Resource-Based Unit: S.E. Hinton’s The Outsiders; Novel Study                                 Z. Witzaney

Unit Focus and Suggested Grade Level: The central focus of this three-four week ELA unit is a novel
study of S.E. Hinton’s The Outsiders, in which the students will explore themes relevant to the grade
eight ELA, Social Studies and Health curricula, engage in extending work in the form of research project
presentation, and use the text as a vehicle for learning and practicing various linguistic conventions,
including pragmatic, semantic and morphological techniques. This unit falls into the grade eight theme
“Is It Fair? – in Search of Justice” under the Social, Cultural and Historical context of the ELA curriculum.
In addition to ELA, Social Studies and Health objectives, the students will learn skills of Engaged Citizens
(BAL), Life Long Learners (BAL), and Developing Critical and Creative Thinking (CCC). The study follows a
Social Studies unit on Immigration and Citizenship, in which an analysis of racial discourses was
undertaken. Thus, the students have an idea of how racism, class and violence are related, which is a key
theme in The Outsiders. I would follow this ELA unit with an ELA unit on a lighter topic, such as

Unit Rationale: On page 14 of the Saskatchewan Grade Eight ELA Curriculum Guide, in the section titled
Planning Units of Study in an Effective English Language Arts Program, the three “Essential Aspects” of
effective ELA units are identified as:
                 “Questions for deeper understanding that address the ideas and issues students need to
        think about throughout the unit (e.g. What is Justice?)... Strategies to explore and express their
        thoughts, ideas, feelings, and experiences as well as to inquire and to learn to use the English
        language and its conventions...[and] Individual as well as co-operative projects invite inquiry and
        bring closure and personal agency to their explorations.” (Sask. ELA Gr. 8 Curriculum Guide)
I developed my unit organization with these three essential aspects in mind. To address the first aspect,
each lesson involves some form of personal response to the themes of the novel, whether in individual
writing or group discussion, as the Responding phase of the lesson. The second aspect is addressed in
the Exploring portion of each lesson, in which the students learn aspects of English language
conventions to better their reading comprehension and writing abilities. Thirdly, the Extending Projects
portion of the unit, which is in the form of pair research projects to be worked on independently
throughout the duration of the unit, incorporates the essential inquiry aspect of effective ELA units.

Suggested Elements of the Unit:


     Show images from the movie adapted from S.E. Hinton’s The Outsiders, and introduce the
      context of the novel, giving relevant background information so that students understand the
      context and setting of the story.
     Students will read through the Extending Projects assignments, informing the teacher of their
      chosen project and partner by the end of the first week of the unit.
     Review the racial discourses discussed in the previous Immigration and Citizenship Social Studies
      unit: Essentialist discourse, Color-blind discourse, Race-cognizant discourse; review historical
      examples of discrimination being a means to violence.

 Students will reflect and assess their abilities in the ELA strands as demonstrated in the previous
  ELA unit, and identify two personal ELA goals. These goals are submitted to the teacher, for
  assessment throughout the unit and conferencing after the unit.

 Chapters of the novel are read as a class, to ensure that students actually read the book. Ways
  to change things up might include teacher reading to the class, a group of students reading as
  the characters (my favourite), calling on random students to read, pairs of students reading
  chorally, etc.
 Students will be encouraged to use small pieces of paper as book-marks throughout the book to
  keep track of important pages that might help them with their Extending Projects (because
  class-sets of novels cannot be directly annotated)
 Following along in your own copy will be emphasized, as it reinforces weaker readers as they
  learn to identify words by following along with stronger readers.

 In the attached activities webbing, the activities are connected directly to lines from the text.
  There are several activities related to each chapter, which may be used as responding and
  exploring activities. Sections that are most relevant to responding are: Drama, Personal
  Response, Art Activities and Values Clarification.
 Suggested formats for the activities in the webbing include whole-class discussions, group (4-5)
  discussions then shared with the rest of the class, personal response in journals, and individual
  art work (to emphasize the reflective nature of response art, which would be at least partially
  undermined by socializing, at least in the serious nature of this text).
 For the nature and intention of such response activities, refer to the specific activities on the
  attached webbing.

