An Introduction to the History of Career or Vocational Guidance By David Agnew Arkansas State University Which is Correct? Career Guidance or Vocational Guidance Either, But it depends on who you are talking to and when (Vocational is used less today) Career Guidance • Career Guidance Developed in parallel to Counseling. • Vocational Guidance came first • Counseling grew out of Vocational Guidance • Counseling is more than or career vocational guidance. • People in Counseling tend to like the term “Career Guidance” more than “Vocational Guidance“. • The word vocational has even lost favor with the professionals in Vo Ed. • One of the divisions of ACTE is Guidance Objectives • Describe the historical development of career education. • Identify the key people associated with career education. • Identify the guiding principles of career selection or guidance and how they have evolved. • State the purposes or goals of career education in Arkansas. Thinking about Historical Events from the Standpoint of: • Their impact on labor demands and trends • Society’s need for more and different workers • Development of new Technology • The Values of the society • Mobility • Education and the need to systematically approach career education Career Education Before 1900s • Not much help was available for someone wanting to look at various careers. • Knowledge of what opportunities existed resulted from contact with family, friends, church, community, and school. • Very little literature on the subject. • No organized effort to help people except thru some schools after education was completed. • Our history was really more like of a cast society in 1800s. Ex. Slaves, the wealthy could afford school for their children to enter the professions. • Education was seen by Horace Mann as the great equalizer to mankind. It broke the old cycle. Related and Significant Historical Events • Sabbath Schools for children to learn to read in the early 1800s who were being over worked by factories. Held on Sunday, sponsored by y churches, wealthy people, in some cases taxes, but mostly in larger cities– Taught mostly 3 Rs • Population moving from rural to urban (agrarian to industrial society), resulting in more diverse work opportunities. • Worker unions became fairly common in the second half of 1800s • Electricity of the 1880s led to lighted factories and night schools. • 1872 National Labor Reform Party formed • 1878 Socialist Labor Party founded • Child labor laws begin to emerge mid to late 1800s Labor day becomes a Holiday First Monday of September • Research seems to support the contention that Matthew Maguire, later the secretary of Local 344 of the International Association of Machinists in Paterson, N.J., proposed the holiday in 1882 while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union in New York • Samuel Gompers, -- founder and longtime president of the American Federation of Labor said. "All other holidays are in a more or less degree connected with conflicts and battles of man's prowess over man, of strife and discord for greed and power, of glories achieved by one nation over another. Labor Day...is devoted to no man, living or dead, to no sect, race, or nation." More on Labor Day • The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City. • In l884 the first Monday in September was selected as the holiday, as originally proposed, and the Central Labor Union urged similar organizations in other cities to follow the example of New York and celebrate a "workingmen's holiday" on that date. • In 1894, the federal government made Labor Day (the first Monday in September) a federal public holiday. • http://www.infinet.com/~dzimmerm/Ld/links.html • http://sea-man.com/laborday.html • http://www.ptialaska.net/~nstanley/LaborDay.htm MORE Significant Historical Events • Immigration from Europe and other Countries • Elimination of poverty • Improving living conditions – Living conditions and depersonalization during industrial revolution – Concentration on children Movement toward education for purpose and assessment • 1890 James Cattell publishes article in which he referred to mental tests as measures of individual differences • John Dewey calls for social reform in education - lead to more focus on individual motivations, interests, and development VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE MOVEMENT • 1907 Jesse Davis -- Started first Voc. Guid. Program in schools (Grand Rapids Michigan) - not very systematic. • 1907 Frank Parsons -- Credited with first system or theory of career guidance, consistent with social reform at time. Known as the “founding father” to Vocational Guidance. Parson’s Background • Born in 1854, died in 1908. • Trained in Civil Engineering at Cornell. • Later taught Mathmatics, history, and French in public schools. • Was on Faculty at Kansas State University in 1897-1899. • Later on faculty at Boston University. Frank Parsons-- founding father of Vocational Guidance • In 1908 Parsons opened the Vocational Bureau of Boston with the purpose of helping people learn of careers. • Wrote book called Choosing a Vocation. First published in 1909. New York: Agatha Press (reprinted 1967). Parson’s Motivation • Parsons believed that immigration constituted a drag on the advancement of society industrially. Parsons and others observed that too many individuals, especially European immigrants, were being economically and socially wasted “due to the failure of the overly academic school system to come to terms with the new industrial society, which caused students to drop out into the world of work. This not only hurt the individual, but also made the factory inefficient. • From 1894 to 1904 parsons devoted much of his effort to reforming industries, in terms of occupational conditions. During this time period he did not focus on the individual’s vocational needs. • He gained a positive view of vocational education when he was professor at Kansas State University (1897 and 99). • In 1905 Parsons turned from the reform of the industry to the reform of the individuals who worked within