History of Vocational Guidance by IbQd1Bo

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									 An Introduction to
the History of Career
          or
Vocational Guidance
         By David Agnew Arkansas
         State University
       Which is Correct?
            Career Guidance
                          or
          Vocational Guidance
Either, But it depends on who you are
talking to and when (Vocational is used less today)
           Career Guidance
• Career Guidance Developed in parallel to Counseling.
• Vocational Guidance came first
• Counseling grew out of Vocational Guidance
• Counseling is more than or career vocational guidance.
• People in Counseling tend to like the term “Career
  Guidance” more than “Vocational Guidance“.
• The word vocational has even lost favor with the
  professionals in Vo Ed.
• One of the divisions of ACTE is Guidance
                Objectives
• Describe the historical development of career
  education.
• Identify the key people associated with career
  education.
• Identify the guiding principles of career selection
  or guidance and how they have evolved.
• State the purposes or goals of career education in
  Arkansas.
Thinking about Historical Events
    from the Standpoint of:
• Their impact on labor demands and trends
• Society’s need for more and different
  workers
• Development of new Technology
• The Values of the society
• Mobility
• Education and the need to systematically
  approach career education
   Career Education Before 1900s
• Not much help was available for someone wanting to look at
  various careers.
• Knowledge of what opportunities existed resulted from contact
  with family, friends, church, community, and school.
• Very little literature on the subject.
• No organized effort to help people except thru some schools after
  education was completed.
• Our history was really more like of a cast society in 1800s. Ex.
  Slaves, the wealthy could afford school for their children to enter
  the professions.
• Education was seen by Horace Mann as the great equalizer to
  mankind. It broke the old cycle.
            Related and Significant
               Historical Events
• Sabbath Schools for children to learn to read in the early
  1800s who were being over worked by factories. Held on
  Sunday, sponsored by y churches, wealthy people, in some
  cases taxes, but mostly in larger cities– Taught mostly 3 Rs
• Population moving from rural to urban (agrarian to industrial
  society), resulting in more diverse work opportunities.
• Worker unions became fairly common in the second half of
  1800s
• Electricity of the 1880s led to lighted factories and night
  schools.
• 1872 National Labor Reform Party formed
• 1878 Socialist Labor Party founded
• Child labor laws begin to emerge mid to late 1800s
   Labor day becomes a Holiday
                 First Monday of September

• Research seems to support the contention that Matthew
  Maguire, later the secretary of Local 344 of the
  International Association of Machinists in Paterson, N.J.,
  proposed the holiday in 1882 while serving as secretary of
  the Central Labor Union in New York
• Samuel Gompers, -- founder and longtime president of the
  American Federation of Labor said. "All other holidays
  are in a more or less degree connected with conflicts and
  battles of man's prowess over man, of strife and discord for
  greed and power, of glories achieved by one nation over
  another. Labor Day...is devoted to no man, living or dead,
  to no sect, race, or nation."
              More on Labor Day
• The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday,
  September 5, 1882, in New York City.
• In l884 the first Monday in September was selected as the
  holiday, as originally proposed, and the Central Labor
  Union urged similar organizations in other cities to follow
  the example of New York and celebrate a "workingmen's
  holiday" on that date.
• In 1894, the federal government made Labor Day (the first
  Monday in September) a federal public holiday.
• http://www.infinet.com/~dzimmerm/Ld/links.html
• http://sea-man.com/laborday.html
• http://www.ptialaska.net/~nstanley/LaborDay.htm
 MORE Significant Historical Events

