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Site Selection and Planning_Delhi

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									                   Ministry of New and
                  Renewable Energy, GoI

Site Selection and Site Planning
      GRIHA Evaluators and Trainers Programme
                India Habitat Centre
              Lodhi Road, New Delhi
    And So is also stated in Ancient Culture
A quote from Vishnu Purana states: "As the wide-
spreading nargodha (Sanskrit for banyan) tree is
compressed in a small seed, So at the time of dissolution,
the whole universe is comprehended in Thee as its germ;
as the nargodha germinates from the seed, and becomes
just a shoot and then rises into loftiness, so the created
world proceeds from Thee and expands into magnitude.”
     Constitution’s Forty Second Amendment
In 1976, under the leadership of the then Prime Minister, Smt. Indira
Gandhi, the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act was passed and
the provisions relating to the protection of environment for the first time
were incorporated by adding a new provision Article 48-A in the Chapter,
Directive Principles of State Policy.
According to Article 48-A “the State shall Endeavour to protect and
improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of
the country”.
Further, a new provision Article 51-A in the form of “Fundamental Duties”
was also incorporated by the 42nd Amendment. According to the sub-
clause (g) of Art. 51-A, “it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to
protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes,
rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures”. The
above two provision impose two-fold responsibilities. On the one hand, it
gives directive to the State for protection and improvement of environment,
and on the other hand it casts/imposes a duty on every citizen to help in the
preservation of natural environment.
What goes into sustainable site planning?
            Compliance                  and               Appraisal
The following documents will be submitted.    Maximum points 1 - partly mandatory
    1.2.1 Document to prove conformity to     1.3.1 The site plan must be in
    the development plan/master               conformity to the development plan /
    plan/UDPFI guidelines.                    master plan / UDPFI guidelines
    1.2.2 Site plan (one AutoCAD              (mandatory). This should also comply with the
                                              provisions of the eco-sensitive zone regulations, coastal
    [computer aided design] drawing)          zone regulations, heritage areas (identified in the master
    showing the site and its surrounding      plan or issued separately as guidelines), water body
                                              zones (in such zones, no construction is permitted in the
    areas (up to 2 km radius)                 water spread and buffer belt of 30 m minimum around the
                                              FTL), various hazard prone area regulations, and others if
    1.2.3 Site plan (one Auto CAD
                                              the site falls under any such area (mandatory
    drawing) showing the site connectivity
    to public transport corridors and         with no point allocation).
    details of the existing site and/or its   1.3.2 The site should be located within
    feasibility to be converted for           ½ km radius of an existing bus stop
    redevelopment if the selected site is a   commuter rail, light rail or metro
    brown field site.                         station and/or select Brownfield site (to
                                              rehabilitate damaged sites where
                                              development is hindered by
                                              environmental contamination, thereby
                                              reducing pressure on undeveloped
                                              land. (1 point)
       Compliance   and          Appraisal
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    How can a ‘green building’ be built?
By ensuring the site conditions complement the thermal and visual comfort
requirements of the building (very low-cost intervention)
By adopting sound architectural practices and taking examples from
India’s traditional architecture (very low-cost intervention)
By following India’s national codes and standards (low-cost intervention)
By following regional development plans (such as the master plan) and
local building by-laws (low-cost intervention)
By adopting locally available construction materials and giving impetus to
local arts, crafts, architecture and artisans (low-cost intervention)
By reducing the resource consumption of the building and its inhabitants
so that the waste generating there-from is reduced (low-cost intervention)
By adopting energy efficient technologies and equipments (High-cost
By adopting renewable energy technology applications to reduce the
demand on conventional energy (High-cost intervention)

