immigration by IbQd1Bo

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									Immigration

Our first step toward addressing the big questions in this course will be to determine who has
been a part of the “community.” That is, who is here, when did they come, from where? The
movement to cities (summarized in Slide 1 below) came in several overlapping waves, including
immigration (people coming from outside the United States) and domestic migration (people
coming from other places inside the United States). This lecture will focus on the three big
waves of immigration that have affected American cities: (1) from about 1850 to about 1890,
immigrants from northern and western Europe (specifically, Germany, Ireland, and the United
Kingdom) predominated. Many of these immigrants came to cities in the northeast and midwest;
New York, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Milwaukee, and other industrial cities saw large
increases in their populations due to immigration. German immigrants were especially
numerous in the 1850s and 1880s and several cities had large German neighborhoods. Cities like
Boston and New York were characterized as well by large Irish populations.

(2) During the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, immigration to the United States
came mainly from southern and eastern Europe. This surge of immigration peaked in 1907 when
over 1.2 million people entered the country. By 1910, Poles, Italians, Slovaks, Hungarians,
Finns, and other European immigrants comprised the majority of workers in basic industries like
steel manufacturing and coal mining. These immigrants tended to be crowded into segregated
ethnic communities in center cities in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Because
of anti-immigrant sentiment during World War I (1914-1917), efforts were made to
“Americanize” immigrants and limit their numbers. Immigration laws were passed in 1921 and
1924 that severely restricted European immigration. Although these succeeded in stemming the
flow of immigration, the impact of the foreign born on cities was already profound.

(3) After 1945, immigration picked up and assumed a new pattern. Immigration had been quite
low from the late 1920s through the 1940s. From 1945 through the 1970s, immigration would
average about 250,000 to 300,000 per year. By 1978, the annual volume of immigration reached
600,000. The result was over 10 million legal entrants to the United States between 1971 and
1990, accompanied by an unknown number of illegal entrants.

The post-1965 group of immigrants differed from early-twentieth century immigrants. Recent
immigrants have come mainly from Asia and Latin America. During the 1980s, Asia and Latin
America accounted for about 85 percent of the total immigrant pool, with Mexicans, Chinese,
Filipinos, and Koreans leading the list. Their destinations have also varied from the early
twentieth century. Increasingly, new immigrants are going to the south and west, with Cubans
predominating in Miami and Mexicans in the southwest and California.
Slide 1




                              Major Demographic Changes:
                               Who and Where are We?
                          •   Immigration: 3 major flows
                          •   The Great Migrations
                          •   Rural to Urban
                          •   Dispersion: Frostbelt, Sunbelt
                          •   Deconcentration
                              – Decentralization
                              – Suburbanization




This slide shows the major demographic movements that we will review in the first three lectures of this
course. Remember that immigration refers to the movement of foreigners to the United States. The
other movements are all domestic migrations (people already in the United States moving to cities, or in
the case of suburbanization, moving to the outskirts of cities). The Great Migrations (which we will hear
about next week) refers to the movement of African-Americans out of the southern states, mainly to
cities in the northeast, midwest, urban west, and cities in the South. Although both of these movements
(immigration and the Great Migrations) were part of a larger transition of rural people to cities, we can
also distinguish the movement of rural white Americans to cities in the twentieth century especially.
Dispersion refers to the growth of large cities outside the northeastern and midwestern United States.
Finally, I will use deconcentration to refer to the movement of businesses and people to the outskirts of
cities; suburbanization, suburban sprawl, and the growth of edge cities will be a part of this process. All
of these movements are vital for understanding who is part of the urban context. These demographic
movements are among the most powerful forces (perhaps the most powerful force) shaping cities. They
will influence how we conceptualize community and how we think about our obligations toward other
city dwellers.
Slide 2




                       300,000,000
                                        281,421,906
                                                                                    Total Population
                       250,000,000           248,709,873

                                                      226,545,805

                       200,000,000                         203,210,158

                                                                    179,325,671


                       150,000,000                                       150,216,110

                                                                                  131,669,275
                                                                                        122,775,046
                                                                                             105,710,620
                       100,000,000
                                                                                                      91,972,266
                                                                                                            75,994,575
                                                                                                                   62,622,250
                        50,000,000                                                                                       50,155,783
                                                                                                                               38,558,371
                                                                                                                                    31,443,321
                                                                                                                                    23,191,876

                                0
                                     2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 1850