 To me, the difference between responding, exploring and extending is the distance the student
  is taken from the text. In responding, the student is very close to the text, possibly moving
  between self and text. In exploring, the student has moved away from the text to a mini-lesson,
  and then returns to the text to support the new learning; here the text functions as a scaffold to
  mastering a new technique. In exploring, the student has successfully responded
  (comprehended) and explored (learned a new skill), and is now ready to move away from the
  text to apply these new skills and understanding in an endeavour separate from the text,
  although connections may be drawn back and forth between the two.
 The activities in the webbing that best fit the exploring step of the Reading Process are
  Considering Alternatives, Creative Writing, Literary Awareness and Related Literature.
 This section would include lessons that focus on the Writing Skills section described below
  (pragmatic, semantic and morphological techniques, etc.)
 For specific exploring activities, which are too numerous to include here, see the relevant
  sections of the webbing, attached.

 Students will choose an Extending Project to do with a partner of their choice. See the Extending
  Projects document attached for suggestions of possible extending projects that I created
  specifically for this novel. If students have been instructed on how to formulate critical
      questions, then the students would also be allowed to propose extending projects of their own
      to be approved by the teacher.
     Adaptations for the extending projects would be: make some groups of three, pairing weaker
      students with stronger students; having larger groups if time for the unit is shorter than
      necessary; if two gifted students form a pair, adapt their assignment to challenge them by
      adding depth or breadth to the content, more intensive organization, or assigning a form of
      representation that is unfamiliar to them (ex. Video, presentation, informational
      board game etc).
     All extending projects are to be presented to the class, so as to extend the learning of all
      students in many related fields. Proposed extending projects in the attached document focus on
      the following fields: social studies, health, Christian ethics, ELA and science.

Focus Reading/Writing Skills and Strategies:

Reading Strategies: Students reflect on impactful lines of the text, either writing personal responses in
journals or discussing in groups (4-5) or as a class to explore themes that are central to the text as well
as to the Social Studies and Health curriculums. This strategies allows students to experience the text
how the author intended – engaging in deep thinking about society issues – rather than picking it apart
after each chapter by answering comprehension questions. Student comprehension can still be analyzed
in this more authentic setting. It emphasizes the enjoyment of reading for the students. Reflecting on
the text is an important comprehension skill in reading, because it teaches students that text is written
to be understood, not just read.
Reading Skills: Students will also practice visualization skills that help build pragmatic understanding of
text during reading. This will be done through artistic representation of textual conventions, such as
illustrating similes, symbolism and characters’ feelings.
Writing Strategies: Students will write for expressiveness in their personal journals and descriptive free-
writes. Syntax will not be emphasized here, because the goal is for students to express their ideas freely,
thinking only about ideas and not language conventions. Students will write for grammatical and
organizational cohesion in their Extending Projects. Students will practice new writing skills, such as
similes and symbolism, in short paragraphs in mini-lessons to keep the task from becoming too
cumbersome during this introductory phase.
Writing Skills: Students will work on descriptive writing, using Hinton’s text as an exemplar. Students
will use the five senses to add description into their creative writing assignments. Students will also
focus on proper use of quotations in one’s own writing. They will learn how to integrate quotations into
their Extending Projects, emphasizing variety of formats (“____,” he said; He said, “_______.”; “____,”
he said, “_______.”), verb-tense agreement, and avoiding dropped quotations. Thirdly, the students will
experiment with linguistic conventions, such as semantic and morphological techniques, to add to their
writing “tool box.”

Major Language Arts Objectives:

CR8.1 View, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of texts that address identity (e.g.,
Becoming Myself), social responsibility (e.g., In Search of Justice), and efficacy (e.g., Building a Better

CR8.7 Read independently and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of information texts including
understanding the main ideas and supporting evidence, explaining connections between new ideas and
information and previous thoughts, and recognizing any biases or false reasoning. (Extending Projects)

CC8.2 Create and present a group inquiry project related to a topic, theme, or issue studied in English
language arts. (Extending Projects)

CC8.6 Use oral language to interact purposefully, confidently, and respectfully in a variety of situations
including one-to-one, small group, and large group discussions (expressing feelings and viewpoints and
contributing to group harmony). (Presentations of the extending projects)

CC8.4 Use pragmatic (e.g., use appropriate language register), textual (e.g., use artistic devices such as
figurative language), syntactical (e.g., combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for
variety, interest, and effect), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., use words to capture a particular
aspect of meaning), graphophonic (e.g., correctly pronounce words with proper emphasis), and other
cues (e.g, use appropriate sound effects, visuals, and multimedia to enhance presentations) to construct
and to communicate meaning.

AR8.1 Use information gathered in self-assessment and teacher’s assessment to develop and work on
goals for improving viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing.