NBC Part 0 – Integrated Design Approach
This section is titled ‘prerequisite to the successful
application of the code’
It calls for an approach to design and construction that
includes all the consultants from the beginning itself
This drastically reduces later confusion (time and material
overruns and increased project costs)
 What to refer to for sustainable site planning
UDPFI guidelines
   Chapter 6 – Contents of plans of Projects/Schemes
   Appendix A – Simplified planning techniques
   Appendix B – Norms and Standards
National Building Code 2005 sections
   Part 3 – Development Control Rules and general building
   Part 10 – Landscape, signs and outdoor display structures
                   Site Selection
The Intention
   Site selection and analysis should be carried out to create
   living spaces that are in harmony with the local
   The development of a project should not cause damage to
   the natural surroundings of the site but,
   should try to improve it by restoring its balance.
   Thus, site selection should be carried out in light of a
   holistic perspective of land use, development intensity,
   social well-being, and preservation of the environment.
    Points to be considered for site selection
    The selected site should be in conformity with the development
    plan/master plan/UDPFI (Urban Development Plans Formulation and
    Implementation) guidelines (mandatory).
This should comply with the provisions of
    eco-sensitive zone regulations,
    coastal zone regulations,
    heritage areas (identified in the master plan or issued separately as
    specific guidelines),
    water body zones (in such zones, no construction is permitted in the
    water-spread and buffer belt of 30 m minimum around the FTL [full
    tank level]),
    various hazard prone area regulations,
    and others if the site falls under any such area.
Site planning
Gurgaon 2006
Gurgaon 2010
Lavasa 2004
Lavasa 2010
    And So is also stated in Ancient Culture
In the Charak Sanhita, destruction of forests is taken as
destruction of the state, and reforestation an act of
rebuilding the state and advancing its welfare. Protection
of animals is considered a sacred duty.
           Basic amenities around a site
The selected site should be located within ½ km radius of
      an existing bus stop,
      commuter rail, light rail or metro station and/or
      select brownfield site (to rehabilitate damaged sites where
      development is hindered by environmental contamination,
      thereby reducing pressure on undeveloped land).
   Other requirements
      Medical facilities
      Grocery store
      Bank / ATM
      Vegetable shops
      Places of worship
      Health facilities
         Understanding site selection
Site selection process includes analysis of land-use,
ecosystem and diversity history and heritage, urban
context and environmental considerations.
Land use
   Suitability: The proposed building/s should be in
   conformity with
      Designated use on the ‘development plan’
      Or the land-use zones in which they fall (as specified by the
      ‘master plan’).
      And the ‘development regulations’ of that area as well.
Analysis of urban context considerations
      Analyse the city form – urban / macro context
      Review the potential of views – local / micro context
Resource and needs assessment of the project should be
done at the pre-design stage.
Issues which need to be identified at the pre-design and
site selection stage are
   Proximity or remoteness of the site from existing
   transportation corridors, and its ability to match the needs
   of the building owner, users, and their occupancy patterns.
   Natural resources, geographical features, solar path,
   vegetation, and identification of on-site sources and sinks
   connectivity to infrastructure and public transport network,
   power requirement and power source,
   water requirement and water source, and
   waste management on the site
If these issues are given a thought at the site selection
stage itself, the expenditure incurred on them (eventually)
can be minimized, along with their energy consumption.
       Points and Evaluation
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        Preserve & protect existing landscape

(NBC Part 10 – Landscaping, signs and outdoor display
   Select proper timing for the construction activity to
   minimize site disturbance such as soil pollution due to
   spilling of the construction material and its mixing with
   This can help prevent additional expenditure on
      de-watering of site,
      wastage of materials getting washed away with the rains
      Stabilization of excavated area’s sides
11th November, 2000
12th October, 2003
Site planning
        JANUARY                       FEBRUARY                            MARCH                           APRIL

S   M   T   W     T   F   S   S   M   T    W     T   F   S    S   M   T    W      T   F   S   S   M   T     W      T   F   S

            MAY                           JUNE                            JULY                            AUGUST

S   M   T   W     T   F   S   S   M   T    W     T   F   S    S   M   T    W      T   F   S   S   M   T     W      T   F   S

        SEPTEMBER                     OCTOBER                         NOVEMBER                        DECEMBER

S   M   T   W     T   F   S   S   M   T    W     T   F   S    S  M  T W  T   F S     S            M   T     W      T   F   S
                                                              Interiors and finishing
                                                             works only. No external /
                                                                  structural work.
Use staging and spill prevention and control plan to restrict the spilling of the contaminated
                                       material on-site.
      Other useful resources from site
Top soil is often excavated by us and discarded and then
fresh top soil is taken from another site to be brought onto
our sites, and we pay for the fresh top soil

