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									  Science and
 Technology K-6
Support Document
Learning and teaching in
science and technology

When determining learning experiences there         self-esteem but will also promote an
is a need to consider the principles of learning,   appreciation of other cultures and their
the nature of the learner, and learning             achievements.
experiences as they apply to this key learning
                                                    Effective learning involves . . .
Learning principles                                 interacting
The learning principles that underpin this          Students learn by interacting with the social
syllabus are common to other K-6 Key                and physical environment. The family, the
Learning Areas Syllabuses. These common             community, other teachers and the students
learning principles are listed below with their     themselves should be regarded as resources in
implications for learning in this Science and       science and technology. Students can be
Technology Key Learning Area.                       provided with opportunities to interact in a
                                                    variety of ways with people and the
                                                    environment. Opportunities for interaction
Students learn when they are                        can occur when schools include guest speakers,
recognised and valued as . . .                      parent helpers, visitors or excursions in their
                                                    programs. Teachers should also provide
                                                    opportunities for students to interact with
individuals                                         learning materials and equipment.
Students learn when their individuality is
recognised and valued. Individuals learn in         connecting
different ways and at different rates according     Students learn by connecting current learning
to their maturity, prior understanding and          experiences to their existing understandings
membership of particular groups. Teachers           and prior experiences. This is true in the area
can cater for the favoured learning styles of all   of Science and Technology where they relate
students by employing a wide range of teaching      scientific and technological concepts to their
and learning strategies. In addition teachers       own experiences and needs. When students
may take into account the earlier experiences       describe, explain or report what they are doing
of students engaging in this learning area.         and thinking, they clarify and develop their
Earlier experiences of many students may not        own thoughts and communicate these to the
have included using the language, tools and         teacher and their peers.
equipment associated with science and
technology.                                         When students are exposed to concepts that
                                                    are too difficult for their level of cognitive
social beings                                       development they may make connections that
Students learn when their membership of             are incorrect. Teaching which provides
various social groups is recognised and             students with a wide range of developmentally
valued. These groups may be based on gender,        appropriate learning experiences will lead
ethnicity and cultural background.                  them to refine their scientific and technological
Teachers can encourage students to be aware
of the diverse range of contributions made to       investigating
science and technology by members of all            Students learn by investigating ideas,
socio-cultural groups. Learning in this context     and issues. When investigating, students
will not only increase individual students’         interpret their observations in the

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           35
light of their experience and their current        Learning is enhanced by
capacities. They clarify the tasks to be
                                                   learning activities which are…
undertaken, organise and use the data, and
gather information from a range of sources         purposeful
in order to find solutions. Students can be
                                                   Learning is enhanced when students
encouraged to think independently and be
                                                   understand the purpose of learning activities.
provided with opportunities to negotiate their
                                                   Designing and making and investigating
learning with the teacher and other students.
                                                   need to address the issues and problems of
communicating                                      the wider world if students are to experience
                                                   meaningful learning.
Students learn by using language and other
forms of communication to construct and            appropriate
explore meanings. They need to use a variety
                                                   Learning is enhanced when learning activities
of writing forms and methods of accessing
                                                   are appropriate to students’ personal, social
information. Students need also to use specific
                                                   and cultural qualities and needs. Learning
scientific and technological terminology and
                                                   experiences should be appropriate to each
understand its meaning. Teachers should build
                                                   student’s level of development and previous
on students’ existing competence in the
                                                   experiences and understanding. Students may
technical language of science and technology.
                                                   be provided with opportunities to relate their
It may be necessary, in some cases, to use a
                                                   scientific and technological learning
student’s first language as this will support
                                                   experiences to their personal interests.
ongoing conceptual development. Science and
technology education provides a rich source of     The planning stage is particularly important.
both conceptual and language development           Learning activities may require adaptation in
for students. It is essential that science and     different classrooms as some areas of inquiry
technology lessons be used to further develop      may be regarded as inappropriate to students’
students’ language acquisition.                    beliefs or value systems.
                                                   Activities should include resources from a
designing and making                               range of cultures. They also need to be gender
Students learn by designing and making in          inclusive and, as far as possible, cater for the
a variety of ways. Designing is a core process     wide range of student ability.
of science and technology education through
which students try to identify needs and           challenging
propose practical means by which these needs       Learning is enhanced when students’ current
can be addressed.                                  perceptions are challenged by learning
                                                   activities that involve meaningful problems.
doing                                              Learning activities should be designed to
Students learn by active participation and         provide students with personal challenges
first hand experiences. Learning in science        and enjoyable experiences. In order for
and technology is promoted when students are       students to maintain high self-esteem the
actively engaged in investigating and designing    challenges presented by scientific and
and making.                                        technological activities need to be achievable
                                                   goals. Therefore, students must be encouraged
reflecting                                         to strive for personal achievement rather than
Students learn by reflecting upon what they        compete with their peers.
have been learning and how they have been
learning. Through reflection students are able     cooperative
to modify their future attempts at                 Learning is enhanced when learning activities
investigating, designing and making and using      require cooperation and collaboration as well
technology. Reflection should occur                as individual endeavour. Students can
throughout the learning processes. By              cooperate in investigative and designing and
reflecting, students identify the processes they   making activities. This allows students to
have used and apply this knowledge to new

develop confidence and competence in using         structured
subject-specific language and in the               Learning is enhanced when the learning
manipulation of tools and materials.               environment is designed to promote the
                                                   processes of investigating, designing and
rewarding                                          making and to facilitate students’ use of
Learning is enhanced when students achieve         appropriate technology. In this Key Learning
success in investigating activities, designing     Area students will need many opportunities
and making activities and their choice and use     to learn through interaction with materials
of technologies. Students learn most effectively   and equipment as well as with their teacher
when the positive features of their work are       and peers.
recognised or rewarded. Students who do not
value themselves or their work because of          interesting
prior failure may need non-competitive             Learning is enhanced by interesting and
activities to help restore their self-esteem.      attractive learning environments. Stimulating
Many students require a high level of              environments promote students’ curiosity and
reassurance in their learning environment if       desire to understand the world around them.
they are to continue to develop as successful      Teachers can create a learning environment
learners.                                          which fosters talents and extends the interests
                                                   and skills of all students.
Learning is enhanced by
learning environments which                        The nature of the learner
                                                   What do primary students
secure                                             have in common as learners of
Learning is enhanced when the learning             science and technology?
environment facilitates students’ initiatives
and learning attempts. A secure environment        Students learning in the area of science and
will allow students to express their opinions      technology share common characteristics.
and not feel embarrassed about making              These include:
mistakes. Activities should be encouraged
                                                   • curiosity and the desire to understand and
which allow students to take risks and explore
                                                     interact with the world around them
ideas, materials and equipment.
                                                   • some understanding of the world around
caring                                               them influenced by their socio-cultural
Learning is enhanced by caring learning              backgrounds and their cognitive
environments in which students feel valued by        development
both their teachers and peers. A caring            • some experience in investigating, designing
environment takes into account the emotional         and making and using technology
and physical needs of students. Teachers need
to create a positive classroom environment         • some views about how living and non-
where all students understand and accept the         living things behave or operate.
value of sharing equipment and materials.          It is most important for teachers to be aware
                                                   of this last characteristic because sometimes,
supportive                                         when children’s views of the world interact
Learning is enhanced when the learning             with teachers’ scientific explanations, they
environment supports the nature of the             can develop non-scientific interpretations of
learning activities. A learning environment        natural and constructed phenomena. These
should provide suitable working areas for          interpretations have been called children’s
students and a variety of materials and            science. Many students will resist the
equipment with which they can interact.            explanations of adult science in favour of
                                                   child explanations. Teaching which provides

                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         37
students with many practical demonstrations        Meeting the learning needs of
and experiences can help teachers to lead
                                                   diverse student groups
students towards more conventional scientific
and technological understandings.                  In order to meet the needs and experiences of
                                                   all students as individuals and members of
                                                   particular social groups, teachers may:
The diversity of the learner
group                                              • recognise that students learn in different
                                                     ways and at different rates
As well as their common characteristics            • ensure that their teaching content,
students have a number of characteristics            materials and methods are diverse and
which make them different. Each student’s            relevant, eg that they draw upon
own personal life experiences make him or            technologies from a range of cultures,
her unique. As well each student will belong         provide a variety of individual and
to particular social groupings. These groups         cooperative learning situations and are
are based on:                                        appropriate to the level of development of
• ethnicity                                          the student
• language                                         • make and choose resources for classroom
                                                     use which:
• gender
                                                     (a)   avoid sexist, racist or stereotyped
• socio-economic background
• culture, including religious practices and
                                                     (b)   provide for a range of language
• geographic isolation
                                                     (c)   consider students with special talents,
• learning difficulties                                    visual or hearing impairments,
• special talents                                          physical disabilities and learning
• specific disabilities, eg intellectual,
  emotional, physical and behavioural.             • ensure that their teaching/learning
                                                     strategies provide equality for learners and
All students will belong to more than one of         are appropriate to their requirements as
these groups, which further contribute to their      individuals and group members. Students
individuality. All students will bring to the        with learning difficulties, for example,
learning situation a set of understandings,          may need more guidance and support when
skills, values and attitudes about science and       attempting activities, girls may need more
technology which arise out of their:                 time and exposure to unfamiliar tools and
• physical                                           equipment
• sensory                                          • develop assessment materials and
                                                     procedures which recognise the range of
• emotional                                          needs, interests and experiences of students
• social                                             and are appropriate to each student’s level
                                                     of development
• aesthetic
                                                   • utilise wherever possible the expertise of
• cognitive
                                                     such people as specialist teachers, classroom
     level of development.                           therapists, parents and community
It is important that teachers also recognise the     members who can support classroom
social and cultural experiences which students       activities and school programs in this
bring to the classroom.                              learning area.

Girls and boys                                       illustrate particular concepts by providing
                                                     examples which are gender inclusive

The learner group                                  • encourage students to identify specific
                                                     ways in which all adults use science and
Girls and boys do not make up two                    technology, both at work and in the home
homogenous groups, each with equal                 • take into account the disparity that exists
experiences, outlooks, models and life chances.      between the starting points of students
In general the early childhood experiences of        engaging in this learning area. Opportunities
many girls and some boys have not included           for ‘tinkering’, catching-up experiences and
using the language, tools and equipment              activities     which      develop     spatial
associated with this learning area.                  relationships, particularly for girls, should
                                                     be provided
Given that social factors external to the
school environment impact on the gender            • employ a wide range of teaching strategies
expectations and aspirations students have           to cater for the favoured learning styles of
for themselves and each other, teachers must         all students. These should include small
build upon all students’ needs, interests and        group, collaborative and collective learning
experiences. They need to ensure a student           experiences and hands-on problem-solving
is not disadvantaged in his/her science and          activities
technology learning as a result of decisions       • ensure that group work skills are taught and
made on the basis of gender.                         provide opportunities for boys and girls
                                                     to experience a variety of roles, eg recorder,
Meeting the needs of girls and                       questioner, organiser, time-keeper. Roles
                                                     should not be gender determined and should
boys in science and                                  be rotated so that all students have
technology                                           opportunities to gain these skills
Girls in general have not achieved equally in      • generally provide a gender balance when
the areas of science and technology with boys.       establishing groups, though there may be
Such a situation has reduced the life choices        occasions where single sex groupings will
available to many girls and has led to the loss      prove beneficial. In the area of computer
of a valuable resource at a time when scientific     access frequent single sex groupings will
and technological expertise is crucial.              prove valuable
To ensure the needs and interests of both girls    • ensure all students’ reading and writing
and boys are met, teachers need to consider          capacities are developed across a range of
carefully the teaching practices they employ,        text forms. Their experiences must include
the learning environments they create and the        familiarity with both factual and expressive
kinds of resources they use.                         writing
                                                   • employ a variety of assessment procedures
Teaching practices                                   to ensure all students have the opportunity
                                                     to demonstrate their skills and
Teachers may:                                        understandings, eg oral, written, graphic
                                                     and demonstration.
• demonstrate that investigating, designing
  and making and using technology are
  important activities for both girls and boys     Learning environment
• ensure that the needs, interests and
                                                   Teachers may:
  experiences of all students are catered for
  when choosing curriculum content, by             • consider the physical organisation of the
  using gender inclusive material wherever           classroom to ensure all students have equal
  possible, eg skates, radios, kites                 access to and practical experience of all
                                                     types of equipment and resources, eg
• provide a clear purpose and a social context
                                                     computers, audio-visual equipment and
  for all science and technology learning and

                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          39
     materials used for designing, making and     This diversity is due to variations in geographic
     investigating                                location, language and customs, socio-
• ensure that the physical space of the           economic conditions and historical experience.
  classroom is not consistently over-utilised
  by either boys or girls                         Aboriginal identity and self-
• ensure that all students are given              esteem
  responsibility for organising, setting up and
  clearing away the materials and equipment       Because of the cultural diversity of Aboriginal
  necessary for investigating, and designing      Australia, no indigenous word for people can
  and making, activities.                         apply to the whole of Australia. Aboriginal
                                                  people in New South Wales use terms such as
                                                  Koori, Guri and Murri to express pride in their
Learning resources                                cultural identity. Local Aboriginal groups
                                                  should be consulted to determine acceptable
Teachers may:                                     local usage.
• where possible select materials, including      Self-esteem is essential to successful learning
  computer software and videos, which are         and the pride in identity of Aboriginal students
  free from gender bias                           therefore needs to be recognised, maintained
• provide a balance of materials catering to      and encouraged. Devaluing any aspect of
  the needs and interests of both girls and       Aboriginal culture will put the Aboriginal
  boys                                            student in the untenable position of being
                                                  forced to choose between home and school
• utilise the human resources of the
  community by inviting people involved in
  scientific and technological pursuits into
  the classroom to share their knowledge and      Recognising Aboriginal
  experiences and to act as role models. Where
  possible teachers should arrange visits to
                                                  students’ cultural attributes
  see workers in their place of work. Women       and needs
  working in these areas should be highlighted
                                                  Teaching Aboriginal students successfully
  so that all students realise that science and
                                                  involves a high degree of cross-cultural
  technology careers are open to both girls
                                                  understanding. Some specific issues for
  and boys.
                                                  teachers to consider are:
                                                  • Aboriginal people’s experience of schools
Aboriginal students                                 and schooling in NSW have often been
                                                    negative and in conflict with the values and
The learner group                                   attitudes of their culture
                                                  • the Aboriginal family is usually extended
For Aboriginal people, being Aboriginal is          and community based. Consequently,
not so much having dark skin or obviously           most Aboriginal children come to school
‘Aboriginal’ features, but having an affinity       with different views on sharing, personal
with the land and with each other. In the           property, individualism, competition and
context of this syllabus, references to             group relationships
Aboriginal people will include Torres Strait
Islanders.                                        • for complex socio-cultural reasons
                                                    Aboriginal children have a high incidence
An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a        of hearing impairment caused by middle
person who identifies as such and is accepted       ear infections, the effects of which may be
as such by the community with which he or           intermittent. Teachers should always be
she is associated. Teachers need to be aware        aware of this possibility
of the diversity of Aboriginal communities in
                                                  • one key home experience is that many
New South Wales.
                                                    Aboriginal students come to school
                                                    speaking Aboriginal English. Where

   students use Aboriginal English teachers          Local, Regional and State levels of the
   must respect and encourage the                    Aboriginal Education Consultative Group
   maintenance of this home language if              provide support for Aboriginal education.
   Aboriginal students are to succeed in their       Teachers might also consult with other
   education. As not all parents of Aboriginal       specialist service providers such as consultants
   students will want their children to use          and community liaison personnel who will
   Aboriginal English, it is essential that          not only be able to provide valuable guidance
   consultation on this issue takes place            in contacting caregivers but will facilitate
• non-verbal communication, body language            communication between the school and its
  in particular, is extremely important and          Aboriginal communities enabling teachers to:
  widely used in Aboriginal communities.             • learn from consultants, family and
  Teachers should refer to the ‘Aboriginal             community members working with
  English’ section of the English K-6 Syllabus         students about the particular skills,
• the incorporation of Aboriginal perspectives         interests and talents of students and plan
  in all teaching programs is essential to             learning experiences to build on these
  promote the self-esteem and prevent the              strengths to promote student self-esteem
  possible alienation of Aboriginal students,        • understand the nature and the range of
  and to educate all students about the culture        interpersonal and interfamily relationships
  and heritage of Aboriginal Australia                 of the Aboriginal school communities
• efforts should be made to establish both           • establish in the classroom and the broader
  in the classroom and in the broader school           school community a socio-cultural
  community a socio-cultural environment               environment which promotes Aboriginality
  which promotes Aboriginality                         and an appreciation of Aboriginal culture
• due to the cultural and socio-economic               and heritage. This can involve inviting
  diversity of Aboriginal communities, it              Aboriginal people from a variety of
  should not be assumed that any one                   situations for motivational and awareness
  teaching/learning style or method will               raising talks to both staff and students
  always be successful with all Aboriginal             about Aboriginal science and technology
  students                                             including local environmental issues

• that an intrinsic part of Aboriginal culture       • invite and promote the participation of
  are spirit communications and the power              Aboriginal members of the community in
  of sacred places. It is important that teachers      the classroom to assist Aboriginal students
  be aware of and respect this vital cultural          to use their home language, to talk through
  difference.                                          their understandings of the new words
                                                       and ideas encountered in their science and
                                                       technology activities
School / community consultation                      • recognise bias and generalisations in
Few non-Aboriginal teachers will have had the          teaching resources and the mass media.
training or experience to develop much
understanding of Aboriginal communities. It          Aboriginal science and technology
is therefore vital for all teachers to be aware of
the importance of appropriate, effective and         Science and technology in Aboriginal culture
ongoing consultation, particularly at the local      are based on detailed and intimate knowledge
level.                                               and experience of the Australian environment.
A range of personnel, support structures and         In the past such knowledge and experience
resources is available to assist teachers in         were largely unknown to Europeans, and as
both improving the educational outcomes of           a result the impact of European settlement
Aboriginal students and educating all other          on the Australian environment has been
Australian students about Aboriginal heritage        significant and in many ways destructive. In
and culture.                                         recent years, however, Aboriginal knowledge
                                                     and experience have begun to be understood

                                                              SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          41
and valued. Environmental attitudes of many         Teaching practices
other Australians now have more in common
with Aboriginal people’s respect for the land.      • When incorporating Aboriginal perspectives
It is the responsibility of all educators to          in units of work teachers should ensure that
emphasise and encourage this process.                 such perspectives are accurate and do not
                                                      stereotype Aboriginal people. The best
                                                      materials will be those which have a local
The learning environment                              perspective.
Teachers need to consider the following             • Aboriginal students need to gain
strategies to create a supportive yet challenging     competence in using standard English to
science and technology learning environment           succeed in education. Teachers should build
for Aboriginal students.                              on students’ competence in Aboriginal
                                                      English to progress towards competence in
• Provide an active learning environment
                                                      Standard English, and in the technical
  which fosters the curiosity of Aboriginal
                                                      language of science and technology. For
  students and encourages early success
                                                      further guidance on Aboriginal English,
  through short activities.
                                                      teachers should refer to the relevant section
• Support the Aboriginal student’s need to            of the English K-6 Syllabus —Nature of the
  achieve whilst respecting Aboriginal non-           Learner.
  competitive attitudes towards achieve-
                                                    • Many Aboriginal people regard direct
                                                      questioning as personally intrusive and
• Plan to develop Aboriginal students’                threatening. Aboriginal students may not
  understanding of classroom routine and              ask direct questions of the teacher, and
  the language of science and technology.             may need time to formulate responses to
• Assist Aboriginal students to understand            questions.
  the nature and requirements of the task by        • Available evidence strongly indicates that
  teacher/peer demonstration and provide              traditional Aboriginal education employed
  students with opportunities to gain skills          imitation and demonstration as methods
  in small group work.                                of teaching skills. However, at the same
• Plan cooperative peer group work activities         time Aboriginal people also developed
  to assist Aboriginal students to investigate,       problem-solving skills to adapt materials
  design and make and use technology.                 in their environment to meet their needs.
                                                      These examples make it clear that no one
• Create a positive classroom environment             teaching style or method will be infallible
  where all students understand and accept            for use with Aboriginal learners.
  the value of sharing equipment and tools.
                                                    • Group work, the use of concrete examples
• Ensure that Aboriginal students participate         and collaborative learning, as well as
  in a variety of group settings. Group settings      traditional methods, should form part of
  based on students’ friends, relatives, and          teachers’ classroom practice. Other valuable
  shared interests are more likely to promote         teaching/learning strategies are those which
  participation in their own learning than            provide alternatives to the spoken/written
  streamed ability group settings.                    word. Students should be provided with the
• Encourage Aboriginal students to use                opportunity to present their ideas visually
  computers as a tool for learning to create          and through dramatic expression.
  and explore ideas. The computer allows            These approaches provide for the preferred
  students to take risks in making changes to       learning styles of most Aboriginal students.
  texts and graphics without feeling anxious        They also represent sound teaching practice
  about making mistakes.                            and consequently will be beneficial for all
                                                    • Assessment procedures should ensure all
                                                      students have the opportunity to
                                                      demonstrate their skills and under-

  standings, eg oral, written, graphic             Whatever the level of language development
  demonstration. Such assessment can be            of a student they still have to learn science and
  done individually or in groups.                  technology. It is therefore essential that science
                                                   and technology lessons be used to further
• In teaching Aboriginal students it must be
                                                   develop students’ language acquisition.
  remembered that devaluing any aspect of
  Aboriginal culture may alienate not only
  Aboriginal students but also their               Relevance of cultural and
                                                   language background to
                                                   teaching and learning science
Students of diverse cultural/                      and technology
language backgrounds
                                                   Some specific issues which impact on the
                                                   science and technology learning of students
Learner group                                      from diverse cultural and language
Students with home language backgrounds            backgrounds are that:
other than English, or those from different        • their cultural backgrounds may
cultural backgrounds, bring to school a              traditionally exclude them from certain
diversity of attitude and understandings which       activities, especially camps and excursions.
impact on their learning of science and              The school should communicate with
technology.                                          parents to explain the educational value of
Such students may be:                                such activities

• learners of English as a second language         • some areas of inquiry may be regarded as
  (ESL)                                              inappropriate, according to students’
                                                     beliefs or value systems, whatever their
• learners from non-English speaking                 background. Teachers need to identify
  background (NESB)                                  and deal with these matters sensitively and
• learners who speak English as a first or           with discretion. This applies to students of
  dominant language but come from a home             English and non-English speaking
  culture originally overseas, eg English            backgrounds alike.
  speaking Indian student from Fiji.
These three broad groups include students          Recognising and meeting the
                                                   needs of individual students
• are recent arrivals in Australia who are not
  familiar with the English language               from diverse cultural/language
• are in the early stages of learning English
• can use English to participate in most           Important factors which contribute to the
  classroom activities                             special needs of students from culturally
• can use English in ways comparable to            diverse backgrounds are:
  native speakers of English but require           • differences in the use of home and school
  additional support to increase their               language
  repertoire of competencies in new and
                                                   • anxiety caused by separation from
  extended contexts
                                                     caregivers and the community
• can use English competently but whose
                                                   • students’ expectations of school derived
   socio-cultural experience varies from that
                                                     from perceptions of their previous education
   of the school.
                                                     or that of their parents
Students belonging to these groups have very
different learning needs. Even within each         • teachers’ expectations of students to conform
group teachers will observe a great range of         to unfamiliar school language and routine.
interest, talent and skill amongst students in
using language, and in their capacity to design,
make and investigate.

