APPENDIX A

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               APPENDIX    A
               Institutions and Organizations on Disaster Risk Reduction and
               Management
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               A. National Coordination


               Office of Civil Defense

               One of the five (5) bureaus of the Department of National Defense (DND) (per PD No. 1 as implemented
               by Letter of Intent (LOI) No. 19, s-1972, and DND Order Nos. 737 and 737-A, s-1973), the Office of Civil
               Defense (OCD), officially established on 1 July 1973, serves as the executive arm and secretariat of the
               National Disaster Coordinating Council per PD 1566.

               As the nerve center for alert and monitoring, resource mobilization, response coordination, and
               information management, it has the primary task of coordinating the activities and functions of various
               government agencies and instrumentalities, private institutions and civic organizations for the
               protection and preservation of life and property during emergencies.

               The functions of the Office of Civil Defense, as defined by LOI No. 19, are:
                      • To establish and administer a comprehensive national civil defense and civil assistance
                      program;
                      • To formulate plans and policies for the protection and welfare of the civilian populace in time
                      of war directly involving the Philippines, or other national emergencies of equally grave
                      character;
                      • To estimate the total material, manpower and fiscal requirements for carrying out the national
                      civil defense and civil assistance program, and allocate to the provinces, cities, municipalities
                      and barangays such aid in facilities, materials and funds as may be available from the national
                      government;
                      • To develop and coordinate program for informing, educating and training the general public
                      and volunteer workers on civil defense and civil assistance measures and activities;
                      • To furnish guidance to the various provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays in the
                      planning, organization and operations of their civil defense organization;
                      • To advise the Secretary of National Defense on matters concerning civil defense and make
                      recommendations from time to time as maybe deemed appropriate or as the Secretary may
                      require; and
                      • To perform such other duties as may be directed by higher authority or provided by law.


               National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)

               Presidential Decree 1566 provided for the National Disaster Coordinating Council as the highest policy-
               making body on matters of disasters in the country. Disaster coordination was established from the
               lowest governmental units, the barangays, to the broad regional units. In its policy declaration, the
               following state policies on self reliance among local officials and their constituents in responding to
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               disasters or emergencies were stipulated:
                       • Each political and administrative subdivision of the country shall utilize all available resources
                       in the area before asking for assistance from neighboring entities or a higher authority;
                       • The primary responsibility rests on the government agencies in the affected areas in
                       coordination with the people themselves;
                       • It shall be the responsibility of all government departments, bureaus, agencies and
                       instrumentalities to have documented plans of their emergency functions and activities;
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                       • Planning and operation shall also be done on the barangay level on an interagency, multi-
                       sector basis to optimize the utilization of resources;
                       • In the absence of a duly constituted regional government, national government offices at the
                       regional level shall be led and operationally controlled by the Regional Commissioner or by the
                       official so designated by the President;
                       • Responsibility for leadership rests on the Provincial Governor, City Mayors, and Municipal
                       Mayors, and Barangay Chairman, each according to his area of responsibility;
                       • When an emergency affects an area covering several towns and cities, the city mayors and
                       their personnel and facilities shall be placed under the operational control of the provincial
                       governor for the duration of the emergency;
                       • The national government exists to support the local governments. In time of emergencies, and
                       according to their level of assignment, all national government offices in the field shall support
                       the operations of the local government; and
                       • To ensure that operational activities become automatic and second nature to all concerned,
                       exercises and periodic drills shall be conducted at all levels, principally in the barangays.


               B.   National Agencies

               The NDCC member-agencies are responsible for carrying out their respective tasks and responsibilities in
               disaster management including preparedness, mitigation, response and rehabilitation. Unlike other
               departmental coordinating bodies, the NDCC does not have its own regular budget. It operates through
               the member-agencies and its local networks, which are the regional and local disaster coordinating
               councils. Below are brief descriptions on the mandates of these agencies through its lead person
               (Secretary) in relation to disaster management:


               Office of Civil Defense
               As described above, OCD coordinates the activities, functions of the various agencies and
               instrumentalities of the government, private institutions and civic organizations to implement the
               policies and programs of the NDCC. The OCD Administrator prepares and disseminates materials on
               disaster management and advises the Chairman on matters concerning disaster management.

               The Department of Public Works and Highways restores destroyed public structure such as flood
               control, waterworks, roads, bridges and other vertical and horizontal facilities/structures and provides
               heavy and light equipment for relief, rescue and recovery operations.

               The Department of Transportation and Communications restores destroyed communication and
               transportation facilities such as railroads and vertical structures and organizes emergency transport
               services from the national to the barangay level.
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               Under the Department of Science and Technology, the administrative functions of several bodies are
               coordinated:
                      • The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA)
                      keeps a continuing watch over the environmental conditions within the country to prepare daily
                      weather forecasts, typhoon warnings and flood outlook. It provides assistance to various sectors
                      on meteorological and climatological matters.
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                       • The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) issues advisories on
                       earthquakes, volcanic activities and tsunamis to concerned agencies and the general public. It
                       identifies appropriate evacuation sites in coordination with concerned agencies as well as
                       organizes Disaster Control Group and Reaction Teams in the commission proper and in its field
                       stations.
                       • The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) issues advisories on radioactive fallout,
                       contamination and radiation incidents to the general public. It supervises the organization and
                       training of disaster control teams in nuclear installations and related facilities.

               The Department of Social Welfare and Development extends relief assistance and social services to the
               victims as necessary and provides assistance in the rehabilitation of victims.

               The Department of Agriculture undertakes surveys in disaster-prone areas and actual disaster areas to
               determine the extent of damage to agricultural crops, livestock and fisheries, and provides technical
               assistance to disaster victims whose crops or livestock have been destroyed.

               The Department of Education provides assistance in the public education and campaign regarding
               disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation through the integration in the school curricula of
               relevant subjects. The Secretary also makes available school buildings as evacuation centers and
               organizes and trains disaster control groups and reaction teams in all schools and institutions of
               learning.

               The Department of Finance issues rules and regulations, in collaboration with the relevant agencies
               concerned, on funding to local governments of the requirements of their disaster coordinating councils.
               The Secretary also issues rules and regulations jointly with the Department of Budget and Management
               on the preparation of the Local Government Budget and the utilization of the 2 percent reserves for
               disaster operations.

               The Department of Labor and Employment organizes and trains Disaster Control Groups in all factories
               and industrial complexes, provides emergency employment opportunities to disaster victims, and
               implements the industrial civil defense programs and measures.

               The Department of Trade and Industry maintains normal levels of commodity prices during emergencies,
               and organizes disaster control groups and reaction teams in large buildings used for commercial and
               recreational purposes.

               The Department of Interior and Local Government oversees the organization of local disaster councils,
               the establishment of Disaster Operations Centers of all local governments, and the training of DCC
               members in coordination with OCD, DSWD, Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC), and other appropriate
               agencies.
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               The Department of Health provides health services during emergencies as necessary, and organizes
               reaction teams in hospitals, clinics, and sanitary and other health institutions. The Secretary also issues
               appropriate warnings to the public on the occurrence of health hazards.

               The Department of Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for reforestation and control of
               areas that tend to cause flooding, landslides, mudflow and ground subsidence. Additional
               responsibilities are to provide technical assistance on mines and forests and lands, to formulate rules
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               and regulations for the control of water and land pollution, and to issue advice on environmental
               pollution.

               The Department of Tourism organizes and trains disaster control groups and reaction teams in hotels,
               pension houses, restaurants and other tourist-oriented facilities.

               The Department of Budget and Management releases funds required by the departments for disaster
               operations.

               The Philippine Information Agency provides public information services through dissemination of
               disaster mitigation measures and disaster preparedness.

               The Philippine National Red Cross conducts disaster leadership training courses, assists in the training of
               DCCs at all levels, and help in providing emergency relief assistance to disaster victims. The PNRC has
               been especially successful in involving high-risk communities in Disaster Preparedness work. The
               Integrated Community Disaster Planning Programme seeks to increase the capacity of communities to
               prepare for and cope with natural disasters such as typhoons, volcanic eruptions and floods but also
               with everyday emergencies such as health related hazards. The highly participatory process involves
               both people as well as local government units who are in charge of the overall community development
               process. This ensures that preparedness and mitigation strategies are shared with authorities, later on
               included in official community development plans and thus sustained. The programme conducts
               Disaster Preparedness training, which familiarizes people with the identification of local hazards,
               mapping, community organization and team building. Supported by this training communities develop
               Hazard Maps and Disaster Action Plans. They also form Disaster Action Teams as the operational focal
               points for Disaster Preparedness and response. Disaster Action Plans identify suitable community
               preparedness projects. According to the findings of participatory assessments these may include: health
               education and training (First Aid, Home nursing), physical improvements to the community
               infrastructure (footpaths, footbridges, water and sanitation) and income generating projects to sustain
               preparedness activities.

               The National Housing Authority is responsible for the assessment of housing requirements of displaced
               persons. It is also concerned with the provision of temporary housing and the rebuilding of destroyed
               areas.

               The Armed Forces of the Philippines is responsible for the provision of security in disaster area and
               assistance in the reconstruction of roads, bridges and other structures. The Chief also provides
               transportation facilities for rapid movement of relief supplies and personnel and for the evacuation of
               disaster victims.

               The National Economic Development Authority is responsible for the determination and analysis of the
               effects of disasters and calamities on the socioeconomic plans and programs of the country, and
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               development of damage assessment scheme.

               Regional disaster coordinating councils (RDCCs)

               Regional disaster coordinating councils (RDCCs) coordinates at the regional level the activities of all
               national government agencies assigned to a particular administrative region. The National Chairman
               assigns the Chairman of a RDCC to the post by presidential designation, although under the present
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               arrangement, the Philippine National Police (PNP) Regional Directors are designated as chairmen. In
               autonomous regions, the Chief Executives automatically become chairmen of disaster coordinating
               councils. In Metro Manila, the Chairman of the Metro Manila Development Authority is also the
               Chairman of the Metro Manila Disaster Coordinating Council (MMDCC). RDCCs, like the NDCC, have no
               budget of their own and operate only through member agencies under the principles of coordination,
               complementation of resources and agency participation. The OCD Regional Director acts as the
               Executive Officer of the RDCC.

               The RDCC is expected to perform the following functions:
                      • Establish a physical facility known as the Regional Disaster Operations Center
                      (RDOC)
                      • Coordinate disaster operations activities in the regions
                      • Implement within the region the guidelines set by the NDCC
                      • Advise the local disaster coordinating councils on disaster management, and
                      • Submit appropriate recommendations to the NDCC as necessary.

               Local Disaster Coordinating Councils
               At the local level, the chief executives are, by law, the Chairmen of their respective LDCCs. Thus,
               governors are chairmen of the provincial disaster coordinating councils (PDCCs), city mayors of the city
               disaster coordinating councils (CDCCs), and town mayors of the municipal disaster coordinating councils
               (MDCCs). Barangay Captains are the Chairmen of their Barangay Disaster Coordinating Councils (BDCCs).
               The primary functions of the local disaster councils as detailed in the NDCC’s document, Calamities and
               Disaster Preparedness Plan, are given below.

               Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council
                       • Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Provincial Disaster Operations Center (PDOC)
                       • Coordinates, from the PDOC, the disaster operations activities of the municipalities within the
                       province
                       • Implements within the province the guidelines set by the RDCC
                       • Advises the City and Municipal and Barangay Disaster Coordinating Councilsn regarding
                       disaster management
                       • Submits recommendations to the RDCC as necessary, and
                       • Places CDCCs and MDCCs and its tasked units under the operational control of the provincial
                       disaster coordinating councils (PDCCs) during an emergency that affects the towns/cities.

               City/Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council
                      • Establishes a physical facility, to be known as the City/Municipal Disaster Operations Center
                      (C/MDOC)
                      • Coordinates from the C/MDOC the disaster operations activities
                      • Implements within the city/municipality the guidelines set by the PDCC
                      • Advises the Barangay Disaster Coordinating Councils regarding disaster management, and
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                      • Submits recommendation to the PDCC, as necessary.

               Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council
                      • Establishes the Barangay Disaster Operations Center (BDOC)
                      • Coordinates from the BDOC the disaster operations activities of its tasked units
                      • Implements within the barangay the guidelines set by the C/MDCC, and
                      • Advises the members of the BDCC on disaster management.
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               Local disaster councils are significant because of their close proximity to the population. An actual
               emergency, including the various aspects of emergency management, is most felt at this level. Similarly,
               it is at this level that damages are assessed and requirements are identified so that necessary actions
               and response can be taken. This local responsibility has been reinforced with the passage of the Local
               Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160), which provides for the devolution of basic services and functions
               to LGUs and allocation of a 5 percent calamity fund for emergency operations.


               C. Non-government Organizations (NGOs)


               Citizens’ Disaster Response Center (CDRC)

               CDRC is a non-government organization that pioneered and continues to promote community-based
               disaster management in the Philippines. CDRC operates nationwide through a network of regional
               centers affiliated with the Citizens’ Disaster Response Network and through people’s organizations.
               Organized in 1984, CDRC focuses its assistance to the most affected, least served and most vulnerable
               sectors of the population through preparedness and mitigation, emergency relief, and rehabilitation
               programs. CDRC responds to minor disasters and major emergencies, among these are the 1984 and
               2001 Mt. Mayon eruption, the 1990 Luzon earthquake, the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo disaster, the 1995 super
               typhoon Rosing (Angela), the 2000 Payatas garbage avalanche, the 2006 Guinsaugon landslide, the 2006
               typhoon Reming (Durian), the 2008 typhoon Frank (Fengshen) and the long-running armed conflict in
               Mindanao. Through the years, since 1984, CDRC has touched the lives of over 3 million Filipinos through
               its programs. A network of overseas and local supporters enables CDRC to carry out its programs and
               help communities increase their disaster management capacities.


               Disaster Risk Reduction Network (DRRNet)

               The Disaster Risk Reduction Network (DRRNet) in the Philippines is a network of disaster risk reduction
               advocates and practitioners throughout the country. According to DRRNet, the Philippines’ vulnerability
               to disasters has increased immensely throughout the years, resulting in the loss of lives, livelihood, and
               property. DRRNetPhils is advocating for a policy shift from disaster response and preparedness to
               disaster risk reduction and management through the development and establishment of a national
               framework that will foster an enabling national policy environment anchored on multi-stakeholder
               action. A policy is needed to reduce and manage disaster risks in the country because of two reasons.
               One, the Philippines lies in the heart of an area prone to natural disasters and two, the country’s socio-
               economic and political conditions make the Filipinos vulnerable to disaster impacts.
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               Center for Disaster Preparedness

               The Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP) is a regional resource center based in the Philippines that
               endeavors to promote Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM), facilitate interactive
               learning and discourse on disaster risk management, and advocate for policies and programs that
               protect the environment and mitigate disaster risk through its various programs and services in training,
               consultancies, interactive fora, research and publication, networking and advocacy, through
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               developmental and participatory principles and methodologies. It works with non-government
               organizations, people's organizations, communities and government agencies in various countries to
               enhance their capacities in disaster preparedness, mitigation, emergency response and recovery.