industry. Parsons Motivation continued…. • Parsons developed a scientific procedure for helping people choose a vocation by helping them become more aware of their needs, aptitudes, and the demands of certain occupations. • Following self study, with the help of a vocational counselor, people could make rational and free decisions about the work for which they were best suited and the education then needed. • Parsons argued that this approach would ensure efficiency for both factory and the individual and thus improve society. Vocational Bureau of Boston • Formed in 1908, the Bureau was organized to deal with occupational adjustment problems of youth and adults. • Parsons found that people were greatly interested in seeking advice on occupations. In time individual counseling gave way to group instruction about career options. • Parsons was the first to use the term "Vocational Guidance" in his first report on the work of the Bureau. National Conference on Guidance • 1910 first National Conference on Guidance sponsored by the Vocational Bureau of Boston, an outgrowth of Parsons work. • At the 3rd National Conference (1913) the National Association of Guidance was formed. PARSON’S Book • 1909 Frank Parsons publishes "Choosing a Vocation“ • Printed after he died in 1908 • Reprinted in 1967 by Agatha Press • Still in use today – Example: ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY CPY 644 Psychology of Careers Required and Supplemental Readings, Fall 1996 Class 1, Historical Perspectives (8/26) Parsons, F. (1909). Excerpts from Choosing a vocation. New York: Agatha Press (reprinted 1967). In Parsons Book he Reveals 10 Principles: • It is better to choose a vocation than merely to hunt a job • No one should choose a vocational without careful self- analysis, that is thorough, honest, and under guidance • The youth should have a large survey of the field of vocations and not simply drop into the convenient or accidental position • Expert advice (from persons having studied vocations) must be better and safer for a young person than the absence of it • Process the information on paper Parson’s Principles continued……. • No person should decide for another what occupation he should choose In the choice of vocations, consider (1) understanding of self, (2) knowledge of the requirements of the work, and (3) true reasoning on the relations among these two • Counselor should be frank and honest • Special effort is made to develop analytic power • One who would be a vocational counselor should familiarize himself with a high degree of industrial knowledge Three main points that have not changed much since then. • Awareness of self and personal strengths and weaknesses • Awareness of the requirements of different kinds of jobs/occupations • Making informed choices / matches of self with a job. Current Goals of Career Education in Arkansas • Provide students with an opportunity for self-analysis. • Provide students with experiences which allow tentative selection of a career. • Provide students with a general knowledge of careers. • Develop understanding of what is required to enter a career. • Develop a plan of how to achieve that goal. Parson’s Work is Sited • At the beginning of the century, Parsons emphasized the importance of helping young people transition from school to work. After more than eight decades, half of the nation's student population is still beset with circumstances that limit their prospects for a good life. • Original Source: The William T. Grant Foundation Commission on Work, Family, and Citizenship, 1988. • Secondary Source: Career Guidance and Counseling: Recent Legislation Office of Special Populations' Brief Volume 6, Number 3 (January, 1995) Choosing a Vocation Parsons, 1909, p. 4. • There is no part of life where the need for guidance is more empathic than in transition from school to work--the choice of a vocation, adequate preparation for it, and the attainment of efficiency and success. The building of a career is quite as difficult a problem as the building of a house, yet few ever sit down with pencil and paper, with expert information and counsel, to plan a working career and deal with the life problem scientifically, as they would deal with the problem of building a house, taking the advice of an architect to help them. • Secondary Source: Career Guidance and Counseling: Recent Legislation Office of Special Populations' Brief Volume 6, Number 3 (January, 1995) Charles Prosser and his Doctrine of Social Efficiency • Click on the address below to see these theorems. • http://www.clt.astate.edu/dagnew/charles_p rosser_Theorems.htm Relevant Events of the Times • Smith Lever Act, 1914 • WW I - military in need of placement specialists. Focus shifts toward assessment • Smith Hughes Act, Vocational Education Act of 1917 • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918 • Agricultural advancements (Mechanical, Chemical) released workers from the farms. • The Great Depression 1930s • 1938 Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, which establishes the forty-hour work week, the minimum wage, and bans child labor in interstate commerce Time Marched On! • EK Strong - tried to upgrade interest assessment to level of Binet’s IQ assessment • 1920’s -- Minn. Mech. Abilities Project (later to become Minn. Employment Stabilization Research Institute) • 1927 -- Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Boys • 1939 -- First Dictionary of Occupational Titles • 1941 -- WWII, Gave us the GI Bill, and brought women in large numbers out of the home and into the factories. CHANGES IN THE EMPHASIS IN COUNSELING AFTER THE 1950'S • It shifted away from an occupational choice to….. • An analysis of why and how a person chooses a particular occupation. Time Marched On! • More women in the work force • Veterans training programs • Fewer farmers needed • Level of skill needed to work in industry was increasing • More people were going to college • Some states began building technical schools Related Historical Events • 1954 -- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. The