                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6            43
To meet the learning requirements of                 be permitted to express their understandings
students from culturally diverse backgrounds         in non-verbal forms, and to exercise the
teachers should give particular consideration        right to be silent
to consultation with parents and the local
                                                   • engage a variety of collaborative group
community, their teaching practice, the              work opportunities which will allow them
learning environments they create and the            to develop confidence and competence in
learning resources they use.
                                                     using subject-specific language and in
                                                     the manipulation of tools and materials
School / community consultation                    • express their opinions and not feel
                                                     embarrassed about making mistakes. There
An ongoing consultative process between the
                                                     may be a desire for some students to blend
school and its local communities is essential if
                                                     in with the mainstream culture
parents are to understand and participate in
their children’s education.                        • work within assessment procedures which
                                                     recognise students may have acquired
Schools should utilise the services of
                                                     science and technology concepts but not
community interpreters and translators to
                                                     the English language skills to express their
inform parents of their children’s science and       understandings
technology experiences. Translating notes and
newsletters into the relevant community            • have access to publishing software in their
languages and providing interpreters at              home languages which will enable them
interviews, parent-teacher evenings,                 to record their science and technology
demonstrations etc will go some way towards          understandings at their appropriate
averting potential conflict resulting from           cognitive level.
different cultural expectations.
                                                   Learning environment
Teaching practices
                                                   Teachers may:
The extent of support students will need to        • provide a supportive and less stressful
develop proficiency in science and technology        environment for newly arrived students by
will be different for individual students and        using multilingual signs and posters in the
will vary over time.                                 classroom
Teachers should provide opportunities for          • establish groupings within the classroom
students to:                                         which support yet challenge students, eg
• recognise and exploit the fact that science        a balance of fluent/not so fluent students,
  and technology education provides a rich           pairing students of similar/dissimilar
  source of both conceptual and English              backgrounds
  language development for students from           • establish predictable routines which are
  diverse first language backgrounds                 clearly understood.
• engage in interactive, ‘hands-on’, problem
  solving activities. Such experiences will
  allow students to develop their
                                                   Learning resources
  investigating, designing and making skills       Teachers may:
  and understandings
                                                   • use visual and graphic materials to support
• develop    science    and     technology           the development of language and science
  understandings through a range of language         and technology concepts, eg concrete
  activities                                         materials which students can use and
• use their first language which will support        manipulate,       construction       ‘toys’,
  their ongoing conceptual development               photographs, pictures, computer software,
                                                     diagrams and graphs to assist students to
• gain gradual confidence in using a new
                                                     focus on the topic under discussion
  language. For a limited time students should

• choose material resources from a range of         intellectual, physical, sensory and emotional
  cultures and where possible select resources      disabilities in a class. Such students may have:
  from students’ home cultures
                                                    • a language disability
• invite and encourage the participation of
                                                    • a mild or moderate intellectual disability
  the local community members in classroom
  activities so their knowledge and skills can      • hearing impairment
  be shared by all students. Students from          • visual impairment
  non-English speaking backgrounds will gain
  a sense of worth and acceptance from such         • a behaviour disorder
  input                                             • significant physical or mobility difficulties.
• choose materials which are not culturally         It is important to treat each child as an
  biased and which meet the needs of                individual; every child with special needs is
  students’ cognitive development as well as        different. Classroom teachers need to be
  their language acquisition                        flexible in developing appropriate strategies
• wherever possible avail themselves of the         for meaningful participation of students with
  services and expertise of ESL teachers,           special needs in all aspects of the educational
  ethnic aides, and consultants                     program. Teachers should consult with
                                                    parents, the community, specialist service
• use software, including word processors, in       providers — for example counsellors and
  languages other than English.                     speech pathologists — to assess and plan to
                                                    meet the needs of students with disabilities
                                                    and learning difficulties and to establish an
Students with disabilities                          effective coordinated support for both the
and learning difficulties                           student and teacher.
                                                    Every teacher has taught students with special
The learner group                                   needs although they may not have been
                                                    diagnosed as such. Teachers do, however,
In most classes there are students who at some      play an early role in the diagnosis of special
time experience learning difficulties which         needs. Once needs have become evident,
may relate to the ways in which students learn      teachers have to plan, write and implement
or be a result of social and cultural factors.      individualised programs, as well as work
These learning difficulties usually vary in         with various support staff. All teachers become
cause, type, intensity and duration.                ‘special educators’ as they encounter students
Students may have learning difficulties for a       with special needs and provide learning
number of reasons. They can find learning           experiences to meet those needs.
difficult and develop at a rate that is slower
than that of their peers. There are students
whose inappropriate behaviour presents a
                                                    Students with special needs
barrier to learning whilst others may come          and science and technology
from backgrounds where, for a variety of
reasons, education is not or cannot be given a      Science and technology are essential for
high priority. Some students can have difficulty    understanding our existence, as well as
                                                    providing individuals with enjoyment.
in processing certain types of information,
such as understanding, speaking, writing,           Students with special needs may require more
reading, language, or any combination of these.     instructional and practice time, and more varied
                                                    experiences to master skills or concepts,
Students with learning difficulties are the         but should be allowed to discover and create
responsibility of the classroom teacher. This       order out of their daily experiences.
teacher often works with a support teacher
who is specially trained to assist such students.   It should be stressed that a student with special
                                                    needs can offer great advantages in lesson
Learning difficulties can arise at any time and
their identification and remediation should         planning and enrichment in the area of science
be ongoing. There may be students with              and technology. Fellow students may be

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           45
readily motivated to empathise, for example,              non-competitive, positive peer models.
with a learning disability and its presumed            • Teachers should adopt a flexible approach.
effects on the task design or parameters. The            The units of work allow teachers to provide
judicious use of simulation of various                   activities which explore content at say,
disabilities can expand the thinking of non-             Stage 3, whilst developing knowledge,
disabled students, and their general awareness           skills, values and attitudes at a lower level.
can take on new dimensions. There will be                Age appropriate material is important for
opportunities in some units/tasks to use specific        the student’s development and the
strategies in order to explore environments of           maintaining of interest.
students with special needs. Some activities in
the unit Way Out Communication Stage 3 may             • Students with learning disabilities/
relate directly to a student in the class, school or     difficulties need more opportunities to
community.                                               explore materials in different contexts in
                                                         order to make ‘discoveries’. It is appropriate
                                                         for teachers or other students to model the
General considerations for                               discovery process.
students with special needs                            • Students with learning disabilities/
                                                         difficulties will be better able to participate
• The modifications and limitations which                in group activities where the outcomes/
  various disabilities might impose on a                 expectations are appropriate to their
  student’s access to regular learning                   abilities, eg students with oral language
  experiences need to be constantly kept in              difficulties may present a written report or
  mind by the teacher. Since disabilities differ         drawing in response to a task. Students
  in nature, complexity and degree for each              with written language difficulties may
  student, it is the individual teacher who              present an oral report.
  must decide whether specific tasks should
  be expanded, modified or even omitted,               • Students with learning difficulties may
                                                         not be able to draw on previous experiences
  depending on the particular students being
  cared for.                                             in order to participate meaningfully in the
                                                         task, as they may not have well developed
• The planning stage is particularly                     recall skills, or only limited experiences in
  important. Students with special needs may             the area of science and technology.
  be capable of carrying out some aspects of
  a task, or the whole task at a reduced level         • Students with limited concentration span
                                                         need tasks which can be completed within
  or rate. Teachers need to be aware of this,
                                                         a short time frame. The whole task may
  and should provide activities which are
  broken down into components.                           need to be broken down into a series of
                                                         more manageable tasks. The short term
• Teachers need to promote areas of                      memory recall evident in students with
  excellence. Some students with specific                language or learning disabilities has
  physical/learning difficulties may have                implications for long term projects.
  advanced skills in other areas. A student
                                                       • Students with special needs can be
  with an intellectual disability may be able
  to design and make at a complex level,                 overlooked in a larger group. Smaller group
                                                         work is particularly appropriate for those
  whilst a physically disabled student might
  be very skilful in investigating a task by             with language disabilities and mild
                                                         intellectual disability as they need
                                                         ‘concrete’ hands-on experiences in order
• Students with special needs require a high             to consolidate experiences. In larger groups
  level of security and reassurance in their             this can be overlooked.
  learning environment. Intervention and
  support may be necessary when the class is           • Students need to reflect upon the processes
  involved in a task. In such situations the             in which they have engaged and should be
  worth of each student’s contribution should            given opportunities to apply these processes
  be promoted. Students with learning                    to new situations in order that the processes
  difficulties may not value themselves or               may be generalised.
  their work because of prior failure and need

Specific considerations for                         both challenging and appropriate to the level
students with special needs                         of development. They may need to be broken
                                                    down into smaller steps than would be needed
                                                    for students without learning difficulties.
Students with language disabilities
For students who have slower language
processing skills, additional response time         Talented students
is often needed. The language of science
and technology has to be given special              Talented students are an extremely diverse
consideration. Instructions should be               group of learners. Their exceptional abilities,
rephrased with different vocabulary, a              which result in outstanding performance in
vocabulary introduced in a systematic way.          one or more learning areas, may become
Demonstrations should be used to aid the            evident at any time. Such students’ conceptual
understanding of instructions.                      understanding and skills may be more
                                                    advanced than those of their peers, and they
Students with hearing disabilities                  frequently have learning styles and levels of
Special modifications to class/group                performance different from those exhibited by
arrangements and teaching practices are often       other students.
extremely important, to ensure that a student       Talented students should therefore be
with a significant hearing disability has the       considered according to their individual levels
best conditions for understanding and               of talent, motivation, independence and
contributing to the lesson activity. There are      maturity.
specific ways to ensure maximum use of
                                                    Talents may be classified in many different
residual hearing, to facilitate supportive lip-
                                                    ways, such as:
reading, to enable genuine group interaction,
and to lessen the problem of limited vocabulary     • creative
and language disability that are so often the
                                                    • academic
barriers to learning.
                                                    • performing
Students with physical disabilities                 • social.
There is a range of devices and special
technologies to help students with physical
disabilities experience normal environments         Identification of talented
and standard lesson activities. The degree to       students
which such students can have access to the
regular curriculum depends upon the nature          Talented students may be identified by:
and degree of their handicap, and upon the          • a variety of personnel both professional and
success or otherwise of the assistance available.     non-professional from inside and outside
Students with visual disabilities
                                                    • data collected from a number of sources,
There are also devices to help students with
                                                      subjective and objective, using
low vision. Substantial modifications to the
                                                      performances and products.
teaching program may be necessary to
accommodate their specific abilities and            To say that a child is talented provides little
limitations.                                        information about the nature and extent of
                                                    the student’s specific abilities. Talented
Students with learning difficulties                 students are by definition exceptional. They
As students are often not at a developmental        are endowed with capabilities which allow
stage which allows them to generalise, infer,       them to perform at higher levels than their
deduce and find cause and effect, a support         peers. They may:
teacher may be able to assist the class teacher     • exhibit keen powers of observation
in providing continued and varied
reinforcement to develop these abilities. Tasks     • display advanced reading ability
presented in science and technology should be       • possess a large store of information

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         47
• demonstrate speed and ability in basic skills   to the class task or develop their own tasks.
                                                  Many units accommodate the open ended
• derive great pleasure from intellectual
                                                  problem solving model which is particularly
                                                  appropriate for those talented in the science
• demonstrate ability to:                         and technology area.
  – formulate abstractions
  – conceptualise overall patterns and            Teaching practices
  – synthesise concepts, arguments, points        Teachers may:
    of view
                                                  • establish standards of excellence
  – generalise about events, people and
    objects                                       • encourage learning alternatives and self–
• appear sceptical, critical, evaluative            paced lessons
• display organisational skills which allow       • expect students to use time productively
  them to attack complicated material by            and expect that their work and learning
  separating it into parts                          will be of value
• exhibit interests that are wide and intensely   • become conversant with some strategies
  focused                                           which will build on a student’s knowledge
                                                    and provide challenge for the range of
• have rapid insight into cause and effect
                                                    abilities in the classroom, eg:
                                                     – Bloom’s Taxonomy
• pick up non-verbal cues and see inferences
  that others miss.                                  – Renzulli’s Enrichment Triad Model
                                                     – Divergent Thinking Technique
When identifying talented                            – Parne’s Creative Problem Solving Model.
students remember …
• It is normal for students with a talent in a    The learning environment
  particular area to make occasional errors or
                                                  The learning environment should:
  to experience difficulties in another area.
                                                  • be supportive of talents. This is necessary so
• If students can display talents at certain
                                                    that students can gain confidence in their
  times and under certain conditions it is
                                                    abilities and are able to interact socially
  important to have an environment which
                                                    and influence that society, should they
  provides activities likely to foster talents,
                                                    choose to do so
  eg open-ended problem-solving, and
  allowing talents to be identified.              • upgrade the level and pace of instruction to
                                                    fit the student’s interests, ability and levels
                                                    of achievement by providing extension
Talented students and science                       material with an intellectual challenge
and technology                                    • avoid underachievement and dis-
Talented students often have above average          enchantment with learning by determining
ability, task commitment and creativity.            optimum time frames for the study of any
Designing and making, investigating and             particular topic
the use of technology gives them the freedom      • allow students to group and regroup
to explore, experiment, follow interests and        themselves voluntarily
be involved in tasks that are not continually
                                                  • have a teaching day which is divided into
structured by the teacher. Previously,
                                                    blocks of time, within which students and
investigating and design tasks have been
                                                    the teacher determine their own routine
provided as extension activities for talented
students. As such tasks are valid for all
students, talented students can now add depth

Learning resources                                 take risks, to experiment and to seek further
                                                   information will be promoted if they are
Human and material resources may include:          encouraged at home.
• mentors — community members who may              Parental involvement in the implementation
  have the specialised knowledge needed by         of this syllabus should be broadly based at the
  some students                                    school level. Parents and community members
• learning interest centres, which expose          can make a profound contribution through
  students to a wide variety of topics to          the experiences they provide for their children
  encourage the individual selection of            outside the school and the attitudes children
  problems for in-depth investigation. The         develop.
  material should provoke curiosity and            Schools need to utilise the skills of parents
  interest in undertaking further investigative    and members of the local community. They
  inquiry                                          need to realise there is a plethora of resources
• computers, which can become a vital part         in the local community which can be used.
  of the learning environment to:                  The first step in this process is to inform the
                                                   community of the aims, underlying principles
  – give computer–assisted instruction             and structure of Science and Technology K-6.
  – develop thinking skills
  – provide a tool for facilitating the            Schools need to elicit support by adopting a
    accomplishment of specific tasks               variety of strategies for community
                                                   participation. Schools need to be aware that
    Some talented students may become
                                                   there are enormous pressures on parents and
    avid computer users but all have the
                                                   many do not have the skills or time to support
    potential to develop higher level
                                                   every activity. Sensitivity therefore needs to
    computer skills to meet a broad range of
                                                   be adopted in seeking assistance.
• material resources which cater for lateral
  and creative thinking                            Learning experiences
• a range of environmental material which is       Science and technology learning experiences
  problem based and thought provoking.             should:
                                                   • recognise the needs of the diverse learner
Parent and community                                 group
participation                                      • be based on the learning principles that are
                                                     common to other K-6 Key Learning Areas.
Children come to school with a wealth of
                                                   In providing learning experiences
experience and knowledge about their
                                                   consideration will need to be given to:
environment, their culture and their language.
Home is the child’s first place of learning, and   • content
teachers need to value the knowledge, skills       • activities
and attitudes children bring to school with
them.                                              • learning resources

Primary school students stand to benefit           • learning environment.
greatly when their parents have positive
attitudes towards learning science and
technology and an understanding of the
intentions of Science and Technology K-6.          This syllabus requires that students will
Parents’ attitudes and expectations have an        develop significant knowledge and
important influence on the way children            understandings related to the six content
approach science and technology. Children          strands. Students will develop these
are more likely to attempt new tasks, and to       understandings by engaging in the processes
keep trying, if their parents encourage and        of investigating, designing and making, and
expect them to do so. Further, their ability to    using technology.

                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          49
It is necessary for teachers to ensure that       • guidance and support during the completion
programmed experiences will enable students         of tasks.
to address the full range of learning outcomes.   It will be necessary that students relate their
It is also necessary to ensure that learning
                                                  learning to environments outside the
experiences include content drawn from            classroom. Appropriate structures will need
various locations and periods in time. Such       to be established to support these activities.
content should be drawn from:
                                                  Teachers will need to consider the range of
• the local area, including students’ homes       management strategies in organising
  and school                                      learning activities. These might include:
• other areas of Australia
                                                  • individual tasks or activities
• beyond Australia.                               • small group tasks or activities
Content also should range across:                 • class tasks or activities
• the present
                                                  • student negotiated tasks.
• the past
• the future                                      Learning resources
and will need to be selected in accordance
                                                  Learning is most effective when students
with the students’ levels of development and
their background experience.                      acquire information through first hand
                                                  experiences. Such learning experiences should
As students progress from Stage 1 to Stage 3      provide opportunity to interact with a variety
it is suggested that the emphasis in content      of resources. These will include human,
should shift from the students’ immediate         material and direct information resources such
environment to other Australian areas and         as:
beyond Australia and from current situations
                                                  • interviews, excursions, camps, nature trails
to past and/or future situations.
                                                    and sensory experiences
Other considerations relevant to the selection
of content include:                               • graphics, models and other representations
                                                    of reality, including dioramas, role plays,
• particular interests of students                  simulations, videotapes, films, slides, maps
• local factors                                     and pictures

• availability of suitable resources              • written material, including books,
                                                    newspapers, magazines and brochures.
• links with other key learning areas
                                                  The resource references in this syllabus will
• opportunities to develop language skills.       assist teachers when planning learning
                                                  experiences. The resources listed indicate a
Activities                                        range of materials and organisations useful
                                                  for this purpose. The references provided are
This syllabus advocates that students learn:      not exhaustive. They should be adapted and
                                                  developed by teachers to suit particular
• through interaction with their natural and      teaching and learning situations. It is essential
  made environments
                                                  that they are revised as new material becomes
• by modelling the processes of investigating,    available.
  designing and making.
                                                  Suggested resources for learning activities will
This will require that teachers provide:          include:
• interesting and appropriate tasks for           • items such as books, audiovisual kits,
  students                                          computer software (including databases),
                                                    periodicals, journals
• an environment designed to support the
  learning activity                               • places such as science and technology
                                                    museums and centres, field study centres,
                                                    factories, work places

• organisations which provide information
  and services
• people’s knowledge and expertise
• commercially produced resource materials
  and equipment
• the mass media
• a range of equipment
• databases.
Further resources for teachers include:
• professional reading lists
• references to assist with the development
  of policies.

Learning environments
In science and technology students will learn
directly from their environments. Particular
care should be taken to create a physical and
emotional environment that supports the
learning experiences.
When designing the physical aspects of this
learning environment, consideration should
be given to:
• stimulus material
• students’ access to appropriate tools,
  materials, equipment and other resources
• areas in which students can exhibit and
  discuss the development and outcomes of
  their activities
• general attractiveness.
It is particularly important that students have
both the opportunity and resources to explore,
to discover, to manipulate materials and to
use different technologies. In particular
students will need access to a range of computer
and audio-visual hardware and software.
It is also important that teachers create an
emotional environment that is secure, caring
and supportive. In such an environment
students will have confidence to pursue their
own ideas and their contributions to class
activities will be respected and valued.

                                                   SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6   51
School planning

Throughout the years K-6 all students should      • ongoing professional activities within the
have the opportunity to undertake a cohesive        school, (classroom visits, support in the
learning program in the Key Learning Area           form of team teaching)
of Science and Technology. Therefore, it will
                                                  • inter-school visits and teacher exchanges
be necessary for schools to develop a structure
that will ensure implementation of such a         • idea sharing at school, cluster and regional
program.                                            level
It may be necessary to set up a team of people    • visits to resources centres, businesses and
to support the implementation of the syllabus,      industry.
and to nominate a coordinator who has relevant
                                                  Coordination of learning experiences between
experience or interests.                          classes and grades through:
Whatever approach is adopted, it is desirable
                                                  • grade/staff meetings to provide for breadth,
that school planning promotes the sharing of        balance and relevance when coordinating
information and ideas. In particular the
                                                    topics within the K-6 school curriculum
expertise which parents and the community
are able to supply in relation to content and     • collaborative policy making to
cultural background is important and schools         - develop a long term strategy made up of
should seek to develop these links further.            a series of sequential stages
In designing a school plan it should be noted        - determine      appropriate     learning
that the learning outcomes and learning                outcomes for each stage based on syllabus
experiences presented in the syllabus have             objectives
been based on providing each child with
substantial access to the Key Learning Area in       - provide continuity of experience and
each year.                                             allow students to progress at their own
Planning considerations                           Addressing human and material resource
                                                  needs by:
Organisation can be developed through regular
                                                  • utilising existing expertise on the staff fully
meetings to:
                                                  • using local industries and organisations
• define roles
• set priorities                                  • promoting involvement in professional
• coordinate activities                             associations
• share information                               • seeking local resources.
• evaluate effective implementation.
                                                  Formulating a school policy for safety
Organisation may involve the following            that includes:
                                                  • guidance for the use and storage of materials,
Professional development and provision              substances, equipment and machines
for ongoing support through:
                                                  • programs for the maintenance of tools,
• analysis of needs and identifying ways to         equipment and software.
  meet them
• providing opportunities for teachers to
  increase their knowledge and understanding
  of the principles of science and technology
  which underpin this document

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           53
Integration with other Key Learning Areas       Questions which could be asked when
through:                                        evaluating a school plan may include:
• corporate programming                         • What allowance has been made for
                                                  individual rates of learning?
• the approaches suggested in the sample
  units of work                                 • Is school organisation:
• realistic time management.                      – ensuring continuity of experience
                                                  – avoiding needless repetition?
Evaluation of a school plan                     • Are the learning processes being effectively
The effectiveness of school planning should
be evaluated at regular intervals.              • Is there need for teachers to change how
                                                  they manage learning experiences?
The evaluation process allows judgements to
be made about the success of the plan and may   • Is further staff development required?
suggest areas for improvement. It may provide   • Have any safety issues arisen?
a basis for decisions about:
                                                • To what extent do programs achieve the
• modification of existing school policies        learning outcomes specified in the syllabus?
• the adequacy of implementation strategies     • What steps need to be taken to identify the
• staff development needs                         prior learning experiences of students who
                                                  transfer into the school?
• allocation of funds and other resources
• school community links.

Developing a teaching program

 The objectives of the syllabus can be best         Assessment strategies should:
 addressed through programmed learning              • be constructive
 experiences based on the processes of
 investigating, designing and making, and using     • focus on what children can do
 technology.                                        • look for strengths and encourage further
 Programming should begin with the initial            learning by creating a non-threatening
 evaluation of the students’ prior learning as        atmosphere
 there will be a wide range of abilities within     • involve systematic observation of students
 most classes. This evaluation can be used            at work, questioning and appraising
 when identifying suitable objectives for a class     children’s work records.
 or group program and when evaluating its
 An outline is essential if planning is to be       Developing a class program
 effective. There should be provision for
                                                    Teachers should initially carry out an
 flexibility in both content and time allocation.
                                                    assessment of students’ development in
 Programs should contain details of:                relation to the outcomes of the syllabus. This
 • class or unit objectives based on the aim,       information will provide teachers with the
   objectives and learning outcomes provided        basis to:
   in this syllabus                                 • develop their own units of work based on
 • planned learning experiences including             the objectives of the syllabus either for the
   content to be addressed, activities and            whole class, groups within the class or
   resource requirements                              individual students
 • intended means of assessing student                 OR
   achievement of the stated outcomes.              • select and adapt units of work from those
 Teachers need to work in consultation with           provided in the support documents
 other colleagues to discuss and clarify their         OR
 ideas. This will involve:
                                                    • where appropriate, adopt a thematic
 • teachers of the same year                          approach which relates learning in a number
 • teacher librarian                                  of Key Learning Areas. If this approach is
 • computer coordinator                               adopted it will be necessary to identify
 • ESL teacher                                        carefully the Science and Technology
                                                      learning outcomes to be addressed in the
 • ethnic aides
                                                      broader study.
 • executives.
 Programs should be flexible enough to:
 • allow for unexpected outcomes and for
                                                    Developing units of work
   further development along lines not              There will be a need for teachers to develop
   foreseen at the initial programming stage        their own units of work. This need may arise
 • incorporate the interests and capabilities of    from the interests of students, social or cultural
   students                                         background, geographic location and range of
 • look beyond the classroom and utilise the        ability within a class group.
   community and its resources to enrich
   students‘ learning experiences.

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6            55
There can be many starting points for a unit of    work have been designed to address specified
work. These would include:                         learning outcomes for each of the Stages 1, 2
                                                   and 3.
• a recent event, eg an electrical storm, a
  discovery in space, a media event                The sequence and units of work described
                                                   here are not mandatory. Teachers are
• a current issue, eg recycling, petroleum
                                                   encouraged to develop their own work units
                                                   and sequences that will fulfil the syllabus
• an area of need, eg food at a school function,   requirements but will be appropriate to the
  watering classroom plants during a holiday       stage and needs of their students and their
  period                                           school environment.
• a science concept, eg characteristics of         If teachers choose to use the units in the
  plants in the school environment, sound,         following sequence they should select those
  light                                            units within each stage which are most
• a book being shared and enjoyed, a play,         appropriate and relevant to their school
  eg a story about Australia before European       situation. The syllabus outcomes for each
  settlement                                       stage can be met by selecting a number of
                                                   units. It is not expected that every unit in the
• a special school event, eg bicycle week,         sequence will be taught but that teachers
  ‘show and tell’                                  select a sufficient number and variety of units
• the topic of a guest speaker, eg police visit,   to fulfil the outcomes for each stage.
  local celebrity.
Such starting points for programming can           Unit sequence
usually suggest a range of investigating tasks
and design tasks which in turn will provide        The units have been organised into sets of
opportunities for the use of particular            three so that a sequence of knowledge and
technologies. The selection of tasks will          understanding, skills, values and attitudes is
depend upon the objectives that need to be         developed through Stages 1-3. There is no
addressed in a balanced program.                   implied sequence represented in the table
                                                   within each stage. Each unit is presented with
                                                   a brief description.
Selecting and adapting units
of work
The units of work included in the support
document are outlines from which teachers
can develop a more comprehensive program.
In some instances only minor additions may
be necessary to make them suitable for
individual classroom environments.
Alternatively, the needs of a particular school
environment may dictate considerable
adaptation of unit outlines before
implementation in individual classes. Factors
such as the developmental stage and previous
experiences of students, the availability of
resources (human and material), the nature of
the learner and the local community will need
to be considered.
It will be necessary to ensure that programs for
a full school year address each of the general
objectives of the syllabus. The sample units of

Units of Work

Units of work

The following sample integrated units               processes, as well as understandings, are
provide a means of fulfilling the requirements      retained in their programs.
of the syllabus through activities that develop
                                                    Teachers may need to provide additional
understanding, knowledge and skills, values         learning experiences to ensure that all students
and attitudes about science and technology.         develop desired skills, knowledge and
They aim to provide a meaningful context
that relates to students’ experiences and the
needs of people in society.
                                                    Format of units of work
The relationship between the interrelated
processes of Investigating, Designing and           Introductory page of the unit
Making, and Using Technology is
demonstrated in each unit. The way activities       Content focus
are presented by teachers should reflect the        This indicates those particular content strands
relationship between the various parts of the       that are relevant for a given unit.
design process or the investigating process.
For example, students’ understanding of the
relationship between identifying a need and         This section lists outcomes that each unit of
generating the idea to meet the need is as          work can contribute to achieving. The learning
important as the solution itself. At different      outcomes are developed through the processes
times any one of these processes may provide        of investigating, designing and making, and
the starting point for a unit of work.              using technology.
The unit layout does not attempt to indicate        The outcomes are grouped into knowledge
possible starting points, nor do they imply a       and understanding, skills and values and
mandatory sequence of activities.                   attitudes.
Each unit develops a number of activities           Assessment
covering different aspects of the unit topic. A     The listed strategies have been selected from a
series of specific lessons or experiences may be    range of possible methods of assessing student
needed to build toward a particular                 learning, as related to the stated unit outcomes.
understanding or exploration of a process.
The activities outlined are not exhaustive, nor     Links with other Key Learning Areas
are they the sole way of achieving the objectives   Points of reference are provided for activities
of the unit.                                        in other Key Learning Areas. These may
Where necessary, modifications should be            complement or extend the activities in
made to suit the social, cultural and linguistic    Science and Technology and are listed, where
needs of the students, the school and society.      applicable, for each learning area.
The teaching/learning units take into account       Teacher notes
inclusive curriculum principles and strategies
as outlined in the section ‘Nature of the           This section details important teaching points
learner’.                                           and considerations that aid the successful
                                                    implementation of the unit.
Modifications can be made in order to fit in
with experiences planned in other Key               Suggested resources
Learning Areas. In all these cases teachers         This section provides a sample of resources
should make sure that essential learnings           and may include book references, computer
which relate to scientific and technological        software, audio/visual aids, people, places,
                                                    materials and equipment.

Listed references are directly linked to the        Investigating activities highlight accuracy
learning activities and are detailed in the         in observation and testing. Students should
section ‘Suggested resources’.                      be encouraged to confidently propose
Suggested teaching strategies                       explanations, make and test their predictions
                                                    and accept the process of having these
The strategies indicated provide direct support     supported or disproved.
for activities in the units. They provide a range
of activities that may be employed to               Designing and Making activities require the
consolidate, extend or supplement the               students to use a range of technologies at each
experiences of individuals or groups of             stage of the designing and making process.
students. Teaching strategies appear elsewhere      Selecting appropriate equipment, processes and
in the syllabus and are listed numerically.         materials, operating and maintaining tools
                                                    and equipment and evaluating products and
                                                    technologies available to them are included in
Activities page of the unit                         this process.

The task provides a starting point or direction
for each activity. It may be an investigation,
stimulating inquiry and building on the
curiosity of the students, or an open-ended
design brief that sets the parameters or
requirements for designing and making. The
task can be further developed according to
students’ interests, needs or questions.
Investigating tasks provide the context for
the choice and use of technologies to stimulate
and aid inquiry. Designing and making tasks
provide opportunities for many possible
responses that could fulfil the identified
need and incorporate the use of a variety of
These activities rely on the student being
actively involved at each stage of the process
of investigating and designing and making.
Particularly important is the need to value
and encourage students in the areas of
investigating, designing and making and
using technology identified by the students
Investigating will often lead to students
designing and making, both as a means of
aiding investigation and in order to
demonstrate and apply their understandings.
Designing and Making will often require             Unit coding
students to undertake some form of                  [I]    Individual activity
investigation in order to achieve their desired
task. This may include investigating the way        [G]    Group activity
things work, the properties and suitability of      [W]    Whole class activity
materials and how other people have solved
similar problems.                                   [TS1] Suggested teaching strategy

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          59
Units of work: scope and sequence

Here are examples of possible units. The units of activities have been organised in sets of three
so that a sequence of understanding, skills, values and attitudes is developed through the
levels K-6. They are presented here in sequential form with a brief description of the unit.