               D. UN and DONOR ORGANIZATIONS


               World Bank

               World Bank (WB) is an international organization owned by the 184 countries¾both developed and
               developing¾that are its members. The goal of the World Bank is to reduce poverty and to improve the
               living standards of the people in low and middle-income countries. The WB contributes to achieving
               more inclusive growth by supporting the Philippines, aside from its focus on improving the economic,
               investment climate, public service in the country, the group aims to help reduce vulnerabilities by
               expanding and rationalizing the country’s social safety net, improving disaster risk management, piloting
               climate change adaptation measures and expanding climate change mitigation programs.


               United Nations Development Program

               The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) works on enhancing the environment's carrying
               capacity to support the country's sustained economic growth, alleviating poverty in the process. This is
               through the: (1) evolution and refinement of the legislative, institutional, and regulatory framework; (2)
               use of market-based mechanisms and adoption of environmentally sustainable technologies to
               encourage private sector participation in environmental protection as well as greater community
               alliance in the formulation and implementation of local level initiatives; and (3) establishment of a more
               effective system of environmental governance and delivery of environmental services, including
               monitoring and enforcement. Today, disaster reduction is a key component of UNDP efforts in crisis
               prevention and recovery. UNDP first allocated core resources for disaster preparedness in 1989, with an
               approved policy framework aimed ‘to stimulate the interest and actions needed to create
               comprehensive disaster preparedness plans, strategies and structures and to promote disaster
               mitigation activities within the context of development planning and implementation’. The United
               Nations General Assembly has transferred to UNDP, the responsibilities of the Emergency Relief
               Coordinator for operational activities concerning natural disaster mitigation, prevention and
               preparedness. Furthermore, the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) has made
               considerable progress in developing an implementation framework that adds value to on-going activities
               in disaster reduction.


               German Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
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               Under its Programme on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (Environmental sector
               programme), the German Technical Cooperation supports a project on disaster preparedness which
               aims that population and local administrations are able to respond adequately to natural disasters. As a
               result, negative impacts of natural events are reduced and the living conditions of the population
               improved. The project builds on disaster preparedness activities already in progress. It cooperates
               closely with the population affected, with local institutions, national authorities, local administrations
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               and other organizations. Examples of relevant activities include the drawing-up of hazard maps, the
               provision of equipment for and training in flood early warning systems, training for emergency
               situations, information campaigns, budgeting in the municipal budget and the integration of disaster
               preparedness in the school curriculum. Systematic cooperation with the other components of the
               environmental sector programme guarantees optimum utilisation of resources, at the same time
               strengthening existing partnerships with local and international institutions in order to achieve the
               common goals.


               AusAID

               AusAID's disaster and emergency response mechanism helps address the impacts of conflicts, crises and
               disasters on vulnerable populations. The Disaster Preparedness and Response Facility for the
               Philippines, amounting to A$6.45 million from 2006-2008, include: a) Avian Influenza preparedness
               project with the Department of Health; b) Hazards Mapping and Community-Based Disaster
               Management Project with the UNDP and NDCC; c) Community-Based Disaster Management with the
               Philippine National Red Cross; d) Technical Linkages between Australia and Philippines; and e)
               Immediate response in times of disasters.


               Asian Development Bank

               In its country strategy, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) tries to help the country adapt to the
               unavoidable impact of climate change through planning, defensive measures, insurance and other risk-
               sharing instruments, and “climate proof” projects. Disaster risk management will be a vital part of
               development. Sustainable management of forest and other natural resources for the provision of clean
               water supplies, biodiversity protection, and carbon sequestration to offset GHG emissions will be part of
               ADB’s response to climate change (ADB 2008c).
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               APPENDIX B
               Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Projects
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               Project Title             Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Local
                                         Development Planning and Decision-making processes

               Funding Agency            UNDP, AusAID


               Timeframe                 2009-2012

               Budget                    AUS$2.5 million

               Implementing Agency       National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)
               and Partners
               Rationale                 Aims to mainstream the integrated concerns of disaster risk reduction and
                                         climate change adaptation into local decision making and planning processes.
                                         Disaster risk reduction is conceived as a defense against the hazardous
                                         impacts of climate change and variability such as extended droughts and
                                         floods.

                                         The project aims to bring awareness and understanding of DRR/CCA to the
                                         community level, incorporating it into local level land-use and development
                                         plans. The project also includes the enhancement of multi-stakeholder
                                         cooperation by creating mechanisms for their participation.

                                         The project is very timely as it will promote a medium- to long-term strategy
                                         to rebuild the disaster affected areas into stronger and more resilient
                                         communities, while frontline agencies and local government units currently
                                         focus on the quick recovery of these areas.

                                         The project will build on the DRR methodologies and tools developed under
                                         the recently concluded NEDA-EC-UNDP Project on Mainstreaming Disaster
                                         Risk Management into Subnational Planning which are embodied in the
                                         Guidelines on Mainstreaming DRR in Subnational Development and Land
                                         Use/Physical Planning.
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               Project Title           Development and production of comprehensive “Strategic National Action
                                       Plan” (SNAP) to implement Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Disaster
                                       Management (DM) priorities in the context of the Hyogo Framework for
                                       Action (HFA)
               Funding Agency          European Union


               Timeframe               15 Months. Implementation period 01/02/2007 to 30/04/2008

               Implementing Agency     UNDP
               and Partners            Scott Cunliffe (scott.cunliffe@undp.org)

                                       UN ISDR
               Results                 Established or strengthened multi-stakeholders national
                                       mechanisms/platforms for DRR in three countries through multi-sector and
                                       multi-partner consultations and approval processes by Governments.

                                       DRR and DM priorities for action in the context of the HFA are incorporated
                                       into an agreed Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) in the 3 selected
                                       countries, and SNAP documents are produced.

                                       Through consultations, dialogues, workshops and training events, key sectors
                                       are selected, and guidelines and mechanism developed to guide the
                                       mainstreaming of DRR into policies, plans and programmes, as part of a long-
                                       term development strategy.

                                       Capacity development needs for each country assessed as a key component of
                                       the SNAP.
               Rationale               To contribute to building resilient nations and communities through local,
                                       national and regional commitments to reducing disaster risks in the context of
                                       HFA. The main objectives of the project are to: (1) Ensure that disaster risk
                                       reduction is a national and local priority by building national capacity through
                                       the development and implementation of Strategic National Action Plan
                                       (SNAP) for disaster risk reduction, in the context of the HFA, for Governments
                                       to implement, with strong national, regional and global support; (2) establish
                                       the mechanism at the country and regional levels to support the development
                                       and implementation of SNAP; and (3) strengthen the cooperation and
                                       coordination of existing national and regional partnership through its
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                                       involvement in design and implementation of SNAP.
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               Project Title           Case Study on the Institutionalization of Albay Provincial Safety and
                                       Emergency Management Office (APSEMO)

               Funding Agency          OXFAM-GB


               Timeframe               2007-2008

               Implementing Agency     Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) and PDCC-Albay
               and Partners
               Website (if any)        http://albay.gov.ph/mabuhayxpress/MabX0110/OXFAM.html

               Rationale and results   In 2007, after assisting the province through a 6-month intervention on
                                       WASH, food security and livelihoods programme in the province of Albay ,
                                       Oxfam started its DRR engagement with the Provincial Government through
                                       the documentation of the Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management
                                       Office or APSEMO. APSEMO’s 15 has years of experience and lessons in
                                       disaster risk that other local government units (LGUs) may learn
                                       from. Through the institutionalization of the function of disaster risk
                                       management, the province has achieved substantial reduction in the loss of
                                       lives and assets -- social, economic or environmental. In line with the Hyogo
                                       Framework for Action, this case study traced how the Albay’s government and
                                       people succeeded in creating a permanent mechanism to prepare for and
                                       respond to various types of disasters, despite the chronic poverty and natural
                                       and human-made hazards that beset the province.

                                        Because of the continuing commitment of Oxfam GB to share and replicate
                                       this good practice in other local government units, now, the good practice has
                                       been adopted and customized in the provinces of Sarangani, Pampanga and
                                       Sorsogon under the recently-concluded project supported under DIPECHO’s
                                       6th Action Plan. Also, this good practice is now being emmulated in other
                                       local government units through other partners (i.e., local and/or international
                                       NGOs). The success of sharing and advocating for this good practice has
                                       likewise brought the discourse at the national level, particularly in the new
                                       DRM legislative measure in both houses of Congress now just awaiting
                                       approval in the bicameral conference committee. Even award-giving bodies
                                       recognizing exemplary and innovative actions at the local government levels
                                       have recognized the role and importance of APSEMO, particularly the Gawad
                                       Kalasag and Galing Pook Awards.

                                       Oxfam’s intervention has also nurtured the cross-linking and cross-fertilization
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                                       or complementation of various national government initiatives and projects,
                                       specifically those under the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)
                                       through the Office of Civil Defense (OCD), the Department of Interior and
                                       Local Government (DILG), and the National Economic Development Authority
                                       (NEDA). Truly, APSEMO became a system integrator not only within the LGU
                                       and the community but also between and across programs like DILG’s Good
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                                Practices Facility for Replication (GOFAR) and NEDA’s DRR mainstreaming
                                tool, all within NDCC’s DRR framework.

                                Last but not the least, from being just a simple project on knowledge
                                management, the APSEMO experience (from documentation to replication), it
                                has now evolved into real and continuing strategic partnerships with Oxfam,
                                with other LGUs, local partners and the national government and aims to
                                build resilient communities and make a lasting impact on poverty. In fact,
                                documentation and replicaiton good practices in DRR, community
                                empowerment through LGU partnership and highlighting women’s
                                transformative roles are among the current niches Oxfam GB has clearly
                                established in the country.

                                Overall, the long years of APSEMO’s experience reaped tons of benefits from
                                saving lives to building confidence and empowering constituents to being a
                                role model to other local government units. However, continuing challenges
                                face the province and the office. With climate change, risks and disasters
                                now take a new form and approach. Seeing how the province is able to
                                adapt, respond and innovate is crucial not only for their own learning but
                                more importantly, for others’ to see. Oxfam, being a long-standing partner
                                and being the one which documented and initiated the replication and
                                customized adoption of APSEMO in other areas, would be in the best position
                                to (a) continue the documentation through a real-time learning process and
                                see how APSEMO was able (and is continuing) to respond to the new
                                challenges facing it, particularly giving focus on women’s leadership roles,
                                climate changes and the like and (b) help build on the province’s current DRR
                                capacities by ensuring that early recovery is considered at the onset of
                                disaster response, particularly in the areas of WASH and livelihoods. At a time
                                when the province is still responding to the needs of the people both in the
                                evacuation centers and those who were already allowed to return home,
                                Albay and APSEMO needs strategic partners like Oxfam to be with them to
                                help identify learnrings and gaps and see a path forward to address them and
                                continue to show our commitment to risk reduction and to a relationship that
                                recognizes and values the unique attributes that each one offers.
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               Project Title           ASEAN Agreement on Disaster and Emergency Response (AADMER)


               Funding Agency          ASEAN


               Timeframe               2005-2015

               Implementing Agency     UNDP, UN ISDR
               and Partners
               Website (if any)        http://www.aseansec.org/PR-AADMER-EIF-End-2009.pdf

               Results                 Recently, the Philippines' Senate ratified the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster
                                       Management and Emergency Response (AADMER), and with that the
                                       agreement is expected to enter into force by the end of 2009. The ratification
                                       marks a significant highlight in ASEAN's collective efforts to build a disaster-
                                       resilient community by the year 2015. The agreement binds ASEAN member
                                       states into legal responsibilities to promote regional cooperation and
                                       collaboration in reducing disaster losses and intensifying joint emergency
                                       response to disasters in the ASEAN region.
               Rationale               AADMER stands for ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and
                                       Emergency Response. It was signed by ASEAN foreign ministers in July 2005
                                       and came into force on Dec 24, 2009 after ratification by member countries.
                                       This is the first binding agreement of its kind that focuses on managing the
                                       risk of disasters in a region. It requires member countries to do a number of
                                       things including: drawing up a set of standard operating procedures for
                                       providing relief and recovery in the aftermath of a disaster, setting up early
                                       warning systems, identifying disaster risk areas and cooperating on
                                       technology and scientific research. So far, countries have been responding to
                                       disasters on an ad-hoc basis and in a reactive way. The agreement shifts the
                                       focus on reducing the risks of disasters and advocates a more proactive
                                       approach to dealing with disasters.

                                       AADMER is supposed to bring together the ASEAN countries -- which have
                                       varying capacities, disaster risks and development levels -- and get them to
                                       focus on a problem that affects development and clips economic growth.
                                       A programme for 2010 - 2015 detailing AADMER activities is currently being
                                       developed by a few partners. The programme to be adopted in March
                                       outlines activities in four areas: risk assessment, early warning and
                                       monitoring, * emergency relief, prevention and mitigation * preparedness
                                       and response * recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction It also requires
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                                       governments to work with civil society and non-government organisation on
                                       all the areas.
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        16
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Project Title        Support to Implementation of Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) through
                                    Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction into Development Planning, Policy
                                    and Implementation in Asia: Advocacy and Pilot Implementation Project in
                                    Education Sector in 3 South East Asian RCC member countries (Cambodia, Lao
                                    PDR and the Philippines) [MDRR-Education]
               Funding Agency       United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), European Commission for
                                    Humanitarian Aid (ECHO)

               Timeframe            2007-2009

               Implementing         ADPC
               Agency and
               Partners
               Results              Phase I: January 2007 - April 2008 includes: ( 1) Development of DRM modules
                                    for secondary school curriculum, (2) Training of teachers (ToT) on the use of the
                                    modules, (3) Pilot-testing of the DRM module in six (6) schools in the Philippines,
                                    and, (4) Revision of the DRM module according to the findings in the pilot-
                                    testing. A total of 1,020 students and 75 teachers, regional educational
                                    supervisors, and officers have benefited from the project.

