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THE FIVE KEY SKILLS

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THE FIVE KEY SKILLS Powered By Docstoc
					PHONICS: NEW TO YR AND KS1 THE FIVE KEY AREAS FOR TEACHING (Based on Jolly Phonics, but principles can and should be applied to all phonics teaching) N.B. Continuous consolidation, practice and application in reading and writing of all key areas is required throughout Key Stage 1 to embed knowledge and skills; this should be continued into Key Stage 2 as needed 1) Learning letter sounds – recognising units of sound and their written correlation  Rapid teaching of all phonemes (Jolly Phonics - 42 phonemes taught in groups of 6 over 7 weeks)  Early introduction of digraphs as ‘two letters, one sound’ where individual letters cannot be distinguished separately (Jolly Phonics - phonemes with more than one way of being written are initially taught in one form only; alternative spellings are introduced later)  Teach phonemes that allow blending and segmenting to take place immediately, so skills as well as knowledge are developed from the outset (Jolly Phonics – s a t p i n in Group 1)  Sound units must be voiced correctly (no schwa)  Use correct terminology for split digraphs (not ‘magic e’)  Use a multi-sensory approach (Jolly Phonics - hear the phoneme, do the action, and see and write its letter shape)  Letter names and capital letters can be introduced later  Build up a ‘living chart’ when teaching alternative spellings for phonemes, presenting them in their phoneme groups  Use mnemonics to aid memory e.g. ‘toughy y’ to explain ay, y and oy alternatives (i is too shy to go at the end)

2) Letter formation  Correct pencil grip is essential – use a tripod grip (Jolly Phonics - ‘snappy fingers, froggy legs, on a log’)  Correct sitting posture (Jolly Phonics – ‘feet flat, bottom back’)  Start new letters with sky writing, proceed to feely letters, white boards, large dotted letters  Upper arm muscles should be strengthened with large arm movements e.g. use chunky chalks and large brushes with water outside to write letter shapes, scarves and streamers to make large circular movements; this is essential for development of fine motor control  Teach principles – no letters start on the line, all the same size (some with ascenders / descenders), either ‘top to bottom’ or ‘all the way round’  Use mnemonics to aid memory e.g. for c and related letters (a d e g o q s) Curly Caterpillar always faces away from the sun (because he can’t reach his back to put sun cream on it) – draw a sun in the top right-hand corner of the page when writing, and remind children to ‘go away from the sun’  Joined handwriting supports the memorising of words for spelling – digraphs can be taught as joins (to emphasise one unit of sound)  Handwriting practice should also include names, left to right work and pencil control activities in the early stages

3) Blending of sounds in regular words for reading (closely linked to segmenting)  Use HF regular words as much as possible for all activities – children should learn to read these words by applying the skill of blending, developing rapid recall through frequent practice (no need to separate Reception and Y1/2 lists as Reception children can learn to read regular words from Y1/2 list once they have mastered blending)  Begin with CVC words, and extend to longer words with consonant blends (CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC)  Robot speech – articulate each sound, children have to blend them to say the word  Mime the actions for the phonemes in a word for children to identify sounds and blend together  Say each phoneme in a word on a flashcard before reading the word – identify the digraphs first, to avoid articulating the letters as separate phonemes  Use phoneme pocket board and cards or a large phoneme frame to manipulate phonemes in words - change sounds in different places in a word e.g. pat / pit / sit, add or remove initial sounds e.g. end / bend  Large circular magnets make good ‘sound buttons’ to press as each sound is said before blending  For strugglers, reduce the gap between the sounds to help them hear the words  Provide systematic individual practice of blending (Jolly Phonics - word strips in the handbook)  In the early stages, provide opportunities for children to apply skill of blending in context with books that have regular text and use only a limited number of HF tricky words – make class and individual books with the children to serve this purpose  Display words with alternative spellings of phonemes in phoneme groups

4) Identifying sounds in words to segment them for spelling (closely linked to blending)  Use HF regular words as much as possible for all activities – children should learn to spell these words by applying skill of segmenting, developing rapid recall through frequent practice (no need to separate Reception and Y1/2 lists as Reception children can learn to spell regular words from Y1/2 list once they have mastered segmenting)  Begin with CVC words, and extend to longer words with consonant clusters (CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC)  Consonant clusters (‘next-door-neighbour’ sounds) should not be taught as a list of separate phonemes to be learnt, but should be used to develop the skills of blending and segmenting – children must be able to distinguish the individual phonemes  Practise hearing sounds in different positions in words – initial, final, medial  Play games e.g. ‘I spy’  Use whiteboards – children write down the sound they have identified  For whole words, use ‘finger and tap’ – put up a finger for each sound unit and tap them as you say them. Ask children to hold up the correct number of fingers for the sounds in a given word (start with CVC words)  Use the phoneme pocket board and cards or a large phoneme frame – finger and tap the sounds for a given word, then make / write it on the board  Use whiteboards – tap the number of sounds, then draw phoneme lines and write the letters that represent each phoneme on them (one line for a digraph)  Dictate words and sentences with regular words for writing practice  In shared and guided writing, teach children how to apply principles

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Provide plenty of opportunities for children to practise their skills in different areas of the classroom (both teacher-led and child-initiated) Spelling of words using alternative spellings relies on visual memory as well as segmenting, in order to make correct choice – children can use LRCWC to practise HF words Encourage children to write all possible versions of a word by segmenting, then to use their visual memory to choose the one that ‘looks right’ and check their choice with a dictionary Use investigations to discover the rules for which phonemes to use e.g. word sorting - ai / ay / a-e words to establish that ay comes at the end, ck / k endings to establish that ck follows a short vowel

5) Reading and spelling irregular words  Simple HF irregular words can be introduced early, and gradually added to – teach as sight words through developing visual memory of whole word  Use flashcards regularly for developing rapid recall  Where possible, group words according to similar patterns e.g. me, he, we  Encourage children to identify any regular parts of a word  Teach strategies for reading / spelling tricky words e.g. ‘say it in a funny way’ or use a mnemonic  Provide children with individual ‘tricky word’ lists for further reinforcement of sight vocabulary  Spelling practice can be introduced when a basic sight vocabulary has been achieved  Teach children how to do Look Read Cover Write Check as a whole class, with children working in pairs – everyone looks at a word on a flashcard and ‘takes a picture of it’ in their heads; hide the card, and ask children to write it on whiteboards, then show the card again for them to check their spelling  Model this regularly as a strategy for remembering a word in modelled and shared writing  Apply the same principle in guided writing  Include words learned in dictation activities  Progress to individual spelling practice with LRCWC  Display words where children can see and use them – frequently draw attention to display and use it in modelled, shared and guided writing

Frances Lark April 2006 (with thanks to Trudy Wainwright, South Gloucestershire)


				
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