Protect the topsoil from erosion
   Use collection storage and reapplication of the topsoil,
   sediment basin,
   contour trenching,
   mulching, and
   soil stabilization methods
to protect the topsoil from erosion during construction.
          Construction site management
Specify and limit construction activity in pre-planned and pre-
designated areas.
       Reduction of wastage (of materials, time, man-power, etc.)
       Protection of the ecology (reducing unnecessary site
       Reduction of spill-over from the site, pollution control, etc.
       Efficient movement on site with due concern for safety.
 Eventually leading to saving money
NBC Part 10, Section 4 Protection of Landscape
             during construction
Preserve existing mature trees on-site during the course
of construction by preserving and transplanting them.
Compensate the loss of trees due to the construction
activity by compensatory plantation. Replant the same
number of mature or fully-grown trees as eliminated
during the construction of the proposed landscape
design. Replant the same native and/or non-invasive
species, which existed on the site before elimination, in
the proportion of 1:3.
Plant in excess of 25% to the requirement prescribed in
commitment 2.1.6 within the site premises (plantation to
follow same criteria as above).
    And So is also stated in Ancient Culture

The Varah Purana says, "One who plants one peepal, one
neem, one bar, ten flowering plants or creepers, two
pomegranates, two oranges and five mangos, does not go
to hell."
The following documents are to be submitted
    2.2.1 Certificate of architect confirming proper timing of construction.
    2.2.2 CAD drawing showing site plan of existing and proposed buildings, existing vegetation, existing
    slopes, and drainage pattern. Demarcate areas on the site plan to which site activities will be limited.
    2.2.3 Site plan showing staging and spill prevention measures, erosion and sedimentation control
    2.2.4 Post construction document describing with photographs that other areas have not been
    disrupted during construction; records to show erosion and sedimentation control measures adopted.
    This shall be time-lined.
    2.2.5 Site plan (one CAD drawing) along with a narrative to demarcate areas on site from which top
    soil has to be gathered, designated area where it will be stored, measures adopted for top soil
    2.2.6 One CAD drawing of proposed landscape plan with identified trees (different colour coding for
    protected, preserved, transplanted, removed trees) corresponding to the existing tree survey table (to
    be included in the drawing), existing and new buildings, proposed site drainage pattern. Explain in
    brief measures adopted for protecting existing landscape (limit to 250 words).
    2.2.7 Certificate of landscape architect confirming protection and preservation of existing trees.
    2.2.8 Landscape plan, clearly highlighting the trees removed areas (indicating the number of trees), if
    applicable, with the number of replanted trees in the proportion of 1:3 in the proposed landscape
    design. List details about species, which existed, and the species that have been replanted on-site.
    2.2.9 Landscape plan to show that plantation in excess of 25% than minimum requirement has been
Maximum points 5 - partly mandatory, if applicable
    2.3.1 Ensure proper timing of construction with respect to rain, and
    2.3.2 Confine construction activity to pre-designated areas (1 point).
    2.3.3 Proper implementation of staging and spill prevention plan and
    2.3.4 Effective erosion and sedimentation control to prevent erosion, (1 point).
    2.3.5 Preserve top soil by employing suitable measures (1 point).
    Non Applicability condition: Contaminated sites/sites that do not have good quality top soil (as
    per soil test report) that is considered worth storing for reuse. Soil test has to be carried out as
    per criteria 3 and the test report has to be endorsed by the landscape architect. The landscape
    architect has to provide certificate that the top soil is not worth storing for landscaping
    purposes and cannot be restored to applicable standard.
    2.3.6 Preserve existing vegetation by means of non-disturbance or damage to the trees and
    other form of vegetation, Or
    2.3.7 Trees/plants replanted within site premises in ratio of 1:3, (1 point – mandatory).
    Non Applicability condition: Sites that are devoid of trees.
    2.3.8 Trees/shrubs replanted within site in excess of 25% than minimum requirement (1
    Non Applicability condition: Sites that are devoid of trees.
Note If mandatory points are not complied, other points in this criterion will not be considered.
      Soil conservation (till post-construction)
Ensure adequate fertility of the soil to support vegetative
Ensure adequate top soil laying for vegetative growth.
Ensure stabilization of soil in areas where the topsoil is
vulnerable to erosion.
            Compliance                   and              Appraisal
The following documents to be submitted.     Maximum points 2
    3.2.1 Site contour plan (one CAD            3.3.1 Proper top soil laying for
    drawing) showing drainage pattern           vegetative growth (1 point)
    and demarcating (a) areas where top         3.3.2 Proper stabilization of soil (1
    soil laying is done, and (b) area where     point)
    vegetation cover is provided for top        Non Applicability condition: For sites in
    soil protection.                            which top soil could not be stored for
    3.2.2 Narrative explaining the methods      reasons as cited in Criterion 2.
    of soil stabilization used; wherever
    required, accompanied by
    photographs with brief description.
    3.2.3 Certificate by the landscape
    architect on topsoil laying, soil
    stabilization, and adequate primary
    soil nutrient and pH [(supported by test
    results performed at Indian Council of
    Agricultural Research (ICAR) –
    accredited laboratory].
 Criterion 4: Design to include existing site features
4.1 Commitment
   4.1.1 Carry out a comprehensive site analysis to identify
   site characteristics that can be used to harness natural
   resources (like solar energy, wind, and water) and the
   potential qualities of the landforms that could contribute
   to making different areas of the site visually and thermally
   more comfortable for users.
   4.1.2 Locate various activities of the scheme after careful
   site analysis and assessment so as to protect ecologically
   sensitive areas and reduce damage to the natural
   4.1.3 Identify areas of the site that were damaged during
   construction and take steps to mitigate the harm and
   improve the natural site conditions.
  Buildings as a ‘third skin’
Image source:
          Fortunately we have culture…
Culture is born of the climate