• Immigration from Europe and other Countries
• Elimination of poverty
• Improving living conditions
  – Living conditions and depersonalization during
    industrial revolution
  – Concentration on children
  Movement toward education
  for purpose and assessment
• 1890 James Cattell publishes article in
  which he referred to mental tests as
  measures of individual differences
• John Dewey calls for social reform in
  education - lead to more focus on individual
  motivations, interests, and development
  VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
      MOVEMENT
• 1907 Jesse Davis -- Started first Voc. Guid. Program
  in schools (Grand Rapids Michigan) - not very
  systematic.
• 1907 Frank Parsons -- Credited with first system or
  theory of career guidance, consistent with social
  reform at time. Known as the “founding father”
  to Vocational Guidance.
       Parson’s Background
• Born in 1854, died in 1908.
• Trained in Civil Engineering at Cornell.
• Later taught Mathmatics, history, and
  French in public schools.
• Was on Faculty at Kansas State University
  in 1897-1899.
• Later on faculty at Boston University.
   Frank Parsons-- founding
            father
    of Vocational Guidance
• In 1908 Parsons opened the
  Vocational Bureau of Boston
  with the purpose of helping people
  learn of careers.
• Wrote book called Choosing a Vocation.
  First published in 1909. New York: Agatha Press
  (reprinted 1967).
              Parson’s Motivation
• Parsons believed that immigration constituted a drag on the
  advancement of society industrially. Parsons and others observed that
  too many individuals, especially European immigrants, were being
  economically and socially wasted “due to the failure of the overly
  academic school system to come to terms with the new industrial
  society, which caused students to drop out into the world of work. This
  not only hurt the individual, but also made the factory inefficient.
• From 1894 to 1904 parsons devoted much of his effort to reforming
  industries, in terms of occupational conditions. During this time period
  he did not focus on the individual’s vocational needs.
• He gained a positive view of vocational education when he was
  professor at Kansas State University (1897 and 99).
• In 1905 Parsons turned from the reform of the industry to the reform of
  the individuals who worked within industry.
 Parsons Motivation continued….
• Parsons developed a scientific procedure for helping people choose a
  vocation by helping them become more aware of their needs, aptitudes,
  and the demands of certain occupations.
• Following self study, with the help of a vocational counselor, people
  could make rational and free decisions about the work for which they
  were best suited and the education then needed.
• Parsons argued that this approach would ensure efficiency for both
   factory and the individual and thus improve society.
    Vocational Bureau of Boston
• Formed in 1908, the Bureau was organized to deal
  with occupational adjustment problems of youth
  and adults.
• Parsons found that people were greatly interested in
  seeking advice on occupations. In time individual
  counseling gave way to group instruction about
  career options.
• Parsons was the first to use the term "Vocational
  Guidance" in his first report on the work of the
  Bureau.
National Conference on Guidance
• 1910 first National Conference on Guidance
  sponsored by the Vocational Bureau of Boston, an
  outgrowth of Parsons work.
• At the 3rd National Conference (1913) the
  National Association of Guidance was formed.
                 PARSON’S Book