                                    Phase II: November 2008 - December 2009 aimed to provide “Support to the
                                    Implementation of the HFA through MDRD into Development Planning and
                                    Implementation: Advocacy and Pilot Project Implementation in the Education
                                    Sector in Three Southeast Asian Regional Consultative Committee (RCC) Member
                                    Countries”. Phase II also intends to institutionalize the DRR modules and the ToT
                                    module in the national curriculum and in the teachers training system.
               Rationale            The RCC on Disaster Management was established at the initiative of the ADPC
                                    in 2000. The RCC is comprised of 30 members from 26 countries who are
                                    working in key government positions in the National Disaster Management
                                    systems of countries of the Asian region. A key priority identified by the RCC is
                                    the integration of disaster risk consideration into development planning.
                                    Realizing the importance of mainstreaming of DRR in the Education Sector as
                                    identified by the RCC, one of the most recent interventions was MDRR-
                                    Education. Under the RCC umbrella, this collaborative (ECHO-UNDP-ADPC)
                                    project was implemented as a major contribution to the implementation of the
                                    Hyogo Framework for Action. The Project was designed with the primary focus
                                    to assist the Ministry of Education in 3 RCC countries to implement a Priority
                                    Implementation Partnership (PIP), working with the National Disaster
                                    Management Organizations, to undertake integration of DRR into the secondary
                                    school curriculum and promoting resilient construction of new schools using
                                    research on the past impact of disasters on the Education sector.
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                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation         17
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title             Hazard Mapping and Assessment for Effective Community-Based Disaster Risk
                                         Management (READY)

               Funding Agency            AusAID; UNDP


               Timeframe                 2006-2011

               Budget                    USD 1.9 Million

               Implementing Agency       The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) is the executing agency while the
               and Partners              collaborating NDCC agencies are MGB, NAMRIA, PAGASA and PHIVOLCS.
               Rationale                 The READY Project’s overall goal is “to contribute to the goal of strengthening
                                         the capacities of key stakeholders in localities vulnerable to natural hazards to
                                         protect/enhance the quality of the environment and sustainably manage their
                                         natural resources, as well as their capacities to prepare and respond
                                         appropriately to natural disasters.” This goal links the project to national
                                         priorities articulated in PD 1566, the current legislative framework for the
                                         country’s disaster management, and the NDCC Four Point Action Plan on
                                         Disaster Preparedness. The READY project aims to provide immediate, reliable
                                         information to the communities at risk, on the various geological and hydro-
                                         meteorological hazards in their respective localities. Its three immediate
                                         objectives are:
                                         1. Equip key stakeholder groups with the resources (financial, technical,
                                         and/or advisory services), knowledge and training that enable them to
                                         perform effectively for disaster risk reduction;
                                         2. Strengthen coordination processes and procedures, within organizations
                                         and sectors (public, private and community) for effective risk reduction; and
                                         3. Initiate the mainstreaming of risk reduction into local development
                                         planning.
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                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation      18
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title      Emergency Response Network (ERN) – Sahana GO Kit


               Funding Agency IBM International Foundation (ERN Sahana Philippines)


               Timeframe          2009-2015

               Budget             $860,000

               Implementing       National Disaster Coordinating Council – Office of the Civil Defense
               Agency and
               Partners
               Website (if any)   http://www.emergencyresponsenetwork.org/
                                  http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleid=515397&publicationsubcategoryid=71
               Rationale          IBM is strengthening its partnership and collaboration with the NDCC toward the
                                  effective implementation of its Emergency Response Network (ERN)-Sahana Go Kit.

                                  Sahana is an integrated set of free and open source Web-based applications that
                                  provide solutions to large-scale humanitarian problems in the aftermath of a disaster
                                  — from finding missing people, managing aid, managing volunteers, and tracking
                                  camps effectively among government groups, the civil society (NGOs) and the victims
                                  themselves.

                                  The ERN is an emergency/disaster system designed to yield a core communications
                                  infrastructure for restoration of basic local voice and data communications across a
                                  small, defined area.

                                  IBM and the NDCC will explore ways to customize Sahana. IBM is prepared to provide
                                  its technology to enhance the NDCC’s existing IT infrastructure and complement it
                                  with necessary skills and services that will address the needs identified by the NDCC
                                  and OCD for the customization, modification and deployment of Sahana.

                                  The coverage of the assistance may include the provision of IBM servers and storage,
                                  project management services, a review of the NDCC’s IT network infrastructure,
                                  provision of software developers to customize Sahana, ERN-related services and
                                  volunteers from the IBM On Demand Community and Corporate Service Corps (CSC).
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                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   19
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title             Web-based Event Database (CALAMIDAT.PH)


               Funding Agency            Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC)


               Timeframe

               Budget

               Implementing Agency       Office of the Civil Defense
               and Partners
               Website (if any)          http://www.calamidat.ph/dm/web/

               Rationale                 CALAMIDAT.PH is an internet-based, GLIDE associated national disaster event
                                         database system that serves as a tool to support evidence-based
                                         preparedness and mitigation initiatives for disaster risk management. This
                                         system was developed by the Office of Civil Defense in cooperation with the
                                         Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC).
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                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        20
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Project Title           Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER) and Simultaneous
                                       Nationwide Earthquake Drills and the Nationwide Water Search and Rescue
                                       (WASAR) Training

               Funding Agency          Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC)


               Implementing Agency     Office of the Civil Defense
               and Partners
               Rationale               Programs such as Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies (HO PE) under the
                                       Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEE R) has been organized
                                       by NDCC, along with concerned government agencies and supported by NZET
                                       and USAID. Awareness-campaign programs and DRM-relevant courses are also
                                       through programs hosted by the World Bank Institute, Earthquakes and
                                       Megacities Initiatives (EMI) and NDCC. Technological and scientific institutions
                                       like PAGASA and PHIVOLCS provide knowledge building for NGOs, schools and
                                       the media. NGOs and professional organizations also provide trainings on DRR
                                       focusing on mitigation and preparedness.PEER program was set up in1998, and
                                       is now operational in nine countries in Asia.

                                       PEER delivers trainings programs to increase capacity to prepare for and
                                       manage emergencies and disasters. PEER is made up of two parts: HOPE and
                                       CADRE:

                                       HOPE - Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies:
                                       HOPE improves the capacity of hospitals and healthcare facilities to manage
                                       emergencies and mass casualty events. The training program is designed for
                                       administrative and medical healthcare personnel, to prepare healthcare
                                       facilities to respond effectively to emergencies involving large numbers of
                                       casualties. This enables hospitals and healthcare facilities to develop well
                                       designed, facility-specific plans for effective emergency response. HOPE
                                       addresses the structural, nonstructural, organizational and medical needs of
                                       health facilities.

                                       CADRE - Community Action for Disaster Response
                                       CADRE builds stronger, more disaster-prepared communities, by training non-
                                       professional disaster responders from amongst commuity members. This
                                       enhances community level first responder capacity in disaster–prone areas in
                                       Asia. The training is a simplified disaster responder course, drawing upon the
                                       core trainings from Medical First Responder (MFR), Collapsed Structure Search
                                       and Rescue (CSSR), Community Basic Emergency Response Course (C-BERC)
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                                       amongst other key trainings. Communities are often on their own, with no
                                       outside assistance, during the immediate post-disaster phase. Training
                                       community members in the key components of effective, multi-hazard,
                                       community-specific disaster response will enable communities themselves to
                                       take appropriate action for disaster response.
                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation       21
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title        Natural Disaster Risk Management Online Program


               Funding Agency       World Bank Institute (WBI); Hazard Management Unit and ProVention Consortium


               Timeframe            March 31, 2009 – March 31, 2011

               Budget

               Implementing         Office of the Civil Defense
               Agency and
               Partners
               Website (if any)     http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22124295~me
                                    nuPK:34482~pagePK:2524753~piPK:51421526~theSitePK:4607,00.html
               Rationale            This course addresses basic questions such as “why are disasters a development
                                    issue?” and “what are the components of comprehensive disaster risk
                                    management?” The course reviews the institutional arrangements and financing
                                    mechanisms of disaster management systems, and identifies the role of national
                                    and local actors in the processes related to risk assessment, mitigation and
                                    financing. This course targets general development practitioners to raise their
                                    awareness and sensitivity in prevention of natural disasters, and consists of three
                                    modules and End of Course Exercise.

                                    The increased demand for both disaster assistance and mitigation capacity building
                                    calls for a structured, comprehensive and global risk management framework, one
                                    that can be used by regional and national authorities and by partner institutions.
                                    The World Bank Institute Natural Disaster Risk Management Program was
                                    developed to address the above needs. The WB Hazard Management Unit and
                                    ProVention Consortium supported the program development. The program
                                    comprises a series of five web-based courses, which aim at (i) awareness raising and
                                    (ii) advancing the participants’ analytical skills and professional knowledge in the
                                    specific area of disaster risk management. This course is the first in the series.
30 June 2010
                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        22
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title        Disaster Risk Reduction City-to-city Sharing Initiative for developing countries


               Funding Agency       World Bank Institute (WBI); Hazard Management Unit and ProVention Consortium


               Timeframe            November 6, 2009 – June 1, 2012

               Budget               USD 150,000

               Implementing         City Government of Makati
               Agency and
               Partners
               Website (if any)     http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK=73230
                                    &theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projectid=P116889
               Rationale            This City-to-City Sharing Initiative for Disaster Risk Reduction will create a
                                    partnership among the cities of Makati, Kathmandu and Quito to foster knowledge
                                    exchange, technical cooperation, and sharing of expertise in risk sensitive land use
                                    planning and local level emergency management. It will further additional technical
                                    and institutional capacity-building among city officials, managers, and professionals
                                    in critical areas such as earthquake hazard and vulnerability awareness, safe
                                    building technologies and community preparedness.

                                    The grant is part of the GFDRR South-South Cooperation Program, a major initiative
                                    to facilitate collaboration among low- and middle-income countries to mainstream
                                    disaster risk reduction and recovery, including climate change adaptation, into
                                    development planning. The Program fosters greater leadership and ownership of
                                    the governments from developing countries on their disaster risk reduction agenda,
                                    providing opportunities for high risk countries to work jointly on common objectives
                                    and reduce their vulnerability.

                                    http://gfdrr.org/docs/PR_-_Grant_to_Makati_FINAL.pdf
30 June 2010
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation      23
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Project Title      Mainstreaming DRR in Development Plans particularly on Land Use and Physical
                                  Framework Plans

               Funding Agency     UNDP, EC


               Timeframe          January 2007 – May 2008

               Implementing       NEDA
               Agency and
               Partners
               Outputs/Results    As designed the project has achieved its expected outputs, namely: a) a final draft
                                  of the Guidelines on Mainstreaming DRM in Sub-National Development and Physical
                                  Framework Planning, b) the summary of the policy papers on (a) geospatial data
                                  and information needed for DRM; and (b) recommendations on improving DRR
                                  mainstreaming in sub-national planning; c) 278 planners from national government,
                                  regional line agencies and representatives from non-government organizations
                                  trained, within five (5) trainings to build capacities of sub-national planners to
                                  mainstream DRM into sub-national development planning; and d) sixteen (16)
                                  region/province case studies which are initial assessments of hazard impacts and
                                  risk managements, which showed how DRR assessments can be inputted into the
                                  sub-national plans; two selected sub-national action plans and one provincial plan.

               Rationale          The project aimed to minimize the adverse impact of natural disasters to
                                  communities in the Philippines by putting DRR as an integral part of sub-national
                                  planning processes. Mainstreaming, as the integration of DRR perspective in sub-
                                  national plans, was achieved by the project. However, mainstreaming in its stricter
                                  sense, involves integration of DRR into the whole development planning process
                                  (i.e. analysis of the planning environment, identification of
                                  issues/goals/objectives/targets, formulation of strategies and PPAs, project
                                  evaluation and development, budgeting, expenditure management, investment
                                  programming, revenue generation, monitoring and evaluation and re-planning. The
                                  project only intended to cover integration up to the strategies and PPAs.
30 June 2010
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation       24
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Project Title      Partnerships for Disaster Reduction South East Asia Phase 4 (PDR-SEA 4)


               Funding Agency     EC, UNESCAP


               Timeframe          15 Months. Implementation period 01/02/2007 to 30/04/2008

               Implementing       ADPC
               Agency and
               Partners
               Website (if any)   http://www.adpc.net/v2007/Programs/CBDRM/PROGRAMS/PDRSEA/PDRSEA4/Def
                                  ault-PDRSEA4.asp
               Outputs/Results    1. Enhanced leadership role of NDMOs in the institutionalisation of community-
                                     based disaster risk management (CBDRM) into the socio-economic development
                                     process in four countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, and Viet Nam).
                                  2. Improved national capacity in the integration of CBDRM into the planning and
                                     programming of local development for better disaster risk management through
                                     the implementation of pilot projects in two selected countries of Philippines and
                                     Viet Nam.
                                  3. Improved regional knowledge on integration of CBDRM into socio-economic
                                     development process through consolidating experiences of PDRSEA phases at
                                     the local, national and regional levels and exchange of experiences among
                                     regional CBDRM practitioners
                                  4. An improved mechanism for dissemination of tools, methodologies and
                                     experiences to all key regional stakeholders and enhanced capacity of DIPECHO
                                     partners to design and implement community based projects and initiatives.
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                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation       25
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Project Title      Search for Excellence in Disaster Management (Gawad KALASAG) 2007



               Funding Agency     NDCC


               Implementing       NDCC
               Agency and
               Partners
               Website (if any)   http://www.adpc.net/v2007/PROGRAMs/CBDRM/OldVersion/CBDRM-
                                  a/PROGRAMS/PDRSEA4/documents/PHIL/adpc-dms-pdrsea4-
                                  NDCC_Memo_Galad_Kasalag-%202007.pdf

               Rationale          Kalasag the Filipino term for “shield” used by early Filipinos as a means of
                                  protection from attacks of enemies or harmful animals. Relatedly, Gawad KALASAG
                                  was conceived to protect or shield high risk communities against hazards by
                                  encouraging participation of various stakeholders in designing and implementing
                                  Disaster Risk Management (DRM) programs. Initiated in 1998, the Gawad KALASAG,
                                  is NDCC’s current recognition scheme on search for excellence on DRM and
                                  humanitarian assistance. It provides the mechanism in obtaining sustained
                                  commitment and support from highest level of governments through
                                  acknowledgment of the exceptional contributions of the various DRM practitioners
                                  in rebuilding the resilience of nations and communities to disaster. At the same
                                  time, Gawad KALASAG continues to promote the spirit of volunteerism among
                                  agencies and individuals in providing the much needed help during the response
                                  phase of DRM. Practitioners of DRM include the Local Disaster Coordinating
                                  Councils (LDCCs) at the provincial, city, municipal and barangay levels. The LDCCs
                                  serve as the frontliners in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from any
                                  type of disaster or emergency. Moreover, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs),
                                  Private/Volunteer Organizations, and Government Emergency Managers are prime
                                  contributors and major stakeholders/partners in the implementation of DRM and
                                  humanitarian response programs.