The climate dictates our
   Food    (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
   Clothing (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
   Festivals (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
   Dance forms (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
   Architecture (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
   Social traditions (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
   Colours (Kerala, Rajasthan, Shillong, Manipur, J&K,
    Site inventory
    characteristics                       Building design element                                    Site design element
                             Building layout for solar orientation                   Location of green and paved areas
                             Location of windows, entrances, and loading docks       Selection of vegetation and integration with the native
Geographical latitude and                                                            landscape
microclimatic factors such
                             Location of air inlets                                  Biodiversity
as wind loads
                             Architectural elevations                                Use of landscape elements as buffer zones
                             Surface to volume ratios
                             Building proportions                                    Gravity-fed sewer lines

Topography and adjacent      Wind loads                                              Land filling
landforms                    Architectural elevations                                Natural site features for rain/storm water drainage
                             Drainage strategies                                     Location of groundwater detention ponds
                             Building position for daylighting, photovoltaics, and   Location of energy-efficient features such as solar
                             solar passive techniques                                pond
Solar access                 Construction of walls                                   Placement of selective species of trees (such as
                                                                                     deciduous trees on the south of the site)
                             Selection of building materials and finishing
                             Foundation type Structural specifications               Structural considerations for site landscaping like
Geologic and seismic data
                                                                                     retaining walls and fixed seating