 STAGE 1                               STAGE 2                                 STAGE 3
 Getting About                         Out and About                           On the Move
 Vehicles used to transport people     Transport used by students.             Transport systems locally,
 and loads in the local community.     How vehicles work and safety aspects.   nationally and internationally.
 Exploring vehicle movement.           Using gears and cogs to move objects.   Making the local transport
                                                                               environment safer.
 page 62                               page 88
                                                                               page 114

 Look Around You                       Indoors, Outdoors                       The Best Place to Live
 How we use spaces at school and       How the community uses spaces and       Specific services within the
 home.                                 structures.                             community.
 Detecting differences in the school   Useful materials which protect us       Helping to make our community a
 environment.                          against the environment.                better place to live.
 page 64                               page 90                                 page 116

  Growing Up                           Mini-worlds                             Out in Space
  What living things need.             Environments of living things.          The Earth’s atmosphere.
  Providing for the needs of plants,   Interrelationships and consequences     What we find beyond              the
  animals and people.                  of change in mini-environments.         atmosphere.
  page 66                              page 92                                 page 118

 Hot or Cold                           Stuck on You                            Switched On
 Energy in the surroundings.           Magnetism and static electricity.       Electrical circuits.
 How people cope in different          page 94                                 Uses of and safety with electricity.
                                                                               page 120
 page 68

  Let’s Communicate                     Keep in Touch                          Way out
  Using senses, signals and symbols     What is needed to keep in touch.
  to communicate.                                                              Communication methods in the past
                                        page 96                                and future.
  Why living things communicate.
                                                                               Ways humans communicate over
  page 70                                                                      distances and in different situations.
                                                                               page 122

 Toy World                             Making it Easy                          Sailing, Sinking,
 Toys, games and sporting equipment.   Looking at simple machines.
 How toys and play objects can be                                              Properties of air, wind and water,
                                       page 98
 made to move.                                                                 and how they can be used.
 page 72                                                                       page 124

STAGE 1                                   STAGE 2                                  STAGE 3
What’s Alive?                             Cycles in Our World                      What’s the Weather?
Living and non-living things.             Cycles in the non-living and living      Observing and measuring aspects
Characteristics and diversity of plants   world.                                   of weather and weather patterns.
and animals.                              Plant and animal products used to        Using electronic information
page 74                                   satisfy human needs.                     gathering services.
                                          page 100                                 page 126

Kids Care                                 Our Australia                            An Ancient Land
Natural and built local environments.     Identifying and promoting Australian     Changes that have occurred over long
Responsible use and reuse of              plants and animals.                      periods of time.
materials.                                Traditional Aboriginal interaction       page 128
                                          with Australian environments.
page 76
                                          page 102

Sense of Direction                        Sounds Great                             Light Up My Life
Our senses and our surroundings.          Sound and some of its properties.        Light and some of its properties.
page 78                                   Making and using sound.                  Combining light and sound to
                                                                                   produce effective visual images.
                                          page 104
                                                                                   page 130

 Back to Nature                            Material World                           Environment Matters
 Naturally occurring substances and        Properties of natural and made           Effects of human activities on
 some of their uses.                       materials.                               environments.
 page 80                                   Using, conserving, renewing.             Addressing some problems of
                                                                                    environmental damage.
                                           page 106
                                                                                    page 132

 A Place in Time                          A Look Inside                            A Change for the
 Observing and recording changes in       The systems in the human body.
 the weather.                             What affects good health.                How living things are suited to their
 Seasonal change and its effects on                                                environments.
                                          page 108
 plants, people and other animals.                                                 Inherited characteristics in living
 page 82                                                                           things.
                                                                                   page 134

 Picture It                               Moving Pictures                          Visual Ventures
 Information from pictures.               Techniques used to create different      Features of film and video
 Using pictures, sounds and language      pictures.                                production.
 to tell a story.                         How still pictures are made to move.
                                                                                   Sound and lighting in visual media.
                                          Animation using film, video and
 page 84                                                                           page 136
                                          computer technologies.
                                          page 110

 What’s for Lunch?                        Eating Out                               Food for the Tucker
 Healthy food and where it comes          Changes that occur in food preparation
 from.                                    and cooking.                             Food processing from raw product to
 Food preparation and presentation.       Takeaway food and why we buy it.         domestic use.
 page 86                                  Preparing food for large numbers of      Preserving and packaging foodstuffs.
                                                                                   page 138
                                          page 112

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    61
Getting About                                                                                             Stage 1
Vehicles in our school and local area

Content focus                             • have a positive view of themselves     Teacher notes
                                          • persevere with activities to their
     Built Environments                     completion                             When students are designing a means
     Information and Communication                                                 of transport, avoid suggesting stere-
                                          • be honest in their dealings with
     Physical Phenomena                                                            otyped choices such as cars and trucks.
     Products and Services                                                         This may require that the teacher
                                          • work cooperatively in groups           provide a wide range of models, eg
                                          • be curious about the natural and       snowploughs, canoes, paddleboats,
Outcomes                                    made environment                       hot–air balloons.
This unit will contribute to the          • gain satisfaction from their efforts
following syllabus outcomes.                to investigate, to design and make     Suggested resources
                                            and to use technology.
Knowledge and Understanding                                                        Things that go, Rockwell, A
Students will know and understand         Assessment                               Street Sense (kit), Road Traffic
that:                                                                              Authority
                                          Listed below are selected example        Computer software: prepared graphic
• people organise spaces by               strategies that may be used in
  assembling       and      arranging                                              software, eg Car Builder, Transporta-
                                          assessing this unit of work.             tion/transformation, Logo, The Print
  components to meet particular           • Identify different types of vehicles
  needs                                                                            Shop
                                            for moving different types of loads.
• there are different ways of                                                      People and places: excursion around
                                          • Discuss the features and function      the local area
  communicating with others                 of a vehicle using a drawing or a
• pushes and pulls can make things                                                 Materials and equipment: building
                                            model.                                 blocks, construction materials, trans-
  move and stop                           • Note student comments about de-        port pictures
• living things and machines need           sign or safety aspects of a form of
  energy to do things.                      transport.                             Teaching strategies
Students will:
                                                                                   10 Proposing explanations
• state the purpose of an investigation   Links with other                         11 Predicting outcomes
• name possible needs and wants of        Key Learning Areas                       13 Trialling and testing ideas and
• recognise that technological            English                                  16 Applying understanding
  activity affects people and their
  environments                            Exploring the purpose and features of    24 Evaluating designs
                                          survey format. Focus on questioning      41 Computer graphics
• show that equipment should be
                                          techniques – writing and asking.
  used with care and safety.
                                          Encouraging students to use talking
Skills                                    and writing to explain how the vehi-
Students will:                            cles work.
• explore how things work and en-         Mathematics
  gage in guided play
                                          Interpreting pictorial graphs and
• undertake an investigation as a re-     graphs made from objects.
  sult of individual curiosity or as a
  means of solving problems               Human Society and its Environment
• interpret data and explain their        Exploring the effects of transport on
  observations                            lifestyles.
• name possible needs and wants of
  people                                  Creative and Practical Arts
• present ideas as to what they might     Direct Drawing, drawing and/or
  plan as a design proposal               model making from an imagined
• describe to others the strengths and    experience.
  limitations of a design                 Personal Development, Health and
• choose classroom materials and          Physical Education
  tools appropriate to the activity
                                          Exploring road safety issues dealing
• identify and use with safety the
                                          with pedestrians, passenger and
  correct tools for specific purposes.
                                          bicycle safety.
Values and Attitudes
Students will:
• demonstrate confidence in them-

Task                                                            Task
Design and model a means of transport of your own               Investigate forms of transport in the community. [G]
choice. [G]
Activities                                                      Identify forms of transport in our community by collect-
Decide the specifications of your vehicle. Consider its         ing pictures, information and by observing the local area.
purpose, who/what it will carry, where it needs to travel,      [I] Classify and reclassify vehicles observed using a vari-
making it safe as well as functional.                           ety of criteria, eg number of wheels, where they travel,
Generate ideas for the design. Try looking at existing          how they are powered, what/who is carried.
vehicles for ideas.                                             Identify the characteristics and uses of different vehicles.
Draw a plan on paper or use computer software to create         Identify safety features used, eg seat belts, sitting down on
the drawing. [TS40]                                             buses. Suggest others that may be useful.
If using prepared graphics software to make the design          Identify the things we need to transport, eg animals,
from pre-existing components, eg wheels, body, wings,           objects; where we need to transport them, eg over water,
other features, trial different parts to see the effect. Dis-   mountains; and how the needs are catered for.
cuss how easy it is to rearrange parts using computer
software. Compare computer graphics to other modelling
Collect materials and decide which are appropriate.
Decide on a final design to develop, considering available
Make and present the model, explaining the features and
their functions, eg features that provide occupant protec-
Evaluate the design. Does it meet all of the specifications?
Can it be improved? [TS24]
                                                                Investigate methods of transport to school. [W]

                                                                Survey the class to discover transport used to get to
                                                                school, eg foot, bus, car, bicycle. Record results as a
                                                                Suggest reasons for these choices, eg walk because it’s
                                                                close, drive when it’s raining, too far to walk. [TS10]
                                                                Predict whether students in another area would travel in
                                                                the same ways, eg in a country town or inner city suburb.
                                                                Consider how to test the prediction, eg contact schools in
                                                                other areas. Compare predictions to the information re-
                                                                ceived. [TS11]
                                                                Evaluate what makes a good way to come to school.
                                                                Consider safety, keeping dry, enjoyment. Discuss whether
                                                                it’s the same for everyone. Suggest why or why not.

Task                                                            Task
Design a modification to the transport environment. [G]         Investigate the local transport environment. [W]

Activities                                                      Activities
Discuss findings from local area research about the trans-      Observe how transport is organised in the local area. Walk
port environment. [TS12] Identify any problem areas, eg         around the district. Make a note of safety features, eg
bushes obscuring vision, heavy traffic flow, local bridge       traffic lights, signs, footpaths, kerbs.
often covered by flood waters. Suggest possible solutions,      Make a pictorial record of transport types observed, eg on
considering possible effects on motorists and residents, as     a painted background of locality, make a collage showing
well as students. Choose a solution and devise a plan to        safety features, vehicles etc.
carry it out. Represent ideas in drawings or models.            Identify any danger spots on the way to school, eg ob-
Implement the plan wherever possible. Evaluate the suc-         scured corners, roads to cross. Suggest how these could be
cess of the plan. [TS24]                                        improved. List road safety rules that apply at such places
                                                                to make people safer. [TS12]
                                                                Identify how roads have been made safe in other areas.
                                                                Explore how we can make ourselves safer, eg predict
                                                                which colour cars or clothes stand out best. Devise a way
                                                                of testing the predictions. [TS13]

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   63
Look Around You                                                                                         Stage 1
Organising space in the local environment

Content focus                           • persevere with activities to their     Teacher notes
     Built Environments                 • respect the rights and property of     Encourage students to identify the
     Information and Communication        others                                 sense they are using and to verbalise
     Living Things                                                               about the information only that sense
                                        • work cooperatively in groups
                                                                                 is providing.
     Physical Phenomena                 • gain satisfaction from their efforts
                                                                                 Activities to explore the classroom
                                          to investigate, to design and make
                                                                                 environment can be repeated in
Outcomes                                  and to use technology.
                                                                                 different seasons and comparisons
This unit will contribute to the fol-                                            made.
lowing syllabus outcomes.               Assessment                               Home spaces need not be directly
Knowledge and Understanding             Listed below are selected examples of    compared except to value the
                                        strategies that may be used in assess-   variations that exist within the group.
Students will know and understand       ing this unit of work.                   Be aware of differing lifestyles and
that:                                   • Have students use their floor plans/   incomes and do not focus on specific
• there are different ways of commu-      models to explain suggested            rooms in the home.
  nicating with others                    arrangements of room spaces. The       Include the need for light, air when
• information can be stored for later     model should not be the focus of       designing environments.
  use                                     the assessment.
• the senses are used to receive mes-   • Listen to students’ comments dur-      Suggested resources
  sages from all around                   ing their exploration of spaces.
                                                                                 The Source Book, The Built Environ-
• some things feel hotter and some      • Ask students to decide where they
                                                                                 ment Education Network
  things feel colder than our bodies.     would put a new area (such as a toy
                                          display or computer area) in the       Students, Structures and Spaces,
Students will:                                                                   Eriksen, A
• give examples of the ways the dif-      classroom and ask for reasons for
                                          their choice.                          Houses and Homes (series), Wayland
  ferent senses can be used in obser-                                            Ltd
                                        Links with other                         Computer software: adventure game
• recognise that discoveries can be                                              software, eg The Playroom, McGee,
  made through play, exploring and      Key Learning Areas                       Nature Park Adventure. Explore-A-
  experimenting                                                                  Story Series, Garfield, Logo, My Town
• demonstrate that tools and equip-     English                                  People and places: school grounds,
  ment can be used to aid observa-      Developing the language of describing    classrooms, specialist rooms in the
  tion                                  (oral and written).                      school
• name possible needs and wants of      Writing labels for objects and spaces    Materials and equipment: tempera-
  people                                in the classroom and for home models.    ture strips, pictures of variety of
• give examples of how people plan                                               homes, variety of materials to stimu-
  to make in order to provide for       Mathematics
                                                                                 late the senses
  their own and others’ needs           Comparing objects and spaces.
• recognise that people plan and make   Modelling and sketching positions of     Teaching strategies
  changes in many aspects of their      objects.                                 6    Fostering curiosity
  daily lives                           Comparing temperatures.                  7    Observing to explore and dis-
• show that equipment should be                                                       cover
  used with care and safety.            Human Society and its Environment
                                                                                 11   Predicting outcomes
                                        Investigating built environments of      17   Exploring needs
                                        school and local area.
Students will:                                                                   18   Clarifying a design task
                                        Comparing to other places or cul-        23   Considering appearance and
• observe using all the senses          tures.                                        function
• interpret data and explain their      Personal Development, Health and         33   Adventure games
                                        Physical Education                       40   Video
• combine a variety of materials and
  images to make simple models,         Extension work may include explor-       41   Computer graphics
  drawings and structures               ing personal space through move-
• choose classroom materials and        ment, eg up, over, under, through.
  tools appropriate to the activity.    Creative and Practical Arts
Values and Attitudes                    Listening to and identifying sounds.
Students will:
• demonstrate confidence in them-

Task                                                           Task
Design and organise specific work spaces at school. [W]        Investigate the use of spaces around us at school. [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Negotiate areas to be established in the classroom, eg         Observe the structure of the classroom. [TS7] Discuss the
computer area, reading corner, games area. [TS7]               placement of desks, shape of the room, shape of the things
Identify desirable features for the area, eg computer area     in the room (desks, windows, doors, cupboards). Identify
needs, power point, to be away from heat or window.            things that are pleasing/displeasing about the classroom.
List requirements. Discuss whether these can be sup-           Identify which side of the room is the sunny side, where
plied. Make a list of the possible solutions to the problems   are the shadows? (Do they move?) Measure the tempera-
[TS17]. Discuss plans with group. Can others make              ture at various spots around the room (use a thermometer
contributions to the plan?                                     or temperature strip with informal units).
Make a model of the classroom with building blocks or          Predict changes that may occur throughout the day. Test
paint/draw packages using a computer. Use to show              at different times.
possible room arrangements.                                    Explain why the things in the room are placed the way
Demonstrate proposed improvements by moving the                they are, eg to share equipment, to face the board. [TS22]
things around on the model. Compare models – has               Make predictions about the effect of moving things.
everyone made the same suggestions? Discuss the appro-         [TS11] Discuss whether there would be enough space to
priateness of suggestions. Select a plan for the class to      move. Move things in the room to test the predictions.
implement.                                                     Compare results to the predictions.
Make selected alterations. Assess the success of the plan      Walk around school area and observe different buildings,
by comparing to original list of requirements. [TS23]          spaces. Identify specific areas, their features and purposes,
                                                               eg the library, the canteen. Match features to purposes, eg
                                                               large open hall for assembly/many classes.

                                                               Investigate how the senses can be used to identify places
                                                               around us at school. [I]

                                                               Identify which senses we have and how we use them.
                                                               [TS7] Make a sound map showing sounds you can hear at
                                                               different places around the school. Blindfold students and
                                                               have them identify where they are in the school by using
                                                               the other senses. Do a scent map to identify odours around
                                                               the school. Identify, using a temperature strip, hot/cold

Task                                                           Task
Design and model areas you would like (toy room, games         Use an adventure game to investigate the ways in which
room). [G]                                                     areas are organised. [G]

Activities                                                     Activities
Make a list of features to include in the model. [TS6]         Discuss the types of rooms found in the places where we
Identify conditions that may affect the room, eg weather       live. [TS33] Using a computer adventure game students
conditions, location. Clarify the requirements of the          navigate through the game identifying the features of each
design, eg may include play area, particular features.         area. [TS6] Build up a chart of similarities and differences
[TS18] Consider features that will make the room com-          in these places.
fortable as well as functional. Decide on methods of
making the components of the room, eg matchsticks,
buttons, match boxes, cotton reels, construction materi-
als. Suggest materials to use to represent aspects such as
windows, floor covering, furnishings, wood. Select mate-
rials from those available. Make the model, including
decoration of structural features and arrangement of fur-
niture and other items. Present the model to the class.
Explain how the room is designed, highlighting selected
features and their purposes. Indicate how available spaces
are used and why.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   65
Growing Up                                                                                               Stage 1
Living things and their needs

Content focus                            • show informed commitment to             To familiarise students with the lan-
                                           improving the quality of their im-      guage to be used in this unit watch a
     Living Things                         mediate environment.                    video about animals (in particular
     Products and Services                                                         one that shows how scientists make
                                         Assessment                                observations).
Outcomes                                 Listed below are selected examples of
This unit will contribute to the fol-    strategies that may be used in assess-
                                                                                   Suggested resources
lowing syllabus outcomes.                ing this unit of work.                    Informazing (series), Nelson
Knowledge and Understanding              • Observe how students engage in          The Arrow Book of Bush Creatures,
                                           discussion to clarify the design        Mackness, B
Students will know and understand          tasks.                                  Keeping Small Animals, Andersen A
that:                                    • Have students describe to others        Watching Animals (video), Film &
• all living things are different          how to load and operate computer        Video Library
• living things grow, reproduce,           simulations software.                   Computer software: desktop publish-
  move, need air, take in nutrients                                                ing, eg Printshop: Learn about In-
  and eliminate wastes                   Links with other                          sects, Sunburst, Zoopack, Learn about
• living things and machines need                                                  Animals, Learn about Plants, Story
  energy to do things
                                         Key Learning Areas                        Starters Science, Compute-A-Graph
• products can be created to fulfil      English                                   People and places: botanic gardens,
  specific purposes.                                                               parks, zoos, WIRES, RSPCA,
Students will:                           Exploring purposes, audiences and fea-    veterinarians
                                         tures of posters.
• state the purpose of an investiga-                                               Materials and equipment: Reverse
  tion                                   Exploring the language and purpose        Garbage scrap materials, construc-
                                         of matrices and flow charts.              tion materials, seeds and seedlings,
• give examples of the ways the dif-
  ferent senses can be used in obser-    Mathematics                               containers for plants, animals for ob-
  vation                                                                           servation
                                         Measurement activities. Comparing
• name possible needs and wants of       the sizes of plants as they grow.         Teaching strategies
  people                                 Graphing, using pictures, the plants
• give examples of how people plan                                                 11 Predicting outcomes
                                         that die or survive and giving reasons.
  to make in order to provide for                                                  13 Trialling and testing ideas and
                                         Measuring and comparing, using in-           concepts
  their own and others’ needs            formal measurements, the height of
• give examples from their immedi-       students within the class.                17 Exploring needs
  ate environment which show how                                                   33 Adventure games
  resources can be conserved.            Human Society and its Environment         38 Publishing
Skills                                   Exploring the ways people interact
                                         with their environments to satisfy
Students will:                           their needs.
• observe using all the senses
                                         Personal Development, Health and
• interpret data and explain their       Physical Education
• name possible needs and wants of       Exploring students’ needs for food,
  people                                 clothing, exercise.
• present ideas as to what they might    Creative and Practical Arts
  plan as a design proposal
                                         Movement: Observing and perform-
• choose classroom materials and         ing animal movements.
  tools appropriate to the activity.
                                         Art: Observing the texture of animal
Values and Attitudes                     coverings and making prints to repre-
                                         sent them.
Students will:
                                         Observing the lines in plants and rep-
• demonstrate confidence in them-
                                         resenting them through drawings.
• have a positive view of themselves
• persevere with activities to their
                                         Teacher notes
  completion                             People are classed as animals and
• respect the rights and properties of   have the same basic needs as other
  others                                 animals. Students may suggest ‘needs’
                                         such as religion and aesthetics that
                                         will require sensitive consideration.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a way to satisfy a need for an animal,          Use computer software to investigate the needs of ani-
eg fish feeder, mouse exerciser. [G]                            mals. [G]

Activities                                                      Activities
Identify the need to be met. Discuss to further develop         Use computer simulation to investigate the needs of
ideas. Detail the requirements of the animal, eg space and      animals. [TS33] Familiarise students with the simulated
safety.                                                         environment. Discuss the type of decisions to be made
Choose suitable materials (considering size, safety, posi-      and their effect on the simulation. Experiment within the
tion, composition).                                             simulation, eg removing water, food, to test the needs of
Make and trial the device.                                      animals. Compare the advantages of using simulation to
Evaluate success and make modifications if necessary.           a real situation.
                                                                Observe animals in the classroom, eg silkworms, mice,
                                                                birds, fish. Make a list of how the needs of the animals are
                                                                being met in the classroom.

Task                                                            Task
Design and use a way of identifying the needs of plants.        Investigate the needs of plants. [G]
Activities                                                      Based on observation of plants growing at home and at
Pose the problem – to find a way to tell what things affect     school, predict what things plants might need to survive
how plants grow. Brainstorm ideas students think will           and grow. [TS11]
affect the growth of a plant (ie variables).                    Test predictions and draw conclusions about the needs of
Devise ways to eliminate one of these variables at a time.      plants.
Explain the need for a control plant.                           Identify the needs that plants and animals have in com-
Discuss the need for keeping records, eg over a period of       mon and what needs are specific to either group. Group or
time for comparison of data.                                    classify, eg using a matrix.
Collect materials and set up test, exploring one variable       Care for the plants used to test the predictions over a
per group, eg no fresh air, no water.                           longer period, eg the rest of the term/year.
Make regular observations, recording and measuring

Task                                                            Task
Design and make an advertisement for something that             Investigate students’ needs as human beings and some
meets the needs of students. [I]                                ways of meeting them. [W]

Activities                                                      Activities
After discussion about needs of humans decide which             Brainstorm what are perceived to be students’ basic needs.
need is to be satisfied by each group, eg to keep warm, be      Give reasons for suggestions. [TS17]
healthy. [TS13]                                                 Organise the needs in order of importance. Identify the
Select a product that satisfies the needs, eg a healthy meal,   things everyone thought were important. Draw conclu-
warm clothes in winter. Explain how the need is met.            sions about our needs.
Generate ideas to use to promote the item. List things you      Make flow charts to show the means by which we meet
like about your product. Select points that might encour-       our basic needs, eg sheep - shearing wool - jumper.
age other people to want the product. Choose the type of        Identify ways we use plants and animals, apart from
advertisement, eg poster, jingle.                               satisfying our basic needs, eg animals for pets, plants to
Make the advertisement, organising images, slogan, in-          make our environment attractive.
formation, eg using desktop publishing software. [TS38]         Discuss what makes us ‘want’ things.
Reflect on the type of techniques that are used in adver-       Compare how human needs are met in different cultures
tisements in their immediate surroundings.                      or places, eg clothing styles, housing.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   67
Hot or Cold                                                                                               Stage 1
Energy in the surroundings

Content focus                             Values and Attitudes                      Comparing students’ body tempera-
                                                                                    tures with informal measurements
     Built Environment                    Students will:
                                                                                    both before and after physical activi-
     Living Things                        • demonstrate confidence in them-         ties.
     Physical Phenomena                     selves
                                          • have a positive view of themselves      Creative and Practical Arts
     Earth and its Surroundings
                                          • respect the rights and property of      Posters and signs.
Outcomes                                    others
                                          • show informed commitment to im-         Teacher notes
This unit will contribute to the fol-       proving the quality of their imme-
lowing syllabus outcomes.                   diate environment                       Teachers should stress care in touch-
                                                                                    ing objects that are hot or very cold
Knowledge and Understanding               • be curious about the natural and
                                                                                    and ensure that objects students are
                                            made environment.
Students will know and understand                                                   provided with are not dangerous. Give
that:                                                                               students safety warnings about hot/
• people alter their environment in
                                          Assessment                                cold objects before they are asked to
  response to natural conditions          Listed below are strategies that may      locate them in their surroundings.
• all living things are different         be used in assessing this unit of work.   Temperature is a measure of the heat
• some things feel hotter and some        • Observe students discussing and         energy of an object. Heat energy
  things feel colder than our bodies        recording observations.                 makes objects hot and a loss of heat
                                          • Use student evaluation comments         makes them cold.
• the weather can have a powerful
  effect on people.                         on the design of posters etc to de-
Students will:                              termine how well the students have      Suggested resources
                                            understood the task provided.           Five Senses, Braithwaite
• state the purpose of an investigation
                                          • Engage in teacher-student discus-       Investigate, HBJ
• give examples of the ways the dif-
                                            sion to assess student understand-
  ferent senses can be used in obser-                                               Computer software: graphics soft-
                                            ing of the process of classifying,
  vation                                                                            ware, eg Deluxe Paint III,
                                            investigating or designing and mak-
• demonstrate that tools and equip-                                                 Hyperscreen, Slide Shop, Dazzle
  ment can be used to aid observa-                                                  Draw, Archimedes Paint, Hyperpaint,
  tion                                                                              My House, Thomas’ Snowsuit
• name possible needs and wants of
                                          Links with other                          People and places: zoo, aquarium,
  people                                  Key Learning Areas                        farm, local fire brigade, Earth Ex-
• give examples of how people plan                                                  change
  to make in order to provide for         English                                   Materials and equipment: ice, mate-
  their own and others’ needs             Writing short sentences to record find-   rials for making signs, posters, food
• recognise that technological activ-     ings of experiments. Labelling all dia-   containers, temperature strips, ther-
  ity affects people and their envi-      grams, photographs, etc.                  mometers
  ronments                                Stating facts about findings in experi-
• give examples from their immedi-        ments and from research.                  Teaching strategies
  ate environment which show how          Discussing experiments to explain
  resources can be conserved.             observations.                             10 Proposing explanations
                                                                                    15 Explaining understandings
Skills                                    Mathematics                               24 Evaluating designs
Students will:                            2D and 3D shape of objects.               26 Organising tools, equipment and
• observe using all the senses            Describing and measuring size.               processes
• interpret data and explain their        Categorising objects into hot, warm,      38 Publishing
  observations                            cool and cold.
• name possible needs and wants of        Human Society and its Environment
• make practical changes that could       Needs and differences of some cul-
  modify existing products or proc-       tural groups.
  esses                                   Finding ways to get cooler or warmer.
• combine a variety of materials and      Personal Development, Health and
  images to make simple models,           Physical Education
  drawings and structures
                                          Health and safety issues need to be
• choose classroom materials and
  tools appropriate to the activity.