                                  The Gawad KALASAG aims to recognize outstanding performance of LDCCs,
                                  private/volunteer organizations, local, national and international and national
                                  NGOs, donor agencies, and communities as major stakeholders in implementing
                                  significant DRM projects and activities and in providing humanitarian response and
                                  assistance to affected communities. It also aims to recognize individuals, groups or
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                                  institutions that have shown extraordinary courage, heroism, self-sacrifice, and
                                  bravery against all odds in times of natural and human-made emergencies and
                                  disasters.
                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        26
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title        Strengthening the Disaster Preparedness Capacities of REINA Municipalities to
                                    Geologic and Meteorological Hazards (REINA Project)

               Funding Agency       UNDP


               Timeframe            2005-2007

               Budget

               Implementing         NDCC-OCD
               Agency and           Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance Inc. (ICDAI)
               Partners             PHILVOLCS, PAGASA, MGB-DENR, NARMRIA
               Website (if any)

               Outputs/Results      The REINA project, started March 2005, was designed to prepare the community for
                                    disaster in different aspects. It is a continuation of the relief efforts that were
                                    assisted by the UNDP TRAC 1.1.3 (Category II); Australian Agency for International
                                    Development (Aus AID) and the New Zealand Government. The project is divided
                                    into three components: scruples

                                    First, UNDP launched the Food for Recovery and Support to Small Entrepreneurs
                                    Project in the municipality of Infanta, Quezon (hardest hit by the floods in 2006
                                    during a typhoon event) in order to create a community based model for recovery
                                    after a natural disaster. It is designed to provide food to the affected families in
                                    exchange for their contributions to rehabilitation efforts (i.e. clearing of roads,
                                    rebuilding of public facilities). It was also designed to give the farmers livelihood
                                    options appropriate for their disaster prone environment since farming and fishing
                                    became difficult for the residents, ICDAI introduced organic vegetable farming and
                                    raising of “sasso” chicken in the community.

                                    The farmers initiated a communal farming system, coined as bayanihan, wherein
                                    idle private lands was cultivated by a group of farmers, each with their own smaller
                                    plots within the piece of private land. Maintenance and care however are done by
                                    the community as a whole which made considerable decrease in costs (since labor
                                    are free) and made use of the available farmlands (considering most of the lands are
                                    covered with mud).

                                    This component is being executed by the Infanta Integrated Community
                                    Development Assistance Inc., a community based NGO serving Infanta for more
                                    than 30 years now. The component successfully introduced a new industry to the
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                                    municipality of Infanta and gave hope to the flash flood survivors. The community is
                                    now looking at possible marketing strategies for their goods (i.e. marketing their
                                    products as “organic”). They are also looking for new ways to further improve the
                                    processes in development of their products. The municipal agricultural office and
                                    the local government units are also assisting the farmers.
               Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation         27
                                                                                                PHILIPPINES


                           The second component is on hazard mapping and establishing community based
                           disaster management systems. It is designed to assist the local government units in
                           making informed decisions in adapting disaster risk management measures for the
                           community. This component includes (a) hazard mapping (b) establishment of
                           community based warning systems and (c) development and distribution of IEC
                           materials for the community. Hazards covered under this component are landslides
                           (including landslides triggered by earthquakes and by heavy rains), flash floods,
                           liquefaction and tsunamis. A multi-agency group called the Collective Strengthening
                           of Community Awareness for Natural Disasters (CSCAND), a subcommittee of the
                           National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), developed the hazard maps. It is the
                           first time that the three agencies – the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and
                           Astronomical and Services Administration (PAGASA); the Mines and Geosciences
                           Bureau (MGB); and the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
                           (PHIVOLCS)—worked together in developing hazard maps. The residents actively
                           participated in the making of the maps by assisting the scientists in compiling
                           historical data (i.e. previous tsunamis, earthquakes) that are conveyed from one
                           generation to another.

                           The third component is targeted for first responders to natural disasters particularly
                           rural health practitioners. The goal of this component is to develop and conduct
                           specific training intervention modules for rural health unit physicians on initial
                           management of commonly seen trauma emergencies to include basic life support
                           and initial surgical management (assessment, resuscitation and initial treatment,
                           indications to transfer to a tertiary level) to include pediatric trauma. The
                           contribution of UNDP to this component is minimal. UNDP is supporting the
                           publication of the training modules.

                           The REINA project is considered successful since it was able to bring together
                           different sectors of society and foster cooperation. It has also created a model that
                           may be replicated in other high-risk areas of the country. UNDP is now compiling
                           the lessons learned from the REINA project and will be publishing the
                           documentation of project experiences. UNDP hopes to repeat the successful model
                           of REINA.
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                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation       28
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title        Upgrading of Forecasting capability of PAGASA and PHILVOLCS


               Funding Agency       AusAID


               Timeframe            2006-2008

               Budget               A$6.45 million

               Implementing         NDCC, PNRC
               Agency and
               Partners
               Rationale            AusAID's disaster and emergency response mechanism helps address the impacts of
                                    conflicts, crises and disasters on vulnerable populations. The Disaster Preparedness
                                    and Response Facility for the Philippines, amounting to A$6.45 million from 2006-
                                    2008, include: a) Avian Influenza preparedness project with the Department of
                                    Health; b) Hazards Mapping and Community-Based Disaster Management Project
                                    with the UNDP and NDCC; c) Community-Based Disaster Management with the
                                    Philippine National Red Cross; d) Technical Linkages between Australia and
                                    Philippines; and e) Immediate response in times of disasters.
30 June 2010
                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation           29
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title        Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines


               Funding Agency       EC Humanitarian Aid Department


               Timeframe            2006-2008

               Budget               €1.4 million

               Implementing         PAGASA, PHILVOLCS
               Agency and
               Partners             GTZ, UNDP, OXFAM-GB, ADPC, CARE, UNESCAP, UN ISDR, UN OCHA
               Website (if any)     http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/220045/ec-fund-disaster-risk-reduction-programs-
                                    rp-others

                                    http://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/policies/dipecho/presentations/philippines_11_07_
                                    en.pdf

               Outputs/Results      Through its Disaster Preparedness Programme DIPECHO, the European Commission
                                    Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO) aims at building the resilience of communities
                                    regularly affected by natural disasters. DIPECHO also supports the improvement of
                                    preparedness and response capacities of the authorities and specialized institutions
                                    such as PAGASA and PHILVOCS. Since 1998, 8 projects have been funded under the
                                    DIPECHO Programme for some €2.3 million. Additional funds have been channelled
                                    through regional initiatives. The majority of activities are taking place in the eastern
                                    islands of the country in areas at risks for typhoons, floods, earthquakes, tsunamis
                                    and landslides. The Programme covers a wide range of activities addressing all levels
                                    of the public administration but also looking at linkages between the communities
                                    and authorities. Such activities include strengthening community and LGU
                                    capacities, small scale mitigation measures such as riverbank and slope stabilisation,
                                    early warning systems, inclusion of disaster risk reduction measures into local
                                    development plans, awareness raising, education, contingency planning. At
                                    municipal, provincial and regional levels, DIPECHO supports the integration of
                                    disaster risk reduction measures into socio-economic and development plans,
                                    training, awareness raising, advocacy. At national level, DIPECHO contributes to the
                                    elaboration of strategic frameworks for disaster risk reduction as well as the
                                    development of school curricula.
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                   Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   30
                                                                                                    PHILIPPINES




               APPENDIX    C
               Institutions and Organizations on Climate Change Adaptation
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                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation          31
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               A. National Coordination


               Philippine Climate Change Commission

               The Philippine Climate Change Commission is an independent and autonomous body that has the same
               status as a national agency and is attached to the Office of the President. It was established by Republic
               Act (RA) 9729 or the Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009, which was signed into law on 23 October
               2009. Among its tasks are the formulation and implementation of plans for the country to better
               prepare for and respond to natural disasters. The Commission will be an independent government
               agency to be chaired by the president, with three Commissioners, one of whom would be the vice
               chairperson. Its members include all the Cabinet secretaries, the head of the National Security Council,
               the chair of the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, the presidents of the leagues of
               provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays, and representatives from the academe, business sector,
               non-governmental organizations and the disaster risk reduction community. A Climate Change office
               will serve as secretariat for the Commission, which will be headed by the vice chairperson as its
               executive director. The Commission's functions include mainstreaming of climate change programs, in
               synergy with disaster risk reduction, into the national and local development plans. It is supposed to
               formulate within six months a Framework Strategy on Climate Change that will be the basis for climate
               change planning, research and development, extension and monitoring activities. The framework shall
               be reviewed every three years. The Commission is authorized to receive donations and grants from
               local and foreign sources in support of the implementation of climate change programs. The new law
               allocates 50 million pesos (1.06 million U.S. dollars) as initial operating fund for the Commission in
               addition to the unused fund of the Presidential Task Force on Climate Change and the Office of the
               Presidential Adviser on Global Warming and Climate Change. The amount will be soured from the
               President's Contingent Fund.


               Interagency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC)

               The IACCC was created by Administrative Order No. 220 signed by President Corazon Aquino on May 8,
               1992. It is composed of fifteen governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations and the
               academic community with the mandate to coordinate all climate change-related activities in the
               country. The committee is chaired by the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural
               Resources (DENR), co-chaired by the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST).
               The members include DFA, NEDA, DOE, PAGASA, DPWH, Philippine Senate, FMB, PNCC, NAMRIA, and
               DOTC.
               The functions of the IACCC are to:
                    formulate policies and response strategies related to climate change;
                    determine the national information requirements relevant to negotiations for the adoption of a
                       central instrument at the UNCED (1992);
                    establish working groups to monitor and assess local climate change and its environmental and
30 June 2010




                       socio-economic impact in coordination with international agencies; and
                    designate a focal point to serve as the link between the Philippines and the Secretariat of the
                       UNEP and WMO.
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation           32
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Presidential Task Force on Climate Change (PTFCC)

               Despite the existence of the IACCC, another CC body PTFCC was created through Administrative Order
               171 on February 2007. The specific mandate of the task force includes preparation of a program of
               action to address global warming which will presumably include adapting to its destructive effects.
               While this is a positive development, it is unclear how this new body will function relative to the already
               existing body - the Interagency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). To demonstrate, in AO 171, the
               IACCC is designated as the technical arm of the PTFCC. There is yet, however, a clear indication that
               would indeed show that such arrangement is being “operationalized”. With rhetorics running out to
               explain the delay in operationalizing the country’s climate change adaptation plan, it is becoming clear
               that there is a power struggle between the two national government agencies – DENR and DOE. It can
               be noted that AO 171 initially designated the DENR Secretary as the Chairman of PTFCC. But the
               chairmanship was later transferred to DOE while making the DENR Secretary vice-chair. Incidentally, this
               change in chairmanship happened with the movement of Mr. Angelo Reyes as the Secretary of DENR to
               become the Secretary of DOE.


               Advisory Council on Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Communication

               On the other hand, right after being appointed Secretary of DENR, Mr. Lito Atienza created yet another
               CC body – the Advisory Council on Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Communication by virtue
               of DENR Administrative Order No. 2007-653 dated September 25, 2007. Compared to IACCC and PTFCC,
               this Advisory Council, seems to have more focused objective which is to recommend policies to the
               DENR regarding climate change mitigation, adaptation and communication. Nevertheless, what is clear
               is that there is currently a confusion among these bodies on their respective functions (see Resurreccion
               et al. 2008; Romero 2008).


               Presidential Adviser on Climate Change

               It is also important to recognize the presence of a Presidential Adviser on Climate Change, in the person
               of Heherson T. Alvarez - appointed last August 21, 2008. He was the Secretary of the DENR from March
               2001 to December 2002, a former senator and member of the House of Representatives. He was
               instrumental in the passing of the Clean Air Act and the National Integrated Protected Areas System Act,
               as well as in the ratification of important environmental treaties. He is the founding chairman of the
               Earthsavers Movement and also of the Global Legislators for a Balanced Environment (Globe) – a group
               of environmental lawmakers founded by then senator Al Gore – and currently sits as vice president for
               Southeast Asia of the London-based Advisory Committee of the Protection of the Seas.


               B.   National Government Agencies
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               Climate change adaptation policies shall be implemented by the sectoral government agencies, although
               during emergencies, all measures are to be coordinated by the NDCC.


               National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)
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                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES



               The NDCC is an agency under the Office of Civil Defense (OCD) of the Department of National Defense
               (DND), responsible for ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters or
               emergencies. It coordinates all disaster management in the country and serves as the President’s
               adviser on disaster preparedness programs, disaster operations and rehabilitation efforts undertaken by
               the government and the private sector. It is chaired by the Secretary of DND. Members include
               Secretaries and heads of the following agencies: DSWD, DOST, DILG, DPWH, DOH, DepEd, DA, DENR,
               DOTC, DOF, DOLE, DBM, DTI, PIA, PNRC.


               Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA)

               PAGASA is a national agency, under the DOST, mandated to provide flood and typhoon warnings, public
               weather forecasts and advisories, meteorological, astronomical, climatological, and other specialized
               information and services primarily for the protection of life and property and in support of economic,
               productivity and sustainable development. It monitors tropical cyclone activity and issues warnings
               within its area of responsibility.


               Philippine Congress (House of Representatives)

               The lack of clarity in, and capacity and permanence of the current national climate change agencies
               (IACCC and PTFCC) are recognized in the Philippine Congress, both at the House of Representatives and
               Senate which has pending bills to rectify these problems. A bill proposing to create a Climate Change
               Commission has been filed with the House of Representatives (House Bill no. 03291), Rep. Orlando Fua.
               This bill is entitled: An Act Establishing The Framework Program for Climate Change, Creating the
               Climate Change Commission, Appropriating Funds therefor, and for Other Purposes. A similar bill was
               filed to the Senate (Senate Bill no. 2583), by Senator Loren Legarda entitled: An Act Mainstreaming
               Climate Change into Government Policy Formulations, Creating for this purpose the Climate Change
               Commission. The Climate Change Act of 2009, the first of its kind in Southeast Asia, is only a few steps
               from passage. Senate Bill No. 2583 and House Bill No. 5982 was ratified by the Senate in August 2009
               and is awaiting the signing of the President.


               C.   Research and Academic Institutions


               There are several research institutions conducting research support on climate change adaptation
               measures.
30 June 2010




               KLIMA/ Manila Observatory/ Ateneo de Manila University

               Formerly known as the Climate Change Information Center, KLIMA was established in 1999 under the
               Climate Studies Division of the Manila Observatory at the Ateneo de Manila University. It is a joint
               venture of the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC), the Department of Environment and
               Natural Resources (DENR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Philippine Climate Change
               Mitigation Program with funding assistance from the United States Agency for International
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation          34
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Development (USAID). It aims to raise public awareness, conduct relevant research, and serve as a
               clearinghouse of climate-critical information, and train people and institutions through activities that
               stimulate hands-on learning on climate change issues.