We need a frame of reference for talking about demographic change. This slide presents the population
for the entire US each decade since 1850. Note that in 1850, there were about 23 million people here.
The population more than doubled by 1880 (about 50 million). It more than doubled again by 1920 (105
million). By 1970, it had doubled again (to over 200 million). And by 2010, it is estimated to be over 300
million. Note that the growth is fairly steady, except for the 1930s when the Great Depression caused a
slowing of population growth (not a decline, just not as much growth).
Slide 3



                       2,000,000

                                   Annual Immigration              1991: 1,826,595
                       1,800,000



                       1,600,000



                       1,400,000               1907: 1,285,349

                       1,200,000



                       1,000,000



                        800,000



                        600,000



                        400,000



                        200,000



                              0
                                   1820
                                   1824
                                   1828
                                   1832
                                   1836
                                   1840
                                   1844
                                   1848
                                   1852
                                   1856
                                   1860
                                   1864
                                   1868
                                   1872
                                   1876
                                   1880
                                   1884
                                   1888
                                   1892
                                   1896
                                   1900
                                   1904
                                   1908
                                   1912
                                   1916
                                   1920
                                   1924
                                   1928
                                   1932
                                   1936
                                   1940
                                   1944
                                   1948
                                   1952
                                   1956
                                   1960
                                   1964
                                   1968
                                   1972
                                   1976
                                   1980
                                   1984
                                   1988
                                   1992
                                   1996
                                   2000
                                   2004
Immigration has not been constant. Here you see yearly totals since 1820. There are notable spikes in
the 1850s, 1870s, 1880s, 1900s, and 1920s, before a prolonged slowdown from the 1920s to the 1980s.
Recall that the country’s overall population was much larger in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, than in earlier
periods, so while the absolute number of immigrants in the early 1890s was about the same as in the
early 1980s, they represented a much smaller percentage in the latter decade. The all-time peak of
immigration occurred in 1907, when 1,285,349 immigrants entered the US. Fifty percent more
(1,825,595) entered in 1991, but the population was more than 2 ½ times larger in 1990 than in 1910, so
while immigration represented about 1.4 percent of the population in 1907 it was only .7 percent in
1991 (or about half as much by percentage).
Slide 4




                       10,000,000
                                                                                                                          9,775,398
                        9,000,000   Immigration by Decade
                                                                                 8,202,388
                        8,000,000


                        7,000,000

                                                                                     6,347,380                                 6,244,379
                        6,000,000

                                                                     5,248,568
                        5,000,000

                                                                                             4,295,510                   4,248,203
                        4,000,000
                                                                         3,694,294
                                                                                                                   3,213,749
                        3,000,000
                                                   2,814,554 2,742,137
                                                                                                             2,499,268
                        2,000,000                        2,081,261
                                             1,427,337
                        1,000,000
                                                                                                         856,608
                                         538,381
                                                                                               699,375
                               0    128,502




Here you see immigration figures by decade. It is clear that the 1850s, 1880s, and 1900s saw enormous
numbers of immigrants entering the country; compared to the population, especially, these decades,
and to a lesser extent the 1910s, were profoundly affected by immigration. Note that immigration
drops dramatically between the 1900s and the 1930s and 1940s, when the Great Depression and then
World War II slowed the movement of people to this country. Immigration picks up again in the 1950s,
but of course the population had grown as well. Not until the 1990s, does immigration return to levels
(relative to the population) that we had seen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Slide 5




                          Year     Total        Native       Foreign      % Native   % Foreign

                          2000   281,421,906   250,314,017   31,107,889     88.9       11.1
                          1990   248,709,873   228,942,557   19,767,316     92.1        7.9
                          1980   226,545,805   212,465,899   14,079,906     93.8        6.2
                          1970   203,210,158   193,590,856    9,619,302     95.3        4.7
                          1960   179,325,671   169,587,580    9,738,091     94.6        5.4
                          1950   150,216,110   139,868,715   10,347,395     93.1        6.9
                          1940   131,669,275   120,074,379   11,594,896     91.2        8.8
                          1930   122,775,046   108,570,897   14,204,149     88.4       11.6
                          1920   105,710,620    91,789,928   13,920,692     86.8       13.2
                          1910    91,972,266    78,456,380   13,515,886     85.3       14.7
                          1900    75,994,575    65,653,299   10,341,276     86.4       13.6
                          1890    62,622,250    53,372,703    9,249,547     85.2       14.8
                          1880    50,155,783    43,475,840    6,679,943     86.7       13.3
                          1870    38,558,371    32,991,142    5,567,229     85.6       14.4
                          1860    31,443,321    27,304,624    4,138,697     86.8       13.2
                          1850    23,191,876    20,947,274    2,244,602     90.3        9.7