Task                                                           Task
Design and make signs to identify the hot and cold areas       Investigating objects that are hot or cold. [G]
in the classroom. [G]
Activity                                                       Identify ways of deciding whether objects are hot or cold
Brainstorm ideas to determine the most important infor-        (eg sound, touch, sight).
mation needed on the signs, the most suitable size and the     Devise a method (eg touch, temperature strips) to identify
most appropriate material to be used to make the signs.        a variety of objects as either hot or cold, eg metal, water,
Explore possible ways of presenting the information (eg        ice, glass.
symbols, words etc). [TS38]                                    Identify objects in the environment and at home which
Make the signs for the hot and cold areas (eg taps, near       are hot or cold. Classify these objects into groups based on
heaters etc).                                                  the amount of heat the object has.
Evaluate the design and suitability of the signs made by       Identify animals that are warmer or colder than us to
the class. [TS24]                                              touch. Visit an animal farm, zoo or aquarium.
Propose possible changes/modifications that would make         Collect pictures of different types of foods. Make a picto-
the signs more useful.                                         graph using these so that you can identify how hot or cold
                                                               they are when we eat them.
                                                               Propose an explanation for why some things are hot and
                                                               others are cold. [TS10]

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a poster for the classroom to warn             Investigate some safety/warning signs used to identify
students about care with hot and/or cold objects. [G]          hot and cold objects. [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Discuss the information that needs to go on the poster.        Observe and record situations in our surroundings where
Decide the best way to present this information to stu-        warnings about hot and/or cold occur.
dents in your class.                                           Describe how warnings are presented so that people from
Consider the design of the poster (eg size, shape, material    other cultures can understand them.
to be used, etc).                                              Discuss ways that hot and/or cold can be dangerous to
Prepare a poster and present it to other groups in the class   people.
for them to evaluate.                                          Visit the local fire station or have a guest speaker from the
Display all the group posters for other classes to see.        fire brigade to discuss fire safety.

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a model reusable container for hot or          Investigate ways in which people respond to hot and cold
cold food. [G]                                                 in their environment. [I]

Activities                                                     Activities
Observe a variety of different types of containers that are    Discuss the different sorts of clothes that people wear in
used to store or transport hot/cold food.                      hot and cold weather.
Describe and record the shapes, size of the containers and     Collect pictures of the clothes that people wear in hot and
the materials from which these containers are made.            cold parts of the world.
[TS26]                                                         Suggest reasons why people wear different types of clothes
Classify the materials used to make the food containers as     in hot and cold weather. [TS10]
reusable, recyclable, disposable.                              Investigate ways that traditional Aboriginal peoples cope
Design a visual model of the container showing its size        with hot and cold in their environment.
and shape.                                                     Describe changes to buildings that people make in hot and
Design a logo to identify whether the container is for use     cold weather conditions and the reasons for these.
with hot or cold food.                                         Propose ways that people in Australia can make changes
Present the design to the class and explain the reasons for    to their buildings so they are more efficiently kept warm
your design.                                                   in winter or cool in summer.
Evaluate the class designs.                                    Research some different types of leisure activities that
                                                               people of other cultures carry out in hot and cold condi-

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    69
Let’s Communicate                                                                                          Stage 1
Using senses, signals and symbols to communicate

Content focus                            • maintain and care for equipment in      Personal Development, Health and
                                           their immediate surrounds and or-       Physical Education
     Information and Communication         ganise their immediate environ-         Communicating through movement.
     Products and Services                 ment.
     Living Things                       Values and Attitudes                      Creative and Practical Arts
                                         Students will:                            Drama: activities in improvising and
Outcomes                                 • demonstrate confidence in them-         organising sequences of movement
                                           selves                                  in mime.
This unit contributes to the follow-
ing syllabus outcomes.                   • have a positive view of themselves      Craft/design: extending skills in cre-
                                                                                   ating symbols and images.
Knowledge and Understanding              • persevere with activities to their
Students will know and understand        • be honest in their dealings with        Teacher notes
that:                                      others                                  If applicable, explore cultural differ-
• people organise spaces by assem-       • respect the rights and property of      ences in the meaning of gestures, eg
  bling and arranging components to        others                                  shaking the head may mean no or yes
  meet particular needs                                                            in different cultures. Investigate sys-
                                         • work cooperatively in groups
• there are different ways of commu-                                               tems of communication from a vari-
  nicating with others                   • be curious about the natural and        ety of cultures, eg message sticks in
                                           made environment                        Aboriginal culture.
• information can be stored for later
  use                                    • gain satisfaction from their efforts    When making signs for the school/
                                           to investigate, to design and make      classroom, students should consider
• all living things are different          and to use technology.
• products can be created to fulfil                                                which language(s) should be used.
  specific purposes.                                                               Emphasise the dangers of tasting uni-
Students will:
                                         Assessment                                dentified substances. This unit pro-
• give examples of the ways the dif-     Listed below are strategies that may      vides an opportunity to explore sen-
  ferent senses can be used in obser-    be used in assessing this unit of work.   sory disabilities in the class. Be aware
  vation                                 • Encourage students to gather feed-      of Aboriginal students with hearing
                                           back from their audience when as-       problems.
• recognise that discoveries can be
  made through play, exploring and         sessing their own performance of a
  experimenting                            story without words.                    Suggested resources
• demonstrate that tools and equip-      • Discuss with groups of students         Communicating by Signs, Mathews, R
  ment can be used to aid observa-         the reasons for their choices of ma-    Five Senses, Braithwaite, A
  tion                                     terials and symbols for use in their    Eyewitness Guides (series), Collins
• show that equipment should be            signs.                                  The Bionic Ear (Kit), Computer Edu-
  used with care and safety.             • Apply teacher or peer assessment        cation Unit
                                           to the group activity on how and        Potential Unlimited (video), Com-
Skills                                     why living things communicate.          puter education
Students will:                                                                     Faces, Galletly, M
• observe using all the senses           Links with other                          Computer software: adventure games,
• undertake an investigation as a re-    Key Learning Areas                        eg Playroom; graphics packages, eg
  sult of individual curiosity or as a                                             Mask Parade, Monsters and Make
  means of solving problems              English
                                                                                   Believe, Face Maker, The Print Shop,
• interpret data and explain their       Writing messages represented by dif-      Print Master, Slide Shop, Slide Show,
  observations                           ferent signs/symbols, exploring/dis-      Storybook Theatre, Puppetmaker
• make practical changes that could      cussing interesting and creative
                                         styles, shapes and sizes of lettering     Communications software: Email,
  modify existing products or proc-                                                Keylink
  esses                                  on signs.
                                         Exploring sensory language. Using         Materials and equipment: pictures of
• present ideas as to what they might                                              facial expressions, sample road safety
  plan as a design proposal              oral language to describe how things
                                         feel, look, sound, taste and smell.       and other familiar signs, Braille writ-
• combine a variety of materials and                                               ing, practice telephone, cassette re-
  images to make simple models,          Mathematics                               corder, clothes for costumes
  drawings and structures
                                         Making 2D shapes using various ma-        Teaching strategies
• describe to others the strengths and   terials.
  limitations of a design                                                          7 Observing to explore and dis-
                                         Recognising and creating patterns.           cover
• choose classroom materials and
                                         Observing and identifying shapes in       9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
  tools appropriate to the activity
                                         road signs.                                  cover
• identify and use with safety the                                                 10 Proposing explanations
  correct tools for specific purposes    Human Society and its Environment
                                                                                   12 Clarifying an investigation
• recognise their own use of technol-    Researching ways people communi-          24 Evaluating designs
  ogy in the school and home envi-       cate to meet their needs.                 31 Evaluating chosen technologies
  ronment                                Communicating research findings in        41 Computer graphics
                                         this area.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make signs that indicate different activity          Investigate ways we communicate using signs and sym-
areas in the classroom/school. [G]                              bols. [W]

Activities                                                      Activities
Identify the areas to be labelled, eg wet area, reading         Walk around the school local areas and observe signs
corner, computer corner, large group area, listening posts,     around us. Discuss the messages they communicate.
canteen, assembly area.                                         [TS7]
Suggest the key idea, person or object that needs to be         Identify the sorts of actions they are asking for.
recorded. Decide whether words are needed.                      Explore the ways symbols are used in Aboriginal art to
Make drawings of ideas, or use a computer graphics              communicate and tell stories. Research how symbols are
package to create the symbol. [TS41]                            used in other cultures.
Present to other class members to identify and decide           Collect other examples, eg road safety, international
whether the message is clear. [TS31] Make changes if            symbols, computer graphics. Note differences. Identify
necessary. Ensure the sign is noticeable.                       common features of signs and symbols, eg stick figures,
Choose materials that will be appropriate to go on the          just a few words. Explore the colours that are commonly
sign. Consider whether the sign will be inside/outside,         used. Suggest why this may be.
how it will be attached/displayed.
Create the sign and display.

Task                                                            Task
Design a performance of a story without words. [G]              Investigate how we communicate without using words.
From the list of ways that we communicate choose ones
that can be used to tell a story, eg clothing, facial expres-   View a mime or Aboriginal performance (live or on video)
sions, sound effects, movement.                                 to observe how to communicate without using words.
Select a story or event to perform.                             List the ways ideas are communicated, eg movements,
Make decisions about where to use the different tech-           facial expressions, clothing items, movement, props or
niques, eg signs between scenes, clothing to tell more          objects, sound effects. Discuss whether everyone inter-
about a character. Consider how sounds and actions can          prets things in similar ways. [TS9]
be combined.                                                    Experiment ‘talking’ to a friend using only actions. Show
Try the ideas out. Suggest whether you need to make             different emotions with face, whole body. Use ‘dress up’
improvements to make the meanings clearer. [TS23]               materials to show different characters.
Rehearse the performance and show it to an audience.            Explore the way sounds can create moods.
[TS39]                                                          Explore provisions made for people with special commu-
                                                                nication needs, eg Braille for the blind, signing for the deaf,
                                                                interpreters for non-English speakers.

Task                                                            Task
Use prepared graphics software to design and make               Investigate how living things communicate. [G]
masks. [G]
Activities                                                      Discuss the many ways we communicate. Identify some
Explore the range of facial expressions that can be created     reasons why we need to communicate, eg danger, hunger,
using the prepared graphics. Select face, shape and facial      greetings, to find things out, happiness, sadness.
features from graphics bank.                                    Identify the senses that other animals use. Research, eg by
Move features, trying different positions to create the         asking a vet, how animals’ senses differ from human
expressions desired. [TS41]                                     senses, eg dogs have a stronger sense of smell. [TS10]
Print the mask. Decorate, selecting colours that best           Compare how animals use their senses. Are some senses
convey the meanings required.                                   more important to animals than others?
Print out final designs and further decorate.                   Collect pictures and describe with the pictures how these
Use the masks in a performance.                                 living things communicate and why (group activity
Have other children identify the feelings expressed.            project).

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                     71
Toy World                                                                                                Stage 1
Games and toys

Content focus                            Assessment                                Suggested resources
     Built Environments                  Listed below are selected examples of     Sport, Hammond, T
     Physical Phenomena                  strategies that may be used in assess-    Themes from the Playground, Hope, C
     Products and Services               ing this unit of work.                    Into Science (series), Oxford
                                         • Conduct a group conference where        Make and Discover (series), Collins
Outcomes                                   students demonstrate similarities
                                                                                   Games Around the World (kit),
                                           and differences between materials
This unit contributes to the follow-                                               UNICEF
                                           used in toys and games and equip-
ing syllabus outcomes.                     ment.                                   Computer software: adventure games,
                                                                                   eg Playroom
Knowledge and Understanding              • Have students explain the work-
                                           ings of their toy, using drawings or    People and places: library, museum,
Students will know and understand          models to exemplify their ideas (the    parent helpers, school playground
that:                                      drawing/model should not be the         Materials and equipment: construc-
• people organise spaces by assem-         focus of the assessment).               tion blocks, plasticine toys, sporting
  bling and arranging components to      • Explain how to use a toy or play a      equipment, materials and tools as
  meet particular needs                    game.                                   required for specific designs, games,
• pushes and pulls can make things                                                 reverse garbage material
  move and stop                          Links with other                          Teaching strategies
• products can be created to fulfil
  specific purposes.                     Key Learning Areas                        6  Fostering curiosity
Students will:                                                                     7  Observing to explore and dis-
                                         English                                      cover
• give examples of the ways the dif-
  ferent senses can be used in obser-    Joint construction of procedures for      8 Researching to explore and dis-
  vation                                 playing games, exploring audience,           cover
• recognise that discoveries can be      purpose, features of instructions. Us-    12 Clarifying an investigation
  made through play, exploring and       ing writing to label models and           15 Explaining understandings
  experimenting                          sketches.                                 18 Clarifying a design task
• give examples of how people plan       Mathematics
  to make in order to provide for        Recognising, representing and inves-
  their own and others’ needs            tigating properties of 3D objects.
• recognise that people plan and make
  changes in many aspects of their       Personal Development, Health and
  daily lives.                           Physical Education
Skills                                   Movement exploration, eg exploring
                                         equipment, exploring body move-
Students will:                           ment, moving in spaces.
• explore how things work and en-        Developing understanding of stu-
  gage in guided play                    dents’ physical capacities/character-
• combine a variety of materials and     istics and those of others.
  images to make simple models,
  drawings and structures                Human Society and its Environment
• identify and use with safety the       Exploring individual and cultural dif-
  correct tools for specific purposes.   ferences.
Values and Attitudes                     Creative and Practical Arts
Students will:                           Visual arts: sequence based on direct
• persevere with activities to their     experiences, eg toys.
• respect the rights and property of     Teacher notes
  others                                 Use toys and games from other cul-
• work cooperatively in groups           tures to extend students’ awareness of
• gain satisfaction from their efforts   other possible designs and materials
  to investigate, to design and make     to use in their own toy or game design.
  and to use technology.

Task                                                          Task
Design and make a toy or plaything that moves. [G]            Investigate how toys and other play objects can be made
                                                              to move. [W]
Research which types of (non-motorised) moving toys
students like. Bring to school some to share.                 Gather a variety of toys that move. Use the toys to explore
Model ideas for the toy using construction blocks or other    the concepts of still/moving, slow/fast. [TS6]
materials.                                                    Classify toys according to the way they move, eg roll,
Consider how the toy can be made to move. Select the          spin, slide, fly.
type of movement required, eg sliding, rolling, jumping,      Identify the parts of the object that move.
flying. Also consider appearance, eg colour, shape, size.     Explore the effect of a push or a pull (force) on a toy.
Select materials and make a prototype. [TS18] Demon-          Predict how a variation in the push/pull makes it go
strate to other class members how the toy works. Discuss      slower and faster. Apply different forces to the same
possible improvements. Modify the toy if needed. Evalu-       objects to test predictions.
ate in terms of movement, interest, appearance.               Identify objects that rely on pushes and pulls to be moved,
                                                              eg chairs, skateboards. [TS12]

Task                                                          Task
Design and make a toy. [G]                                    Investigate toys, games and sporting equipment. [W]

Activities                                                    Activities
Generate ideas for a toy, using experiences with other toys   Collect a range of toys. Include toys and games from many
as a model. Consider whether it would be used indoors/        cultures. [TS7]
outdoors; what materials would be needed to make it;          Classify according to commonalities, eg board games,
safety rules required.                                        balls, playground, indoor/outdoor etc. Identify character-
Make a sketch. Explain ideas to others and see if they can    istics, likes and dislikes, advantages, disadvantages.
suggest any improvements.                                     Identify toys and games that can be made from naturally
Make the toy and see how it works.                            occurring or ‘found’ materials, eg sticks, string, stones.
What do other students think of it?                           Using a collection of balls and/or a variety of bats and
                                                              racquets compare and contrast their shapes and the mate-
                                                              rials used to make them.
                                                              Explore their uses, eg throwing, kicking.
                                                              Relate their properties to their use, eg rolling, bouncing,
                                                              stretching, soft, hard, long etc.

Task                                                          Task
Use games equipment to make a new game. [G]                   Investigate games and toys from the past. [I]

Activities                                                    Activities
Generate ideas for possible new games. Ask students to        Research information on some types of games or toys used
bring in equipment and materials from home. From this         in the past in our culture or some other culture. [TS8]
each group selects some pieces of equipment/materials to      Identify the ways that toys and games have changed over
make a new game. The group trials the game by playing it      time and record the information on a time line.
themselves, then suggests and implements improvements.        Discuss reasons why people construct toys and play
Students teach the game to another group.                     games. [TS15]
Identify the senses being used in the game.
Explain how the senses are important in playing the game.

                                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                  73
What’s Alive?                                                                                                Stage 1
Characteristics of living and non-living things

Content focus                            • work cooperatively in groups              accepted characteristic of living things.
                                         • be curious about the natural and          Computers are often attributed with
     Living Things                         made environment.                         human characteristics, eg users talk to
     Physical Phenomena                                                              them. This unit can be used to identify
     Earth and its Surroundings          Assessment                                  that they are not living.
                                                                                     The living space for an animal need
                                         Listed below are selected examples of
Outcomes                                 strategies that may be used in
                                                                                     not be a permanent living space and
                                                                                     may not necessarily be used.
This unit contributes to the follow-     assessing this unit of work.
                                                                                     ‘Pamphlet’ production for younger
ing syllabus outcomes.                   • Collect samples of students’ work         students may involve simple pictures
Knowledge and Understanding                as illustration of developing skills      accompanied by captions. Older stu-
                                           of observation.                           dents may give greater emphasis to
Students will know and understand        • Have students describe the needs          the text.
that:                                      of chosen animals/plants and sug-
• all living things are different          gest how these should be provided
• living things grow, reproduce,           for.
                                                                                     Suggested resources
  move, need air, take in nutrients      • Observe students using materials          My World (series), Macmillan
  and eliminate wastes                     and equipment in designing and            If you were a ... (series), Collins
• living things and machines need          making activities.                        Stop Watch (series), Hodder &
  energy to do things                                                                Stoughton
• some living things change accord-      Links with other                            Australian Wildlife and their Babies,
  ing to the seasons.                    Key Learning Areas                          Ridyard, D
Students will:                                                                       Feathers Fur or Fins (video), ABC
• recognise that discoveries can be      English                                     Tracks to Primary Science, Freer, K
  made through play, exploring and                                                   and O’Toole, M
  experimenting                          Using speech to clarify ideas when
                                         designing.                                  Look (series), Longman Cheshire
• show that equipment should be                                                      Computer software: publishing soft-
  used with care and safety.             Identifying the purpose and audience
                                         for pamphlets. Drafting, editing and        ware, eg Children’s Writing and Pub-
Skills                                   publishing information in pamphlet          lishing Centre; wordprocessors, eg
                                         form.                                       Fredwriter, Appleworks; graphics
Students will:                                                                       software, eg Printmaster Plus, Print
• observe using all the senses           Mathematics                                 Shop and simulations, eg Zoopack,
• explore how things work and en-        Classifying objects according to simi-      Learn about Animals
  gage in guided play                    larities.                                   People and places: zoos and farms;
• undertake an investigation as a re-                                                field studies centres
  sult of individual curiosity or as a   Human Society and its Environment           Materials and equipment: construc-
  means of solving problems              Identifying basic human needs. Rec-         tion materials as required, various
• choose classroom materials and         ognising the need to care for all living    objects, audio-visual equipment,
  tools appropriate to the activity      things in the environment.                  plants and animals
• identify and use with safety the       Personal Development, Health and            Teaching strategies
  correct tools for specific purposes    Physical Education
• recognise their own use of technol-                                                7    Observing to explore and dis-
  ogy in the school and home envi-       Identifying individual needs and rec-            cover
  ronment                                ognising needs of others.                   11   Predicting outcomes
• maintain and care for equipment in     Creative and Practical Arts                 15   Explaining understandings
  their immediate surroundings and                                                   16   Applying understandings
                                         Drama: simple improvisation based
  organise their immediate environ-                                                  32   Audio-visual technologies
                                         on photographs of groups of plants or
  ment.                                                                              38   Publishing
Values and Attitudes
Students will:                           Teacher notes
• demonstrate confidence in them-        Some animals suitable for classroom
  selves                                 care include ants, guinea pigs, birds,
• persevere with activities to their     tadpoles, fish, caterpillars and lizards.
  completion                             Accepted characteristics of living
• be honest in their dealings with       things include growth, movement,
  others                                 need for food/water, need for air, re-
• respect the rights and property of     sponse to stimuli, reproduction, waste
  others                                 elimination. Breathing is not an

Task                                                           Task
Design an environment for animals or plants to live in at      Investigate characteristics of living and non-living things.
school. [G]                                                    [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
(All designs should cater for all needs, eg enough room for    Observe and list characteristics of living things, eg move-
animals to run around in.) Identify needs of classroom         ment, reproduction, growth. Use video or photographs to
animals/plants based on the identified characteristics of      record observations. [TS32] Suggest how we know that
living things. (These may also include other needs such as     things are alive.
shelter, warmth, affection/care, company.)                     Describe the needs of living things. Observe the differ-
Develop a design proposal to meet these needs. [TS16]          ences between living and non-living things. Make a
• For animals consider food/water supply, housing, keep-       checklist of characteristics.
   ing clear, providing sufficient air, room to move.          Collect a range of familiar items, eg pot plants, ruler,
• For plants consider the plants’ needs for water, sunlight,   person, toys. Predict if a specified/selected item is alive or
   air etc.                                                    not. Test examples against the list of criteria established
Make suggestions as to how these needs may be met.             earlier, eg can it reproduce, does it need food, does it grow?
[TS11]                                                         Classify these items as living or non-living. Draw conclu-
Use the student design proposals and select appropriate        sions to identify the characteristics of living things. Clas-
materials to construct a space inside or outside the class-    sify other objects in the classroom as living or non living,
room to keep plants/animals.                                   eg ants, tree, people, pot plant, book, clothing, programmed
                                                               toys, bike, table. [TS15]
If the space is to keep plants or animals it will need to be
secure and provide the necessary requirements for the
well being of the living things.

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a pamphlet advising other students             Investigate the diversity of animal and plant life in your
how to care for a chosen plant or animal. [G]                  environment. [G]

Activities                                                     Activities
Use simple pamphlets as a model for students’ publishing.      Explore the differences between plants and animals.
Model pamphlet production by jointly constructing a            Observe the characteristics of different animals, in the
whole–class example. In groups, select the plant or ani-       playground, on a farm or at a zoo. [TS7] Compare and
mal to write about.                                            contrast characteristics of plants to those discovered
Discuss the types of information the audience (other           about animals. Identify similarities and differences be-
students) might need. Identify headings/sub-headings as a      tween plants and animals. Include reptiles, insects, fish
guide. Use these to draft the text, based on observations      and birds as well as mammals.
and discussion of the chosen plant or animal. [TS38]           Identify Australian animals. Discuss how some animals
Create or select photos, drawings or computer graphics to      have been named, eg kookaburra, cockatoo are Aboriginal
illustrate sections of the text.                               names.
Organise the information and graphics into pamphlet            Use video, photographs and drawings to record observa-
form. Display/store in library for other students’ refer-      tions of how the animals satisfy their needs, eg how they
ence.                                                          move, foods eaten. [TS32]
                                                               Explore and identify the parts of a plant. Observe/collect
                                                               a variety of ‘whole’ plants (including the root system).
                                                               Compare and identify common features, eg leaves and
                                                               stems are often green. Infer or suggest the function of
                                                               various parts of plants.
                                                               Collect drawings of native NSW plants and use these to
                                                               construct a poster.

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    75
Kids Care                                                                                                  Stage 1
Conserving our local environment

Content focus                            • have a positive view of themselves        Teacher notes
                                         • persevere with activities to their
     Built Environments                    completion                                When looking at built environments
     Living Things                                                                   select small areas, eg local shops, or
                                         • be honest in their dealings with
     Products and Services                                                           sections of larger shopping centres.
                                                                                     When on the excursion to the natural
                                         • respect the rights and property of
Outcomes                                                                             area, emphasise to students the im-
                                                                                     portance of not damaging or hurting
This unit contributes to the follow-     • show informed commitment to im-           animals or plants.
ing syllabus outcomes.                     proving the quality of their imme-
                                           diate environment
Knowledge and Understanding              • be curious about the natural and
                                                                                     Suggested resources
Students will know and understand          made environment                          Do the Right Thing (kit), State Pollu-
that:                                    • gain satisfaction from their efforts      tion Control Commission
• people organise spaces by assem-         to investigate, to design and make        Right on, Let’s Clean the Air, Let’s
  bling and arranging components to        and to use technology.                    Clean the Water (kits), State Pollu-
  meet particular needs                                                              tion Control Commission
• products can be created to fulfil      Assessment                                  The Biggest Bug (video), Austral Pa-
  specific purposes                                                                  cific Productions
                                         Listed below are strategies that may
• products can be made, processed or                                                 Computer software: Children’s Writ-
                                         be used in assessing the objectives of
  grown.                                                                             ing and Publishing Centre, The Print
                                         this unit of work.
Students will:                                                                       Shop, Printmaster, The Three Little
                                         • Observe students’ willingness to          Pigs
• recognise that discoveries can be        listen to the ideas of others.
  made through play, exploring and                                                   People and places: national parks,
                                         • Have students describe/assess the         Forestry Commission, Mining and
  experimenting                            results of their designing and mak-
• name possible needs and wants of                                                   Geological Museum, parks, botanic
                                           ing.                                      gardens
  people                                 • Consider how effective is the com-
• recognise that technological activ-                                                Materials and equipment: a variety of
                                           post heap constructed by the stu-         ‘disposable’ materials
  ity affects people and their envi-       dents.
  ronments                                                                           Teaching strategies
• show that equipment should be          Links with other                            8    Researching to explore and dis-
  used with care and safety
• give examples from their immedi-
                                         Key Learning Areas                               cover
                                                                                     9    Manipulating to explore and dis-
  ate environment that show how          English                                          cover
  resources can be conserved.
                                         Modelling and using the language of         13   Trialling and testing ideas and
Skills                                   predictions, inferences and explana-             concepts
Students will:                           tions.                                      15   Explaining understandings
• undertake an investigation as a re-    Exploring the audience and language         16   Applying understandings
  sult of individual curiosity or as a   features of plays and advertisements.       23   Considering appearance and
  means of solving problems                                                               function
• present ideas as to what they might                                                25   Selecting and using materials
  plan as a design proposal              Classifying objects according to one        29   Selecting appropriate technolo-
• combine a variety of materials and     or more attributes. Pictorially repre-           gies
  images to make simple models,          senting groups of objects.                  31   Evaluating chosen technologies
  drawings and structures                Human Society and its Environment           32   Audio-visual technologies
• describe to others the strengths and   Developing understandings about             38   Publishing
  limitations of a design                natural and built components of
• choose classroom materials and         school and local environments.
  tools appropriate to the activity
• identify and use with safety the       Personal Development, Health and
  correct tools for specific purposes    Physical Education
• recognise their own use of technol-    Developing individual responsibility
  ogy in the school and home envi-       towards caring for the environment.
                                         Creative and Practical Arts
Values and Attitudes                     Visual arts: drawing items in natural
Students will:                           and built environments from direct
• demonstrate confidence in them-        observations. Noting how shapes,
  selves                                 lines, colours are similar and different.