               UPLB Interdisciplinary Program on Climate Change

               The University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) created its Interdisciplinary Program on Climate
               Change (IdPCC) to promote knowledge-based actions on climate change through seminars, and other
               forms of information, education, and communication campaigns.


               College of Forestry and Natural Resources/UPLB

               The College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Banos is one of the
               leading institutions on climate change research in the Philippines, with two of its faculty member’s
               member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC). One of the significant research
               projects undertaken by ENFOR is the project An Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts,
               Adaptation and Vulnerability in Watershed Areas in Southeast Asia (AS21). It is also currently involved in
               a research project entitled: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in Watershed Management and
               Upland Farming in the Philippines, under the larger project called Advancing Capacity to Support Climate
               Change Adaptation (ACCCA). UNITAR which is supporting 19 pilot projects in 17 countries across Asia
               and Africa


               World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF)

               ICRAF- Philippines has been operating in the country and in Southeast Asia since 1993. It is one of the
               regional leaders in climate change and natural resources management research. The Centre has strong
               working links with upland farmers in the Philippines having pioneered the Landcare approach to upland
               farming

               In the Philippines, ICRAF is at the forefront of research and development on carbon sequestration
               potential of tree farms and agroforestry farms. It is also providing technical assistance in developing
               viable forest carbon projects under the CDM and in other climate change mitigation projects in the
               country. It is currently involved in several climate change adaptation projects funded through larger
               projects such as ACCA, Asia Pacific Network (APN) and Tropical Forests and Climate Change Adaptation
               (TroFCCA). It is also working with various partners to facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change
               adaptation into the country’s development agenda. ICRAF is committed in promoting “trees on farms” in
               the country and is initiating the promotion of ecosystem-based mitigation and adaptation strategies to
               address climate change.
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               ICRAF is actively supporting partners in climate change R&D including policy formulation and capacity
               building. More recently, ICRAF was involved in training the Department of Environment and Natural
               Resources (DENR) staff in the technical evaluation of CDM forestry projects. It is also assisting NGOs in
               developing CDM projects.
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation           35
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Currently, ICRAF is involved in Forest Carbon Development Training Program in partnership with the
               Environmental Leadership Training Initiative (ELTI), a joint program of the Yale School of Forestry &
               Environmental Studies and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. ICRAF is also working with the
               DENR and other government agencies on various climate change projects such as the Philippine Climate
               Change Adaptation Program (PhilCAP) funded by the World Bank and the preparation of the Philippines
               Second National Communication (greenhouse gas inventory in the Land Use Change and Forestry
               sector).

               ICRAF Philippines’ Country Programme Coordinator is also involved in the writing teams of the IPCC
               Fourth Assessment Report and the IPCC 2006 Greenhouse Inventory Guidelines and shared the Nobel
               Peace Prize with Al Gore in 2007. He is also a member of the National Academy of Science and
               Technology (NAST) Technical Committee on Climate Change and the team preparing PCARRD Climate
               Change Science and Technology Agenda.

               ICRAF also maintains future R&D initiatives in collaboration with the Philippine Council for Agriculture,
               Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), Ecosystems Research and
               Development Bureau (ERDB), academe and state universities.


               Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research for Agriculture (SEARCA)

               SEARCA launched its Knowledge Center on Climate Change (KC3). The Center will serve the knowledge
               and information needs of Southeast Asians in adapting to or mitigating the negative impacts of changing
               climate in the agriculture and natural resource sectors. KC3 will feature regional climate change-related
               research and development works, news, a database of experts, learning events, photo gallery, and
               multimedia knowledge products.
               Generally, KC3 will communicate and educate policymakers, donors, researchers, media, farmer-leaders,
               NGOs and other interested clients on issues, concerns, and positive actions about Climate Change Risk
               Management. KC3 hopes to nurture a culture of knowledge creation, sharing, use, and feedback among
               clients. Specifically, this Center hopes to achieve the following:
                    Serve as a knowledge solutions hub of the regional network for current science-based
                        information on Natural Resource Management--(NRM) climate change;
                    Support regional programs on NRM-climate change by providing strategic information related to
                        adaptation and mitigation for decision-making purposes;
                    Coordinate with regional and national network nodes on the exchange, processing, packaging,
                        and distribution of NRM-climate change;
                    Synthesize and package science-based information using appropriate formats for various
                        stakeholders;
               SEARCA enjoins all concerned sectors to subscribe and actively participate in the KC3 activities, online or
               otherwise.
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               ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB)

               One of the center’s thematic areas of concern is regional climate change and biodiversity. ACB promotes
               the participation of ASEAN citizens in efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The risk of
               climate change’s damage to ecosystems can be significantly reduced by implementing ecosystems-
               based strategies.ACB supports the promotion of farmer-centered participatory approaches and
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        36
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               indigenous knowledge and technologies toward cycling and use of organic materials in low-input
               farming systems.
               ACB also encourage citizens to conserve and protect plants, animals, and their habitats. If biodiversity
               loss and climate change are addressed together, the prospects for adapting to these twin challenges will
               be greatly improved.


               D. NGOs/ Private Sector


               Various NGOs other organizations outside the government are taking active role in climate change
               adaptation and mitigation measures.

               The Philippine Network on Climate Change (PNCC) is an alliance of nongovernment organizations
               involved in the advocacy of climate change and sustainable development issues. It is composed of
               Haribon Foundation, Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center-Kasama sa Kalikasan, Lingkod Tao
               Kalikasan, Miriam Peace, Mother Earth Foundation, Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement,
               Soljuspax, Tanggol Kalikasan, Upholding Life and Nature and Yamog Renewable Energy Development
               Group. Established in 1992 after the Rio Earth Summit and registered with the Securities and Exchange
               Commission, the network sits as member of the government’s Inter-Agency Committee on Climate
               Change and the Steering Committee of the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.

               There are of course more NGOs doing relevant work on climate change, many of their activities may not
               be explicitly labeled as climate change adaptation measures. These include international NGOs that are
               working directly on the management of natural resources, and in this case, biodiversity conservation
               such as the WWF and Conservation International.


               E.   Local institutions (LGUs, NGOs/CSOs) and their initiatives


               Local Government Unit (LGU): Albay Province

               The Albay provincial government has been playing a pro-active and unique role in promoting climate
               change adaptation not just in the province but in the whole country as well. The provincial government
               spearheaded the first-ever “National Conference on Climate Change Adaptation (NCCCA)” in October
               2007. The conference brought together high level government officials led by the President herself,
               academics, researchers, NGOs, the business sector, local community representatives, and the donor
               community. Among the topics discussed were the current situation in climate disaster prone areas in the
               country, the needs of the local communities, infrastructure modifications, and what strategies we can
               do to adapt to a changing climate. A key output of the conference was the “Albay Declaration on
30 June 2010




               Climate Change Adaptation” mainstreaming climate change into local and national development
               policies. It has the following major resolutions: (a) prioritize climate change adaptation in local and
               national policies; promote “climate-proofing” development; (b) advocate the creation of oversight
               bodies in the government; (c) mainstreaming of climate change through local and regional partnerships
               for sustainable development; (d) information, education, and communication, and research and
               development; (e) source out funds for activities and programs that will directly benefit local
               communities; and (f) promote environmentally sustainable practices. The conference received
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation           37
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               widespread media coverage both in local and national media. The Albay Declaration was also featured in
               full page advertisements sponsored by the provincial government.

               Centre for Initiatives and Research on Climate Adaptation, or simply CIRCA, is a living research
               institution of Albay Province. It was mainly established to strengthen the capacity of research, project
               and program implementation for progressive and sustainable agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy and
               eco-cultural tourism. CIRCA holds the interdisciplinary knowledge and expertise of the Albay in Action
               on Climate Change (A2C2) Program for developing the community and addressing the critical need for
               environmental, social, economic, ecological, cultural and tourism actions. It primarily focuses on
               providing education and information about climate change not only to the general public, but also to
               other units such as in the agriculture and even in the academe. CIRCA addresses the needs of the
               province for economic and social progress that are dependently linked on the natural environment. It
               also regards and considers, in its decision-making, the environmental policies made by the partnership
               between public and private organizations.

               The general objective of CIRCA is to enhance the coping ability of Albay residents to the threats brought
               about by the changing climate. CIRCA specifically aims to develop the environmental awareness of the
               various livelihood sectors of the province, for example the farmers and the fisher folks. It intends to
               mainstream climate change adaptation in the academe by developing academic curricula embedded
               with environmental awareness. It also targets to conduct and explore concrete policy studies that will
               support better climate risk reduction and adaptation in the province.

               CIRCA employs a holistic strategy that embraces different organizations in various fields of discipline and
               interest, such as in the arts and culture, academe, religion, agriculture, and sciences. Through
               consolidation of interdisciplinary and multi-sector initiatives, consultation, dialogues, seminars, and
               wide range of fora from inter-agency to multi-stakeholder communication and information, CIRCA is
               able to meet its objectives.

               Albay is the only province in Bicol that has an operational management office that provides effective
               coordination of the various stakeholders towards promoting efficient intervention on disaster
               preparedness and emergency response. In July 1994, the Albay Provincial Safety and Emergency
               Management Office (APSEMO) was institutionalized as an independent department that serves as the
               technical secretariat and administrative arm of the provincial government in disaster management.

               The Albay leadership has also sought to influence national policy by supporting several bills in the
               Philippine Congress that pertain to climate change.


               Other local initiatives

               The Manila Observatory started a pilot project for community-based, inter-program work on CC
30 June 2010




               adaptation – disaster risk management which aims to integrate present disaster risk management
               concerns with long-term climate change response and overall sustainable development through
               capacity-building and technical assistance. The community concerned is the Mag-asawang Tubig
               Watershed, which is composed of Calapan City and the municipalities of Naujan, Victoria, Baco, San
               Teodoro, and Puerto Galera. This area is particularly vulnerable to flooding, landslides and heavy
               siltation brought about by the frequent episodes of extreme rainfall, as well as to earthquakes and
               tsunamis.
                      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        38
                                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


               Some large corporations in the country (e.g. Aboitiz Equity Ventures, Ayala Foundation, Unilever,
               Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corp., and the League of Corporate Foundations) have also indicated starting
               climate change projects (on mitigation and adaptation) in their company operations and in their
               corporate social responsibility projects.

               F.   Development Organizations


               The World Bank

               The World Bank is an international leader on climate change adaptation, as articulated in “Development
               and Climate Change: A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group” and the “World Development
               Report 2010: Development and Climate Change.” The adaptation dimension of the climate change
               agenda, in particular, is directly linked to the World Bank Group’s mission of fighting poverty and will
               grow in importance. The Bank now has considerable accumulated experience working with developing
               countries on reconciling development and climate impacts. This experience has influenced the project
               design and will help to ensure effective implementation.

               The World Bank has been a long-term partner of the Government of the Philippines in the areas of
               agriculture and natural resources management—sectors that are critically important for alleviating
               poverty among the country’s rural population and most vulnerable to climate change. In addition, the
               World Bank has supported the Government’s efforts to raise awareness of the importance of natural
               hazard risk reduction. The impacts of natural hazards will be particularly felt in the agriculture and
               natural resource sectors, which will in turn affect the country’s strategies for poverty alleviation and
               economic development.


               Asian Development Bank (ADB)

               With the climate change challenge facing the region and the world, ADB placed itself to be able to
               respond to the growing demand from its developing member countries like the Philippines for policies,
               institutions, and investments that can achieve environmentally sustainable economic growth. Projects
               with environmental components or objectives have increased substantially in recent years – reaching
               20% of loans approved in 2006. ADB has been working to build understanding in the region on climate
               change response options to nearly two decades.

               GTZ
               AusAID
30 June 2010
                   Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   39
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               APPENDIX    D
               Climate Change Adaptation Projects
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                         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation                     40
                                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


               Project Title    Climate Change Adaptation Project – Phase 1
               Funding          IBRD - The World Bank
               Agency
               Timeframe        November 2009 – December 2014

               Budget           30,687,000
               Implementin      Global Environment Facility
               g Agency and
               Partners         DENR; IACC now CCC; NDCC; PAGASA; NAMRIA
               Website (if      http://www.adaptationlearning.net/project/phillipines-climate-change-adaptation-project-phase-i
               any)
               Results          EXPECTED OUTPUTS:
                                (1) IACCC work on adaptation strengthened; Institutional arrangements for climate change
                                adaptation in Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) strengthened.
                                (2) Investments in natural resources, infrastructure and agriculture sectors are more resilient to
                                climate change.
                                (3) NDCC’s capacity to carry out disaster risk reduction is enhanced; Climate change impacts are
                                considered in NDCC's risk analyses for disaster risk reduction.
                                (4) Capacity of National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) and Philippines
                                Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Authority (PAGASA) to provide scientific information
                                to various end users strengthened; Capacity in other scientific institutes improved; and Feasibility
                                of strengthening weather insurance assessed.


               Rationale        To develop and demonstrate the systematic diagnosis of climate-related problems and the design
                                and implementation of cost-effective adaptation measures in agriculture and natural resources
                                management. In addition, the project would aim to integrate climate risk awareness and
                                responsiveness into economic and operational planning.The proposed project, which is envisaged
                                as the first phase of a long-term adaptation program by the Government of the Philippines, is
                                expected to have the following four building blocks: (i) Improve coordination of adaptation policy
                                by DENR; (ii) Implement climate risk reduction in key productive sectors; (iii) Strengthen proactive
                                disaster management within the NDCC; and (iv) Enhance provision of scientific information for
                                climate risk management.