Major Health Objectives:

USC 8.2 Analyze how personal prejudices/biases, and habits of mind shape assumptions about family
identities, structures, roles, and responsibilities (including all indicators).

USC 8.4 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of violence (including but not limited to emotional
abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, spiritual abuse, and neglect) on the well-being of and the supports
needed for self, family, and community (including all indicators).

The grade eight social studies curriculum focuses on the student as an individual in Canadian society. Of
the four broad goals of the social studies curriculum, the two that relate to this unit are Power and
Authority, and Resources and Wealth. Both of these are central themes to The Outsiders. While the
grade eight curriculum does not address the issues of class and race relations in Canadian society, I feel
that this is central to a critical understanding of “the student as an individual in Canadian society,”
especially since my students are from the lower class, and of a race that is discriminated against in

Resource Bibliography: (Context, summary, character list, themes,
symbols etc for The Outsiders for easy reference)

Other Resources:
A class-set of novels of S.E. Hinton’s The Outsiders; The Outsiders video/DVD

Grouping Patterns: students will reflect and discuss independently, in small groups (4-5) and as a class;
students will do project work independently and in pairs; some “independent” work will involve
students engaged in various unique tasks, but working in the setting of a group for discussion and
collaborative learning purposes (students can get ideas, check their understandings, and learn from one
another while doing individual tasks).

Time Schedule: the unit will be three to four weeks long, depending on how many periods are taken by
unexpected situations such as assemblies and field trips etc. The main components of the unit involve
reflecting and responding to Hinton’s themes individually, in groups and as a class to explore social
justice issues (Social Studies Curriculum); expanding the text as a jumping-off point for teaching research
skills, to build the students’ skills as Life Long Learners; and using Hinton’s writing as a model of various
aspects of language for the students to experiment with and master for use in their own writing. There
are numerous activities in relation to each of these three goals that may be chosen from depending on
time, specific student needs and interests, and depending on how long the students remain engaged in
the novel.

Assessment Plan: students will reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in the LA strands, and identify
two goals for themselves, which will be assessed anecdotally throughout the unit by the teacher, and
then discussed in conferencing at the end of the unit in preparation for further goal setting the next LA
unit; teacher diagnostic assessment of personal response journals and class discussions (depth of
response); teacher summative assessment of Extending Projects (looking for depth of research, critical
literacy when choosing sources, connections to The Outsiders, and choice of mode of representation –
whether the mode is an effective learning tool for one’s peers); Peer assessment of participation in
group discussions; Self-assessment at the end of the unit (finished Extending Project; participation in
group discussions; effort in personal reflections)


    M             T             W              T            F             S            S

 Lesson on    Lesson on    Independent     Lesson on     Lesson on
 chapter 1    chapter 2     Project time   chapter 3     chapter 4

 Lesson on    Lesson on    Independent     Lesson on     Lesson on
 chapter 5    chapter 6     Project time   chapter 7     chapter 8

 Lesson on    Lesson on    Independent     Lesson on    Lesson on
 chapter 9    chapter 10    Project time   chapter 11   chapter 12

Independent Independent Independent        Project       Project
 Project time Project time Project time Presentations Presentations

Note: length of lessons will likely vary from 45 mins to 120 mins, depending on the chapter,
student ability, and desired activities to accompany each chapter. If the students really
enjoy this novel, I would highly suggest stretching it out over five weeks, so that more time
can be spent on various activities (ex. Preparing a debate on poverty, violence, capital
punishment etc).

Three Sample Lesson Plans

Lesson One (First lesson of the unit)

Grade Level: 8

Duration: 120 min

(9:30 – 10:45 Preparing; 10:45 – 11:10 Reading&BodyBreak; 11:10 – 11:40
Responding&Exploring; 11:40-11:45 Reflecting/Conclusion)

Overview/Purpose: To introduce the main themes of the novel and get students engaged in critical
thinking and group discussion on these themes.

Specific Learning Outcomes:

CC8.6 Use oral language to interact purposefully, confidently, and respectfully in a variety of situations
including one-to-one, small group, and large group discussions

CR8.1 View, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of texts that address identity (e.g.,
Becoming Myself), social responsibility (e.g., In Search of Justice), and efficacy (e.g., Building a Better

Assessment: Teacher will make anecdotal notes on which students participate respectfully and
meaningfully in the discussions. Students will be engaging in informal self-assessment during the
reflection portion of the lesson, because they will realize what they have absorbed during the lesson.
The students’ self-assessments (the KW of a KWL) will also serve as formative assessment because the
teacher will see areas of student interest, and areas that need to be reviewed in the next lesson.

