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Syntax_ The Sentence Patterns of Language

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									The study of how words combine to
form grammatical sentences.
Remember the following rules:
S          NP VP
NP         ART (Adj) N
           PN
VP         V NP (PP) Adv)
PP         Prep NP
Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical
 Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a
  sequence of words that conform to the
  rules of syntax.
 Ill-formed or ungrammatical sentence:
  a sequence of words that violate the
  rules of syntax
Grammatical or Ungrammatical:
 1. The boy found the ball
 2. The boy found quickly
 3. The boy found in the house
 4. The boy found the ball in the house
 5. Disa slept the baby
 6. Disa slept soundly
 Find: Transitive verb (with object)
 Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)
Syntactic Categories (1)
 Lexical categories   Examples
  Noun (N)            moisture, policy
  Verb (V)            melt, remain
  Adjective (A)       good, intelligent
  Preposition (P)     to, near
  Adverb (Adv)        slowly, now
Syntactic Categories (2)

 Non-lexical categories    Examples
  Determiner (Det)         the, this
  Degree word (Deg)        very, more
  Qualifier (Qual)         always, perhaps
  Auxiliary (Aux)          will, can
  Conjunction (Conj)       and, or
  Complementizer (Comp)    that (clause)
Indicate the category of each word
in the following sentences.

a. The glass suddenly broke.
    Det / N / Adv / V
b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane.
  Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / N
c. The peaches never appear quite ripe.
  Det / N / Qual / V / Deg / A
d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra.
  N / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N
Phrases
  NP : Noun Phrase
        The car, a clever student
  VP : Verb Phrase
        study hard, play the guitar
  PP : Prepositional Phrase
        in the class, above the earth
  AP : Adjective Phrase
        very tall, quite certain
Phrase Structure Rules
 NP  (Det) N (PP)
 PP  P NP

                      The bus in the yard
    The bus (NP)
                             NP
   Det        N         Det       N         PP

   The        bus                      P          NP

                                            Det     N

                        The      bus   in the      yard
Phrase Structure Rules
 VP  V (NP) (PP)
 S  NP (Aux) VP

                        took the money from the bank
took the money (VP)
                                VP
  V            NP        V           NP           PP
         Det        N
                               Det        N   P         NP
 took    the    money
                                                  Det     N

                        took   the money from the        bank
Example
       The children put the toy in the box

                       S

       NP                             VP

 Det        N          V              NP           PP

                                Det        N   P         NP

                                                   Det    N

 The    children       put     the     toy     in the     box

								
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