                                Expected benefits are: By addressing new climate risks in specific productive sectors of the
                                economy, and particularly by addressing rising climate risks to ongoing development investments,
                                the proposed project will primarily generate benefits by alleviating barriers to development
                                caused by the effects of climate change. Specific benefits to be generated by the project include
                                the following:
                                (i) Improved coordination of adaptation policy by the Department of Environment and Natural
                                Resources (DENR) with other stakeholders resulting in a broader focus, which goes beyond the
                                traditional environment and energy policies;
                                (ii) Through the implementation of climate risk management in key productive sectors, the
                                Philippine economy would be more resilient to climate change effects in natural resources and
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                                agriculture sectors which are crucial to the country’s economic development and poverty
                                alleviation;
                                (iii) Enhanced capacity of the National Disaster Coordinating Council to prepare for and contribute
                                to climate risk management, particularly with respect to extreme weather events at the national
                                and local levels ; and (iv) Availability of better scientific climate information products to a variety
                                of end users in particular by the key agencies
                         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation                  41
                                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


               Project Title   Strengthening the Philippines’ Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change



               Funding         United Nations
               Agency

               Timeframe       2008-2010

               Budget          Government (in-kind): US$200,000 ; UNDP (GEF-CC): US$420,000
                               Donor (Gov‟ t. of Spain): US$ 8 million
               Implementi      United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and
               ng Agency       the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
               and
               Partners        Key government partners: National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), Department of
                               Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and Department of Agriculture (DA). Other UN agencies
                               ( WHO, UN-Habitat, ILO, UNICEF, UNFPA, WFP) and their government counterparts (DOH,
                               HULRB/HUDCC, etc..)
               Website (if     http://sdnhq.undp.org/opas/en/proposals/suitable/152;
               any)            http://www.mdgfund.org/program/strengtheningphilippines%E2%80%99institutionalcapacityadapt
                               climatechange
               Results         This joint programme seeks to assist the Philippines address the above key strategic issues directly
                               affecting the achievement of the MDGs by pursuing the following three (3) outcomes:
                               1. Climate risk reduction (CRR) mainstreamed into key national & selected local development plans
                               & processes;
                               2. Enhanced national and local capacity to develop, manage and administer plans,programmes &
                               projects addressing climate change risks; and
                               3. Coping mechanisms improved through pilot demonstration adaptation projects.

               Rationale       Specifically, the joint programme will: i.) determine the vulnerability of critical sectors of the
                               Philippines to climate change and strengthen the country‟ s adaptive capacity by enhancing the
                               policy development, planning, programming and implementation capacities of key stakeholders,
                               particularly the responsible national government agencies; ii.) endeavor to contribute to the
                               Philippines‟ achievement of its MDG targets by enhancing socioeconomic development through
                               reduced vulnerabilities of key affected sectors and the target stakeholders in 43 ++ provinces; (iii)
                               facilitate partnerships among participating local government units primarily from the 43++
                               provinces in the most natural disaster prone eastern seaboard of the country and the corresponding
                               local higher educational institutions to anchor future scientific and capacity building needs of
                               vulnerable communities; and (iv) showcase innovative and document best practices on climate
                               change adaptation providing selected communities with the opportunity to develop and test coping
                               systems which have significant potential for further upscaling and replication across the country.
                               These demonstration projects are expected to be of sufficient „scale‟ and generate best practices
                               to ensure impact and increased capacity.
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                         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation              42
                                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


               Project Title            Philippines Strengthening Climate Change Resilience in the Integrated Natural
                                        Resources & Environmental Management (INREM) Sector Development Program

               Funding Agency           Asian Development Bank (ADB)


               Timeframe                (ongoing)

               Budget                   US$100,000


               Implementing Agency
               and Partners

               Website (if any)         http://www.adb.org/climate-change/phi-environmental-management.asp
                                        http://www.adb.org/Climate-Change/project-summaries-adaptation.asp
               Results                  Expected Outputs

                                        (1) formulation of a replicable GIS-based Climate Impacts Risk Atlas for the loan target
                                        watersheds, which identifies natural resources in geo-climatic regions at greatest risk
                                        from anticipated climate impacts and natural disasters
                                        (2) integrated Adaptation Risk Management Plan (including disaster risk reduction
                                        component) for the loan target watersheds, for improved understanding of climate
                                        variability and extremes, and consequent impact on natural resource sustainability
                                        (forests, watersheds), cropping patterns, social infrastructure, and livelihood security
                                        (3) replicable Public Education & Outreach Adaptation Campaign for Watershed (3)
                                        Management, to promote climate risk management and adaptation practices within
                                        vulnerable rural community watersheds, and with NGO, local government, Barangay, and
                                        Climate Change Task Force practitioners within the loan area
                                        (4) CPS Sample Template Adaptation Operational Guide for the possible integration of
                                        adaptive practices within the Philippines Country Partnership Strategy (2009), ADB loan,
                                        and ADB operations.
               Rationale                Objectives (Impact):
                                        Increased resilience by upland communities in the Philippines to localized climate
                                        impacts in fragile mountain ecosystems and river basins; and reduction in overall
                                        vulnerability in the Northern Luzon and Mindanao (possibly Visayas) watershed-
                                        dependent loan areas by expecting to institutionalize adaptive practices in country
                                        partnership strategy-led interventions, thus ensuring overall environmental and loan
                                        sustainability.

                                        Expected Outcome:
                                        Strengthened approach to reduce climate vulnerability of loan-financed interventions
                                        within the INREM project.
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                        Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation           43
                                                                                                         PHILIPPINES


               Project Title             Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Local
                                         Development Planning and Decision-making processes

               Funding Agency            UNDP, AusAID


               Timeframe                 2009-2012

               Budget                    AUS$2.5 million


               Implementing Agency       National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)
               and Partners

               Website (if any)          www.neda.gov.ph/about/Jobs/vacant_jobs/RDCS-website.pdf


               Rationale                 Aims to mainstream the integrated concerns of disaster risk reduction and climate
                                         change adaptation into local decision making and planning processes. Disaster risk
                                         reduction is conceived as a defense against the hazardous impacts of climate change
                                         and variability such as extended droughts and floods.

                                         The project aims to bring awareness and understanding of DRR/CCA to the
                                         community level, incorporating it into local level land-use and development plans.
                                         The project also includes the enhancement of multi-stakeholder cooperation by
                                         creating mechanisms for their participation.

                                         The project is very timely as it will promote a medium- to long-term strategy to
                                         rebuild the disaster affected areas into stronger and more resilient communities,
                                         while frontline agencies and local government units currently focus on the quick
                                         recovery of these areas.

                                         The project will build on the DRR methodologies and tools developed under the
                                         recently concluded NEDA-EC-UNDP Project on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk
                                         Management into Subnational Planning which are embodied in the Guidelines on
                                         Mainstreaming DRR in Subnational Development and Land Use/Physical Planning.
30 June 2010
                         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation              44
                                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


               Project Title            Adaptation to Climate Change and Conservation of Biodiversity in the Philippines
                                        (ACCBio)

               Funding Agency           German Federal Ministry for the Environment and Natural Conservation and Nuclear
                                        Safety (BMU)

               Timeframe                2009-2011

               Implementing Agency      German Technical Cooperation and DENR
               and Partners

               Website (if any)         http://cfrmnegocc.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=94:accbio-
                                        project-brief-for-governors&catid=42:general-information&Itemid=79
               Results                  Activities accomplished:

                                           * A ground-breaking ceremony was held last February 27, 2009 to begin the
                                        construction of a 2-storey building will serve as a training center for Bantay-Dagat,
                                        fisherfolk organizations and FARMC center Brgy Poblacion municipality of Hinobaan.
                                           * Ground-breaking ceremony for the construction of the Education Center on
                                        Danjugan Island, in partnership with the Philippine Reef and Rainforest Conservation
                                        Foundation Inc., on February 28, 2009.
                                           * Ground breaking ceremony for the 2 storey building for the bantay dagat center and
                                        FARMC center in Sipalay City. The building is co funded by the province through PEMO.
                                        Mayor Soledad Montilla and other officials were present during the ceremony last March
                                        10, 2009.
                                           * Three separate training workshops were conducted for 65 public schools teachers
                                        covering districts 1,2 and 3 on climate change and biodiversity protection at the Museo
                                        sang Bata sa Negros, Sagay City.
                                           * Additional Touch Pool exhibit at the Museo sang Bata sa Negros was funded by the
                                        project to increase the awareness on biodiversity conservation for the students and
                                        children visiting the Museum in Sagay City.
               Rationale                  The objectives of the ACCBio are:
                                        (1) Support local initiatives that increase resistance of ecosystems to climate change;
                                        (2) Support spread of and address gaps in biodiversity conservation practice building on
                                            proven successful approaches;
                                        (3) Share results to mainstream climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation;
                                            and
                                        (4) Leverage additional resources to support future expanded work.

                                        The partnership of the GTZ with the DENR is in support of the new EO 774 by the
                                        President in creating the task force climate change and addressing the programs by the
                                        different national agencies including local government units all over the Philippines.

                                        There are more than 30 small grant projects all over the country which is supported by
                                        the ACCBio program. In the Province of Negros Occidental, ACCBio through the GTZ
30 June 2010




                                        EnRD’s Coastal Fisheries Resources Management component have supported the
                                        following small grant projects amounting to almost Php 12.4 Million.
                         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation               45
                                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


               Project Title            Production Sector Climate Risk Analysis in the Philippines

               Funding Agency           Provention Consortium


               Timeframe                May 2007 - 2009

               Budget


               Implementing Agency      World Bank (WB), in close collaboration with the Philippine Department of Agriculture;
               and Partners             the Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC); the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and
                                        Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA); the National Mapping and Resource
                                        Information Authority (NAMRIA) and some microfinance institutions
               Website (if any)         http://www.proventionconsortium.org/?pageid=32&projectid=28


               Results



               Rationale                Objectives

                                        The initiative had three main objectives
                                        (1) To quantify and model natural hazard risk for the Philippines in an objective fashion
                                         that represents a scientific and numerical basis to inform weather and climate risk
                                         management practices and policy, disaster risk reduction, and risk transfer with
                                         particular focus on the agricultural production sector;
                                        (2) to document current mechanisms of risk transfer and risk management in the
                                         agricultural sector and identify opportunities to apply more efficient risk transfer
                                         schemes, such as those based on parametric indices, which eliminate the issue of moral
                                         hazard; and
                                        (3) to produce solid and validated climate change impact scenarios that can enable local
                                        stakeholders to make informed decisions on adaptive measures to climate change and
                                        integrate adaptive measures to climate change with disaster risk reduction.
                                        The results of which would eventually be integrated into economic and operational
                                        planning, particularly in agriculture and natural resources management.

                                        Activities

                                        The initiative consisted of three key activities:
                                        (1) enhance the availability of reliable data on vulnerability of the agricultural
                                        production sector in the Philippines;
                                        (2) strengthen institutional and operational structures for more effective risk
                                        management at national and sub-national levels, which ultimately could support the
                                        transfer of risk on the basis of parametric weather insurance or weather-based
                                        mechanisms to protect and fund safety nets for the most vulnerable;
30 June 2010




                                        (3) provide a cross-cutting analysis of lessons learned in the innovative Special Climate
                                        Change Fund (SCCF) project, including the production, packaging and application of risk
                                        information, and the role of risk transfer.
                    Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   46
                                                                                                     PHILIPPINES




               APPENDIX     E
               Sectoral issues and policies relating to Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster
               Risk Management
30 June 2010
               Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   47
                                                                                                PHILIPPINES
30 June 2010
         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation      48
                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


Table 1. Impacts, issues and entry points for mainstreaming per sector

Sector            Impacts of Climate change, Variability and        Issues and Concerns                        Adaptation Options / Entry
                  Risks (Source)                                                                               points for mainstreaming

Agriculture        (Valeroso, 2002a)                                (Serrano, 2009)                            (Serrano, 2009; Lasco et.al, 2009)
                  Increased temperature
                                                                      Large, scattered production areas        Adopt a Sustainable Agriculture
                   Changes in growing seasons                        Higher cost for development of            Framework
                   Heat stress in plants and animals                  suitable genetic material and            Proper management of
                   Increased yields (at up to 2oC increase for        accompanying farm technology              irrigation systems
                    some crops)                                        including mechanization, transport       Farming practices and strategies
                   Increased outbreaks/incidences of pests and      Social pressure: predominance of           e.g. cropping calendar
                    diseases                                           small farms, agrarian reform             Rural infrastructure: Provide
                   Changes in hydrological cycle                      program                                   physical access to input and
                  Changes in rainfall regimes                        Biophysical challenges due to              output markets for farmers
                                                                       climate change                           Improve regulatory systems
                   Changes in crops and crop areas                  Increasing scarcity of land and           Farmer access to technological
                   More severe droughts and/or floods                 water resources;                          and market information
                   Deterioration of land cover/land resources       Economic challenges                        through modern information
                   Changes in water resources (irrigation)          Impacts of disasters                       technology
                  Changes in frequency/intensity of extreme          Irrigation systems construction,          Research and development for
                  climate events                                       low/none in repairs, maintenance          new platforms of technology
                                                                       and rehabilitation
                   Increased damage to crops and/or livestock       Farm to market roads
                   Decreased productivity                           Regulatory systems suffered from
                   Increased soil erosion                             consistent lack of modernization
                                                                       investment
Forest and         (Lasco et al. 2006; Cruz 1997)                   (PCARRD, 2009)                             (ADB, 2010; Lasco et.al. 2008;
Watersheds                                                                                                     Cruz 2008; Racelis, 2010)
                   Changes in location of areas suitable for the       Inadequate climate change impact
                    growth of certain species (shift or                  and vulnerability studie on various      Promote reforestation
                    disappearance of some productive systems)            forest types and other                    through tax credits or rebates,
                   Changes in production per unit area                  environmental services;                   incentive mechanism for
      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation         49
                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


                Changes in types and incidence of pests and           No monitoring of impacts                   planting and vegetation
                 diseases                                              Lack of information on carrying            restoration
                Altered ecosystem functions (biochemical               capacity of and impacts (sea level        Improvement of management
                 cycles)                                                rise and other climate extreme             systems including control of
                Increased or decreased nutrient retention              events) on small island ecosystems         deforestation, reforestation
                Changes in species’ reproductive cycles               Lack of information on how forest          and afforestation
                Changes in the value of a system as a tourist          ecosystems help upland/local              Promotion of agroforestry
                 attraction                                             communities adapt to CC (coping           Improvement of forest fire
                Increased risks of forest fires, in turn lead to       mechanisms and adaptation                  management, early warning
                 changes in tree and plant species and in forest        strategies                                 systems
                 boundaries (Valeroso, 2002)                           Lack of economic analysis on              Studies on impact and
                Increased runoff, soil erosion and flood               adaptation activities (valuation           vulnerability assessments of
                 occurrences, and decreased productivity of             studies on environmental services)         ecosystems, species and
                 water resources                                       Real property tax – penalizing the         communities
                Changes in local biodiversity (extinction and          act of planting and caring for trees      Improvement of carbon
                 inhibition of re-immigration from adjacent                                                        storage capacity in forests
                 areas) (The Philippines’ Initial National
                 Communication, 1999)
Coastal and    (Perez, 2002a)                                       (DENR and others, 2001)                    (ADB, 2010 as cited from Perez,
Marine                                                                                                         2003)
Resources      Biophysical changes
                                                                                                               • Assessment of current practices
                Increased coastal erosion, stresses on coral        Rapid population growth (due in part       on crisis management, as
                 reefs, and coral bleaching                           to migration) in coastal areas
                                                                                                                 climate change may exacerbate
                Inhibition of primary production processes          Widespread poverty in coastal areas
                                                                                                                 extreme events like storms,
                Prevalence of algal blooms responsible for          Declining fisheries productivity due
                                                                      to overharvesting and loss of              floods or droughts;
                 toxic red tides
                Higher storm-surge flooding                          habitats
                                                                                                               • Formulation of guidelines and
                Landward intrusion of seawater in estuaries         Increasing environmental damage
                                                                      due overfishing, use of destructive        legislation for the
                 and aquifers
                Changes in surface water quality and                 fishing practices, and habitat             implementation of an
                 groundwater characteristics                          conversion                                 integrated coastal zone
                Changes in the distribution of pathogenic           Low average production per unit            management program,
                 microorganisms                                       area of fishponds and relatively low
Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation      50
                                                                                 PHILIPPINES


