolled in government schools in Round                                        enrolled in private schools compared to those attending
II, the corresponding rate for children among the                                      government schools (Rs. 1,680 vs. Rs. 534). This
richest one-third of the urban population of UP                                        differential is particularly high among students at the
was only about 11 percent. Despite the decline noted                                   primary level. As one would expect, per-pupil
above in the share of total enrollment accounted                                       expenditures on education rises with level of education
for by government schools, as figure 3.9 shows,                                        (i.e., at the primary, middle, secondary and higher levels),

   Figure 3.9: Government School Enrollment for Children Aged 6–10 Years by Income Level

                                                       Rural Areas                                                                                Urban Areas
                                         90                                                                                 90
    Percent of children aged 6-10 yrs.

                                                                                       Percent of children aged 6-10 yrs.

                                         80                                                                                 80
                                         70                                                                                 70
                                         60                                                                                 60
                                         50                                                                                 50
                                         40                                                                                 40
                                         30                                                                                 30
                                         20                                                                                 20
                                         10                                                                                 10
                                          0                                                                                 0
                                              Poor         Middle Income        Rich                                                Poor              Middle Income               Rich

                                                PSMS - I            PSMS - II                                                              PSMS - I                   PSMS - II


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