Task                                                           Task
Design a way of maintaining a litter-free environment at       Investigate the effect people have on local environments.
school. [W]                                                    [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Identify an area that needs protecting, eg near the canteen,   Collect items from around the playground, eg emu pa-
and the problems experienced, eg students dropping pa-         rade, treasure hunt. Classify them as naturally, or not
per.                                                           naturally, found.
Evaluate means that already exist to address the problem.      Compare the playground to another built environment,
Suggest additional methods that may be employed, eg            eg shopping area or main street of town. Observe and
novelty bins, incentives to pick up rubbish, publicity         record all the elements of this environment, eg shops,
campaign. [TS8]                                                signs. Draw pictures of the shops in the local shopping
Novelty bins                                                   centre. Combine to make a collage.
In groups, generate ideas, eg paint funny faces to ‘feed’,     Identify other local environments. Predict which things
and use on a bin for each grade. Present the plans to other    have been put there by people or have grown naturally.
classes, principal. Collect materials and implement the        Observe and list the features of these, eg buildings, paths
design. [TS9]                                                  roads, grass areas.
Publicity campaign                                             Visit and observe a natural environment, eg national park,
Brainstorm ideas about type of media, eg video, poster,        re-establishment area, local bush land, river. List all the
jingle, presenting a play/poem, radio/announcements.           items/elements observed. Record sounds, smells and
[TS32] Use examples as models, to examine possible             textures. Compare this list to the list from the shopping
techniques etc. Consider presentation of the play includ-      area.
ing costumes, props; jingles, sounds and script for radio      Compare ‘natural’ environments with ‘built’ environ-
advertisement/announcement; pictures, words and their          ments, by direct observation, using videos and books.
placement on posters. [TS38] Apply the design, eg posi-        Explain the differences observed when people alter the
tion bins, put on the play, put up posters, ‘broadcast’ ads    environment, eg less trees/more trees, buildings, roads.
or make the announcement.                                      [TS15]
Evaluate the effect of the design on students’ behaviour.
Task                                                           Task
Design and make packaging for a gift that is environmen-       Investigate what happens to materials left in the environ-
tally friendly. [TS25]                                         ment. [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Work out the steps needed to create the package.               Observe local environments, park, school grounds, shop-
Experiment with a variety of designs on rough paper.           ping centre. Record findings using a tape recorder, or in
Decide on the type of package and choose the most              drawings. Classify as naturally found or left by people.
appropriate materials to use. Get another opinion.             [TS32]
Collect selected materials.                                    Identify the types of materials in the ‘left by people’ group.
Consider how the packaging looks and how it can be             Make predictions about items left by people, eg what will
appropriately decorated. [TS23]                                happen to them, how long will they stay there, which ones
Evaluate the results — did it work out as you had hoped?       will stay longest. Devise ways of testing the predictions.
Identify improvements that could be made. Try again if         [TS13] Compare different materials, eg plastics, paper,
desired. [TS31]                                                food scraps, metal cans. Keep systematic records to show
                                                               what happens to these materials over periods of time, eg
Identify and list things that have been put in the play-
                                                               a day, a week, a fortnight. Make explanations of what has
ground by people, eg buildings, seat, flagpole, litter, gar-
dens. Sketch or photograph items.
                                                               Make a class compost heap.
Create a card to accompany the gift from recycled mate-
rial.                                                          Reflect on the effect of people leaving things in the
                                                               environment. Include consideration of how areas look
Observe a range of greeting cards. Evaluate how suitable
                                                               when litter is left around. Explore alternatives to throw-
they are for different people. As a group develop a design
                                                               ing items away, eg reusing for another purpose.
brief and make the card. Evaluate the card with respect to
the brief.

Devise ways of adapting used articles for a different purpose. [G]

Identify reasons for adapting or reusing materials, eg to      material from worn–out clothes to make dolls’ clothes, a
conserve the material, to save money, because of a par-        bag or cover or protect something. [TS16]
ticular like of the material.                                  Make multiple copies of the product and devise ways of
Develop ideas about adapting a range of products to            advertising and marketing the adapted product. [TS29]
perform a different function, eg cutting down a plastic
bottle to make a funnel, a scoop or a boat; cutting up

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   77
Sense of Direction                                                                                        Stage 1
Using the senses to observe and explore

Content focus                           Values and Attitudes                       Music: exploring the use of tone col-
                                                                                   our to create scary, pleasant, peaceful
     Information and Communication      Students will:
     Living Things                      • persevere with activities to their
                                        • be honest in their dealings with
                                                                                   Teacher notes
Outcomes                                  others                                   It must be emphasised that tasting
This unit contributes to the follow-    • respect the rights and property of       unidentified substances can be ex-
ing syllabus outcomes.                    others                                   tremely dangerous.
Knowledge and Understanding             • work cooperatively in groups             The unit provides an excellent oppor-
                                        • show a commitment to fair treat-         tunity to sensitively explore sensory
Students will know and understand                                                  disabilities in the class. Be sensitive
                                          ment to all
that:                                                                              to Aboriginal students with hearing
                                        • be curious about the natural and
• there are different ways of commu-                                               problems.
                                          made environment.
  nicating with others
• all living things are different
                                        Assessment                                 Suggested resources
• the senses are used to receive mes-                                              Five Senses, Braithwaite, A
  sages from all around.                Listed below are strategies that may
                                        be used in assessing the objectives of     Eyewitness Guides (series), Collins
Students will:
                                        this unit of work.                         The Bionic Ear (kit), Computer edu-
• state the purpose of an investiga-                                               cation unit
  tion                                  • Use audience involvement and re-
                                          sponse to assess the design and pro-     Potential Unlimited (video), Com-
• give examples of the ways the dif-                                               puter education unit
  ferent senses can be used in obser-     duction of the festival of the senses.
                                        • To what extent have the students         Through Grandpa’s Eyes (video), Film
                                          worked cooperatively in groups?          and video library
• recognise that discoveries can be
  made through play, exploring and      • How well have the students               In Touch with the World (video), Na-
  experimenting                           achieved their aims in the produc-       tional Geographic
                                          tion of the Festival of the Senses?      Computer Software: Make the Con-
• give examples of how people plan
  to make in order to provide for       • Is there evidence of students self-      nection!, On the Playground, Silly
  their own and others’ needs             esteem being raised and/or an in-        Noisy House, Arthur’s Teacher Trou-
                                          crease in respect of individuals by      ble, Zoopack
• recognise that people plan and make
                                          students?                                People and places: Life Education cen-
  changes in many aspects of their
  daily lives                                                                      tres, field study centres, guest speak-
• demonstrate that tools and equip-     Links with other                           ers who are sight/hearing impaired,
                                                                                   North Rocks Blind/Deaf School.
  ment can be used to aid observa-      Key Learning Areas                         Materials and equipment: Reverse
                                        English                                    garbage materials, lighting, range of
• recognise that technological activ-                                              strongly flavoured foods and foods
  ity affects people and their envi-    Exploring sensory language. Using          from different cultures, recordings of
  ronments.                             oral and written language to describe      sound effects, a feely box.
Skills                                  how things feel, look, sound, taste
                                        and smell.                                 Teaching strategies
Students will:                                                                     2    Reflecting
• observe using all the senses          Mathematics
                                                                                   3    Evaluating resources
• explore how things work and en-       Using simple graphs to collate data.
                                                                                   7    Observing to explore and dis-
  gage in guided play                                                                   cover
                                        Human Society and its Environment
• combine a variety of materials and                                               13   Trialling and testing ideas and
  images to make simple models,         Exploring individual differences.
  drawings and structures               Personal Development, Health and           16   Applying understandings
• choose classroom materials and        Physical Education                         18   Clarifying a design task
  tools appropriate to the activity
                                        Developing understanding of stu-           24   Evaluating design
• identify and use with safety the
                                        dents’ physical capacities/character-      28   Learning safety procedures
  correct tools for specific purposes
                                        istics, those of others and caring for     31   Evaluating chosen technologies
• maintain and care for equipment in    our senses.
  their immediate surroundings and
  organise their immediate environ-     Creative and Practical Arts
  ment.                                 Crafts/Design: designing and mak-
                                        ing props.
                                        Drama: trust exercises.

Task                                                           Task
Design and produce a Festival of the Senses. [W]               Investigate how people react to different sensations. [I]

Activities                                                     Activities
Clarify the task by discussing what is meant by a festival     Identify which senses we use when we get a shock, eg hear
and a Festival of the Senses. [TS18]                           an unusual sound, see something unusual. [TS2]
Identify the types of things that stimulate our senses. This   Test images, sounds, odours, textures, flavours to see
can be based on the results of some investigation of           which are soothing, disturbing etc.
human senses. Make a list of the types of things people        Explore the relationships between senses. [TS7] Test to
like/dislike seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling and touch-     see if senses are amplified when others are impaired, eg
ing.                                                           noise seeming louder when you can’t see. [TS13]
Discuss how some of these things can be used in the            Compare personal experiences and reactions with the rest
Festival of the Senses.                                        of the class. Explore whether the same things frighten/
Make a list of the types of things to include. Decide          shock/please everybody.
whether to include things people dislike as well as ones       Make a record of scary, pleasant, peaceful things. [TS16]
they like.
Consider available resources.
Brainstorm how many things can be found and used.
Decide how effects can be created. Try out different           Task
devices, materials etc. Consider safety in using materials     Investigate devices which help our senses provide infor-
and equipment. [TS28]                                          mation about our environment. [I]
Choose a venue for the Festival – a classroom, storeroom,
hall, the playground etc. Decide how the area will be          Activities
organised including seating, lighting, sound etc.
Make all props, selecting appropriate materials to fulfil      Explain the need for devices to increase the ability of our
identified needs.                                              senses to observe things around us or to warn of danger our
                                                               senses may not detect.
Set aside work areas in which to prepare items.
                                                               Make a list of the devices that we use to help our senses
Assign roles and responsibilities in producing sensory
                                                               (eg magnifying glass, ordinary glasses, hearing aid, red
items and in presenting the event.
                                                               lights on hot stoves, stop lights, horns on cars etc).
Decide whether to deprive visitors of one of their senses
when they visit. Consider how this could be done, eg           Classify these according to the sense(s) used. Identify
using a blindfold. Will you shock them, soothe them?           areas in the school/class where devices could be used to
                                                               increase the information provided by the senses. [TS30]
Invite your guests and see their reactions.
Evaluate according to how well you achieved your aims
and whether the audience enjoyed themselves. [TS24]
                                                               Investigate the human senses. [G]

                                                               Identify the various parts of the body, eg arms, legs, nose
                                                               and describe what each is used for.
                                                               Refine the list to those organs/body parts that are used to
                                                               gain information from around us, eg ears, eyes, nose,
                                                               mouth (tongue, lips) and skin (touch, feel).
                                                               Identify which senses we have and how we use them.
                                                               Test the senses. Use a ‘feely’ box to identify hidden items,
                                                               do some taste tests, make a sound map showing sounds
                                                               you like/don’t like, survey popular colours, do a sniff test
                                                               to identify pleasant/unpleasant odours.
                                                               Compare how people use their senses. See whether people
                                                               like the taste of the same things, whether everyone is able
                                                               to see or hear as well as others.
                                                               Observe how blindfolding or covering the ears affects
                                                               perceptions using other senses. Consider the things that
                                                               affect the senses.
                                                               Identify items we use to see/hear better, eg binoculars,

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                  79
Back to Nature                                                                                           Stage 1
Uses of naturally occurring substances

Content focus                             • maintain and care for equipment in     Creative and Practical Arts
                                            their immediate surroundings and       Deciding on presentation of rooms,
     Products and Services                  organise their immediate environ-      tables, cutlery, invitations etc.
     Living Things                          ment.
                                                                                   Decorating of made containers.
     Physical Phenomena                   Values and Attitudes
     Earth and its Surroundings                                                    Teacher notes
                                          Students will:
                                          • demonstrate confidence in them-        When identifying the origins of mate-
Outcomes                                    selves                                 rials use examples that are not com-
This unit contributes to the follow-      • have a positive view of themselves.    plex combinations of substances.
ing syllabus outcomes.                    • work cooperatively in groups           With young students it is important
Knowledge and Understanding               • show informed commitment to im-        that discussion of ‘bush foods’ be in-
                                            proving the quality of their imme-     cluded, with an emphasis on the dan-
Students will know and understand           diate environment                      gers of eating unidentified berries,
that:                                     • be curious about the natural and       fruits etc found in students’ environ-
• people organise spaces by assem-          made environment                       ment. You may wish to develop the
  bling and arranging components to       • gain satisfaction from their efforts   ‘lunch’ activity together with another
  meet particular needs                     to investigate, to design and make     senior class.
• living things grow, reproduce,            and to use technology.
  move, need air, take in nutrients                                                Suggested resources
  and eliminate wastes                    Assessment
• the senses are used to receive mes-                                              Cut It, Pluckrose, H
  sages from all around                   Listed below are selected examples of    Join It, Pluckrose, H
• products can be made, processed or      strategies that may be used in           Things I Make with Cloth, Lohts, S
  grown.                                  assessing this unit of work.             What Did you Eat Today?
Students will:                            • Have students identify natural         Short Cuts to Health and Living (kit),
• recognise that discoveries can be         substances during other class          Australian Meat and Livestock Co-
  made through play, exploring and          activities.                            operative
  experimenting                           • Observe the students’ expressions      Buying Lunch at School (video), Min-
• name possible needs and wants of          when containers are complete.          istry of Education, Victoria
  people                                  • Ask students to write how they         Computer software: desktop publish-
• give examples of how people plan          have used their containers.            ing programs, eg Print Shop, Print
  to make in order to provide for         • Ask children to classify a range of    Master, Genesis, MS Word, MS
  their own and others’ needs               materials according to given char-     Works. Thomas’ Snowsuit, On the
• recognise that people plan and make       acteristics.                           Playground, Taking Responsibility,
  changes in many aspects of their                                                 Fantavision, Animation
  daily lives                             Links with other                         People and places: Reverse Garbage,
                                                                                   State Pollution Control Commission
• recognise that technological activ-     Key Learning Areas                       Materials and equipment: cooking
  ity affects people and their envi-
  ronments                                                                         utensils, menus, ingredients as se-
• give examples from their immedi-                                                 lected, pictures of foods, samples of
                                          Developing menus or invitations          vegetables to observe and group, a
  ate environment that show how
                                          through Process Writing. Consider-       variety of materials, eg woollen cloth,
  resources can be conserved.
                                          ing the purpose and audiences.           wood, rock, plastic, leather, paper,
Skills                                    Discussing the presentation of the       wax, plaster.
Students will:                            room, cutlery etc required.
                                                                                   Teaching strategies
• observe using all the senses            Mathematics                              7 Observing to explore and dis-
• name possible needs and wants of        Calculating the quantities of food          cover
  people                                  required. Measurement activities         8 Researching to explore and dis-
• make practical changes that could       when following recipes.                     cover
  modify existing products or proc-                                                9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
  esses                                   Human Society and its Environment           cover
• present ideas as to what they might     Considering ‘waste’ products from        11 Predicting outcomes
  plan as a design proposal               the meal. What can they be used for?     15 Explaining understandings
• describe to others the strengths and                                             17 Exploring needs
  limitations of a design                 Personal Development, Health and
                                          Physical Education                       18 Clarifying a design task
• choose classroom materials and                                                   26 Organising tools, equipment and
  tools appropriate to the activity       Relating issues of health to natural        processes
• identify and use with safety the        products used, eg medicines, fibres      27 Understanding materials
  correct tools for specific purposes     for clothing, and shelter.               32 Audio-visual technologies
• recognise their own use of technology                                            37 Animation
  in the school and home environment                                               38 Publishing

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a container for a specific purpose using       Design and make a product from animal or plant mate-
appropriate natural materials. [I]                             rial found in the playground. [G]

Activities                                                     Activities
Discuss the type of container to be made and its purpose,      Explore the available products in shops/environment.
eg a basket, a pot, a bag. Identify desirable properties.      Classify as plant/animal/combination. Discuss how value
[TS18] Draw ideas of what the item could look like.            is added to raw materials by using them to produce useful
Explore and describe a range of materials to determine         items. Generate ideas for a product. Explore the range of
whether they are appropriate, taking into consideration        materials available to determine whether they are appro-
the properties of the materials. Consider also joining and     priate. Consider also joining materials. Implement the
decorating materials. Implement the design ideas. Evalu-       design ideas. Evaluate the suitability of the material and
ate the suitability of the material and design used. [TS9]     design used.
Take the container home and use it.

Task                                                           Task
Investigate natural materials in the environment. [G]          Investigate the use of some naturally occurring sub-
                                                               stances. [G]
Explore small areas of the playground to find substances       Activities
which are natural, rather than made (plants, animals etc).     Fibres
                                                               Explore some of the different types of materials used to
Explore a natural environment to find other substances by      make fabrics. Try the library, ask other people, refer to
taking an excursion to a local area. Discuss the differences   other cultures. Classify the fabrics as natural/made. Group
between natural and made substances. Categorise the            natural fabrics as plant or animal. Match the fibre with its
substances into natural or made. From the ‘made’ group         origin, eg cotton–cotton plant, angora–angora rabbit etc.
find out if there are any natural substances which were        Research how the fibres are collected, eg picked, clipped
used in the making process. Add new ‘natural’ substances       from the animal. [TS8] Invite a guest speaker to demon-
to the original category. Create pictures to represent         strate how animal fibres can be spun into yarn, eg wool,
natural substances and label them. Using materials iden-       angora. Explore some of the uses of each fibre and any
tified, predict how these materials could be used. [TS11]      special properties it has.
List as many examples as possible in the classroom, eg
                                                               Building Materials
wood – desk tops, cupboards, rulers, the door; wool –
jumpers, carpet or curtains etc. Explore the use of natural    Explore the different types of building materials in the
materials by Aboriginal people and people of other cul-        school environment. [TS8] Classify the material as ‘natu-
tures. [TS8] Discuss multiple uses of different materials      ral’/’made’. Match the natural materials with the source,
including recycling. Explore the uses made by Aboriginal       eg wood–trees, sandstone–rocks etc. Research some of the
people and people of other cultures of natural and made        ‘made’ materials to find out if there are any natural
materials. Discuss the importance of natural materials to      substances used in the making process. Identify the origin
our everyday life. Reflect on whether we could manage          of these substances. Explain some of the uses of each of
without them, whether we damage the natural environ-           the natural materials identified. [TS15]
ment when we obtain them. Suggest substitutes that
could be used. [TS17]

Investigate some characteristics and properties of natu-
ral materials. [G]

Explore a large variety of natural materials, eg clay, air,
water, wool, rocks, metals, soil, plant materials (wood,
cork). Classify according to shared characteristics, eg
hard/soft, shiny/dull, bends/doesn’t bend, hot/cold. Use a
‘feely’ bag containing objects made from a variety of
materials. Describe as many properties as possible of a
selected item. Predict what the object is and what it’s
made of. Predict the possible effect on materials of hitting
with a hammer, wetting with water, leaving in the sun
etc. Experiment to test the effects. Compare the effects on
different materials. Suggest possible/appropriate uses for
materials based on their characteristics and properties.

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   81
A Place in Time                                                                                            Stage 1
Weather and how it changes our surroundings

Content focus                            • combine a variety of materials and      Human Society and its Environment
                                           images to make simple models,
     Built Environments                                                            Developing empathy with and appre-
                                           drawings and structures                 ciation for the environment.
     Information and Communication       • describe to others the strengths and
     Living Things                         limitations of a design                 Personal Development, Health and
     Physical Phenomena                  • choose classroom materials and          Physical Education
     Products and Services                 tools appropriate to the activity       Identifying responsible behaviours in
     Earth and its Surroundings          • maintain and care for equipment in      the sun, and before, during and after
                                           their immediate surroundings and        physical activity.
Outcomes                                   organise their immediate environ-
                                                                                   Creative and Practical Arts
This unit contributes to the follow-                                               Designing a class mural, model or
ing syllabus outcomes.                   Values and Attitudes                      collage of holiday destination.
Knowledge and Understanding              Students will:
Students will know and understand
                                         • demonstrate confidence in them-         Teacher notes
that:                                                                              The activities in this unit should be
                                         • persevere with activities to their      repeated each term, eg February, April,
• people alter their environment in        completion
  response to natural conditions                                                   July, October, in accordance with the
                                         • be honest in their dealings with        seasons. Comparisons should be made
• information can be stored for later      others
  use                                                                              between these observations. Com-
                                         • work cooperatively in groups            pare also changes in our needs and
• products can be created to fulfil
                                         • show informed commitment to             behaviour.
  specific purposes
                                           improving the quality of their          Draw upon multicultural back-
• time can be measured through             immediate environment                   grounds of students where applicable
  change and regular events
                                         • be curious about the natural and        to introduce events and climate of
• the weather can have a powerful          made environment                        other cultures including Aboriginal
  effect on people                                                                 cultures.
                                         • gain satisfaction from their efforts
• some living things change accord-        to investigate, to design and make
  ing to the seasons.                      and to use technology.                  Suggested resources
Students will:
                                                                                   Hunter for All Seasons, Harris, S
• state the purpose of an investiga-     Assessment                                What is the Difference (series), Hodder
• give examples of the ways the dif-     Listed below are strategies that may      & Stoughton
  ferent senses can be used in obser-    be used in assessing this unit of work.   Season Themes Through the Year,
  vation                                 • Observe students designing and          Hope, C
• demonstrate that tools and equip-        making charts, drawings and using       Australian Dreaming, Isaacs, J
  ment can be used to aid observa-         equipment.                              Season Projects (series), Wayland Pty
  tion.                                  • Promote peer evaluation of the wa-      Ltd
• name possible needs and wants of         terproof outfits designed by the stu-   Australian Seasons, Fairely, A
  people                                   dents.                                  Computer Software: Compute-A-
• recognise that people plan and make    • Engage in teacher-student               Graph
  changes in many aspects of their         interviews to determine student         People and places: botanic gardens,
  daily lives                              understanding of how the changes        parks, zoos
                                           in weather are related to human
• show that equipment should be                                                    Materials and equipment: tempera-
  used with care and safety.                                                       ture strips, clothing catalogues, a wide
                                                                                   variety of materials, fabrics
Skills                                   Links with other
Students will:                           Key Learning Areas                        Teaching strategies
• observe using all the senses                                                     7    Observing to explore and dis-
• undertake an investigation as a        English                                        cover
  result of individual curiosity or as   Using talking and listening to coop-      13   Trialling and testing ideas and
  a means of solving problems            eratively select, plan, manipulate re-         concepts
• name possible needs and wants of       sources and make decisions in de-         16   Applying understandings
  people                                 signing and making tasks.                 17   Exploring needs
• make practical changes that could                                                18   Clarifying a design task
  modify existing products or                                                      31   Evaluating chosen technologies
  processes                              Comparing two temperatures.
• present ideas as to what they might    Naming and ordering the months of
  plan as a design proposal              the year and the seasons.

Task                                                             Task
Design and make symbols for a weather chart represent-           Investigate the weather conditions that we can experi-
ing the temperature, major weather features. [I]                 ence at any time of year. [I]

Activities                                                       Activities
Identify a range of weather conditions to be recorded, eg        Observe and identify a range of weather conditions, eg
sun, clouds, wind, cold, hot.                                    rain, sun, fog, hail. Predict the weather conditions you
Generate ideas for simple representations for class chart,       would expect at different times of the year. (Test predic-
personal charts. Consider ways of ensuring regular record-       tions using unit activities through the year.) Discuss how
ing. Devise methods of creating standard symbols to use          the seasons differ from those in Europe and North America.
each day. Explain the symbols to the class. Evaluate each        [TS7]
of these designs by trialling their use over a period of time.
[TS13] Refine the symbols in the light of the evaluation.

Task                                                             Task
Design items for people to use in response to changing           Investigate the changes that take place at different times
conditions throughout the year. [G]                              of the year in:
                                                                 • the weather
Activities                                                       • plant and animal life
Identify differing clothing needs and suggest appropriate        • human behaviour. [G]
clothing requirements for school, for play etc. Evaluate
how well they meet our needs. Design changes to the              Activities
classroom so it meets the needs of students in different
seasons. [TS16]                                                  Weather
Indicate how people’s varying needs would be met in each         Observe and record daily weather on chart. Make com-
case, eg foods, clothing requirements, activities enjoyed.       parisons to other seasons.
[TS17]                                                           Observe and informally measure wind in different parts of
Pool ideas based on your observations. Decide upon               the playground, near buildings etc. Record on drawing or
method of presenting the design, eg class mural, model,          simple diagram of school. Observe and record sunny/
collage.                                                         shady areas of school on drawing, plan or map.
Use a variety of materials appropriate to the season, eg         Use simple equipment to record rainfall over a month by
towelling, woollen fabrics, leaves, sand, twigs.                 measuring the quantity of water collected.
Keep designs from each season and make comparisons               Construct a calendar using symbols to show rainfall over
when complete.                                                   a month.
                                                                 Plants and animals
                                                                 Trace around and record colours of leaves. Do a tree/leaf
                                                                 survey. Visit local botanic gardens. Collect animal life
                                                                 from a tree by gently shaking a branch over a sheet.
                                                                 Identify and record the number of insects present. Count
                                                                 and record the number and varieties of birds in the
                                                                 playground. Compare results each season.
                                                                 Human behaviour
                                                                 Discuss effects of weather. Explore foods eaten, feelings,
                                                                 leisure activities, outdoor/indoor activity, health (eg sun-
                                                                 burn, colds, hay fever), clothing, holidays, feasts. Discuss
                                                                 ways traditional Aboriginal people move in response to
                                                                 seasonal change, eg water supply and food resources.