Here you can see the effects of the swings discussed in earlier slides. Note that the number of foreign
born persons in the US almost doubles between 1850 and 1860, and we have not seen that big a jump
since then. The foreign population increases notable in other decades, such as the 1880s and 1900s and
1990s, but note as well the substantial drop between 1930 and 1940 that continues until 1970, when
the percentage of foreign born drops to its lowest level ever: 4.7 percent.
Slide 6




                          35,000,000                                                                                                            16.0

                                                    # Foreign
                                                                                                14.7          14.8                              14.0
                          30,000,000                                                                                        14.4

                                                    % Foreign                            13.2
                                                                                                       13.6
                                                                                                                     13.3          13.2
                                                                                                                                                12.0
                          25,000,000
                                                                                  11.6
                                       11.1
                                                                                                                                                10.0

                          20,000,000                                                                                                      9.7
                                                                            8.8                                                                 8.0
                                              7.9
                          15,000,000
                                                                      6.9
                                                                                                                                                6.0
                                                    6.2

                          10,000,000                            5.4
                                                          4.7                                                                                   4.0



                           5,000,000
                                                                                                                                                2.0



                                  0                                                                                                             0.0
                                       2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 1850




Here you see the information from the previous slide in graphic form. The number of foreign-born in
the United States increases steadily from the 1850s through the 1930s, reaching almost 15 million
persons by 1930. The number declines to about 10 million in 1970 and then begins to increase rapidly
through the year 2000. Remember that the total number of American citizens is growing steadily
becoming the 1850s and 2000 with a slight slowdown in the 1930s. This then explains the changing
percentage of foreign-born persons in the United States. Note that the percentage increases
dramatically from 9.7% in 1850 to 13.2% in 1860 and remains above 13% until 1940. Because of
restrictive immigration laws passed in the 1920s the percentage of foreign-born in the United States
declined steadily from 1920 until 1970 when it reached its historic low of 4.7%. The number and
percentage of foreign-born increases after 1970 but even after the enormous increases in immigration
in the 1990s the percentage of foreign-born in the United States in the year 2000 was only 11.1%, a level
last seen in the 1940s.
Slide 7




                          Year    Total         Native       Foreign      % Native   % Foreign

                          1890    62,622,250    53,372,703    9,249,547     85.2       14.8
                          1910    91,972,266    78,456,380   13,515,886     85.3       14.7
                          1870    38,558,371    32,991,142    5,567,229     85.6       14.4
                          1900    75,994,575    65,653,299   10,341,276     86.4       13.6
                          1880    50,155,783    43,475,840    6,679,943     86.7       13.3
                          1920   105,710,620    91,789,928   13,920,692     86.8       13.2
                          1860    31,443,321    27,304,624    4,138,697     86.8       13.2
                          1930   122,775,046   108,570,897   14,204,149     88.4       11.6
                          2000   281,421,906   250,314,017   31,107,889     88.9       11.1
                          1850    23,191,876    20,947,274    2,244,602     90.3        9.7
                          1940   131,669,275   120,074,379   11,594,896     91.2        8.8
                          1990   248,709,873   228,942,557   19,767,316     92.1        7.9
                          1950   150,216,110   139,868,715   10,347,395     93.1        6.9
                          1980   226,545,805   212,465,899   14,079,906     93.8        6.2
                          1960   179,325,671   169,587,580    9,738,091     94.6        5.4
                          1970   203,210,158   193,590,856    9,619,302     95.3        4.7



In this slide, the decades are arranged in terms of the highest percentage of foreign-born. 1890, 1910,
and 1870 are the years when America had the highest percentage of foreign-born among its citizens,
each decade with over 14% foreign-born. 1900, 1880, 1920, and 1860 are all gears in which the foreign-
born constituted more than 13% of the population. In 1930, 11.6% of the population was foreign-born,
a slight decline from 1920; this was due to restrictive immigration laws passed in 1921 and 1924. Even
though immigration increased dramatically in the 1990s, by 2000 the United States was only 11.1%
foreign-born. This represented a steady increase in the percentage of foreign-born since 1970, when
the percentage was 4.7.
Slide 8



                      100%


                       90%
                                                                 Immigration by
                       80%                                       Region by Decade
                       70%
                                 Europe.
                       60%


                       50%       Asia.