Student Materials and Teacher Resources: class set of The Outsiders novels; The Outsiders
video/DVD; area(s) appropriate for group discussions; idea for a BodyBreak

Learning Activities:

Preparing/Organizational Set

    The students will review the racial discourses learned in social studies, as well as
      historical examples that show how race and class discrimination can lead to violence
    Students view images from the movie The Outsiders, and teacher gives brief overview of
      the context and setting of the novel.
    Note: students will already have discussed how we act respectfully so that everyone can
      read without feeling made fun of (Ex. Let the person try difficult/new words first before
      jumping in, don’t laugh, ask for help rather than just skipping words you don’t know,
      don’t read too quickly, read with expression, follow along in your novel); this would have
      taken place in the first ELA unit of the year involving reading in a group.
    Read chapter one (15 pgs) from The Outsiders ( choose one: teacher reading to the class, a
     group of students reading as the characters (my favourite), calling on random students to read,
     pairs of students reading chorally, etc.)
    After reading the chapter, the students will always get a Body Break. Body Breaks involve
     getting out of the desks, getting attention onto something completely unrelated, and moving
     around for 2-5 mins (Ex. Do As I Say, Not As I Do [ a version of Simon Says for older students])


    Students discuss the following quotation in light of the following discussion questions. I would
     suggest putting the quotation and questions on an overhead for easy reference. I would suggest
     giving the groups around 5 mins per question to discuss, and then have them share their ideas
     with the class; then give them another 5 mins to discuss the second question, and so on, to keep
     them focussed on the subject.
         o “I’m not saying that either Socs or greasers are better; that’s just the way things are”
              (Hinton, 10-11); What experiences have you had with cliques, or with feeling different
              from those around you? Why do people judge each other based on how they look? Do
              you think that people who look “rougher” than others are punished harder at school?
              How about by the justice system (in court)?
         o “We deserve a lot of our trouble... we all had the money to get in... but Dally hated to
              do things the legal way... he went around trying to break laws” (Hinton, 24); Ponybody
              admits that his buddies often break laws just for fun. On the other hand, some people
              would argue that poverty and abuse are to blame for the boys’ behaviour. Discuss in
              small groups whether you think that Ponyboy and his buddies deserve their trouble or
              not. What is the difference between the Socs’ violence and the greasers’ violence? Does
              one group “deserve” their trouble more than the other? If so, should a justice system
              treat everyone the same?
         o “You can’t win against [the Socs] no matter how hard you try, because they’ve got all
              the breaks and even whipping them isn’t going to change that fact” (Hinton, 19); Do
              think that this is true? Are people in the lower-class able to make it out of lower class?
              What are some reasons why people are in the lower class? Is it only because those
              people are lazy? Which racial discourse does that remind you of? Will the upper-class
              always have the upper hand?

    Teacher should be making anecdotal notes about which students participate meaningfully
     in the discussions, especially for those students who identified this as one of their two
     ELA goals for the unit.


    Related Literature: “I had read Great Expectations for English, and that kid Pip, he reminded me
     of us – the way he felt marked lousy because he wasn’t a gentleman or anything, and the way
     that girl kept looking down on him” (Hinton, 23); Teacher reads an excerpt from Great
     Expectations aloud the class (something that relates to the above quote from Ponyboy). The
     class discusses how Great Expectations relates to The Outsiders.

Conclusion/Culminating Set

     Students tear a piece off of some loose-leaf and write down one thing that they learned
      during the lesson and one thing that they would like to learn or something that they did
      not understand. These are handed in to the teacher to assess student learning and note
      where certain ideas need to be reviewed next class, or identify student interests to pursue.


     Students with behavioural problems would benefit from reviewing the skills used when
      discussing things respectfully in a group setting (do not interrupt, do not judge etc)
     Students who are extremely shy might be allowed to sit in the group but bring their
      personal response journal and write in it as they listen to others speak.

Lesson Two (on Friday of the first week (or anytime after chapter 4))

Grade Level: 8

Duration: 1 hr 15 min (Motivational set 5 mins; Teacher directed 20 mins; Student practice 45
mins; Conclusion 5 mins)

Overview/Purpose: The students will be looking at the differences between a simile and
metaphor, what they are used for, and be creating their own similes and metaphors, both in
words and graphics on the computers.