• 1909 Frank Parsons publishes "Choosing a
  Vocation“
• Printed after he died in 1908
• Reprinted in 1967 by Agatha Press
• Still in use today
  – Example: ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
    CPY 644 Psychology of Careers
    Required and Supplemental Readings, Fall 1996
    Class 1, Historical Perspectives (8/26) Parsons, F. (1909).
    Excerpts from Choosing a vocation. New York: Agatha Press
    (reprinted 1967).
     In Parsons Book he Reveals
            10 Principles:
• It is better to choose a vocation than merely to hunt a job
• No one should choose a vocational without careful self-
  analysis, that is thorough, honest, and under guidance
• The youth should have a large survey of the field of
  vocations and not simply drop into the convenient or
  accidental position
• Expert advice (from persons having studied vocations)
  must be better and safer for a young person than the
  absence of it
• Process the information on paper
             Parson’s Principles
              continued…….
• No person should decide for another what occupation he
  should choose
  In the choice of vocations, consider (1) understanding of
  self, (2) knowledge of the requirements of the work, and
  (3) true reasoning on the relations among these two
• Counselor should be frank and honest
• Special effort is made to develop analytic power
• One who would be a vocational counselor should
  familiarize himself with a high degree of industrial
  knowledge
Three main points that have
 not changed much since
          then.
• Awareness of self and personal
  strengths and weaknesses
• Awareness of the requirements of
  different kinds of jobs/occupations
• Making informed choices / matches
  of self with a job.
   Current Goals of Career
   Education in Arkansas
• Provide students with an opportunity for
  self-analysis.
• Provide students with experiences which
  allow tentative selection of a career.
• Provide students with a general
  knowledge of careers.
• Develop understanding of what is
  required to enter a career.
• Develop a plan of how to achieve that
  goal.
           Parson’s Work is Sited
• At the beginning of the century, Parsons
  emphasized the importance of helping young
  people transition from school to work. After more
  than eight decades, half of the nation's student
  population is still beset with circumstances that
  limit their prospects for a good life.
• Original Source: The William T. Grant Foundation Commission on
  Work, Family, and Citizenship, 1988.
• Secondary Source: Career Guidance and Counseling: Recent
  Legislation Office of Special Populations' Brief Volume 6, Number 3
  (January, 1995)
             Choosing a Vocation
                    Parsons, 1909, p. 4.
• There is no part of life where the need for guidance is
  more empathic than in transition from school to work--the
  choice of a vocation, adequate preparation for it, and the
  attainment of efficiency and success. The building of a
  career is quite as difficult a problem as the building of a
  house, yet few ever sit down with pencil and paper, with
  expert information and counsel, to plan a working career
  and deal with the life problem scientifically, as they would
  deal with the problem of building a house, taking the
  advice of an architect to help them.
• Secondary Source: Career Guidance and Counseling: Recent
  Legislation Office of Special Populations' Brief Volume 6, Number 3
  (January, 1995)
    Charles Prosser and his
  Doctrine of Social Efficiency
• Click on the address below to see these
  theorems.
• http://www.clt.astate.edu/dagnew/charles_p
  rosser_Theorems.htm
   Relevant Events of the Times
• Smith Lever Act, 1914
• WW I - military in need of placement specialists. Focus
  shifts toward assessment
• Smith Hughes Act, Vocational Education Act of 1917
• Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918
• Agricultural advancements (Mechanical, Chemical) released
  workers from the farms.
• The Great Depression 1930s
• 1938 Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, which
  establishes the forty-hour work week, the minimum wage,
  and bans child labor in interstate commerce
           Time Marched On!
• EK Strong - tried to upgrade interest assessment to
  level of Binet’s IQ assessment
• 1920’s -- Minn. Mech. Abilities Project (later to
  become Minn. Employment Stabilization
  Research Institute)
• 1927 -- Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Boys
• 1939 -- First Dictionary of Occupational Titles
• 1941 -- WWII, Gave us the GI Bill, and brought
  women in large numbers out of the home and into
  the factories.
    CHANGES IN THE EMPHASIS IN
    COUNSELING AFTER THE 1950'S

• It shifted away from an occupational choice
  to…..
• An analysis of why and how a person
  chooses a particular occupation.
         Time Marched On!
• More women in the work force
• Veterans training programs
• Fewer farmers needed
• Level of skill needed to work in industry was
  increasing
• More people were going to college
• Some states began building technical schools
          Related Historical Events
• 1954 -- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. The Supreme Court
  unanimously agrees that segregated schools are "inherently unequal" and
  must be abolished.
• 1955 -- The Vietnam War begins
• 1957 --Soviet Union launches Sputnik, a satellite
• 1958 -- National Defense Education Act - provided assistance to state and
  local school systems for strengthening instruction in science,
  mathematics, foreign languages, and other critical subjects; improvement
  of state statistical services; guidance, counseling, and testing services and
  training institutes higher education student loans and fellowships
  experimentation and dissemination of information on more effective use of
  television motion picture, and related media for education purposes; and
  vocational education for technical occupations, such as data processing,
  necessary to the national defense.
Career Related Games
  Milton Bradley -- 1955
      "WHAT SHALL I BE" GAME
EXCITING GAME OF CAREERS FOR GIRLS
         1966 Selchow & Righter co.
    Time Marched On! continued….
• 1963 -- Manpower Development and Training Act - provided training
  in new and improved skills for the unemployed and underemployed.
• 1963 -- Vocational Education Acts of 1963 - increased federal support
  of vocational education, including support of residential vocational
  schools, vocational work study programs, and research, training, and
  demonstrations in vocational education.
     Time Marched On! continued…
• 1963 -- Higher Education Facilities Act - authorized grants and loans
  for classrooms and laboratories in public community colleges and
  technical institutes as well as for undergraduate and graduate facilities
  in other institutions of higher education.
• 1964 -- Economic Opportunity Act - authorized grants for college
  work-study programs for students of low income families; established
  a Job Corps program and authorized support for work training
  programs to provide education and vocational training and work
  experience for unemployed youth; provided training and work
  experience opportunities in welfare programs; authorized support of
  education and training activities and community action programs
  including Head Start, Follow Through, Upward Bound; authorized the
  establishment of the Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA).
               Remember!
• Career Education is a sub-category of
  Vocational Education (Career and Technical
  Education).
• As Vocational Education grows so does
  Career Education, but it is only a small part
  of the total vocational program, Until……
           Sidney J. Marland
     (Commissioner of Education-1971)
• He proposed an emphasis on career
  education
  – In a 1971 address to the convention of the
    National Association of Secondary School
    Principals, he proposed that persons
    completing school programs at grade 12 would
    be ready to enter higher education or to enter
    useful and rewarding employment.
        MARLIN’S Four-Fold Plan
         for Career Development,
              Components 1 and 2