Supreme Court unanimously agrees that segregated schools are "inherently unequal" and must be abolished. • 1955 -- The Vietnam War begins • 1957 --Soviet Union launches Sputnik, a satellite • 1958 -- National Defense Education Act - provided assistance to state and local school systems for strengthening instruction in science, mathematics, foreign languages, and other critical subjects; improvement of state statistical services; guidance, counseling, and testing services and training institutes higher education student loans and fellowships experimentation and dissemination of information on more effective use of television motion picture, and related media for education purposes; and vocational education for technical occupations, such as data processing, necessary to the national defense. Career Related Games Milton Bradley -- 1955 "WHAT SHALL I BE" GAME EXCITING GAME OF CAREERS FOR GIRLS 1966 Selchow & Righter co. Time Marched On! continued…. • 1963 -- Manpower Development and Training Act - provided training in new and improved skills for the unemployed and underemployed. • 1963 -- Vocational Education Acts of 1963 - increased federal support of vocational education, including support of residential vocational schools, vocational work study programs, and research, training, and demonstrations in vocational education. Time Marched On! continued… • 1963 -- Higher Education Facilities Act - authorized grants and loans for classrooms and laboratories in public community colleges and technical institutes as well as for undergraduate and graduate facilities in other institutions of higher education. • 1964 -- Economic Opportunity Act - authorized grants for college work-study programs for students of low income families; established a Job Corps program and authorized support for work training programs to provide education and vocational training and work experience for unemployed youth; provided training and work experience opportunities in welfare programs; authorized support of education and training activities and community action programs including Head Start, Follow Through, Upward Bound; authorized the establishment of the Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA). Remember! • Career Education is a sub-category of Vocational Education (Career and Technical Education). • As Vocational Education grows so does Career Education, but it is only a small part of the total vocational program, Until…… Sidney J. Marland (Commissioner of Education-1971) • He proposed an emphasis on career education – In a 1971 address to the convention of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, he proposed that persons completing school programs at grade 12 would be ready to enter higher education or to enter useful and rewarding employment. MARLIN’S Four-Fold Plan for Career Development, Components 1 and 2 • Major improvements and updating of occupational education emphasizing newer vocational fields and sound educational base underlying all specific skills training • More flexible options for high school graduates to continue on to higher education or to enter the world of work MARLIN’S Plan, Continued… Components 3 and 4 • A closer liaison of vocational education and people from business, industry, and organized labor with more work experience opportunities for students • A new commitment at all levels -- federal, state, and local -- toward developing leadership and commitment to the concept of career education Experimental models for career education developed by the U.S. Office of Education • Four models – School Based Model – Employee-Experience-Based Model – Rural-Residential-Based Model – Home-Community-Based Model • 1971 • 15 million School Based Model • The object of Model 1 was to develop and test a career education system (K-12) in six school systems (representing varying sizes, geographic locations, and cultural ethnic populations) that would help students to develop (a) a comprehensive awareness of career options; (b) a concept of self that is in keeping with a work-oriented society, including positive attitudes about work, school, and society, and a sense of satisfaction resulting from successful experience in these areas; (c) personal characteristics, such as self-respect, initiative, and resourcefulness; (d) a realistic understanding of the relationships between the work of work and education to assist individuals in becoming contributing members of society; and (e) the ability to enter employment in a selected occupational area and/or to go on for further education. Employee-Experience-Based Model • The objectives of Model 2, the employer-based model (also called experience-based) (17), were (a) to provide an alternative educational program for students, aged 13-18, in an employer-based setting; (b) to unify the positive elements of academic, general, and vocational curricula into a comprehensive career education program; (c) to increase the relevance of education to the world of work; and (d) to broaden the base of community participation, particularly by involving public and private employers more directly in education. Rural-Residential-Based Model • This experimental demonstration activity involved various individuals, agencies, and other resources in preparing adults and children of rural unemployed and underemployed families in Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska for rewarding employment. • Goals: (a) contribute to their own growth and to the growth of their society; and (b) make prudent use of their personal as well as their society's resources and energies. The ultimate goal of the residential- based model was to determine whether low-income rural residents could develop career roles through specially adapted in-house experiences. Home-Community-Based Model • The fourth model, a home-community effort, used television and radio programming to encourage unemployed or underemployed adults to take advantage of local retraining programs. Through the use of the home-based model, the U.S. Office of Education hoped to (a) enhance