Specific Learning Outcomes:

CC8.4 Use pragmatic (e.g., use appropriate language register), textual (e.g., use artistic devices such as
figurative language), syntactical (e.g., combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for
variety, interest, and effect), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., use words to capture a particular
aspect of meaning), graphophonic (e.g., correctly pronounce words with proper emphasis), and other
cues (e.g, use appropriate sound effects, visuals, and multimedia to enhance presentations) to
construct and to communicate meaning.

Assessment: Teacher will assess student achievement of the concepts in that the students can
only go to the computer lab to complete their projects after they have successfully created their
own similes and metaphors. Teacher will look for originality of phrases, and creativity in images.

Student Materials: Class set of The Outsiders trade books; loose leaf; pens/pencils

Teacher Resources: If you do not know what simile is, it is when a writer makes a comparison
between two subjects using the word “like” or “as” in the comparison. This is in contrast to a
metaphor, which is when a writer makes a comparison between two subjects (or things) NOT
using the words “like” or “as.” An example of a metaphor is: “His barrel of a head...” In
contrast, an examples of similes are: “His head was a huge as a barrel” and “His head was like a
In addition you will need
     to prepare an overhead that has various phrases, some of which are metaphors, similes,
        and neither (you can find a list of similes and metaphors here: Alternatively, you
        might create your own list, using names of students in your class, common places in your
        city, or field trips so that students can relate to the idea of comparison more readily)
     to prepare an overhead that has various images that could represent similes and
        metaphors (ex: a man with a head that looks like a barrel “His head is as big as a barrel”;
        a person with button eyes “Her eyes were buttons”)

Learning Activities:

    Read- NOTE that this lesson assumes that chapter 4 has already been read, possibly in the
following way, in a previous lesson:

    Read chapter 4 (pp. 61-76) as a class. Reading might be done by having the students take
     the roles of the characters, with the teacher as narrator (this can help engage students with
     short attention spans). Just begin reading, and when you come to a new character, assign
     a student to them. This eliminates wasted time that might occur if you tried to assign
     roles before reading.

Motivational Set

    “He was as white as a ghost and his eyes were wild-looking, like the eyes of an animal in a trap”
       (Hinton, 62); Ask the students to close their eyes and picture this phrase in their heads, which
       teacher reads it aloud.


    Class re-reads the paragraph on page 62 than contains that quotation, for context.
    Mini-lesson on similes and metaphors:
   Teacher Directed Activities (Modeling)

    Teacher explains what similes and metaphors are, how they are different, and why they
     are used in writing (see “teacher resources” above); write the definitions on the board and
     have students copy them into their ELA notebooks.
    Teacher projects the overhead that has a variety of similes and metaphors on it, as well as
     some phrases that are neither, and models how to decipher similes and metaphors
     (strategy of looking for “like” or “as”; strategy of underlining the two subjects being
     compared to make sure that two things are being compared).
    Teacher writes the quote from page 62 on the board: “He was as white as a ghost” “...his
     eyes were wild-looking, like the eyes of an animal in a trap.”
    Teacher asks her students whether the above quotations are similes or metaphors, and to
     explain why. This is a chance for students to see the reasoning of their peers, and here an
     explanation of simile and metaphor in their own words.
    Teacher projects overhead with images that represent possible similes and metaphors.
     Teacher suggests a simile and metaphor caption that might match a picture, and then asks
     students to suggest simile and metaphor captions that match other pictures (this image
     approach is helpful for visual learners, who might find it easier to construct language
     from images)

   Student Directed Activities (Practice)

    Students write three of their own similes and three of their own metaphors individually,
     and show the teacher; once approved, the student goes to the computer lab to create
     graphics that illustrate one of their similes and one of the metaphors. They print off their
     finished products, and return to class.

   Conclusion/Culminating Set

    Students who wish to share their products come to the front of the class and show their
     picture and read their captions.
    Teacher hangs them up on a bulletin board, so that students can read them at leisure, for
     both enjoyment and learning.

Adaptations: Students who cannot write can share their similes and metaphors orally with the
teacher without writing them own. They might choose objects from around the room to take the
place of creating their own images. They can still share their work orally with the class, using the
objects as their images. The teacher can later write out the captions and display them beside the
objects. Students who cannot see are excused from the image portion of the lesson. Students with
learning delays might be assigned only a simile or metaphor, and not both. Students who excel
can illustrate several of their captions, or expand their captions into short paragraphs. If this
lesson is being done after reading chapter five or more, there is a simile in chapter 5: “you know
how it is, when you wake up in a strange place and wonder where in the world you are, until
memory comes rushing over you like a wave.” You could also use this at the end of the current
lesson in order to introduce chapter five, and possibly have students predict what might happen
Lesson Three (to be taught at the end of the second week, or whenever done chapter 8)

Grade Level: 8

Duration: 100 minutes

Overview/Purpose: The students will learn various appropriate methods of embedding
quotations and dialogue into their own writing by investigating and identifying these methods in
the Hinton text, and then writing their own examples. This skill is important in this unit, because
the Extending Projects require students to embed quotations into their writing.