• Major improvements and updating of
  occupational education emphasizing newer
  vocational fields and sound educational
  base underlying all specific skills training
• More flexible options for high school
  graduates to continue on to higher education
  or to enter the world of work
       MARLIN’S Plan, Continued…
              Components 3 and 4

• A closer liaison of vocational education and
  people from business, industry, and
  organized labor with more work experience
  opportunities for students
• A new commitment at all levels -- federal,
  state, and local -- toward developing
  leadership and commitment to the concept
  of career education
   Experimental models for career
   education developed by the U.S.
         Office of Education
• Four models
   –   School Based Model
   –   Employee-Experience-Based Model
   –   Rural-Residential-Based Model
   –   Home-Community-Based Model
• 1971
• 15 million
                School Based Model
• The object of Model 1 was to develop and test a career education
  system (K-12) in six school systems (representing varying sizes,
  geographic locations, and cultural ethnic populations) that would help
  students to develop (a) a comprehensive awareness of career options;
  (b) a concept of self that is in keeping with a work-oriented society,
  including positive attitudes about work, school, and society, and a
  sense of satisfaction resulting from successful experience in these
  areas; (c) personal characteristics, such as self-respect, initiative, and
  resourcefulness; (d) a realistic understanding of the relationships
  between the work of work and education to assist individuals in
  becoming contributing members of society; and (e) the ability to enter
  employment in a selected occupational area and/or to go on for further
  education.
   Employee-Experience-Based Model

• The objectives of Model 2, the employer-based model (also called
  experience-based) (17), were (a) to provide an alternative educational
  program for students, aged 13-18, in an employer-based setting; (b) to
  unify the positive elements of academic, general, and vocational
  curricula into a comprehensive career education program; (c) to
  increase the relevance of education to the world of work; and (d) to
  broaden the base of community participation, particularly by involving
  public and private employers more directly in education.
      Rural-Residential-Based Model

• This experimental demonstration activity involved various individuals,
  agencies, and other resources in preparing adults and children of rural
  unemployed and underemployed families in Wyoming, Montana,
  Idaho, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska for rewarding
  employment.
• Goals: (a) contribute to their own growth and to the growth of their
  society; and (b) make prudent use of their personal as well as their
  society's resources and energies. The ultimate goal of the residential-
  based model was to determine whether low-income rural residents
  could develop career roles through specially adapted in-house
  experiences.
     Home-Community-Based Model

• The fourth model, a home-community effort, used television and radio
  programming to encourage unemployed or underemployed adults to
  take advantage of local retraining programs. Through the use of the
  home-based model, the U.S. Office of Education hoped to (a) enhance
  the quality of the home as a learning center, (b) develop educational
  delivery systems into the home and community, (c) provide new career
  education programs for adults, (d) establish a guidance and career
  placement system to assist individuals in occupational and related
  roles, and (e) develop more competent workers
   Time Marched On! continued…
• 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act -
  consolidated previous labor and public service programs;
  authorized funds for employment counseling,
  supportive services, classroom training, training on the job,
  work experience, and public service employment;
  incorporated essential principles of revenue sharing, giving
  state and local governments more control over use of funds
  and determination of programs.
Terrel Bell was First Commissioner of
      Education After Marland
   Note: President Carter make this a Cabinet level position