                       40%
                                 America (Can, Mex, Carib, SA)
                       30%


                       20%


                       10%


                       0%




Now that we have seen the overall impact of immigration on the United States, we need to look more
closely at the specific sources of immigration. Immigrants have not always come from the same places,
and the difference is in the origin of immigrants has had an important bearing on our sense of
community. This slide shows that between the 1820s and the 1950s Europe was by far the largest
source of immigration. Immigration from Europe peaks in the 1890s and declines through 1980s.
emigration from the Americas, mainly from Mexico, remains a relatively small percentage of
immigration until the 1910s when the Mexican Revolution pushed many Mexicans northward.
Immigration from Latin America especially constitutes over 50% of total immigration by the 1960s and
again in the 1990s. During the 1970s and 1980s, immigration from Asia also increases dramatically.
Slide 9

                        2,000,000

                        1,800,000
                                    European
                                    Immigration by
                                                                    Austria-Hungary
                        1,600,000
                                    Decade
                                                                    Germany
                        1,400,000
                                                                    Ireland
                        1,200,000                                   Italy.
                                                                    Russia
                        1,000,000
                                                                    United Kingdom
                         800,000

                         600,000

                         400,000

                         200,000

                               0




In the first slide for this lecture, I indicate that there are three big waves of immigration to the United
States. This slide illustrates two of those waves. The first wave of immigration came from northern and
western Europe. Here you can see the three main sources of this first wave: the orange line shows
immigration from Ireland; the light blue line shows immigration from the United Kingdom (England,
Scotland, Wales); and the dark blue line is from Germany. Immigration from Ireland is very high in the
1840s and 50s and then again in the 1880s, declining steadily thereafter. Immigration from England
rises steadily between the 1820s and the 1880s and declines thereafter. Immigration from Germany
increases dramatically in the 1840s and 1850s, reaching a new peak in the 1880s. It then speaks briefly
again during the 1920s and especially in the 1950s after which it declines. These changes can be linked
to political disruption and war in Germany. This wave of northern and western European immigration
declines after the 1880s. You can see that during that 1890s, immigration from the southern and
eastern Europe increases notably, and then quite dramatically during the next decade, far surpassing
immigration from northern and western Europe. This second wave of immigration was prompted by the
dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, industrial change, and political unrest, as well as the
persecution of ethnic minorities, especially Eastern European Jews. The Italians, Jews, and other eastern
European minorities in this second wave were seen as so unusual by many Americans, and so inclined
toward socialism, that restrictive immigration laws were passed in 1921 and again in 1924, thus bringing
a sharp close to this wave of immigration.

Slide 10




                                   Latin American Immigration by Decade

                      1,200,000    Mexico
                                                         Mexico, 1990s = 2,757,418
                      1,000,000
                                   Caribbean.

                                   Cuba.
                       800,000

                                   Haiti.
                       600,000
                                   Dominican Republic.
                       400,000     Central America.

                       200,000     South America.

                             0




Immigration from Latin America follows a different course. Note that the largest source of immigration
from Latin America is from Mexico. You see a spike in Mexican immigration during the 1920s, a result of
the Mexican Revolution. During the 1950s, immigration from Mexico picks up again, jumping from
around 600,000 in the 1970s to about one million in the 1980s and then rocketing to almost 3 million in
the 1990s. Immigration from the Caribbean also increases dramatically after the 1960s. Immigration
from Cuba rises in the 60s and 70s but declines thereafter, while immigration from Central America has
been increasing since the 1970s.
Slide 11




                      700,000
                                    Asian Immigration by Decade

                      600,000       China.
                                    India.
                      500,000
                                    Korea.
                      400,000       Philippines.
                      300,000
                                    Vietnam.
                                    Other Asia.
                      200,000


                      100,000


                           0




This third wave of immigration also included Asians. In this slide you can see that immigration from
China spiked during the 1870s. Much of this immigration was directed toward the west coast of the
United States. Chinese immigration was curtailed in 1882 when the United States Congress passed the
Chinese Exclusion Act, prompted by racial hatred of the Chinese that had been growing for several
decades. In 1943, this act was finally repealed. Immigration from China increased during the 1980s and
1990s, but immigration from Asia is more complex than just China. Note that there are dramatic
increase is in immigration from the Philippines Indiana Vietnam and other Asian countries after the
1960s. Note as well that there is an increase in immigration from Korea in the 1970s and 80s, although
that has declined in recent years. Many of these Asian immigrants came to the West Coast of the
United States, although some established Asian neighborhoods in major cities in the eastern United
States.
Slide 12