Soil types, textures, and    Foundation design and location                          Site-grading procedures that minimize erosion
load-bearing capacity                                                                Plant selections as per soil type
                             Placement of wind towers                                Site layout of building structures to trap wind for
Air movement patterns
                             Location of fenestration on the basis of pressure
                             differentials, passive solar cooling design
Parcel shape and access      Planning for the capacity to accommodate the            Marking the potential access points that do not burden
with adjacent land use and   proposed development                                    the lower density or adjacent land use
Neighbouring or proposed     Design flexibility for future extension                 Location of utility and infrastructure for future
future developments                                                                  extension
            Compliance                  and               Appraisal
The following documents to be submitted.     Maximum points 4
    4.2.1 Provide drawings along with a         If all compliances are fulfilled (4
    narrative to demonstrate that the           points)
    zoning of areas on-site is appropriate
    to existing site features (such as
    slopes, vegetation, water bodies, and
    other natural formations). Support
    these with visual documentation such
    as photographs and land survey
    records before and after construction.
    4.2.2 Carry out detailed site analysis
    and provide narrative to demonstrate
    sustainable site planning.
  Reduce hard paving on-site and/or provide
        shaded hard-paved surfaces
Supply, Drainage and Sanitation (Including Solid Waste
   section 5.5.11 Storm water drainage
   Sub section – Imperviousness
Total paved area of the site under parking, roads, paths or
any other use should not exceed 25% of the site area or
net imperviousness of the site not to exceed the
imperviousness factor as prescribed by the NBC 2005
(BIS 2005b), whichever is more stringent.
Google Earth - Kalkaji
        Treatment of paved surfaces
Total surface parking should not exceed the area as
permissible under the local by-law and more than 50% of
the paved area to have
   pervious paving / open-grid pavement / grass paver or
   a minimum 50% of the paved area (including parking) to
   have shading by vegetated roof/pergola with planters or
   a minimum 50% of the paved area (including parking) to be
   topped with finish having solar reflectance of 0.5 or higher.
                                                Site area= 12500 m2
                                                Building Footprint= 500 m2
                                                Road= 1050 m2
                                                Pedestrian Walkway= 145 m2
                                                Surface Parking= 60 m2
                                                Landscape walkway= 608 m2
                                                Hard paving around the
                                                building= 935 m2

Paved area % = Impervious area on ground / (total site area-building
             = 2798 / (12500-500)
             = 23%
The following may be submitted.
  5.2.1 Calculations to support design commitment, as per following equations (1–6)
                                      Net impervious area on ground (sq. m.)                            x 100
   Net paved area (%) =
                                      Total site area minus building footprint (sq. m.)                 eq.(1)

   Impervious paved area on-site to include parking, driveways, sidewalks, roads, boundary wall, often
   plazas walkways, etc. Exclude areas that have pervious paving (grass pavers, open grid pavements,
   gravel paving, etc.) Total site area is an area of plot used for calculation of floor area ratio / floor space
   Net imperviousness of site (m2) =         Surface area × Runoff coefficient                               Eq.(2)

                                                           Net imperviousness of site as per eq.2(m2)        x 100
   Imperviousness (%) =
                                                                         Total site area(m2)                 eq.(3)

              (Pervious paving+paving with vegetated roof/shading+paving with high SRI ) > 50%
                                                   Total Paved area