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a waterproof outfit. [G]                         Investigate fabrics and their suitability for use in wet
                                                                 weather garments. [G]
Identify the things that will be needed, eg raincoat, hat,
boots etc. Examine a range of wet weather clothing.              Test a range of materials and fabrics to discover how well
Identify and evaluate characteristics in terms of effec-         they protect from rain, dry when wet, etc. Predict how
tiveness. Generate ideas for students’ own design. Draw          long various fabrics will take to dry. Test and compare
ideas. Select appropriate materials and make the outfit for      results with predictions. Explore ways of drying fabrics
the teddy bear.                                                  faster. [TS31]

                                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   83
Picture It                                                                                                Stage 1
Communicating through pictures

Content focus                            Assessment                                 Teachers need to be sensitive to cul-
                                                                                    tural and gender stereotypes repre-
     Built Environments                  Listed below are selected example          sented on television. Discussion of
     Information and Communication       strategies that may be used in assess-     how TV characters differ from stu-
     Products and Services               ing the objectives of this unit of work.   dents may be appropriate.
                                         • Observe students designing and
Outcomes                                   making their visual programs.            Suggested resources
                                         • Encourage peer evaluation of the
This unit contributes to the follow-       stories created.                         Photography, Meadows, G
ing syllabus outcomes.                   • Have students explain how they           Hands On, Taylor, A
Knowledge and Understandings               would create a mood using only           Photography: Take a Look, Herd, D
                                           pictures or textures.                    Classroom Photography, CDC
Students will know and understand
                                                                                    Learning by Making Photographs,
• there are different ways of commu-
                                         Links with other                           CDC
  nicating with others                   Key Learning Areas                         Computer software: computer graph-
                                                                                    ics software, eg Create With Garfield,
• products can be created to fulfil                                                 Explore-a-Story Series, Picture Book,
  specific purposes.                     English
                                                                                    Big Book Maker
Students will:                           Discussing common features of sto-         People and places: local TV stations,
• recognise that discoveries can be      ries (narrative) — characters, setting     local theatre groups, local newspaper
  made through play, exploring and       and events, structure. Encouraging
                                                                                    Materials and equipment: magazines,
  experimenting                          students to draft, revise/edit and pub-
                                                                                    story books, pictures and photographs,
• give examples of how people plan,      lish stories.
                                                                                    television timetables, audio-visual
  to make in order to provide for        Mathematics                                equipment
  their own and others’ needs
• show that equipment should be          Comparing groups using pictorial rep-      Teaching strategies
  used with care and safety.             resentations. Using photographs to
                                         explore simple mathematics con-            18   Clarifying a design task
Skills                                   cepts.                                     25   Selecting and using materials
                                                                                    31   Audio-visual technologies
Students will be able to:                Human Society and its Environment          36   Animation
• observe using all the senses           Using skills developed in this unit to
• interpret data and explain their       extend ways of organising and pre-
  observations                           senting information.
• present ideas as to what they might
  plan as a design proposal              Personal Development, Health and
• combine a variety of materials and     Physical Education
  images to make simple models,          Using movement to communicate
  drawings and structures                ideas, messages or a story.
• describe to others the strengths and   Creative and Practical Arts
  limitations of a design
• choose classroom materials and         Visual Arts: sequence using medi-
  tools appropriate to the activity      ated images, eg asking questions,
                                         looking at pictures.
• maintain and care for equipment in
  their immediate surroundings and
  organise their immediate environ-      Teacher notes
  ment.                                  Skills in ‘reading pictures’ should be
Values and Attitudes                     developed progressively throughout
                                         every year of schooling. Students at
Students will:                           Stage 1 can take photos using simple
• work cooperatively in groups           cameras, developing skills in framing
• be curious about the natural and       objects and selecting visual informa-
  made environment                       tion. A variety of visual products can
• gain satisfaction from their efforts   be created, eg tape/slide sequences,
  to investigate, to design and make     photo montage, drawings with cap-
  and to use technology.                 tions, picture sequences selected from
                                         magazines etc.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a visual program accompanied by a               Investigate how pictures can give us information. [G]
sound track. [W]
Activities                                                      Gather a variety of pictures, photographs, drawings. Iden-
Decide on a story (or ideas) to be told. Consider traditional   tify what is happening/present in the image. Group im-
stories from various cultures.                                  ages according to different criteria, eg colours, things that
Choose a way of presenting the pictures and sounds              seem far away, people, places. Discuss patterns or com-
or text, eg tape/slide sequences, photo story (using pho-       mon features, eg colour creating mood, arrangement of
tos, drawings or OHP transparencies) with spoken/per-           figures, texture, moods etc.
formed soundtrack.
Create an image for each part of the story. Consider the
information to be included and how it will appear. Think
about how to create the feel required.
Select and produce sounds that might accompany the
story. Devise a way of ensuring the soundtrack matches
the pictures when presented.
Present the program. Evaluate in terms of audience enjoy-
ment as well as personal satisfaction.

Task                                                            Task
Use text and graphics software to create a visual story. [I]    Investigate how pictures can be combined to tell a story.
Explore graphics available in the package, eg
backgrounds, characters, objects. Combine selected ele-         Identify how photos/images are part of continuing events.
ments to create visual scenes. Evaluate.                        Suggest what may have come before the image, what will
Write captions using text facility or word processor or add     happen next. After some practice, students create stories
a sound track. Design a title page and credits.                 from a given picture. Groups use the same image and each
Publish story by viewing on screen and playing the sound-       creates a story. Compare stories and note differences.
track, recording story and soundtrack on video or print-        Suggest reasons for these.
ing. Share with other students.                                 Using a number of images, sequence them to tell a story.
                                                                Tell a story based on a given sequence of pictures. Com-
                                                                pare results with other groups with the same pictures in
                                                                the same sequence or the same pictures in a different
                                                                order. Add captions and display. Compare results from
                                                                different groups.
                                                                Rearrange images to tell a different story. Consider whether
                                                                all images are needed.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    85
What’s for Lunch?                                                                                       Stage 1
Food, meals and nutrition

Content focus                           • work cooperatively in groups            meat and fish, fruit and vegetables,
                                        • gain satisfaction from their efforts    dairy products.
     Built Environments                   to investigate, to design and make      With young students it is important
     Information and Communication        and to use technology.                  that discussion of ‘bush foods’ also
     Living Things                                                                emphasises the dangers of eating uni-
     Products and Services              Assessment                                dentified berries, fruits etc found in
                                                                                  students’ environment.
                                        Listed below are strategies that may
Outcomes                                be used in assessing this unit of work.
This unit contributes to the follow-
                                                                                  Suggested resources
                                        • Have students retell their experi-
ing syllabus outcomes.                    ences of the luncheon.                  What Did You Eat Today? Nelson
                                        • Observe students during the design-     Short Cuts to Health and Living (kit)
Knowledge and Understanding
                                          ing and making of the luncheon.         Buying Lunch at School (video)
Students will understand that:          • Ask children to design a healthy        Computer software: graphics soft-
• people organise spaces by assem-        meal that could be prepared for         ware, eg The Print Shop, Printmaster
  bling and arranging components to       different occasions, eg picnic.         Plus, Deluxe Paint III, Children’s
  meet particular needs                                                           Writing and Publishing Centre
• information can be stored for later   Links with other                          People and places: The Royal Botanic
  use                                                                             Gardens; local markets; food market
• living things grow, reproduce,
                                        Key Learning Areas                        groups, eg Egg Board, Fish Marketing
  move, need air, take in nutrients     English                                   Authority
  and eliminate wastes                                                            Materials and equipment: cooking
• products can be created to fulfil     Exploring purpose, audience and fea-      utensils, menus, ingredients as se-
  specific purposes                     tures of interviews. Practising for-      lected, pictures of foods, samples of
• products can be made, processed or    mulating and asking questions.            vegetables to observe and group
  grown.                                Discussing the language of invita-
                                        tions and menus, noting differences       Teaching strategies
Students will:
                                        and similarities.                         1  Cooperative learning
• give examples of the ways the dif-
  ferent senses can be used in obser-   Mathematics                               7  Observing to explore and dis-
  vation                                                                             cover
                                        Classifying objects according to one
• name possible needs and wants of                                                18 Clarifying a design task
                                        or more attributes.
  people                                                                          26 Organising tools, equipment and
• give examples of how people plan      Human Society and its Environment            processes
  to make in order to provide for       Identifying foods eaten by students in    38 Publishing
  their own and others’ needs           order to extend understandings of cul-
• recognise that technological activ-   tural diversity in their own commu-
  ity affects people and their envi-    nity.
                                        Personal Development, Health and
Skills                                  Physical Education
Students will be able to:               Developing understandings about
• interpret data and explain their      health and nutrition.
  observations                          Creative and Practical Arts
• name possible needs and wants of
  people                                Visual Arts: sequence beginning with
                                        remembered experiences, eg favour-
• present ideas as to what they might
                                        ite foods.
  plan as a design proposal
• recognise their own use of technol-
  ogy in the school and home envi-
                                        Teacher notes
  ronment.                              Discussion of diabetes, allergies etc,
                                        would be appropriate at this stage,
Values and Attitudes
                                        especially if there are students in the
Students will:                          class with diet restrictions.
• persevere with activities to their    Food groups to include in a healthy,
  completion                            balanced diet are bread and cereals,
• respect the rights and property of

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a healthy lunch for the class. Invite a         Investigate our need for healthy food. [G]
guest, using computer technology to personalise invita-
tions. Create an attractive menu. [W]                           Activities
Activities                                                      Explore how we can find out what people need to eat. Try
                                                                the library, ask other people, eg a nurse, dietitian, Aborigi-
The meal                                                        nal health unit.
Discuss the range of foods that could be included in a          Research whether all people need the same food, eg
lunchtime meal.                                                 children, adults, grandparents, people with diabetes, al-
Survey to discover the foods people like to eat for lunch.      lergies etc. Find out if people choose to eat the same foods.
Brainstorm ideas about the ways of gathering informa-           Discuss individual likes/dislikes of students in the class.
tion. Suggest questions that could be posed. By consensus,      Classify foods into groups, eg foods with leaves, red
decide on a final set of survey questions. Use the question-    coloured. Try again using different criteria, eg red meat,
naire to interview other students, family etc. Present the      white meat, vegetables, by taste, smell or touch.
information, eg make a graph, use a computer spreadsheet.       Identify healthy foods, why they are good for us and why
Use this information in deciding the meal to be prepared.       it is important to provide a balance between different food
Refer also to knowledge of healthy food to ensure the           types. Group foods into healthy and not so healthy.
choices are appropriate.                                        Invite someone to speak to the class about food and diet,
Consider how the meal can be presented in an attractive         eg nurse, doctor, athlete.
way.                                                            Explore bush foods. Compare to other foods available to
Identify the necessary ingredients and utensils. Organise       class. Research traditional Aboriginal diet.
a way of obtaining these.
The environment
Create a hygienic workspace for preparing the food.
Organise a suitable place for serving lunch to your guests.
Consider space, appearance, accessibility, table setting,
appropriate cutlery.
The invitations
Consider the requirements of the invitation, eg who is to
be invited, how the name and address on the invitation          Investigate where our food comes from. [W]
can be changed, whether a reply is required. Select the
information to be included.                                     Activities
Using computer software try different ways of organising
and presenting the information by manipulating text and         Group the food items identified earlier as plant or animal.
graphics.                                                       Identify the parts of plants that we eat, eg leaves, roots,
                                                                stems. Classify common fruit/vegetables according to the
Evaluate in terms of practicality and appeal.
                                                                parts we eat, eg leaves: lettuce, cabbage; stem: celery,
Jointly construct the final invitation. Design and organise a   onions.
way for each student to create an individually addressed        Visit the local shops and identify the foods purchased at
invitation.                                                     each, eg fruit and vegetables, meat, bread.
Produce the invitations and send to the guests.                 Explore where food comes from before reaching the shops.
The menu                                                        Visit a farm, orchard or cannery. Observe the production
Using a variety of simple menus, identify how informa-          of milk, eggs, grains.
tion is presented.                                              List common food eaten by the students and beside each
Decide on format, and materials to be used.                     name the source of food.
Make the menus.

                                                                Investigate what makes a healthy lunch. [I]

                                                                Individually list the types of food eaten for lunch (as
                                                                opposed to other meals). Identify what makes these suit-
                                                                able for lunchtime eating, eg sandwiches are easy to wrap,
                                                                salad doesn’t have to be kept warm. Explain why certain
                                                                foods are not eaten for lunch. Discuss the variety of food
                                                                eaten by people from various cultures.
                                                                Explore social customs associated with eating lunch, eg in
                                                                some places the main meal is sometimes eaten at ‘lunch-
                                                                time’, different names for meals, implements used in
                                                                different places/cultures.

                                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    87
Out and About                                                                                               Stage 2
Wheels and how students use them to move

Content focus                              • recognise the appropriate use of        Human Society and its Environment
                                             tools, equipment, hardware and          Researching effects of transport sys-
     Built Environments                      software                                tems on local communities and other
     Physical Phenomena                    • report on the social and environ-       Australian communities, past and
     Products and Services                   mental costs and benefits of famil-     present.
                                             iar technology.
                                                                                     Personal Development, Health and
Outcomes                                   Values and Attitudes                      Physical Education
This unit contributes to the follow-       Students will:                            Emphasising road safety rules that
ing syllabus outcomes.                     • demonstrate confidence in them-         apply to safe and responsible use of
Knowledge and Understanding                  selves and willingness to make de-      bicycles and other vehicles.
Students will know and understand          • have a positive view of themselves      Creative and Practical Arts
that:                                        and their capabilities                  Visual Arts: preparing a collage show-
• environments are sometimes modi-         • show responsiveness to ideas            ing the different types of vehicles.
  fied to fulfil new and different re-     • persevere with activities to their      Music: creating a song using the
  quirements                                 completion                              sounds of different vehicles.
• production technologies have             • be honest and open in their deal-
  changed over time                          ings with others                        Teacher notes
• simple machines can make moving
                                           • work cooperatively in groups            When using their own means of trans-
  loads easier
                                           • show a commitment to fair treat-        port, students must take a great deal
• materials and resources are used to
                                             ment for all                            of responsibility for their own safety
  produce goods and commodities
                                           • be curious about and appreciate the     and so need to be aware of the dangers
• materials are joined, formed, shaped
                                             natural and made environment            involved.
  and finished.
                                           • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   If making cardboard cogs ensure a
Students will:                               investigate, to design and make and
• demonstrate that investigation can                                                 standard pattern is used.
                                             to use technology
  take many forms                          • appreciate the scientific and tech-
• recognise that the results of inves-       nological contribution made by          Suggested resources
  tigations can lead to more ques-           Australians.                            Street Sense, Level 1 and 2 (kit), Road
                                                                                     Traffic Authority
• show that designing and making           Assessment
  can lead to the need for investiga-                                                Skateboarding is not a Book, Adams,
  tions                                    Listed below are selected examples of     V et al
• recognise that designs are con-          strategies that may be used in assess-    Bicycles Down the Years (video), Cur-
  strained by time, skills, tools and      ing this unit of work.                    riculum Branch Ministry of Educa-
  materials                                • Use cooperative assessment of           tion, Victoria
• identify the forms and components          group work in the design and mak-       Computer software: prepared graphic
  used in the production of a design         ing of futuristic transport.            software, eg Car Builder, Transporta-
• relate planning and evaluating to        • Observe students in their manipu-       tion/transformation, Wild Science
  each stage of designing and making         lation of gears/cogs.                   Arcade, All about Simple Machines
• relate the particular properties of      • Consider their willingness to en-       People and places: Powerhouse Mu-
  materials to end uses                      gage with the materials and how         seum, CSIRO centre, RTA, Wollon-
• justify the selection of processes,        well their understandings are uti-      gong University Science Centre
  tools, equipment, materials, prod-         lised in their designs.                 Materials and equipment: Osmiroid
  ucts and software to meet the re-                                                  Teko, Lego Technic Duplo,
  quirements of the task.                  Links with other                          Googolplex, Meccano, bikes, roller
Skills                                     Key Learning Areas                        skates, skateboards
Students will:                                                                       Teaching strategies
• state the issue or area to be investi-                                             8  Researching to explore and dis-
  gated                                    Exploring purpose and features of a          cover
• propose explanations using simple        report, to describe their means of
                                           transport.                                9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
  observations                                                                          cover
• make a prediction based on data          Using talking and writing to explain
                                           how cogs and gears work.                  17 Exploring needs
  collected by themselves or others
                                                                                     23 Considering appearance and
• describe needs and wants of people       Mathematics                                  function
  in relation to design activities
                                           Observing and exploring the shapes        25 Selecting and using materials
• suggest modifications to design pro-     of moving parts of toys. Explaining
  posals to improve the original de-       how they fit together and affect other
  sign                                     moving parts.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a means of transport for the future. [G]        Investigate how transport needs have been met in the
                                                                past. [I]
Brainstorm ideas. Draw a picture to explain how the
vehicle works. Include safety features.                         Research different means of transport and how they have
Choose materials, considering their suitability. [TS5]          been developed to meet specific needs, eg trucks to move
Consider how they can be joined and shaped.                     heavy loads, ships for travel on water. [TS8]
Make the model. Test and evaluate its success.                  Compare past and present forms of specific vehicles.
                                                                Show how and why vehicles have changed. Identify safety
Write a report describing your means of transport.
                                                                features and how they’ve changed. Make a time line to
Include details of how it would be used, where it would be      show developments in transport.
able to go, the fuel it needs, what it might be made of if it
were real.                                                      List problems arising from developments in transport, eg
                                                                more roads, runways, fuel use, pollution.
Reflect on the implications of using the chosen materials
and fuel source.                                                Predict what transport may be like in the future. Consider
                                                                availability of fuel, impact of more roads and more cars,
                                                                alternatives to present means etc.

Task                                                            Task
Design solutions to problems associated with the use of         Investigate students’ transport. [G]
students’ transport. [G]
Activities                                                      Survey students to find their most commonly used means
Discuss and identify problems students experience in            of transport.
using rollerskates, skateboards. [TS17]                         Observe the structure of student vehicles and how they
Identify problems that can be addressed by the class, eg        work, eg bicycle–wheels, gears; rollerskates–wheels, bear-
nowhere to ride, kids not wearing helmets, cyclists being       ings. Draw diagrams of vehicles. Label working parts and
difficult to see.                                               explore their function. Research how to ensure they are
In groups, suggest solutions to the problem or action that      operating correctly. Discuss the safety benefits of regular
can be taken, eg design a bike path in most frequently          maintenance checks.
used areas, a rollerskating area in a local park or school,     Discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated
a campaign to raise awareness of bike safety, safety            with these means of transport, eg bikes–head injuries,
equipment to make riders easier to see.                         dangerous on the road; skates–nowhere to ride safely.
Evaluate any local facilities already provided. Model,          List road safety rules that apply to the use of student
construct or present the design. Wherever possible imple-       vehicles.
ment the design.                                                Explore ways of making riders ‘stand out’. Predict which
Evaluate the design in terms of how well it may solve the       clothing colours are most noticeable. [TS22] Devise a
problem. Consult other people, eg parents, council, com-        way of testing the suggestions. Trial a variety of devices
munity members for their reactions.                             and methods to increase riders’ visibility.

Task                                                            Task
Investigate how gears/cogs make things move. [G]                Use gears to design and make a toy that includes some-
                                                                thing that moves, eg top launcher, merry-go-round. [G]
Identify cogs/gears in the students’ environment, eg parts
of bicycles, toys, clocks, motors. [TS8]                        Explore how gears make things move and how they can be
Explore how cogs work using cardboard examples or               used to make a toy work. [TS9]
Osmiroid Teko, Lego Technics, Meccano. Consider how             Select materials to build the toy, eg match boxes, balsa
they fit together, how one cog makes others move, the           wood, construction materials.
source of energy, eg pedals, motor, water.                      Consider how the toy looks. Add decorations if appropri-
Trace the path of movement from one cog to another.             ate.
Explore how different sized cogs change the movement.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                 89
Indoors, Outdoors                                                                                        Stage 2
Organising spaces into structures and buildings

Content focus                            • make a prediction based on data         Human Society and its Environment
                                           collected by themselves or others
     Built Environments                                                            Investigating built environments lo-
                                         • devise ways of checking or testing      cally and in other Australian commu-
     Living Things                         predictions                             nities, past and present.
     Products and Services               • evaluate materials and processes
     Earth and its Surroundings            used                                    Creative and Practical Arts
                                         • recognise the appropriate use of        Visual Arts: sequence starting with
Outcomes                                   tools, equipment, hardware and          remembered experiences, eg places,
This unit contributes to the follow-       software.                               building. Using colour.
ing syllabus outcomes.                   Values and Attitudes
                                                                                   Teacher notes
Knowledge and Understanding              Students will:
                                         • persevere with activities to their      Care should be taken if discussing
Students will know and understand                                                  students’ homes. The unit focuses on
that:                                      completion
                                                                                   the specific use of materials related to
• people create specialised environ-     • respect the rights and property of      the features of buildings.
  ments to meet specific needs             others
                                         • work cooperatively in groups
• structures are built from natural
                                         • show informed commitment to im-
                                                                                   Suggested resources
  and processed materials and com-
  ponents                                  proving the quality of their local      Bridges, Graham, R
• environments are sometimes modi-         environment                             How we Build (Series), Macmillan
  fied to fulfil new and different re-   • be curious about and appreciate the     The Source Book (kit), The Built En-
  quirements                               natural and made environment            vironment Education Network
• computers are machines that store      • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   The Blue Mountains, Threatened Wil-
  and process information                  investigate, to design and make and     derness (video)
• plants and animals live in environ-      to use technology.                      Where the Forest Meets the Sea
  ments that supply their needs                                                    (Video), Film Australia
• materials and resources are used to    Assessment                                Computer software: graphics soft-
  produce goods and commodities          Listed below are selected examples of     ware: Swivel 3D, Build (Micro Primer
• manufacturing processes convert        strategies that may be used in assess-    Pack 3), Building Perspective, Dragon
  raw materials into useful products     ing this unit of work.                    World, Flowers of Crystal, Town
• there are benefits and problems as-                                              Builder
                                         • Conduct conferences with students
  sociated with human changes to           to identify the features of various     People and places: botanic gardens,
  the physical environment.                outside/inside features.                local parks, Department of Planning,
Students will:                                                                     Powerhouse Museum, Sydney Tower,
                                         • Have students present their find-       Canberra (a planned city)
• show that designing and making           ings in the form of similarity/dif-
  can lead to the need for investiga-      ference charts.                         Materials and equipment: building
  tions                                                                            blocks, construction materials,
                                         • Discuss the materials that could be     photographs of homes and buildings
• give examples of predictions that        used in construction in different
  are sometimes supported, some-           environments.                           Teaching strategies
  times disproved
                                                                                   7    Observing to explore and dis-
• recognise that designs are con-        Links with other                               cover
  strained by time, skills, tools and    Key Learning Areas                        11   Predicting outcomes
                                                                                   15   Explaining understandings
• relate the particular properties of    English
  materials to end uses                                                            16   Applying understandings
• justify the selection of processes,    Demonstrating how to formulate            17   Exploring needs
  tools, equipment, hardware and         questions and access non fiction re-      24   Evaluating designs
  software.                              search material.                          25   Selecting and using material
                                         Using talking and writing to coopera-     41   Computer graphics
Skills                                   tively plan, select and manipulate re-
Students will:                           sources and make decisions.
• make accurate observations and de-     Mathematics
  scribe these observations, or record
                                         Investigating the properties of 3D ob-
  them as diagrams, tables of data
                                         jects, especially prisms and pyramids.
  and graphs
                                         Describing objects from different
• propose explanations using simple
                                         points of view. Classifying and con-
                                         structing 2D shapes.

Task                                                              Task
Design and make a model of a playground. [G]                      Investigate buildings and materials in a range of environ-
                                                                  ments. [I]
Gather information, by researching a variety of sources
on how playgrounds are planned, eg what structures are            Observe homes students live in. Make a record of different
required, other areas such as bridges, spaces and other           types of homes, eg a mural/collage, skyline silhouette.
facilities. [TS15] Discuss how the model will be made, eg         Compare differences in their physical structure. [TS7]
materials needed for selected structures or to reproduce          Look at a variety of scenes – photographs, videos of cities,
the look and feel of actual building materials. Consider          country scenes, past and present. Explain aspects of the
how these methods and available materials may influ-              buildings that appeal, eg shape, colour, surroundings.
ence the design. Organise groups to make the final deci-          Identify a variety of buildings with different purposes, eg
sions about features to be included. Make a plan. Use             shops, factories, silos, halls, schools, offices. Observe
models and rough sketches to try out different ideas.             differences in their features. Explain how the outside of a
Draw a map or picture of the design. Show where items
                                                                  building can indicate its purpose, eg signs, features. Pre-
will be placed, eg swings, see-saws, bridges, open space,
                                                                  dict what a given building might be used for. [TS11] Test
toilets. Explain to others decisions made regarding selec-
tion of structures and materials used, organisation of            the predictions through further investigation. Discuss
structures and spaces. Can others make suggestions to             whether the area a building is found in gives rise to
improve the design? Assign roles for completion of task.          expectations as to its purpose. Suggest reasons for the
Gather materials. Choose suitable materials from those            observations. Visit a country town, inner city suburb.
available. Make the model. Reflect upon your task con-            Record observations of buildings, spaces and their organi-
sidering the structures. Include how spaces have been             sation. Use annotated sketches. Compare the placement
used. Would you like to play in this area? Explain why.           of the homes as they appear in the city, country or in a
                                                                  suburb, past or present. Observe different uses of space.
                                                                  Research how cities have or have not been planned, eg
                                                                  Sydney, Canberra. Explore the needs for ‘green’ areas in a
                                                                  city or town. Make lists of the things that appeal/don’t
                                                                  appeal in the city or in the country. Compare the two lists.
                                                                  Consider whether everyone has the same opinion. Ob-
                                                                  serve the features of buildings. List the parts of a building,
                                                                  eg windows, entrances, steps, doors, verandahs. Observe
                                                                  and sketch a range of different examples. Compare the
                                                                  shapes of the entrances and windows. Compare a variety
                                                                  of rooms to see the effect of different windows. Walk
                                                                  around the school, visit shops. Make a model to test the
Task                                                              effect of large and small windows, eg light, temperature.
Design a plan for a city or community of the future, or           List the things that buildings are made from. Identify
suited to a different environment, eg underwater, in              materials used for different features, eg walls, roofs, win-
space. [W]                                                        dow frames. Describe as many properties as possible of
                                                                  selected material. Predict the possible effect on material
Activities                                                        of wetting, leaving in the sun etc. Experiment to test the
                                                                  effects. Compare the effects of different materials. Suggest
Establish conditions that may prevail in the selected             possible uses for these materials in construction based on
environment, eg under water, polluted air, personal aerial        their characteristics. Identify other structures found, eg
transport, shortage of building space. [TS16]                     bridges, towers. Identify shapes used in these structures,
Identify the special needs to be satisfied, eg provision of air   eg triangles, rectangles. Explain why these shapes are
to breathe, transport systems, food supplies, sealing out         used. Predict and test what would happen if different
water. Brainstorm ideas regarding the structures and serv-
                                                                  shapes were used. [TS24] Test different shapes to find
ices required and possible ways to supply them. [TS17]
                                                                  which are most stable.
Use drawings, models or computer graphics packages to
explore possibilities. Demonstrate how needs would be
met or provided for. Consider the materials that would be
appropriate in the given environment, eg underwater, for          Task
aerial buildings, underground. Construct a set of anno-           Use computer software to investigate created environ-
tated drawings or plans, a model or computer presenta-            ments of animals and describe the features of each. [I]
tion. Present to the class. Evaluate how well the needs
have been satisfied.                                              Activity
                                                                  Explore the graphics, graphics tools, objects, characters,
                                                                  backgrounds etc in the software package. [TS41]
                                                                  Investigate environments created by the computer soft-
                                                                  ware, simulation or create own environment using graph-
                                                                  ics and graphics tools. Use draw and paint programs to
                                                                  create a habitat that has been investigated, such as floor
                                                                  plans, buildings. Discuss the advantages of being able to
                                                                  simulate environments and being able to easily manipu-
                                                                  late graphics within the computer microworld. [TS15]

                                                                               SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   91
Mini-worlds                                                                                                Stage 2
Interactions of living things