                      100%

                              Nativity of Foreign Born
                       90%



                       80%



                       70%



                       60%

                                                                                     Northern and Western Europe
                       50%
                                                                                     Southern and Eastern Europe

                       40%                                                           Asia
                                                                                     Latin America
                       30%



                       20%



                       10%



                       0%
                             1990   1980   1970   1960   1930   1920   1910   1900   1890   1880   1870   1860   1850




This slide shows the composition of our foreign-born population. Note that about 90% of persons born
in other countries in the 1850s and 1860s came from northern and western Europe. That percentage
declines steadily between 1860 and the present. Immigration from southern and eastern Europe
resulted in an increasing proportion of immigrants from those countries from 1880 to 1930, after which
the percentage declines, although it remains slightly higher than the percentage of foreign-born citizens
from northern and western Europe. The percentage of persons born in Asia begins to increase in the
1930s and has reached almost 30% today. Nearly 50% of America's foreign-born today are from Latin
America.
Slide 13




                       100

                                                                       Total
                        90
                                                                       Native
                        80                                             Foreign Born

                        70


                        60


                        50
                                Percent Urban
                        40


                        30

                             1990 1980 1970 1960 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890




The figures in early your slides might suggest that the influence of immigration on the United States has
been small; at most, fewer than 15% of Americans have been foreign-born, even during those decades
in which we witnessed the most immigration. However, immigrants have not distributed themselves
evenly throughout the United States. Their influence has been disproportionate on urban areas, as of
this slide shows. The blue line indicates the percentage of the population of the United States that has
lived in urban areas. In 1890 fewer than 40% of Americans lived in urban areas. That percentage
increases steadily to 1930, levels off briefly during the 1930s, and it increases again through the 1970s.
Today about three quarters of Americans live in urban areas, which includes suburbs. The green line
shows that throughout this entire period immigrants are much more likely to live in cities. Note that in
1890 almost two thirds of immigrants lived in cities, and that percentage increases to over 90% by 1990.
In other words, immigration has its greatest effects on cities.
Slide 14


                                    Percent Foreign Born in Key Cities

                                    1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 1850
                        New York
                          City      28.4 23.6 18.2 20 23.6 28.7 34 36.1 40.8 37 42.2 39.7 44.5 47.2 45.7

                         Boston      20 15.5 13.1 15.8 18.6 23.9 29.9 32.4 36.3 35.1 35.3 31.6 35.1 35.9 34.1

                         Chicago    16.9 14.5 11.1 12.3 14.8 19.9 25.5 29.9 35.9 34.6 41 40.7 48.4 50 52.3

                        Milwaukee   4.7   5     5.5   7.7   9.9 14.3 19.1 24.1 29.8 31.2 38.9 39.9 47.3    63.7

                         Detroit    3.4   5.7   7.9 12.1 15.1 19.9 25.9 29.3 33.8 33.8 39.7 39.2 44.5      47.2

                       San Francisco 34 28.3 21.6 19.3 17.7 22.1 27.1 29.4 34.1 34.1 42.4 44.6 49.3 50.1

                       Los Angeles 38.4 27.1 14.6 12.6 13.4 15.1 20 21.2 20.7 19.5 25.3 28.7 35

                         Phoenix    8.6   5.7   3.7   4.4   7   6.6       14.3      16.9 34

                          Miami     59.7 53.7 41.8 16.9 12.1 9.7 12.4 25




Not all cities have been affected by immigration in the same way. Immigrants tend to be attracted to
larger cities because of the availability of jobs. In this chart you can see the effect of immigration on
these big cities. Recall that in 1850 fewer than 10% of Americans were immigrants. But in that same
year 46% of New Yorkers were immigrants, more than half of the city of Chicago and almost two thirds
of the city of Milwaukee were immigrants. You see in the case of New York City there is a gradual
decline in the percentage of foreign-born until 1970, when fewer than one in five New Yorkers were
born in other countries, but that percentage has increased in the last decades. However it has not
returned to levels seen in the 19th century. In the case of Chicago the decline is even more dramatic; by
1970 only about one in every 10 residents in the city of Chicago were foreign-born, although that
percentage has increased by about 50% in the last few decades. Most dramatic of all of course is
Milwaukee: today fewer than one in 20 residents of that city are immigrants. Los Angeles exhibits a
different pattern yet witnessed a decline in the percentage of foreign-born and in an increase; unlike
eastern and midwestern cities such as New York, Boston, Milwaukee, and Detroit, Los Angeles and San
Francisco, as Western cities, are recipients of the third wave of immigration from Asia and Latin
America. Miami exhibits yet another pattern. It witnesses and a sharp decline in its percentage of
foreign-born between 1920 and 1940 and in an extraordinary increase during the 1960s when
immigration from Cuba reshaped the city. Today, Miami has the highest percentage of foreign-born
residents of any major city in the United States.