         Submergence/inundation of low-lying areas             economic returns retarding needed         including coastal land use
                                                               investment to improve aquaculture         planning to help reduce
          Affect coastal population, settlements, and         production                                vulnerability to sea level rise;
           infrastructure                                     Increasing pollution from land-based
          Increased soil water logging, resulting to poor     activities, industrial and urban        • Effective and sustainable
           drainage                                            development, deforestation and            mangrove resources
          Lower plant production and survival                 agriculture
                                                                                                         development and management,
         Move freshwater seaward, resulting to low            Potentially great impacts form global
                                                                                                         including institutionalization
         dissolved oxygen availability                         climate change on coral reef
                                                               ecosystems and the fisheries              through amending existing, or
                                                                                                         formulating additional, policies
                                                                                                         and regulations, highlighting
                                                                                                         massive reforestation through a
                                                                                                         community-based approach;

                                                                                                       • Prioritize the development of a
                                                                                                         multi-hazard mitigation or
                                                                                                         protection plan for natural
                                                                                                         coastal hazards, including new
                                                                                                         anticipatory approaches to
                                                                                                         increase the resilience of
                                                                                                         vulnerable areas and improve
                                                                                                         their recovery from future
                                                                                                         disasters;

                                                                                                       • Strict implementation of mining
                                                                                                         laws and watershed
                                                                                                         reforestation regulations to
                                                                                                         reduce river and coastal
                                                                                                         erosion, and discouraging the
                                                                                                         development of coastal areas
                                                                                                         vulnerable to sea level rise by
      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation    51
                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


                                                                                                             removing government subsidies
                                                                                                             or tax incentives that support
                                                                                                             them; and

                                                                                                           • Aggressive information
                                                                                                             campaigns to a wider audience
                                                                                                             (including the policymakers)
                                                                                                             regarding the impacts of
                                                                                                             climate change on coastal zone
                                                                                                             systems.



Water           (Perez 2002b)                                   (NWRB, 2009; Pulhin and Lasco, 2009)       (NWRB, 2009; Pulhin and Lasco,
Resources                                                                                                  2009)
                Change in hydrological (and crop water)         Weak and fragmented institutional
                 regimes                                          framework on sustainable water            Amend the Water Code (PD
                Increased demand for irrigation water            resources management and access to         1607)
                Changes in groundwater quality (saltwater        water and sanitation services;           - Clarify authority and
                 intrusion)                                      Weak policy and regulatory                 accountability in water
                Changes in stream flow and groundwater           framework;                                 resources management,
                 recharge                                        Uncoordinated sector planning and          including dam management
                Sedimentation of reservoirs                      monitoring; Water governance is          - Harmonize various government
                                                                  made more complex by specific              agency functions on water
                                                                  economic, socio-political and cultural     resources management and
                                                                  structures relating to traditional         CCA within the context of
                                                                  community, tribal and inter-island         decentralization
                                                                  practices, rights and interests;         - Provide for the formulation of
                                                                 Water governance is made more              consumption standards in
                                                                  complex by specific economic, socio-       prioritizing water use in light of
                                                                  political and cultural structures          CC
                                                                  relating to traditional community,       ∙ Formulate systems of incentives
                                                                  tribal and inter-island practices,         for water resources CCA
Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        52
                                                                                 PHILIPPINES


                                                              rights and interests;                      - Design and implement proper
                                                             Lack of assessment of water supply           valuation of scarce water
                                                              infrastructures to withstand the             resources to guide water pricing
                                                              impact of extreme climate events;            and tariff structures
                                                             Inadequate national and local              - Design system of incentives to
                                                              capacity on IWRM as an Climate               encourage investments and
                                                              Change adaptation strategy                   mobilize private sector
                                                             Inadequate reliable and updated              financing in CCA technologies
                                                              information needed for water-CCA
                                                              planning;
                                                             Lack of database, systematic and
                                                              regular monitoring of water
                                                              resources and sector activities at the
                                                              national and LGU level;
                                                             Inadequate public awareness of CC
                                                              and water use consumption
                                                              efficiency
                                                             Inadequate knowledge on and access
                                                              to water sector CC adaptation
                                                              measures and technologies in the
                                                              water sector;
                                                             Lack of information on the impact of
                                                              changes in water quality and
                                                              availability on the rise of diseases and
                                                              disease vectors;
                                                             Limited access to financing and
                                                              investments;
                                                             Low public and private sector
                                                              investment in water resources
                                                              management and CCA;
                                                             Low tariffs and cost recovery levels
                                                             Tariff structures and tariff setting
                                                              methodologies are not uniform
                                                              across service providers
         Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation        53
                                                                                          PHILIPPINES


Health            (Ebi et al., 2005)                                (Go, 2008; Magturo, et.al., --; Gepte,    (Go, 2008; Magturo, et.al., --;
                                                                    2007)                                     Gepte, 2007)
                  Increased incidences of diseases and illnesses
                                                                      Health care services subject to           Strengthening of existing
                  • Insect- and rodent-borne diseases (dengue,         increased demands from the                 programs (i.e. disaster
                  leptospirosis, and malaria)                          community, thus overburdening              preparedness outbreak,
                                                                       existing facilities and health care        health surveillance systems)
                  • Water-borne diseases (schistosomiasis,             system                                    Risk communication plan,
                  cholera)                                           Need for adaptive strategies for            emergency procedures,
                                                                       healthcare facilities to ensure            warning systems
                  • Food-borne diseases (diarrheal diseases and        continuity of service delivery in         Increased public awareness
                  typhoid)                                             times of disasters and climate             and community-wide
                                                                       events                                     understanding and response
                  • Respiratory diseases (asthma, bronchitis, and    Data and research needs                    Policy focused assessment of
                  respiratory allergies and infections)                - Evaluation of the health effects         the potential health impacts
                                                                           of climate change and disasters        of disasters and climate
                  • Heat-related illnesses (sunstroke, sunburn,        - Baseline health statistics               change
                  heat stress or exhaustion, dehydration)                  review                                Advocacy for multi-
                                                                       - Review of health and                     disciplinary assessments
                                                                           environmental policies
                                                                       - Review of incidence of
                                                                           environmental disasters and
                                                                           disease outbreaks
Education         (NDCC and DepEd, 2009)                            (NDCC and DepEd, 2009)                    (NDCC and DepEd, 2009)

                  • Destroyed or damaged classrooms, buildings         Limited capacity of the schools,         Enhance education in disaster
                  and surroundings of the school campus and             administration, teachers and              preparedness and CCA;
                  other school porperties                               personnel in DRR;                        Integration of DRR and CCA in
                                                                       Lack or limited amenities and             curriculum
                  • Disturbance, suspension, and change in the          facilities and management                Alternative evacuation centers
                  schedule of classes                                   capacities to support in providing        and improvement of
                                                                        evacuation centers                        evacuation system
                     School building and facilities                   Lack of hazard and risk assessment       Infrastructure development
                                                                        prior to construction of school           and transportation systems
       Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   54
                                                                                        PHILIPPINES


                                                                      buildings                           Support from the local
                                                                     Undocumented disaster damages,       government
                                                                      losses and impacts;               Identification of hazards
                                                                     Insufficient funds for            DepEd to play a significant
                                                                      mainstreaming DRR in education       role in the advocacy fot the
                                                                      (eg curriculum development and       DRR legislation being
                                                                      trainings)                           proposed by the NDCC
Infrastructure   (Planning for Climate Change Module)                                                 (Lasco et.al., 2009)

                 • Coastal inundation causing relocation inland                                           Land Use Zoning and Physical
                                                                                                           framework plans
                 • Increasing coastal storm intensity and flood                                           Enforcement of
                 exposure                                                                                  environmental laws
                                                                                                           appropriate for infrastracture
                    Sea level rise raising water levels during                                            and other related laws
                     storm surge                                                                           pertaining to easement
                    Overtopping of coastal defense structures                                            Inclusion of extreme events
                    Sea level rise, erosion and extreme events                                            related to climate change in
                     leading to degradation of natural coastal                                             the design of flood mitigation
                     defense structures                                                                    infrastructures
       Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation              55
                                                                                        PHILIPPINES


Table 2. Natural resource policies in relating to climate change, climate variability or risks (Lasco, et.al., 2008)

Philippine Policies                 Brief Policy Description                Impacts Relating to Climate Change, Variability or Risks

                                                                            Positive                                   Negative

Dec 1976: Presidential Decree       Revises and consolidates the laws       The law provides institutional             None. Climate change not
No.1067 – The Water Code of         governing the ownership,                mechanism for wise use of water            explicitly considered (?).
the Philippines                     appropriation, utilization,             resources which enhances
                                    exploitation, development,              resilience and ability to adapt to
                                    conservation and protection of          the impacts of climate change on
                                    water resources                         water.

June 1977: Presidential Decree      Establishes specific environment        Promotes environmental                     None.
No. 1152 – Philippine               and natural resource management         protection which indirectly
Environment Code                    policies and prescribes                 enhances resilience to climate
                                    environment quality standards           risks.

June 1978: Presidential Decree      Pursues comprehensive and               The EIA system provides a good             Currently, climate change not
No. 1586 – Establishment of         integrated environmental                platform for the inclusion of              explicitly included in the
the Environmental Impact            protection supporting socio-            climate risks to projects.                 guidelines (?).
Statement System of the             economic development
Philippines

Dec 1985: Presidential Decree       To eliminate the use of tetraethyl      Prevents illnesses related to lead         None.
No. 2001 – Program to               lead (TEL) in gasoline, in order to     exposure, thereby indirectly
Withdraw the Use of Tetraethyl      safeguard human health against          enhancing adaptive capacity of the
Lead (TEL) in Gasoline              poisoning from lead particulates in     people to climate hazards.
                                    the air

June 1988: Republic Act (RA)        Promotes a more equitable               Can provide farmer-beneficiaries           Cultivation of marginal lands by
       Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation         56
                                                                                        PHILIPPINES


No. 6657 – Comprehensive         distribution and ownership of all      with incentives to invest in farm    resource-poor farmers makes
Agrarian Reform Program          public and private agricultural        development and/or modern            the natural ecosystem and local
(CARP)                           lands; and provides incentives to      production technologies that can     community more vulnerable to
                                 landowners to invest the proceeds      minimize the impacts of climate      the impacts of climate
                                 of the program in promoting            change                               variability.
                                 industrialization, employment and
                                 privatization of public sector                                              Landlord-farmer contracts
                                 enterprises                                                                 negating land reform can mean
                                                                                                             low income for the farmers,
                                                                                                             leaving them little resources to
                                                                                                             cope with climate risks.

1997: Republic Act No. 8435 --   Prescribes a set of policies and       Imply the design of adaptation       Absence of mitigating actions
Agriculture and Fisheries        programs to modernize the              strategies to address environ-
Modernization Act (AFMA)         Philippine agriculture and fisheries   mental threats brought by climate    Production intensification goals
                                                                                                             may increase pressure on forest
                                 sectors                                change
                                                                                                             and mangrove areas, making
                                                                                                             these more vulnerable to
                                                                                                             climate-related risks.

1998: Republic Act No. 8550 --   Rational and sustainable               By rationalizing use of aquatic      None.
The Philippine Fisheries Code    development, management and            resources, enhances the resilience
                                 conservation of fishery and aquatic    of natural and social systems to
                                 resources in Philippine waters         adapt to future climate change.

Presidential Decree 705 -- The   Provides the country’s funda-          Includes a provision aimed at        The increase in the number of
Revised Forestry Code of the     mental forestry laws and policies;     preventing flooding and excessive    TLA holders led to increased
Philippines                      reinforced the use of license/ lease   soil erosion and maintaining the     deforestation.
                                 agreements to utilize natural          hydrological integrity of
                                 resources                              watersheds
       Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation           57
                                                                                        PHILIPPINES


DENR Administrative Order No.      To sustain optimum productivity      Enhances the protective capability     None
15-90 - Regulations Governing      by conserving, protecting,           of mangroves against strong
the Utilization, Develop-ment      rehabilitating and developing        currents, winds and high waves
and Management of Mangrove         remaining mangroves, more with
Resources                          corporate collaboration than
                                   individual initiatives

June 1992: Republic Act No.        Regarded as the main strategy in     Conservation strategies may            None
7586 -- National Integrated        biodiversity conservation through    increase the resilience and
Protected Areas System             the establishment of a compre-       adaptive capacity of the local
(NIPAS) Act                        hensive system of integrated         community to climate-related risks
                                   protected areas

1995: Executive Order No. 263      Integrated and unified different     CBFM program provides economic         None
-- The Commu-nity-Based            upland community programs and        benefits to communities with
Forest Management (CBFM)           projects to ensure the sustainable   appropriate market linkages,
Program                            development of forest land           making them less vulnerable to
                                   resources                            climate variability

1997: Republic Act No. 8371 --     Recognize, protect and promote       Could lead to capacity building of     None
Indigenous People’s Rights Act     the rights of indigenous cultural    indigenous communities which will
                                   communities to their ancestral       enhance their resilience to climate
                                   domains to ensure economic,          risks.
                                   social and cultural well-being

March 1995: Republic Act No.       Promotes rational exploration,       Increase income for small miners       Destruction of natural resources
7942 -- Philippine Mining Act of   development, utilization and         which could lead to greater ability    could lead to greater
1995 and Presidential Decree       conservation of all mineral          to cope with climate risks.            vulnerability to climate risks
1899 – Establishing Small-Scale    resources, and safeguarding the                                             such as landslides and soil
Mining as a New Dimension in       environment and protecting the                                              erosion.
       Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation         58
                                                                                        PHILIPPINES


Mineral Development              rights of affected communities

1999: Republic Act No. 8749 –    A comprehensive national              Improved air quality helps reduce     None
The Philippine Clean Air Act     multisectoral framework for an air    the negative impacts of climate
                                 quality management program to         variability on human health
                                 reduce GHG emissions

Aug 2006: Green Philippine       Involves planting more than           Trees ameliorate microclimate         Unplanned tree planting near
Highways Project                 500,000 ornamental and forest         possibly leading health benefits      major roads could increase
                                 trees along a total of 3,439 kms of   which enhances resilience to          climate hazards such as falling
                                 major national highways from          climate risks.                        trees during typhoons.
                                 north to south Philippines

Jan 2007: Republic Act No.       Promotes the use of alternative       Will mitigate toxic and GHG           Could lead to monoculture
9367 – Biofuels Act of 2006      transport fuels                       emissions                             plantations of biofuel crops
                                                                                                             which are more vulnerable to
                                                                                                             climate risks.