   5.2.2 Site plan with area statements clearly showing all paved areas (paved areas should be labelled
   as per use, e.g. walkways, driveways, parking, sit out etc.).
       Demarcate areas that have vegetated roof. Provide details of vegetated roof.
       In case high reflectance surface is provided, submit details of reflectance of surface finish.
       Demarcate areas having previous paving.
   5.2.3 Certificate by Architect to certify that total surface parking does not exceed local bylaw.
Maximum points – 2 - partly mandatory
   5.3.1 Net paved area of site under parking, roads, paths, or any other use not to
   exceed 25% of site area or net imperviousness of site should not exceed the
   imperviousness factor as prescribed by National Building Code 2005, Part 9
   (Plumbing services) section, whichever is more stringent. As per clause
   equation 1 and equation 4 (Reference documents: 5.2.1 and 5.2.2) (1 point)
   5.3.2 Total surface parking not to exceed as permitted by local bylaw (mandatory)
         more than 50% of the total paved area to have pervious paving/open grid
         pavement/grass pavers (equation 4), or
         minimum 50% of the total paved area (including parking) to have shading by
         vegetated roof/pergola with planters (equation 4), or
         minimum 50% of the total paved area (including parking) to be topped with finish
         with solar reflectance of 0.5 or higher (equation 4). (Reference documents: 5.2.1
         and 5.2.2)
         Minimum 50 % of total paved area (including parking) to have any combination of
         the above mentioned strategies where common area having two or more strategies
         shall be calculated only once (equation 4). (1 point)
 Plan utilities efficiently and optimize on-site
              circulation efficiency
Design a site plan to minimize road length and building
footprint. Shade all pedestrian roads by vegetated
roofs/any other shading devices.
Use aggregate utility corridors.
Consolidate utility corridors along the previously
disturbed areas or along new roads, in order to minimize
unnecessary cutting and trenching and to ensure easy
maintenance. Local codes and requirements for water,
sewer, and electrical/telecommunication lines should be
Consolidate services, pedestrian, and automobile paths.
“With temperatures now in the 90s, these (shaded) spots will be at a premium.”
                      7.2 Compliance
The following documents are to be submitted.
   7.2.1 A narrative (maximum 300 words) along with supporting
   drawings to prove that road lengths and building footprint are
   minimized and that all pedestrian roads have permanent
   7.2.2 Site plan (CAD file) showing section of aggregate utility
   corridor with utility lines.
   7.2.3 Site plan (CAD file) showing that all services along with
   the pedestrian and vehicular paths are consolidated.
            Compliance                  and             Appraisal
The following documents will be submitted. Maximum points – 3
    7.2.1 A narrative (maximum 300            7.3.1 Demonstrated use of
    words) along with supporting drawings     minimization and consolidation of
    to prove that road lengths and building   transportation/service corridors and
    footprint are minimized and that all      shading of pedestrian roads (1 point).
    pedestrian roads have permanent           7.3.2 Use of aggregate utility corridors,
    shading.                                  (1 point).
    7.2.2 Site plan (CAD file) showing        7.3.3 Consolidation of utility corridors
    section of aggregate utility corridor     along the previously disturbed areas
    with utility lines.                       or along new roads in order to
    7.2.3 Site plan (CAD file) showing that   minimize unnecessary cutting and
    all services along with the pedestrian    trenching and ensure easy
    and vehicular paths are consolidated.     maintenance (1 point).
 Provide minimum level of sanitation / safety
      facilities for construction workers
Comply with the safety procedures, norms and guidelines
(as applicable) as outlined in NBC 2005 (BIS 2005c).
Adopt additional best practices and prescribed norms as
in NBC 2005 (BIS 2005).
Provide clean drinking water to all workers.
Provide adequate number of decentralized latrines and
urinals to construction workers.
            Compliance                  and              Appraisal
The following documents will be submitted. Maximum points – 2 - mandatory
    8.2.1 Signed letter by competent          8.3.1 Compliance with National
    authority (architect/contractor) to       Building Code norms on construction
    demonstrate compliance with NBC           safety for ensuring safety during
    2005 (BIS 2005c) and proposed             construction (1 point)
    additions.                                8.3.2 Provision for health and
    8.2.2 Proof in the form of relevant       sanitation facilities as specified in the
    sections of tender document to show       criterion (1 point)
    that the safety norms and procedures
    as committed to be complied with are
    included in the scope of work of the
    8.2.3 Site photographs to demonstrate
    compliance by the contractor.
    8.2.4 Detailed narrative (not more than
    250 words) on provision for safe
    drinking water and sanitation facility
    for construction workers and site
Reduce air pollution during construction
Adopt measures to prevent air pollution in the vicinity of the
site due to construction activities. There is no standard
reference for this.
The best practices (referred in Box 9. 1) should be followed (as
adopted from international best practice documents and
Provision in the contract document that the contractor will undertake
the responsibility to prevent air pollution (dust and smoke);
ensure that there will be adequate water supply / storage for dust
devise and arrange methods of working and carrying out the work in
such a manner so as to minimize the impact of dust on the
surrounding environment;
and provide experienced personnel with suitable training to ensure
that these methods are implemented.
Prior to the commencement of any work, the methods of working,
plant equipment, and air-pollution-control system to be used on-site
should be made available for the inspection and approval of the
engineer-in-charge to ensure that these are suitable for the project.
            Compliance                 and             Appraisal
The following documents will be submitted. Maximum points – 2 - mandatory
    9.2.1 Narrative (not more than 300        9.3.1 Demonstrated use of air pollution
    words) explaining the air pollution       preventive measures (2 points).
    preventive measures that have been
    adopted on-site. Site photographs
    showing different stages of
    construction along with preventive
    measures to support the claim.
    9.2.2 Relevant sections of tender
    document showing that air pollution
    prevention measures are mandatory
    are to be adopted by contractors
    during construction.
                     Thank You

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