Slide 15




                       60

                                             Percent Foreign Born
                       50


                                                                          New York City

                       40
                                                                          Boston

                                                                          Chicago

                       30
                                                                          Milwaukee

                                                                          Detroit
                       20
                                                                          San Francisco

                                                                          Los Angeles
                       10
                                                                          Phoenix

                                                                          Miami
                        0




Here you see the same information in graphic form. The overall trend is one of decline in the
percentage of foreign-born. However Western cities and large eastern cities see an increase in the
percentage of foreign-born after 1970. Miami, as can be seen from the pale green line, has an almost
unique pattern: a dramatic drop and then an extraordinary increase in the percentage of foreign-born.
Slide 16




                         Percent Foreign Born in Cities versus
                                 Metropolitan Areas
                                                      City    Met Area
                          Boston                       20      11.3
                          Chicago                     16.9     11.9
                          Detroit                     3.4       5.5
                          Los Angeles                 38.4     32.7
                          Miami                       59.7     45.1
                          Milwaukee                   4.7       3.8
                          New York City               28.4     18.7
                          Phoenix                     8.6       7.2
                          San Francisco                34      27.5




These figures, which are taken from the 2000 census, show that even within the cities the impact
of immigration has not been uniform. In each of these major cities, with the exception of
Detroit, immigrants are far more numerous in the central city as compared to the larger
metropolitan area. In other words, immigrants are much more likely to be found in the cities
rather than suburbs. This is not to say that immigrants do not go to suburbs, but the lower of jobs
and the proximity of jobs to housing has always been one of the main reasons that immigrants
have chosen cities.
Although it would be inaccurate to say that all immigrants to United States have had the same
experience, we can talk about some similarities that cut across a wide variety of groups.
Immigrants are both pushed and pulled to come to the United States. They are often pushed by
political unrest, economic change, religious and ethnic persecution, and war. They are often
pulled by family relationships (a relative who already resides in the United States), the prospect
of more political or religious freedom, and most often of all the prospect of economic
improvement. So, while there are exceptions to this, it is nonetheless true that immigrants
generally arrive in the US as a very poor group of people; they need assistance, though this does
not mean that they get it, at least not from the government. It also creates the impression that
they are needy and may be taking more resources than they bring.

Once they arrive in the United States, immigrants tend to stick together. During the 19th
century, and in many cases today, immigrants created vast ethnic neighborhoods in American
cities. In these neighborhoods, immigrants could partially re-create the cultural conditions which
they left in their home countries: with the same food, the same language, the same institutions.
These working-class immigrant neighborhoods could be quite stable, though new immigrants
sometimes creating tensions within them. Though these neighborhoods provided refuge for
newcomers and a familiar community for new residents, most immigrants had to pursue a living
outside of their own neighborhoods, which meant that they had to interact with other immigrants
and with native-born Americans. In spite of this mixing, immigrants have also practiced mutual
avoidance: they create their own neighborhoods but tend to stay away from other immigrant
groups. This meant that American cities tended to be patchworks of ethnic neighborhoods,
interspersed with neighborhoods of native-born Americans. Living conditions in ethnic
neighborhoods, or any neighborhood of poor people in the United States, could sometimes be
very bad, with unpaved streets and ramshackle housing. This meant that, typically, immigrants
were seen as strangers who lived in their own neighborhoods that made them seem even more
unusual to native-born Americans and other ethnic groups. While there has been “melting” after
a period of time, eras of intense immigration have often resulted in an increasing awareness of
differences.

In sum, immigrants have had a profound effect on cities. Especially during times when levels of
immigration were very high, they were often seen as poor, strange, and threatening, even as they
added to the cultural richness of cities. Those differences show up in other areas of urban life,
especially politics, where the problem of distributing resources is felt most acutely.

								
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