Content focus                              • suggest modifications to design pro-    Personal Development, Health and
                                             posals to improve the original de-      Physical Development
     Built Environments                      sign
                                                                                     Extending activities to look at the
     Information and Communication         • use basic construction tools, mate-     behaviours of people in restricted en-
     Living Things                           rials and computerised data bases       vironments.
                                             to refine observations.
Outcomes                                   Values and Attitudes                      Teacher notes
This unit contributes to the follow-       Students will:                            Interdependence can be shown in
ing syllabus outcomes.                     • demonstrate confidence in them-         pictograms of food webs.
Knowledge and Understanding                  selves and willingness to make de-      Other microenvironments could in-
                                             cisions                                 clude fish ponds, terrariums, damp or
Students will know and understand
                                           • show responsiveness to ideas            shady areas, beneath rocks. An area of
                                           • respect the rights and property of      a flower bed is of great interest.
• people create specialised environ-
                                             others                                  The effect of one thing on another,
  ments to meet specific needs
                                           • work cooperatively in groups            their relationship and interdepend-
• environments are sometimes modi-                                                   ence are vitally important as a focus
  fied to fulfil new and different re-     • be curious about and appreciate the
                                             natural and made environment            in this unit.
• computers are machines that store        • gain satisfaction in their efforts to
  and process information                    investigate, to design and make and     Suggested resources
• plants and animals live in environ-        to use technology.                      Grounds for Learning, Cox, D et al
  ments that supply their needs                                                      Looking at ... (series), Suzuki, D
• living things depend on other living     Assessment                                The Puffin Book of Australian In-
  things to survive.                       Listed below are strategies that may      sects, Hunt, H
Students will:                             be used in assessing this unit of work.   Beastly Neighbours, Rights, M
• demonstrate that investigation can       • Conduct conferences with students       How Does your Garden Grow?
  take many forms                            to identify the modifications needed    Heinze, K
• recognise that the results of inves-       to attract different animals to an      Tracks into Primary Science, Freer, K
  tigations can lead to more ques-           area.                                   and O’Toole, M
  tions                                    • Have students use their database to     Look (series), HBJ
• give examples of predictions that          find information.                       Insects (video), Film and Video Li-
  are sometimes supported, some-                                                     brary
  times disproved                          Links with other                          Amazing Ants (video), Coronet
• recognise that designs are con-          Key Learning Areas                        The Hidden World (video), National
  strained by time, skills, tools and                                                Geographic
  materials                                English                                   Computer software: graphics soft-
• relate the particular properties of                                                ware: Explore Australia, Explore-a-
                                           Modelling with students, reading and
  materials to end uses                                                              Science–Whales, The Insect World,
                                           writing factual reports.
• explain that technology can be used                                                Heath Science, Animal Trackers.
                                           Exploring the purpose and features of
  to help people learn                                                               Adventure games: Frabon, A Deep-
• understand that the use of tools,                                                  sea Quest, Kraken. Databases:
                                           Encouraging students to use talking       Appleworks, FrEdbase
  equipment, software etc requires
                                           and writing in formulating plans and
  the development of specific skills                                                 People and places: botanic gardens,
                                           conferring with others.
• show that technology can enable                                                    parks, zoo, school playground, De-
  people to gain access to organise        Mathematics                               partment of Environment and Plan-
  and use information.                                                               ning, local council, Forestry Com-
                                           Comparing areas, measuring areas in
                                                                                     mission, Australian Museum
Skills                                     square metres.
                                           Measuring, graphing and comparing         Materials and equipment: magnify-
Students will:                                                                       ing glass/cube, bug catcher, micro-
                                           animals and insects and their body
• state the issue or area to be investi-   parts.                                    scope, measuring devices, garden tools
  gated                                                                              Teaching strategies
• make a prediction based on data          Human Society and its Environment
  collected by themselves or others.                                                 7    Observing to explore and dis-
                                           Investigating the impact of human
• devise ways of checking or testing                                                      cover
                                           activity on the natural environment
  predictions                              in the local area.                        12   Clarifying an investigation
• describe needs and wants of people                                                 16   Applying understanding
  in relation to design activities                                                   24   Evaluating design
                                                                                     39   Databases

Task                                                         Task
Design and modify the playground to attract new types of     Investigate a micro environment. [W]
animals. [W]
Activities                                                   Observe a designated area on a regular basis for a period of
Select an area to be modified. Describe and evaluate the     time. This could be one square metre, under a tree, a 30cm
existing area. Note the animals present.                     cube of ground. Record a detailed description of the area,
Discuss how the environment can be altered and how to        animals in it, how the area is used. Make drawings
attract                                                      showing positions of items, detail of plants/animals
    (a) more of the same animals; and/or                     present. [TS7]
    (b) different animals to the area.                       Record changes in the area twice daily for a week.
Choose a range of animals that could be attracted to the     After several days of observation predict the animals you
areas based on students’ investigation, eg birds.            would expect to find at the next time of recording.
Brainstorm ideas about changes to the environment, eg        Identify the relationship of the things within the area, eg
planting particular shrubs, making a bird bath to attract    snails eat plants; ants eat lunch crumbs.
birds. Make a list of ideas to be considered.                Compare to other animals, eg use a computer simulation
Show suggestions on a plan of the school environment to      program.
demonstrate proposed alterations.                            Make a detailed drawing to record observations of an
Explain reasons for making the changes.                      animal found in the area, make generalisations about its
                                                             behaviour. Use a magnifying glass or cube to aid observa-
Organise ideas into a series of steps to be followed.
                                                             tion. Supplement observation with research. Label the
Formulate a plan or combine suggestions to make a final      parts of the animal.
plan. Consider tasks, eg presentation of plan to obtain
                                                             Draw food chain/web.
permission, who will do the actual physical work. Illus-
trate the steps to be followed on a time line.               Have students try to think up their own ‘pictograms’
                                                             which show interdependence.
Discuss the plan and assign roles to carry out the various
tasks, eg organising committee.                              Make comparisons between this area and
Decide how the alterations will be funded, eg raising           • another similar one, but in a different position, eg
money, donations. Explore ways of obtaining plants or               sunny, grassed area and shady, grassed area
other requirements cheaply.                                     • another very different environment, eg shady
Apply the plan to make modifications to the environ-                grassed area and asphalt. [TS16]
ment, eg plant bottlebrush bushes.                           Record differences in physical features, flora and fauna
Make regular observations to help evaluate success of the    present. Suggest reasons for the differences.
plan.                                                        Research and identify animals that could be encouraged
Based on observations and evaluation, prepare a plan for     into the area, eg bees.
the continued maintenance of the area. [TS23]
Include allocation of responsibilities in a systematic and
fair way, eg watering, weeding, replenishing supplies.

Task                                                         Task
Design, make and use a database to record information        Investigate the behaviour of an animal that uses the
on selected animals. [G]                                     microenvironment. [W]

Activities                                                   Activities
Decide on fields in the database, eg name, habitat, food.    In the selected area identify suitable animals to observe.
Create record blanks on paper.                               Draw or photograph the animal showing characteristics.
Record information about chosen animals into the record      Make a record of the animal’s behaviour. Describe what it
blanks.                                                      is observed doing at specific times, at regular intervals.
Enter the information into a computer database.              Research the needs of the animal, using videos, books,
Search the database as part of an investigation, eg food     databases. Identify ways that they are being met by the
equals plants. [TS30]                                        present environment. Suggest improvements that could
                                                             be made.

                                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   93
Stuck on You                                                                                                Stage 2
Electrical energy in objects

Content focus                              • be curious about and appreciate the     Teacher notes
                                             natural and made environment
     Physical Phenomena                    • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   Static electricity works best on cool,
     Products and Services                   investigate, to design and make and     dry days. If investigations do not work,
     Earth and its Surroundings              to use technology.                      try again on another day when it is
                                                                                     drier when electrons tend to stay
Outcomes                                   Assessment                                rather than flow away in the moister
                                                                                     air. Sometimes the static electricity
This unit contributes to the follow-       Listed below are strategies that may      which is produced by the investiga-
ing syllabus outcomes.                     be used in assessing this unit of work.   tors through their shoes on a woollen
Knowledge and Understanding                • Challenge students to make a de-        or nylon carpet can even interfere
Students will know and understand            vice which is able to compare the       with the activities which are going
that:                                        strength of two magnets.                on!
• magnets attract some materials but       • Ask students to compare the             Investigations in static electricity can
  not others                                 strength of several magnets and to      be quite exciting and it provides a
                                             place these magnets in order of         great stimulus to the later investiga-
• materials and resources are used to
                                             magnetic strength.                      tion of electromagnetism.
  produce goods and commodities
• materials are joined, formed, shaped     • Discuss with students their under-
  and finished                               standing of how a magnet can be         Suggested resources
                                             used to make a motor.                   Light & Dark, Catherall, E
• most materials come from the earth
  and its surroundings.                    • Ask students to demonstrate how         Simple Science (series), Hodder &
                                             static electricity charges are pro-     Stoughton
Students will:
• show that designing and making                                                     Electricity and Magnetism, Whyman, K
  can lead to the need for investiga-                                                Magnets to Dynamos, Fagan, M
  tion                                     Links with other                          Computer software: Make the Con-
• relate the particular properties of      Key Learning Areas                        nection!, Wild Science Arcade
  materials to end uses.                                                             Materials and equipment
Skills                                                                               Magnets, bobby pins, pencils, large
                                           Conducting conferences with stu-          jar, string, water, pocket compass,
Students will:                             dents to discuss the properties of        rulers, cardboard, pile of books, horse-
• state the issue or area to be investi-   magnets.                                  shoe magnets, paperclips, thread,
  gated                                    Using oral and written language to        masking tape, metre rule, balloons,
• propose explanations using simple        describe how students constructed         woollen cloth
  observations                             the temporary magnet.
                                                                                     Teaching strategies
• organise systems for small–scale         Talking about and developing role
  mass production                          plays about situations involving static   10   Proposing explanations
• recognise the appropriate use of         electricity.                              14   Modifying understandings
  tools, equipment, hardware and                                                     15   Explaining understandings
                                           Human Society and its Environment
  software.                                                                          19   Exploring ideas
                                           Researching ways in which changes
Values and Attitudes                                                                 26   Organising tools, equipment and
                                           in this technology have impacted on            processes
Students will:                             society.
• demonstrate confidence in them-          Investigating the wide variety of de-
  selves and willingness to make de-       vices which use magnets in today’s
  cisions                                  society and discussing alternative
• have a positive view of themselves       methods of performing the function
  and their capabilities                   of these.
• show responsiveness to ideas             Personal Development, Health and
• persevere with activities to their       Physical Education
                                           Using exploration of human needs
• be honest and open in their deal-        and wants, and how they change, to
  ings with others                         lead into science and technology ac-
• respect the rights and property of       tivities.
• work cooperatively in groups
• show informed commitment to im-
  proving the quality of their local

Task                                                          Task
Use magnets to make a game for a young child. [G]             Investigate the properties of magnets. [I]

Activities                                                    Activities
Discuss games where magnets are used, eg travel games,        Collect and observe different types of magnets, eg bar,
drawing games, blackboard games, fishing games, boat          horseshoe, circular.
games. Consider the specifications of the design. Who will    Identify items that are known to be attracted to magnets.
play the game (individual or group)? What will be the         Predict whether other objects, metal and non-metal, will
theme? How will the end of the game be determined?            be attracted. Test the materials/items and record findings.
[TS19]                                                        Suggest common features of those items attracted to the
Devise and make the game. [TS26] Play the game and            magnets.
suggest further modifications or improvements. Evaluate
                                                              Map the magnetic field around a variety of magnets.
in terms of class enjoyment. Consider whether the game
                                                              Identify where the magnetic force is strongest. Explore
could be mass produced, ie identify which components
                                                              and observe the relationship between different magnets.
would need to be made, how would the production line be
organised. If possible produce a small number using this      Make statements to demonstrate understandings about
method. Consider cost of production, production meth-         the properties of magnets. [TS15]
ods available.                                                Research and list possible uses of a permanent magnet.
Task                                                          Explore the use of a magnet as a compass.
Design and make a compass for use on a treasure hunt.

Explore the different types of compasses available and
identify their main components. Generate ideas as to how
a compass could be made.
Make a sketch or plan of the design. Investigate and select
appropriate materials and equipment. Make a prototype
of the compass.
Judge the compass by using it on a course (to find ‘treas-
ure’). Compare with using an accurate commercially
produced compass. Suggest improvements to the design.

Task                                                          Task
Design and make a device that will use an electromag-         Investigate the construction and use of a temporary
net, eg burglar alarm, toy train signal, industrial metal     magnet (an electromagnet). [W]
sorter. [W]
Activities                                                    Explore how a temporary magnet may be made using
Gather information by researching the variety of devices      electricity. [TS19] Predict the factors that will make the
that use electromagnets. Discuss how the device could be      electromagnet stronger. Test these predictions, then sum-
made, eg materials needed, size of the device.                marise these findings. Compare the properties of an elec-
Detail the proposal by making drawings. [TS10] Explain        tromagnet and a permanent magnet. Brainstorm possible
the device and how it works to classmates. Discuss            uses for electromagnets where permanent magnets would
possible improvements and incorporate them if needed.         be unsuitable. Research the use of temporary magnets in
Produce the device.                                           industries such as automobile wreckers.
Evaluate the design according to its effectiveness, and if
appropriate, suggest further modifications. Identify how
the device could be mass produced.
Task                                                          Investigate static electricity. [I]
Design a method of safely removing a static charge. [G]
Activities                                                    Collect and observe different types of material that can be
Identify situations in which a static charge is produced.     charged when rubbed.
Discuss methods of removing the static charge. Sequence       Observe different types of materials that stick to charged
possible steps needed to remove the charge. Trial the         object. Predict whether other objects will be attracted to
method. Evaluate and modify method if needed. Repeat          the charged object. Test materials/items and record find-
the trial. [TS14]                                             ings. Suggest any common features of those items affected
                                                              by charged objects.
                                                              Make statements to demonstrate understandings about
                                                              static electricity.
                                                              Research situations where static electric charges occur.
                                                              (eg walking across nylon carpet, lightning).

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                 95
Keep in Touch                                                                                               Stage 2
Different ways of communicating

Content focus                              Values and Attitudes                      Human Society and its Environment
     Information and Communication         Students will:                            Considering individual differences us-
     Physical Phenomena                    • demonstrate confidence in them-         ing knowledge and skills to present
     Products and Services                   selves and willingness to make de-      research findings in ways appropriate
                                             cisions                                 to the purpose.
                                           • have a positive view of themselves      Identifying newspaper articles relevant
Outcomes                                     and their capabilities                  to current investigations.
This unit contributes to the following     • persevere with activities to their      Creative and Practical Arts
syllabus outcomes.                           completion
                                                                                     Selecting and assembling appropriate
Knowledge and Understanding                • be honest and open in their dealings    materials and music for a production.
                                             with others
Students will know and understand          • respect the rights and property of
that:                                        others
                                                                                     Teacher notes
• computers are machines that store        • show informed commitment to im-         Regular ‘news’ sessions can provide a
  and process information                    proving the quality of their local      useful introduction to reporting and
• people use different technologies to       environment                             factual writing.
  organise and communicate infor-          • be curious about and appreciate the     Electronic mail systems (eg Keylink)
  mation in different ways                   natural and made environment            can give students the opportunity to
• production technologies have             • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   exchange news items with other stu-
  changed over time                          investigate, to design and make and     dents around the state.
• materials and resources are used to        to use technology.                      News records can be made for differ-
  produce goods and commodities                                                      ent audiences at different times dur-
• there are benefits and problems as-                                                ing the unit. Audio recordings should
  sociated with human changes to
                                           Assessment                                provide an interesting alternative to
  the physical environment.                Listed below are selected examples of     written news items. Simple word
Students will:                             strategies that may be used in assess-    processing and graphics programs pro-
                                           ing this unit of work.                    vide other ways of recording news
• show that designing and making                                                     items. Teachers need to deal carefully
  can lead to the need for investiga-      • Observe students’ comments and
                                             discussion when negotiating design      with sensitive issues/events raised by
  tions                                                                              students. Teachers may need to direct
• identify the forms and components          requirements.
                                                                                     students toward the sorts of news/
  used in the production of a design       • Have each student state their own
                                             information, as deemed important        information to look for.
• relate planning and evaluating to
  each stage of designing and making         when using the telephone.
• explain that technology can be used      • Determine whether the method of         Suggested resources
  to help people                             communicating a method across the       Reading People, Cooke, D
• justify the selection of processes,        playground meets the design task        Survival: A History of Aboriginal Life,
  tools, equipment, materials, prod-         requirements and achieves the out-      Parbury, N
  ucts and software to meet the re-          come.
                                                                                     Let’s Go to a TV Studio, Grahame, A
  quirements of the task                                                             Messages, McPhee Gribble Publish-
• understand that the use of tools,        Links with other                          ers
  equipment, software etc requires the     Key Learning Areas                        You Can Get There From Here (video
  development of specific skills                                                     kit), OTC
• show that technology can enable          English                                   Computer software: communications
  people to gain access to, organise                                                 software: Apple Access II, Talk is
  and use, information.                    Demonstrating oral language tech-
                                           niques in presenting news, eg tone        Cheap, Telecom, Microsoft Works;
Skills                                     variation, voice inflection. Focusing     publishing software, eg Children’s
                                           on the differences between ‘oral’ news    Writing and Publishing Centre, Print
Students will:                                                                       Shop, Print Master
                                           and ‘written’ news. Encouraging
• state the issue or area to be investi-   shared reading.                           People and places: local Telecom of-
  gated                                                                              fice, OTC, libraries
                                           Identifying the purpose, audience and
• make a prediction based on data          techniques needed to design and pro-      Materials and equipment: packaging,
  collected by themselves or others        duce a performance.                       magazines, newspapers, audio tape re-
• use graphics, models and written                                                   corders, cassettes, players, paper
  data to record the exploration of        Mathematics
                                                                                     Teaching strategies
  different ideas for design proposals     Graphing time that messages take to
  and to assist making                                                               13 Trialling and testing ideas and
                                           be passed across the playground or             concepts
• suggest modifications to design pro-     from one building to another, by vari-
  posals to improve the design             ous methods.                              15 Explaining understandings
• evaluate materials and processes                                                   26 Organising tools, equipment and
  used                                     Personal Development, Health and               processes
• recognise the appropriate use of         Physical Education                        27 Selecting appropriate technologies
  tools, equipment, hardware and soft-     Investigating qualities needed for ef-    31 Evaluating chosen technologies
  ware                                     fective communication. Extending          32 Audio-visual technologies
• report on the social and environmen-     understandings about why and how          38 Publishing
  tal benefits of familiar technology.     communication needs to change in          40 Video production
                                           different situations.

Task                                                          Task
Design and make a method of communicating a message           Use a telephone to communicate information. [I]
across the playground or from one building to another.
[G]                                                           Activities
Activities                                                    Demonstrate and discuss talking on the telephone using
                                                              role play. Explore the use of a telephone. Decide what
Clarify the requirements of the design. Consider the many     skills are important, eg knowing your own phone number,
ways of communicating and evaluate whether they would         how to dial, correct answering, what to do in emergencies.
fulfil the criteria. Choose a method or a combination of      [TS31]
methods, taking into account your needs and available
resources. Consider: materials needed, eg wire cable,
trained animal, special writing implements; knowledge
or skills required by receiver, eg how to operate equip-
ment, code or system. Try the system including organisa-
tion of people and resources. [TS28]

Task                                                          Task
Design and make a method of communicating news to             Investigate the variety of ways of communicating in
other classes or parents. [G]                                 specific conditions. [G]

Activities                                                    Activities
Discuss ways of recording news for other people, eg           Collect a variety of familiar objects (or pictures), eg TV set,
writing, tape recorder, news presented through a series of    tap, chair, radio, telephone, plant, comics, computers, CB
pictures. [TS40] Consider whether some methods are            radio, VHF radio. Match the machine to its purpose, eg
best suited to different audiences, eg pictures for other     telephone, talk to someone in another place. [TS31]
classes. Decide on the audience, eg another class, parents,   Discuss and group those that involve watching, listening,
school assembly, local community. Gather news from a          reading, looking at pictures etc. Choose other ways to
variety of sources, eg home, school, playground. Select       classify, eg don’t use/use electricity, used alone/with
items that would be of interest to the audience. Explain      other people. Observe communications devices in the
the reasons for the choices. [TS15] Choose a method of        local environment, eg satellite dishes, antenna, flags,
presentation, eg a tape recording may not be appropriate      lighthouses, telegraph wires, signs. Research the uses of
for reporting to parents. Make decisions about how the        items listed, eg satellite dishes used to receive television
contents will be arranged, eg school news, playground         messages, flags used on ships. List other possible methods
events. Create pictures to accompany news. Add captions       of communicating, eg pigeon, codes, Aboriginal sign lan-
to pictures. Create the news product and present to the       guages. Identify the senses used for each method, eg
audience. Inter-class news can be swapped on a regular        hearing, sight, feel. Reflect on how this may affect the
basis. Take part in ‘news swapping’ activities using bulle-   sensorially disabled. Observe and identify the conditions
tin board facilities on an electronic mail system (eg         required for each system to work, eg needs electricity,
Keylink). Send faxes via electronic mail or fax machine.      needs to be able to see far enough, need to know the code,
                                                              need to be able to read. Predict advantages and disadvan-
                                                              tages of different systems, eg is cheap, secret, fast, reliable.
                                                              Test by trying them out under different conditions.

Investigate how news is recorded. [W]

Identify methods of recording news, eg papers, television,
radio. Predict what technology has been used to record the
news items, eg filmed with a video camera, stories written
on a computer, photographs taken with a camera. Identify
features of a news article using a variety of children’s
magazines, eg headline, pictures, captions. In groups,
make illustrations of an item of news and add captions.
Suggest ‘headlines’ for simple items. Illustrate one aspect
of a news item in students’ news stories. Discuss how the
image is a part of the whole item. Add captions to the
pictures. Explore how computer technology can be used to
record and present news. [TS29] Use packages that com-
bine word processing and graphics to experiment with
arrangement of text, headings and graphics in a column
format. [TS38] Print out and compare different layouts.
Evaluate. [TS13]

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                     97
Making it Easy                                                                                            Stage 2
Using machines to help us

Content focus                            Values and Attitudes                      Simple machines enable humans to
                                         Students will:                            perform tasks more easily. Machines
     Physical Phenomena                                                            do not save or conserve energy but
     Products and Services               • have a positive view of themselves
                                                                                   allow energy to be used in a more
                                           and their capabilities
     Earth and its Surroundings                                                    efficient way.
                                         • persevere with activities to their
                                                                                   In this unit students should not be
Outcomes                                 • respect the rights and property of
                                                                                   looking at the detailed analysis of the
                                                                                   machine. Identifying machines as le-
This unit contributes to the follow-       others                                  vers, pulleys etc is not essential to
ing syllabus outcomes.                   • show a commitment to fair treat-        students understanding why and how
Knowledge and Understanding                ment for all                            we use machines. The emphasis of
                                         • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   the teaching should be that machines
Students will know and understand          investigate, to design and make and     allow tasks to be performed more
that:                                      to use technology                       easily.
• people use different technologies      • appreciate the scientific and tech-
  to organise and communicate in-          nological contributions made by         Suggested resources
  formation in different ways              Australians.
• production technologies have                                                     Finding Out About (series), Hodder
  changed over time                                                                & Stoughton
                                         Assessment                                The Way Things Work, Macaulay, D
• simple machines can make moving
  loads easier                           Listed below are selected examples of     How Things Work, Kerrod, R
• materials and resources are used to    strategies that may be used in assess-    Tracks into Primary Science, Freer, K
  produce goods and commodities          ing this unit of work.                    and O’Toole, M
• materials are joined, formed, shaped   • Have students explain what simple       40,000 Years of Technology, Austral-
  and finished.                            machines can do.                        ian Institute of Aboriginal Studies
Students will:                           • Evaluate students’ devices against      Investigate (series), HBJ
                                           design brief.
• demonstrate that investigation can                                               Village Technology (kit), UNICEF
  take many forms                        • Listen to student discussions dur-
                                                                                   Good Cleaning Fun (video), Ministry
                                           ing group work.
• recognise that the results of inves-                                             of Education, Victoria
  tigations can lead to more ques-                                                 Simple Machines (video), Encyclope-
  tions                                  Links with other                          dia Britannica
• recognise that designs are con-        Key Learning Areas                        Computer software: graphics soft-
  strained by time, skills, tools and    English                                   ware, eg Mouse Paint, MacDraw,
  materials                                                                        MacPaint, Deluxe Paint III, Ist Paint,
                                         Exploring the purpose and features of
• identify the forms and components      written explanations including the        Artisan 2, Picture It; science soft-
  used in the production of a design     nature of displays.                       ware, eg All about Simple Machines
• relate planning and evaluating to                                                People and places: museums, histori-
  each stage of designing and making     Mathematics                               cal societies
• explain that technology can be used    Introduction to ratio through enlarg-     Materials and equipment: simple
  to help people learn.                  ing and reducing drawings to scale.       household equipment, Meccano,
                                                                                   Lego, Osmiroid Teko
Skills                                   Human Society and its Environment
                                                                                   Teaching strategies
Students will:                           Investigating the influences of rel-      8 Researching to explore and dis-
• make accurate observations and de-     evant technologies on lifestyles and           cover
  scribe these observations, or record   environments as part of cultural stud-    9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
  them as diagrams, tables of data       ies.                                           cover
  and graphs
                                         Creative and Practical Arts               18 Clarifying a design task
• describe needs and wants of people
                                         Drama: improvising movement ac-           19 Exploring ideas
  in relation to design activities
• use graphics, models and written       tivities through mime.                    31 Evaluating chosen technologies
  data to record the exploration of
  different ideas for design proposals   Teacher notes
  and to assist making                   When investigating the historical as-
• organise systems for small–scale       pect of machines, students will come
  mass production                        in contact with ‘simple machines’, eg
• report on the social and environ-      levers, ramps and pulleys. These of-
  mental costs and benefits of famil-    ten appear as part of more compli-
  iar technology.                        cated modern machinery.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a useful device /simple machine. [G]            Investigate simple machines. [G]

Activities                                                      Activities
Negotiate selection of any one of the following design          Explore circumstances when a simple machine makes a
briefs or identify a need independently. [TS19]                 task easier, eg walking with a broken leg without crutches,
Design and model a device to:                                   opening a can without a can opener, sweeping the floor
• crush cans for the school recycling system                    without using a broom etc.
• enlarge or reduce drawings                                    Levers
• move a load up a slope                                        Compare the effort needed to move large loads with/
• provide childproof safety locking for a cupboard or gate.     without using a lever, or long pole. Sweeping the floor
                                                                with/without using a broom. Explore the use of similar
For each task, establish criteria for a satisfactory design –
                                                                simple machines in the classroom or home, eg spade, tyre
identify the need to be addressed, are there any restric-
tions, work out exactly what is expected of the device.
[TS18]                                                          Ramps/wedges
Working in groups, students should generate ideas for the       Compare the effort needed to lift a large load without
task. Students may seek the advice of professionals or          using a ramp. Identify areas where ramps/wedges are used
people with special expertise. Students may investigate         in community – as entry/exit to buildings, in pencil
and evaluate existing products as a source of ideas. De-        sharpeners, as door stops, in axes.
velop group ideas by modelling or using annotated draw-         Pulleys
ings. Estimate the resource requirements (time, material        Visit a local garage, farm or industry and find out where
and tools) and check on their availability. [TS20]              pulleys are used and why. Explore the use of pulleys in the
Produce a prototype of the design.                              community and explain why these are used. [TS9]
Present the design to class and invited experts.
Discuss how practical the design is and whether it would
present any production problems if manufactured on a
small scale. Detail the steps needed for the class to mass
produce this product. [TS31]