Specific Learning Outcomes:

CC8.4 Use pragmatic (e.g., use appropriate language register), textual (e.g., use artistic devices such as
figurative language), syntactical (e.g., combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for
variety, interest, and effect), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., use words to capture a particular
aspect of meaning), graphophonic (e.g., correctly pronounce words with proper emphasis), and other
cues (e.g, use appropriate sound effects, visuals, and multimedia to enhance presentations) to construct
and to communicate meaning.

Assessment: Teacher will collect the students’ written dialogues to see if they have grasped the
concept. Teacher will look at both the students’ original written dialogues as well as the
dialogues they have corrected in order to see if they understand the concept.

Student Materials: light-coloured markers of various colors, or pencil crayons of various
colors; loose leaf; pencils/pens

Teacher Resources: Class set of The Outsiders novels; photocopies of 2-3 pages of chapter 8
(one set per student, plus one overhead transparency set for teacher); knowledge of various
proper techniques for embedding quotations properly into text (aka how to avoid dropped
quotations); you will also need to prepare an overhead (or document, if you have the ability to
project you computer screen) of a dialogue between several people in which a lack of quotation
marks makes it impossible to decipher who is saying what.
Learning Activities:

   Introduction/Organizational Set

     Project the overhead/document of the confusing dialogue, and ask for a student volunteer
      to read it aloud for the class. The students should ideally become very confused about
      who is saying what, and it should end up making little or no sense, and get them laughing

     Introduce the topic of the lesson as proper formatting of quotations and dialogue.

    Teacher Directed Activities (Modeling)

     Project the overhead copy of the chapter 8 pages onto the board. Underline one type of
      dialogue, and then on another section of the board, write down what form it is. Students
      copy these notes into their books for future reference. Continue this until all forms have
      been examined (forms are defined by whether the dialogue/quotation comes at the
      beginning of a sentence, middle of the sentence or end)
          o Beginning: “Let them go in,” he said to the nurse.
          o Middle: Johnny was lying still, with his eyes closed, but when Two-Bit said,
              “Hey, Johnnykid,” he opened them and looked at us, trying to grin.

           o End: The nurse, who was pulling the shades open, smiled and said, “So he can
              talk after all.”
           o Beginning and End: “Don’t...” – Johnny gasped – “don’t let me put enough grease
              on my hair.”
           o Dropped: Johnny nodded. “Came to see Dally.”
    When listing the types on the board, list them according to form as follows, which
       emphasizes the punctuation associated with each type. This allows them to refer to their
       notes when editing their own dialogues:
           o Beginning: “___________,” he said.
           o Middle: He said, “____________," and then smiled.
           o End: He said, “____________."
           o Beginning and End: “__________," he said, “_________________.”
   Student Directed Activities (Practice)

    Students use markers or pencil crayons to color-code the rest of the dialogue on the
      chapter 8 hand-out pages according to which format the dialogues are in.
    After students have attempted this task individually, they are instructed to find partners
      and discuss whether their answers are the same, and why they might be different
      (collaborative learning)
    After giving the students time to discuss, ask them to return to their desks, where they
      will practice writing their own examples of these various forms, to practice the
      punctuation. Each student will write two examples of each form in their notebooks or on
   Conclusion/Culminating Set

    Students exchange the dialogue examples they made with another student (everyone
     hands their work to the person ahead of them in the row, or next to them in their group)
     and they correct each other’s dialogue for punctuation. This gets them to examine the
     punctuation carefully. The students write their names on the paper they corrected, as well
     as their own papers. That way, the teacher can assess student understanding twice: once
     for their initial dialogues, and once for their ability to find errors in others’ dialogues.

Adaptations: This lesson could be adapted to use with any chapter of this book, or any other
book containing lots of dialogue. Students who have ADHD or ADD would appreciate a quiet
environment with few distractions. They might also be given a shorter amount of text to color-
code. This would also be a good idea for students with learning delays. These students might be
required only to write one example of dialogue for each form. Students who cannot write might
be given strips of paper with words to arrange into dialogue, as well as punctuation to place
around the dialogue.


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