Feb 2007: Administrative Order   In general tasked to address the      Will enhance institutions capacity    None.
No. 171 – Creation of the        issue of climate change, mitigate     nationwide to address climate
Presidential Task Force on       its impact, and lead in adapting to   change.
Climate Change (PTFCC)           these impacts

October 2007. Albay              Local government support to           Will catalyze the formulation of      None.
Declaration                      mainstream climate change             policies, programs and activities
                                 adaptation to government              that is aimed at mainstreaming
                                 programs and activities               climate change adaptation
      Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation       59
                                                                                       PHILIPPINES


October 2009. Climate Change   An act establishing the framework    Will mainstream climate change
Act                            program for Climate Change,          adaptation into policies, programs
                               creating the climate change          and activities at the local and
                               commission, appropriating funds      national level
                               therefore, and for other purposes
                    Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation   60
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               APPENDIX     F
               Annotated Bibliography
30 June 2010
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               Albay Declaration on Climate Change 2007. http://www.senate.gov.ph/lisdata/63285652!.pdf

               The Albay Declaration on Climate Change Adaptation (Albay Declaration 2007) is the embodiment of a
               convergence of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary efforts to arrest the imminent threats and dangers
               posed by climate change. Both Congressional houses recognized the Albay Declaration as the national
               framework for the mainstreaming of global warming and climate change adaptation. “Albay Declaration
               on Climate Change Adaptation” mainstreaming climate change into local and national development
               policies. It has the following major resolutions: (a) prioritize climate change adaptation in local and
               national policies; promote “climate-proofing” development; (b) advocate the creation of oversight
               bodies in the government; (c) mainstreaming of climate change through local and regional partnerships
               for sustainable development; (d) information, education, and communication, and research and
               development; (e) source out funds for activities and programs that will directly benefit local
               communities; and (f) promote environmentally sustainable practices. The conference received
               widespread media coverage both in local and national media. The Albay Declaration was also featured in
               full page advertisements sponsored by the provincial government.


               ###

               Jaranilla-Sanchez, P.A., Lasco, R.D., Villamor, G.B., Gerpacio, R., Nilo, G.P., and K.L. Villegas. 2009. A
               Primer on Climate Change Adaptation in the Philippines. 2nd Edition. World Agroforestry Centre
               (ICRAF), Philippines.

               The primer was made in response to a growing interest on climate change adaptation; second to the
               first LULUCF Mitigation Primer produced by the same. The content of the primer is based on review of
               technical documents, synthesis of previous case studies, synthesis of meetings and personal
               involvement in international negotiation efforts related to climate change adaptation. The primer
               intends to collate all the information on the different climate change related projects nationwide and
               make them available to a wide range of audiences. A list of helpful websites and references are also
               provided.


               ###

               Lasco RD, Delfino RJ and Pulhin FB. 2009. Proceeding of the National Conference on Climate Change
               Adaptation Practices in Natural Resources Management. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
               Philippines.

               This publication is based on the proceedings of the National Conference-Workshop on Climate Change
               Adaptation Practices in Natural Resources Management held the Traders Hotel, Manila on June 29-30,
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               2009. The event was attended by international development agencies,.government institutions, local
               governments, the academe, private institutions, and peoples’ organizations concerned with the pressing
               issue of climate change and the search for sustainable ways to adapt to this escalating problem. The
               document contains the presentation of the speakers who shared different facets of adaptation to
               climate change based on their own research or experiences. The questions, research gaps and
               recommendations identified by the audience are also included. The proceedings also contain the result
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               of the workshop which comprise of: (1) lessons learned from the climate change adaptation practices
               shared during the conference, (2) the climate change adaptation measures or strategies that can be
               integrated in policies and development plans, and (3) the levels at which these may be integrated.


               ###

               Lasco RD, Cruz RV, Pulhin JM and Pulhin FB. 2010. The case of Pantabangan-Carranglan watershed
               assessing climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation. 1. Laguna, Philippines. World
               Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Philippines. 83 p.

               This book arose out of the global project Assessment of Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change
               (AIACC) of START and UNEP, one of the pioneering research in one of the most important watersheds in
               the Philippines. When it started in 2002, there was hardly any information on the impacts of climate
               change on Philippine watersheds and their natural and social systems. Through this research, the
               authors were able to explore how climate change could affect our forests, water resources and local
               communities. The methodologies, key findings and lessons learned from this research were compiled in
               this book. The book caters to researchers, students, policy makers and development workers interested
               on the impacts of climate change as well as how we can cope with it. The AIACC project, led by Rodel
               Lasco, assessed the impacts of climate change and associated land use and cover change on water
               resources, forest ecosystems, and social systems of watersheds in Southeast Asia. Studies are conducted
               in selected watersheds of the Philippines and Indonesia while providing training and technical assistance
               to scientists from Indo-China on research methods to be implemented in their watersheds. Future
               climate scenarios are developed, downscaled and used with a climate-vegetation model to predict
               future land use and cover change. The impacts of climate and land use/cover change are assessed with
               measures of change in biodiversity, carbon and water budgets, livelihood, health, demographic shifts,
               and changes in social structure resulting from climate and land use/cover change. Integrated
               vulnerability assessments of natural and social systems in the watershed are conducted and adaptation
               strategies are evaluated. Research findings and policy implications were presented to policy makers and
               development workers. The countries involved are: Philippines, Indonesia, and Indo-China (Laos,
               Vietnam, Cambodia).


               ###

               Marqueza, R. 2008. Proceedings of the National Conference on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction
               in Local Governance (NCDRR) 2008, Makati City, Philippines, March 4-6, 2008.

               This conference report asserts that successful mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction in local
               governance heavily depends on such committed local decision makers and practitioners. The conference
               envisioned contributing towards the establishment of a consistent disaster risk reduction system, an
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               information sharing process, and a stronger network of disaster risk reduction practitioners and decision
               makers in the Philippines.


               ###
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               National Disaster Coordinating Council, Department of Education, European Commission on
               Humanitarian Aid, United Nations Development Program, and Asian Disaster Preparedness Center.
               2008. Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in the Education Sector in the Philippines.

               The document highlights the outcomes of the Mainstreaming DRR in the Education Sector in the
               Philippines. One of the components of the study is the identification of impacts of disasters in the
               education sector, explicitly mentioned are the social, economic and physical impacts and the
               recommendations for minimizing the identified impacts. The structure and function of the education
               sector are explained and includes the analysis of school construction in the country in terms of budget,
               process, guidelines and standards. The project team also gave recommendations for the introduction of
               disaster risk concerns in building safe schools. Case studies of best practices in integrating DRR in
               education were also presented. The cases presented were on policies for DRR in the education sector;
               building safe learning environment: safe school Project of UNICEF; school building design for disaster
               reduction: LAPUS Building; NGO involvement in education: child centered DRR; and education as a
               strategy for psychosocial recovery for children in emergencies.
               Four main strategies were recommended for the reduction of risks in the education sector, namely:
               community-school based disaster risk reduction and management, integration of DRR in the curriculum,
               improvement of the building design and construction, and policy development and advocacy for DRR in
               education.


               ###

               National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), United Nations Development Programme
               (UNDP), European Commission Humanitarian Aid. 2008. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in
               Subnational Development and Land Use/Physical Planning in the Philippines: Guidebook.

               The Guidelines for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Subnational Development and Land
               Use/Physical Planning is the major output of the Technical Assistance (TA) on Mainstreaming Disaster
               Risk Management in Subnational Development and Physical Planning in the Philippines. With assistance
               from EC-DIPECHO and UNDP, NEDA implemented the TA in line with the National Land Use Committee’s
               action agenda that seeks to strengthen disaster mitigation by: (a) making available hazard maps and
               relevant disaster information; (b) enhancing local capacity to institute preventive/mitigating measures;
               and (c) preparing DRR enhanced regional and provincial physical framework plans. Consultative and
               participatory approaches, including intensive review, were undertaken in the preparation of the
               Guidelines. NEDA organized the TA’s Project Board consisting of the NEDA Regional Development Office
               (Chair); National Disaster Coordinating Council/Office of Civil Defense; Mines and Geosciences Bureau;
               Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration; Philippine Institute of
               Volcanology and Seismology; Department of the Interior and Local Government; Housing and Land Use
               Regulatory Board; and League of Provinces of the Philippines. NEDA’s Regional Development
               Coordination Staff provided technical and administrative secretariat support to the Project Board and
30 June 2010




               coordinated all project activities.


               ###

               NEDA, 2004. Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010. National Economic and
               Development Authority. Manila, Philippines. ISSN 0119-3880.
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               The primary document that guides national development programs in the Philippines under the current
               leadership is the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for 2004-2010 prepared by the
               National Economic Development Authority (NEDA, 2004). The MTPDP contains a ten-point agenda which
               the executive branch hopes will be its legacy when the term of the president expires in 2010. Among its
               notable targets are the creation of one million jobs and the development of two million hectares of
               agricultural lands.


               ###

               NEDA. 2003. Philippines Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals. National Economic
               Development Authority. Pasig City, Philippines. 59 pp.

               The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted in the 2000 Millennium Summit as part of
               the UN Millennium Declaration. It is by far the most broadly supported, comprehensive and specific
               poverty reduction targets ever established by the global community (UN Millennium Project, 2005). The
               Philippines is committed to achieving the MDGs and has issued a report on its progress towards it
               (NEDA, 2003). The threat posed by climate change in the attainment of the global MDGs has been
               recognized by international organizations. The UN Millennium Project (2005) warns that climate change
               could exacerbate the problems posed by food insecurity, vector-borne diseases, natural disasters, and
               declining rainfall. It was recommended that integrating climate change adaptation measures into
               sustainable development and poverty reduction strategies would be the best way to help meet the
               MDGs (Sperling, 2003).


               ###

               National Water Resources Board. 2009. Water Sector Climate Change Adaptation Strategy.

               The document contains the climate change adaptation framework strategy of the water resources
               sector in the Philippines. It identified the four strategic outcomes to be achieved by 2050 supported by
               12 strategic objectives and several key actions for 2010 to 2022. The strategic outcomes for the sector
               include: effective, climate change responsive, and participative water governance; reduced water sector
               vulnerability and resilient communities and natural ecosystems; improved knowledge on water sector
               adaptation and climate change; and sustainable and reliable financing and investment for climate
               change adaptation in the water sector. It recognizes that adaptive water governance includes the
               mainstreaming of adaptation in national and local policies and development plans. It will also entail
               some policy reforms to address institutional fragmentation in water resources management in the
               country and to climate-proof existing laws.
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               ###

               Peralta, A. Gender and climate change finance. Women’s Environment and Development Organization
               (WEDO).
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               The study highlights the role of gender and finance in climate change adaptation. The study shows that
               it is women who have led their households and communities in the development of agricultural coping
               strategies including food preservation, mixed cropping and crop diversification, water harvesting and
               irrigation, growing reliance on wild fruits and forest products and cultivating at higher levels. Financial
               coping strategies include shifting from crop production, taking out loans, selling off livestock, seeking
               government financial assistance, reducing food consumption, and migrating to find other sources of
               work and income. The studies also show that policymaking is often too narrow in scope, failing to
               adequately address development and equity.


               ###

               Philippine Climate Change Commission. 2010. National Framework Strategy on Climate Change

               The National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC) was recently approved by GMA this week.
               Next to the Climate Change Act 2009, this is the next most important policy of the Philippine
               Government on climate change. The NFSCC was a product on consultations from a range of government
               agencies, private players, civil society and the academe. The strategic plan is believed to be the first in
               Southeast Asia and was signed a month early than what is set by the Climate Change Act or Republic Act
               9729. The framework aims to turn the Philippines into a climate-resilient country through climate
               change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The 38-page document also envisions a country with
               “healthy, safe, prosperous and self-reliant communities, and thriving and productive ecosystems.”


               ###

               Philippine Council for Sustainable Development, 1997. Philippine Agenda 21. Available from
               http://pcsd.neda.gov.ph/pa21.htm

               The Philippine Agenda 21 arose out of the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 and it was adopted as the national
               action agenda for sustainable development by presidential fiat in September 1996. PA 21 envisions a
               better quality of life for all Filipinos through the development of a just, moral and creative, spiritual,
               economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate productivity,
               participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony and within the limits of the carrying
               capacity of nature and the integrity of creation. In January 1999, a follow up memorandum order was
               issued by the Office of the President to strengthen the operationalization and localization of PA 21 and
               to monitor its implementation. The action agenda at the level of ecosystems consists of strategic
               interventions covering the following ecosystems and critical resources: forest/upland ecosystems,
               coastal and marine ecosystems, urban ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems, lowland/agricultural
               ecosystems, minerals and mines, and biodiversity.
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               ###

               The Philippines’ Initial National Communication on Climate Change (1999). DENR.

               The Philippines’ First National Communication on Climate Change focused on five major subject matters
               namely: GHG inventory, Climate Change scenarios, Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments, Public
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               Awareness and Institutional Arrangement. In the process of preparation and submission of the first
               report, several lessons have been learnt and will be addressed in the preparation of the second. In
               summary, the First National Communication looked closely at the emission level of five major sectors
               namely: energy, agriculture, industry, land use change/forestry and wastes. IPCC guidelines were
               contextualized locally to be able to utilize country data in the computations of greenhouse gas emissions
               inventory. Several circulation models were selected and used to analyze future climate scenarios for
               vulnerability and adaptation assessment. In line with its vulnerability and adaptation framework, the
               report looked at the sectors of agriculture, water resources, coastal resources, human health and
               forestry and recommended that more studies be conducted in more pilot areas and that results need to
               be validated. To increase the public’s awareness on the issue of climate change, several consultation
               workshops were conducted for various sectors, particularly those faced with the most potential risk; the
               Climate Change Information Center (CCIC) was established to help disseminate information and a
               National Action Plan on Climate Change was put together to facilitate activities.

               ###
30 June 2010

				
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