• He continued the push for career education.
• Section 406, Title IV, Public Law 93-380
  (Educational Amendments of 1974), made
  career education a law of the land,
  establishing a National Advisory Council on
  Career Education.
    Three Main Provisions
    of Title IV, Section 406 of P.L. 93-380; (1974)


• Every child should, by the time he has
  completed secondary school, be prepared
  for gainful or maximum employment and
  for full participation in our society
  according to his or her ability.
              Provision 2
• It is the obligation of each local educational
  agency to provide that preparation for all
  children (including handicapped children
  and all other children who are educationally
  disadvantaged) within the school district of
  such agency; and
              Provision 3
• Each State and local educational agency
  should carry out a program of career
  education options which are designed to
  prepare each child for maximum
  employment and participation in our society
  according to his or her ability.
   THE CAREER EDUCATION
  INCENTIVE ACT 95-207 (1977)
• Purpose of the Act:
   – to assist states and local educational agencies and institutions of
     postsecondary education, including collaborative arrangements with the
     appropriate agencies and organizations, in making education as preparation
     for work, and as a means of relating work values to other life roles and
     choices (such as family life), a major goal of all who teach and all who learn
     by increasing the emphasis they place on career awareness, exploration,
     decision making, and planning, and to do so in a manner which will promote
     equal opportunity in making career choices through the elimination of bias
     and stereotyping in such activities, including bias and stereotyping on account
     of race, sex, age, economic status, or handicap.
     Career Opportunities Act
• 1998 -- Federal Legislation
• More on this later in semester
CHANGES IN THEORIES UNDERLYING
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SINCE THE
     TURN OF THE CENTURY
             as noted by Calhoun and Finch



• Once is not enough
• The single occupational-choice-at-a-point-
  in time focus of the early practitioners of
  career guidance has given way to a broader,
  more comprehensive view of the individual
  and his or her development over the life
  span.
  Age focus is out the window
• The specific age focus of traditional career
  guidance is not valid. Instead of the notion
  that a permanent occupational choice is
  made at some point, usually during late
  adolescence, we now understand that
  occupational choice is a process which
  takes place over a period of time and is a
  result of a combination of
  interacting determinants.
Work to understand who you are
• People at work are no longer seen only as
  objects through which occupations are
  analyzed and classified. Rather we now
  understand that a work setting can be used
  as a medium to help people better
  understand themselves.
         Continuous Process,
           Cradle to Grave
• Career guidance activities are important
  over the life span of the individual;
  therefore, educational personnel at all level,
  kindergarten through adult, have a part to
  play. When viewed as a continuous
  process, career guidance is a program in the
  mainstream of education rather than an
  ancillary service.
       Human Development
• Career guidance is more than a simple
  process of matching people to jobs; it is a
  complex process of human development
  and should be treated as a major educational
  goal.
   Career Education in Arkansas
• Since the mid 1970s (ASU involved from the start)
• Workshops/Projects developing Objectives & Curriculum
• Workshops and projects to develop Materials to support
  the teacher (posters, materials for hands-on activities).
• ACOTA –Arkansas Career Orientation Teachers
  Association.
• 1991 -- AR adopted a statewide text for the course (Your
  Career Adventure)
• Threat to CO as a course 1996, but survived with great
  support.
• 1998 -- AR dropped the text for the course
                In Summary
• Describe the historical development of career
  education.
• Who were the key people associated with career
  education?
• What are the guiding principles of career selection
  or guidance and how have they have evolved?
• State the purposes of career education in
  Arkansas.
     Review of Parson’s Principles
• It is better to choose a vocation than merely to _____ for a job
• No one should choose a vocational without careful _____ -____,
  and with guidance
• The youth should have a large survey of the field of vocations
  and not simply drop into the __________ or accidental position
• Expert advice (from persons having studied vocations) must be
  better and _____ for a young person than the absence of it
• Process the information on ______.
 Review of Parson’s Principles Cont..
• No person should decide for _____ what occupation he
  should choose
• In the choice of vocations, consider (1) understanding of
  self, (2) knowledge of the requirements of the work, and
  (3) true reasoning on the ________ among these two
• Counselor should be frank and __________.
• Special effort is made to develop analytic power
• One who would be a vocational counselor should
  ____________ himself with a high degree of industrial
  knowledge
Time Marches On…...




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