the quality of the home as a learning center, (b) develop educational delivery systems into the home and community, (c) provide new career education programs for adults, (d) establish a guidance and career placement system to assist individuals in occupational and related roles, and (e) develop more competent workers Time Marched On! continued… • 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act - consolidated previous labor and public service programs; authorized funds for employment counseling, supportive services, classroom training, training on the job, work experience, and public service employment; incorporated essential principles of revenue sharing, giving state and local governments more control over use of funds and determination of programs. Terrel Bell was First Commissioner of Education After Marland Note: President Carter make this a Cabinet level position • He continued the push for career education. • Section 406, Title IV, Public Law 93-380 (Educational Amendments of 1974), made career education a law of the land, establishing a National Advisory Council on Career Education. Three Main Provisions of Title IV, Section 406 of P.L. 93-380; (1974) • Every child should, by the time he has completed secondary school, be prepared for gainful or maximum employment and for full participation in our society according to his or her ability. Provision 2 • It is the obligation of each local educational agency to provide that preparation for all children (including handicapped children and all other children who are educationally disadvantaged) within the school district of such agency; and Provision 3 • Each State and local educational agency should carry out a program of career education options which are designed to prepare each child for maximum employment and participation in our society according to his or her ability. THE CAREER EDUCATION INCENTIVE ACT 95-207 (1977) • Purpose of the Act: – to assist states and local educational agencies and institutions of postsecondary education, including collaborative arrangements with the appropriate agencies and organizations, in making education as preparation for work, and as a means of relating work values to other life roles and choices (such as family life), a major goal of all who teach and all who learn by increasing the emphasis they place on career awareness, exploration, decision making, and planning, and to do so in a manner which will promote equal opportunity in making career choices through the elimination of bias and stereotyping in such activities, including bias and stereotyping on account of race, sex, age, economic status, or handicap. Career Opportunities Act • 1998 -- Federal Legislation • More on this later in semester CHANGES IN THEORIES UNDERLYING VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SINCE THE TURN OF THE CENTURY as noted by Calhoun and Finch • Once is not enough • The single occupational-choice-at-a-point- in time focus of the early practitioners of career guidance has given way to a broader, more comprehensive view of the individual and his or her development over the life span. Age focus is out the window • The specific age focus of traditional career guidance is not valid. Instead of the notion that a permanent occupational choice is made at some point, usually during late adolescence, we now understand that occupational choice is a process which takes place over a period of time and is a result of a combination of interacting determinants. Work to understand who you are • People at work are no longer seen only as objects through which occupations are analyzed and classified. Rather we now understand that a work setting can be used as a medium to help people better understand themselves. Continuous Process, Cradle to Grave • Career guidance activities are important over the life span of the individual; therefore, educational personnel at all level, kindergarten through adult, have a part to play. When viewed as a continuous process, career guidance is a program in the mainstream of education rather than an ancillary service. Human Development • Career guidance is more than a simple process of matching people to jobs; it is a complex process of human development and should be treated as a major educational goal. Career Education in Arkansas • Since the mid 1970s (ASU involved from the start) • Workshops/Projects developing Objectives & Curriculum • Workshops and projects to develop Materials to support the teacher (posters, materials for hands-on activities). • ACOTA –Arkansas Career Orientation Teachers Association. • 1991 -- AR adopted a statewide text for the course (Your Career Adventure) • Threat to CO as a course 1996, but survived with great support. • 1998 -- AR dropped the text for the course In Summary • Describe the historical development of career education. • Who were the key people associated with career education? • What are the guiding principles of career selection or guidance and how have they have evolved? • State the purposes of career education in Arkansas. Review of Parson’s Principles • It is better to choose a vocation than merely to _____ for a job • No one should choose a vocational without careful _____ -____, and with guidance • The youth should have a large survey of the field of vocations and not simply drop into the __________ or accidental position • Expert advice (from persons having studied vocations) must be better and _____ for a young person than the absence of it • Process the information on ______. Review of Parson’s Principles Cont.. • No person should decide for _____ what occupation he should choose • In the choice of vocations, consider (1) understanding of self, (2) knowledge of the requirements of the work, and (3) true reasoning on the ________ among these two • Counselor should be frank and __________. • Special effort is made to develop analytic power • One who would be a vocational counselor should ____________ himself with a high degree of industrial knowledge Time Marches On…... Any Questions?
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