Task                                                            Task
Design and present a museum display illustrating devel-         Investigate the use of simple machines in Aboriginal
opments that have occurred in specific technologies. [G]        culture. [I]

Activities                                                      Activities
Identify the range of technologies to be represented, eg        Explore the various types of tools used in traditional
types of transport, household appliances, writing, photog-      Aboriginal culture. Identify the features of each and the
raphy or moving pictures, measuring time.                       reason for use. Invite a guest speaker to demonstrate their
Research the implements, devices or procedures as they          use. [TS8]
have evolved over time. Consult members of the commu-
nity, grandparents or local museums.
Negotiate the style of presentation to be prepared by each
group and items required, eg actual examples of devices,
photos, captions/information cards, posters.
Collect available items, take photographs, prepare dia-
grams, write and publish text.
Obtain an area to be used. Organise the spaces to maximise
viewing area and best display each item. Consider costs
and whether admission needs to be charged. Publicise the
grand opening.
Complete the project and invite the guests.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                 99
Cycles in Our World                                                                                       Stage 2
Cyclic patterns in nature

Content focus                            • use graphics, models and written        Personal Development, Health and
                                           data to record the exploration of       Physical Education
   Built Environments                      different ideas for design proposals    Investigating growth and develop-
   Living Things                           and to assist making                    ment in people, changes and influ-
   Earth and its Surroundings            • evaluate materials and processes        ences.
Outcomes                                                                           Creative and Practical Arts
                                         • report on the social and environ-
                                           mental costs and benefits of famil-     Visual Arts: sequence emphasising
This unit contributes to the follow-
                                           iar technology.                         imagined experiences, eg fantastic
ing syllabus outcomes.
                                         Values and Attitudes                      animals.
Knowledge and Understanding
                                         Students will:
Students will know and understand        • demonstrate confidence in them-
                                                                                   Teacher notes
that:                                      selves and willingness to make de-      Many references provide ideas for ex-
• people create specialised environ-       cisions                                 ploring the stages of cycles not read-
  ments to meet specific needs           • have a positive view of themselves      ily discernible in the immediate en-
• environments are sometimes modi-         and their capabilities                  vironment, eg transpiration in the
  fied to fulfil new and different re-   • show responsiveness to ideas            water cycle.
  quirements                             • be honest and open in their dealings    Aboriginal people place great impor-
• plants and animals live in environ-      with others                             tance on the cycles of nature, eg. sea-
  ments that supply their needs          • show informed commitment to im-         sons, sun/moon. Also compare sea-
• change occurs throughout the life-       proving the quality of their local      sonal change in Australia to that in
  time of living things                    environment                             other places. Include other ways of
• living things depend on other living                                             delineating seasonal changes, eg wet/
                                         • be curious about and appreciate the
  things to survive                                                                dry seasons.
                                           natural and made environment.
• there are benefits and problems as-                                              Suggested resources
  sociated with human changes to         Assessment
  the physical environment.                                                        Tadpole Diary Drew, D
                                         Listed below are strategies that may
Students will:                           be used in assessing this unit of work.   Animal Families (series), Hodder &
• demonstrate that investigation can                                               Stoughton
                                         • Have students publish their record
  take many forms                          of the life cycle of chosen species     Tadpoles and Frogs (video), National
• recognise that the results of inves-     and use it to explain their             Geographic
  tigations can lead to more ques-         understandings of relationships.        Australian Animals (video), Class-
  tions                                  • Observe students’ attitudes to the      room Video
• show that designing and making           care of living things in the class-     The Big Green Caterpillar (video),
  can lead to the need for investiga-      room.                                   Insects (video), National Geographic
  tions                                                                            Life Cycle of the Silk Moth (video),
• relate the particular properties of    Links with other Key                      National Geographic
  materials to end uses                  Learning Areas                            Computer software: databases, eg
• justify the selection of processes,                                              Appleworks, FrEd base, Monsters &
  tools, equipment, materials, prod-     English                                   Make Believe, the Critics choice,
  ucts and software to meet the re-      Reading, with students, scientific dia-   Carefile, Desktop, Datamanager
  quirements of the task                 ries and discussing features and lan-     People and places: zoo, farms, mar-
• show that technology can enable        guage used. Using this as a model of      kets, eg fish, vegetables; manufactur-
  people to gain access to, organise     recording growth of their plants. Dis-    ing and processing plants, eg cannery,
  and use information.                   cussing purpose of charts etc and how     flour mill, Botanic Gardens, Austral-
                                         they complement text.                     ian Museum.
                                                                                   Materials and equipment: measuring
Students will:                           Mathematics                               devices, construction materials, ad-
• make accurate observations and de-     Measuring using informal and formal       vertising brochures, plant seeds, au-
  scribe these observations, or record   units. Sequencing events over time.       dio-visual equipment, appropriate ma-
  them as diagrams, tables of data                                                 terials for chosen product.
  and graphs                             Human Society and its Environment
                                         Investigating how people meet their       Teaching strategies
• propose explanations using simple
  observations                           needs in the local community and          7 Observing to explore and dis-
                                         other Australian communities. Inves-         cover
• make a prediction based on data
  collected by themselves or others      tigating the consequences of various      8 Researching to explore and dis-
                                         types of pollution upon the Earth’s          cover
• describe needs and wants of people                                               15 Explaining understanding
  in relation to design activities       cycles.
                                                                                   17 Exploring needs
                                                                                   31 Evaluating chosen technologies
                                                                                   37 Animation
Task                                                           Task
Design and use a method of recording a life cycle. [G]         Investigate cycles found in nature. [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Design a method of recording growth of a plant or animal       Classify a variety of things into living/non-living.
to show its cycle. Decide how often to record growth.          Discuss cycles in general (day/night, life cycle, water
Discuss methods of recording, eg pictures, drawings,           cycle). Draw the cycle of a chicken (eg start and end with
video etc. [TS7]                                               egg). Record the cycle of a raindrop (start and end with
Research standard measurement units in use. Choose a           drop). Discuss the human life cycle and compare with own
method of measuring changes and recording the measure-         families. Discuss the importance of cycles. Name other
ments. Explain to others the changes that occurred during      important cycles.
the cycle. Decide how to present this information to the       Discover recurring patterns in nature, eg water cycle,
class.                                                         seasonal changes, life cycles, day/night. Record pictori-
Choose a plant or animal to observe over time. Record          ally the life cycles that are identified.
appearance, movements and needs. [TS37] Record when
a new cycle begins. Present a project and explain the life

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a model of an imaginary animal show-           Investigate the life cycle of living things and how their
ing how it fulfils its needs. [G]                              needs change. [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Design an imaginary animal considering its life cycle,         Regularly observe and record changes in plants as they
how the animal fulfils its needs, where it fits in a food      develop through their life cycles. Use photographs, dia-
chain, what it will look like. [TS31]                          grams, video to record findings. [TS8]
Draw it showing details of its particular characteristics.     Explore how plants can be grown from seeds and grow
(Try using a computer graphics creation program.)              plants in the classroom (choose plants with rapid growth
Construct a model of the animal. Include the materials to      patterns, eg radish, alfalfa).
be used, how the pieces will be shaped and joined, and how     Compare the needs of young animals, eg a puppy, the
it can be made to move.                                        needs of adult animals, eg a dog. [TS17]Create a time line
Design and make a shelter for the animal. Consider its         showing changes during the lifetime of given living things,
needs, appropriate size etc.                                   eg humans, and their needs at each stage.
Choose materials and tools needed and make the shelter.
Explain why the shelter is made in a particular way.
Write a science fiction story about the animal.

Task                                                           Task
Design and make an automatic watering device or sys-           Investigate how humans interact with other living things
tem for the school’s garden. [W]                               in fulfilling their needs. [G]

Activities                                                     Activities
Define requirements of the device or system, eg to water       Identify the ways humans fulfil their need for food. Clas-
area 10m x 7m, activated once a week. Consider whether         sify foods into plant/animals. Build up a food chain.
all plants need the same amount of water.                      Explore the ways other animals obtain food.
Seek advice, gather information, visit a nursery or native     Construct food webs, chains.
garden. Observe a variety of systems. Identify how the         Identify how other human needs/wants are fulfilled by
systems operate.                                               using animal or plant products, eg clothing from cotton
Consider options. Use annotated drawings to develop and        plants and sheep, paper from trees etc.
try ideas. Detail the type of materials to be used try using   Compare how people in different parts of the world satisfy
recycled materials.                                            similar needs.
Draw a plan to show how the final design will work.            Visit a food processing site, factory or mill to find out what
Present the proposal to the class for evaluation. [TS15]       raw products they process and from where they obtain
Construct the device. Demonstrate the watering system          them.
and evaluate its effectiveness.

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    101
Our Australia                                                                                              Stage 2
Unique Australian plants, animals and people

Content focus                              tools, equipment, hardware and           Personal Development, Health and
                                           software                                 Physical Education
   Information and                       • use basic construction tools, mate-
   Communication                                                                    Recognising the particular hazards of
                                           rials and computerised data bases        specific environments.
   Living Things                           to refine observations
   Earth and its Surroundings            • report on the social and environ-        Creative and Practical Arts
                                           mental costs and benefits of famil-      Visual Arts: developing a sequence
Outcomes                                   iar technology.                          using Australian images around a par-
This unit contributes to the follow-                                                ticular theme, eg feelings, pictures of
                                         Values and Attitudes
ing syllabus outcomes.                                                              my world.
                                         Students will:
Knowledge and Understanding              • show responsiveness to ideas             Teacher notes
Students will know and understand        • be honest and open in their deal-        Visits to gardens, zoos or animal parks
that:                                      ings with others                         are recommended, particularly if Edu-
• people create specialised environ-     • respect the rights and property of       cation Officer lessons can be arranged.
  ments to meet specific needs             others                                   Visits to Aboriginal sites/parks should
• environments are sometimes modi-       • work cooperatively in groups             be organised with appropriate consul-
  fied to fulfil new and different re-   • show a commitment to fair treat-         tations with local Aboriginal com-
  quirements                               ment for all                             munities.
• people use different technologies      • be curious about and appreciate the
  to organise and communicate in-          natural and made environment             Suggested resources
  formation                              • gain satisfaction in their efforts to    Australian Dreaming: 40 000 Years
• production technologies have             investigate, to design and make and      of Aboriginal Dreaming, Isaacs, J.
  changed over time                        to use technology                        Bush Food, Isaacs, J. Bush Food Hand-
• living things depend on other living   • appreciate the scientific and tech-      book, Cherikoff, V. Australia’s Great
  things to survive                        nological contribution made by           Barrier Reef, Coleman, N. A History
• natural resources are limited and so     Australians.                             of Aboriginal Life in NSW, Parbury,
  need to be used wisely                                                            N. Survival: The Australian Environ-
• there are benefits and problems as-    Assessment                                 ment (series), Hodder & Stoughton.
  sociated with human changes to                                                    Animals of Australia in Close Up
                                         Listed below are strategies that may
  the physical environment                                                          (video), Film Australia. Encounters
                                         be used in assessing this unit of work.
• most materials come from the Earth                                                with the Reef (video). Wildlife of the
                                         • Listen to student discussion of the      River (video), Phil Simons Nature
  and its surroundings.
                                           lifestyles of traditional Aborigines.    Films
Students will:
                                         • Have students explain the results        Computer software: databases, eg
• demonstrate that investigation can       of their research to other classes.
  take many forms                                                                   Australian Mammals Database, FrEd
                                         • Explain what modern Australians          base, Appleworks, Display Data, The
• relate the particular properties of      have learned from Aboriginal life-       Systems Within, Australian Lizards
  materials to end uses                    styles.                                  Database, Genesis, Australian Wild-
• explain that technology can be used                                               flower Database, Carefile
  to help people learn                   Links with other                           Materials and equipment: photo-
• understand that the use of tools,
  equipment, software etc. requires      Key Learning Areas                         graphs of a variety of Australian envi-
                                                                                    ronments, components for a watering
  the development of specific skills                                                system
• show that technology can enable                                                   People and places: Gould League,
  people to gain access to, organise     Developing skills in accessing factual
                                         information, formulating questions,        National Parks and Wildlife, Field
  and use, information.                                                             Study Centres, Australian Museum,
                                         writing reports, using talking and writ-
Skills                                   ing to cooperatively plan, select, con-    local environment groups, local Abo-
                                         sult and make decisions in designing       riginal community or resource peo-
Students will:                                                                      ple, local library, Royal Botanic Gar-
• make accurate observations and de-     and making.
  scribe these observations, or record   Mathematics
  them as diagrams, tables of data                                                  Teaching strategies
  and graphs                             Measuring length, area, temperature.       8 Researching to explore and dis-
• use graphics, models and written       Human Society and its Environment               cover
  data to record the exploration of                                                 16 Applying understandings
  different ideas for design proposals   Developing understandings about            15 Explaining understandings
  and to assist making                   natural components of local environ-       22 Selecting solutions
                                         ments and other Australian commu-          24 Evaluating designs
• recognise the appropriate use of       nities.                                    39 Databases

Task                                                           Task
Design, make and use a database of Australian flora and        Investigate specific Australian environments, including
fauna. [G]                                                     flora, fauna and geographical features. [I]

Activities                                                     Activities
Decide on fields for the database, eg name, animal/plant,      Observe a variety of environments, eg visit botanic gar-
habitat, food, type of animal/plant (reptile/mammal). Enter    dens, parks, zoos; watch video/slides; research books and
information onto record blank (paper). Enter the informa-      pamphlets. Record particular features in drawings, pho-
tion into a computer database. Search the database, eg find    tos.
animals with pouches. [TS39]                                   Identify the features of particular environments. Suggest
                                                               characteristics unique to certain areas, eg desert – lack of
Task                                                           water.
                                                               Identify the characteristics of the animals and plants that
Design and make an area of the school to regenerate as a       occur in particular environments. Propose explanations
native garden, or to grow bush tucker. [W]                     as to how they satisfy their needs, eg koalas – gum trees.
                                                               Adopt an Australian plant or animal. Discover as much as
Activities                                                     possible about its habitat, characteristics etc.Use a vari-
Survey the school playground and evaluate the existing         ety of resources to gather information. Write to the
native areas, if any. Choose an area to regenerate or          National Parks and Wildlife Service for information about
maintain based on availability, position and weather           the effects of drought and bushfires on native plants and
conditions, eg access to sun, drainage, other playground       animals.
uses. [TS12] Consult with local Aboriginal communities,        Research the role of zoos, national parks and botanic
local councils, nurseries, to find out about suitable plants   gardens.
(especially for bush tucker). Make a plan of the necessary     Start a conservation club.
steps to regenerate the area. Consider – preparation of the
soil; tools and equipment required to complete the design;
how to organise tasks and workers; selecting suitable
plants based on investigation and consultation; where
funding will come from, eg Greening Australia grants.
Design the layout of the area and the placement of plants.
Seek advice from an expert if required. Implement the
plan. Organise a maintenance plan including provision for
watering, preventing damage. [TS23] Continue care and
maintenance of the area.

Task                                                           Task
Investigate how traditional Aboriginal lifestyles were         Investigate the contributions made by Australian scien-
adapted to their environments and provided for all their       tists and technologists to our country. [I]
social, cultural and material needs. [G]
Activities                                                     Discuss resources which can be used to research informa-
Identify plants and other resources used by Aboriginal         tion about Australian scientists and technologists. Re-
people and research their uses – food, medicine, fibres,       search, using a variety of resources, scientific and techno-
implements, clothing, decoration and art. Explore meth-        logical advances that have been made in Australia. [TS15]
ods of catching fish, birds and other animals for food.        Prepare a class talk about an Australian scientists, or
Include methods of locating food and technologies used in      technologists, their discoveries/inventions and how these
hunting. Research how Aboriginal peoples used natural          have contributed to the development of Australian scien-
forces, eg fire and floods, to guarantee their food supply.    tific/technological knowledge.
Include exploration of strategies used to preserve their
environments. Compare and contrast to methods em-
ployed today. [TS12] Identify other ways the environ-
ment is important in Aboriginal culture, eg dance, stories,
art. Observe Aboriginal dances, invite a member of the
local Aboriginal community to visit the class, visit local
sites or collections of Aboriginal art. Reflect on what may
be learned by modern Australians from Aboriginal life.

                                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   103
Sounds Great                                                                                              Stage 2
Entertainment and sounds

Content focus                             • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   Teacher notes
                                            investigate, to design and make and
   Living Things                            to use technology.                      A high proportion of Aboriginal stu-
   Products and Services                                                            dents suffer intermittent hearing loss
                                          Assessment                                due to middle ear infections. Teach-
Outcomes                                                                            ers should be aware of this possibil-
                                          Listed below are selected examples of     ity.
This unit contributes to the follow-      strategies that may be used in assess-    Didgeridoos are now increasingly used
ing syllabus outcomes.                    ing this unit of work.                    to give an authentic Australian sound
Knowledge and Understanding               • Conduct teacher/student inter-          to music. However, women are not
                                            views regarding students’ selection     permitted to play the didgeridoo in
Students will know and understand           of fields for the database.             Aboriginal society. Teachers should
that:                                     • Encourage peer assessment of the        consult appropriate Aboriginal groups,
• people create specialised environ-        presentation of the sound show.         eg AECG.’
  ments to meet specific needs            • Note student involvement in and         A database is far more useful when
• sounds are produced by vibrating          contribution to the sound show.         there are many records inserted, and
  objects and travel through materi-                                                when the information needs to be
  als                                     Links with other                          searched on more than one category.
• materials and resources are used to
  produce goods and commodities.          Key Learning Areas                        Suggested resources
Students will:                            English                                   Exploring Science (series) Lothian
• demonstrate that investigation can
  take many forms                         Exploring pitch and sound in language,    Home Among the Gum Trees (video)
                                          eg in poetry, songs.                      Music Magazine
• show that designing and making
                                          Identifying and discussing words spelt    Computer software: music software,
  can lead to the need for investiga-
                                          as they sound. Playing with sounds of     eg Bars and Pipes, Fanta vision, Music
                                          words, eg alliteration, rhyming.          Construction Set, Sticky Bear Music
• devise ways of checking and testing
                                          Exploring the purpose, audience and       People and places: National Sound
                                          features of surveys, diaries and per-     Laboratory, Sydney Opera House, Syd-
• give examples of predictions that                                                 ney Symphony Orchestra, bush bands,
                                          mission notes. Focusing on question-
  are sometimes supported, some-                                                    Powerhouse Museum, National Sci-
                                          ing techniques and formats. Ensure
  times disproved                                                                   ence and Technology Centre, Can-
                                          students engage in drafting, revising,
• relate planning and evaluating to       editing and publishing permission         berra.
  each stage of designing and making      notes.                                    Materials and equipment: variety of
• show that technology can enable                                                   percussion instruments, wires,
  people to gain access so as to organ-   Mathematics                               strings, pieces of wood, metals, tape
  ise and use information.                Reading and interpreting timetables,      recorder.
Skills                                    organising simple retailing activities,   Teaching strategies
                                          informal measurement of time.             7 Observing to explore and dis-
Students will:
                                          Human Society and its Environment              cover
• make accurate observations and de-
  scribe these observations, or record    Participating in planning an excur-       9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
  them as diagrams, tables or data        sion to supplement learning in this            cover
  and graphs                              area.                                     10 Proposing explanations
• state the issue or area to be organ-                                              18 Clarifying a design task
  ised                                    Personal Development, Health and
                                                                                    24 Evaluating designs
                                          Physical Education
• describe needs and wants of people                                                32 Audio-visual technologies
  in relation to design activities        Investigating balance of work, rest
• suggest modifications to design pro-    and exercise.
  posals to improve the original de-      Moving to sound.
  sign.                                   Creative and Practical Arts
Values and Attitudes                      Visual arts: sequences based on re-
Students will:                            membered experiences of the excur-
• demonstrate confidence in them-         sion.
  selves and willingness to make de-      Drama: simple improvisation involv-
  cisions                                 ing recreation/leisure situation.
• show responsiveness to ideas            Music: designing and making musi-
• work cooperatively in groups            cal instruments. Composing musical
• show a commitment to fair treat-        scores for various sound effects using
  ment for all                            percussion instruments.

Task                                                             Task
Design and make bush band instruments. [G]                       Investigate the variety of ways that sounds can be made
                                                                 and uses for sounds. [G]
Gather materials similar in type to those used in bush
Band instruments. Also try a few other materials to see if       Explore how we can make sounds.
they can be used to make original instruments.                   Identify parts of the body involved, eg vocal cords, shape
Use information gained from investigation to assist with         of mouth and position of tongue.
the making of instruments. [TS9] Try to make instru-             Identify that only moving (vibrating) objects make a sound,
ments that can change their pitch. Try to amplify the            still is silent. [TS10]
sound some of the instruments make.                              Use a variety of materials and combinations to see what
Make the instruments and try them out. [TS32] Record             sounds they can be made to make.
the sounds and play them back to listen to them. Consider        Explore how to make the pitch higher or lower, shorten or
whether improvements can be made.                                lengthen string, larger and smaller drum skin etc.
Combine instruments to play in a Bush Band perform-              Explore how to amplify sound. From these explorations
ance.                                                            make predictions on what alters sound. Test the predic-
Explore moving to the sounds made by the band.                   tions.
                                                                 Explore how sounds are used, eg music, communication,
                                                                 warning, measuring distance (sonar).

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a device that carried sound over a long          Investigate that sound travels through a variety of mate-
distance, eg string telephone. [I]                               rials. [I]

Activities                                                       Activities
Set criteria for a successful design, eg decide distance to be   Explore sound moving through solids, ie desk tops, fence,
travelled, description of a successful ‘transmission’. [TS18]    rail etc. [TS9]
Draw up plans to help design the device.                         Explore sound moving through a liquid, eg using a
Consider materials to use for the ‘line’, eg string, wire,       hydrophone.
hose and for other parts, eg funnels, cans.                      Predict which medium carried sound best. Test predic-
Conduct tests and make modifications if necessary. [TS24]        tions.
Reflect whether this principle has been used elsewhere or
in the past.
Identify devices that are used today to send messages over
long distances.

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a sound map indicating locations and             Investigate how sound is detected and measured. [G]
types of sounds in the playground. [I]
Activities                                                       Identify sounds in the environment. Collect sounds using
Identify sounds in the environments. Collect sounds using        a tape recorder. Play back and identify each sound. Discuss
a tape recorder. Play back and identify. [TS32]                  the sources of sounds – living or a machine, moving
Discuss the sources of sounds – living or a machine,             towards you or stationary.
moving towards you or stationary.                                Identify the parts of the ear and how it functions. [TS7]
Decide on a method of recording, eg pencil and paper.            Discuss sounds that may be harmful to health.
Consider materials to use, eg suitable materials if record-      Discuss ways of measuring sound, explore the decibel as
ing is done outside.                                             a standard unit for measuring sound.
Select symbols that will be used to indicate the variety of
sounds. Decide on a way of denoting strength/loudness of
Listen to sounds. Make your record, indicating differences
between sounds. Show it to another person. Explain choice
of symbols. Has anyone else used the same ones?

                                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                 105
Material World                                                                                             Stage 2
Characteristics of natural and made materials

Content focus                              • suggest modifications to design pro-    Exploring the language use targeted
                                             posals to improve the original de-      for certain groups, eg teenage slang.
   Built Environments                        sign
   Products and Services                                                             Mathematics
                                           • organise systems for small–scale
   Earth and its Surroundings                mass production                         Comparing characteristics of objects.
                                           • recognise the appropriate use of        Comparing length, mass, volume of
Outcomes                                     tools, equipment, hardware and          objects.
This unit contributes to the follow-         software
                                           • use basic construction tools, mate-     Human Society and its Environment
ing syllabus outcomes.
Knowledge and Understanding                  rials and computerised databases        Investigating how people use the en-
                                             to refine observations.                 vironment to satisfy their physical
Students will know and understand                                                    and social needs.
that:                                      Values and Attitudes
• structures are built from natural        Students will:                            Personal Development, Health and
  and processed materials and com-         • demonstrate confidence in them-         Physical Education
  ponents                                    selves and willingness to make de-      Using exploration of human needs
• materials and resources are used to        cisions                                 and wants, and how they change, to
  produce goods and commodities            • have a positive view of themselves      lead into science and technology ac-
• manufacturing processes convert            and their capabilities                  tivities.
  raw materials into useful products       • show responsiveness to ideas
• materials are joined, formed, shaped                                               Creative and Practical Arts
                                           • persevere with activities to their
  and finished                               completion                              Exploring ideas of texture and colour.
• natural resources are limited and        • respect the rights and property of      Designing paper with characteristics
  so need to be used wisely                  others                                  to meet particular needs.
• there are benefits and problems as-      • work cooperatively in groups
  sociated with human changes to           • show informed commitment to im-
                                                                                     Teacher notes
  the physical environment                   proving the quality of their local      When identifying the origins of mate-
• most materials come from the Earth         environment                             rials use examples that are not too
  and its surroundings.                    • be curious about and appreciate the     complex combinations of substances.
Students will:                               natural and made environment            Mass is the amount of matter making
• recognise that the results of inves-     • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   up an object. It is not the same as
  tigations can lead to more ques-           investigate, to design and make and     weight.
  tions                                      to use technology.                      Distinguish between needs and wants
• show that designing and making                                                     of people.
  can lead to the need for investiga-      Assessment
                                           Listed below are selected examples of     Suggested resources
• recognise that designs are con-          strategies that may be used in assess-
  strained by time, skills, tools and                                                Natural Materials, Burt, E
                                           ing this unit of work.                    Bridges, Graham, R
                                           • Discuss with students times when        How we Build (Series)
• identify the forms and components
                                             designing and making has resulted
  used in the production of a design                                                 Computer software: The Factory, The
                                             in the need to investigate.
• relate planning and evaluating to                                                  Super Factory, Puppetmaker, Toy
  each stage of designing and making       • Arrange interviews between stu-         Shop
                                             dents and members of the targeted
• relate the particular properties of                                                People and places: museums: Power-
  materials to end uses                      audience in order to assess how
                                                                                     house, Earth Exchange
                                             well students have identified their
• explain that technology can be used                                                Materials and equipment: variety of
                                             specified need.
  to help people learn                                                               materials natural and made, moulds,
                                           • Have groups of students discuss
• justify the selection of processes,                                                paper
  tools, equipment, materials, prod-         and evaluate each phase of the mass
                                             production activity.                    Teaching strategies
  ucts and software to meet the re-
  quirements of the task.                  • Have students construct a flow          6 Fostering curiosity
                                             chart of the production process.        11 Predicting outcomes
Skills                                                                               14 Modifying understandings
Students will:
                                           Links with other                          15 Explaining understandings
• state the issue or area to be investi-   Key Learning Areas                        17 Exploring needs
  gated                                                                              18 Clarifying a design task
• propose explanations using simple        English
                                                                                     19 Exploring ideas
  observations                             Using talking and writing to coopera-     23 Evaluating design
• make a prediction based on data          tively plan, select, consult and make
  collected by themselves or others                                                  25 Organising tools, equipment and
                                           decisions in designing and making
• describe needs and wants of people                                                     processes
                                           their product, recording ideas.
  in relation to design activities

Task                                                         Task
Design and make a structure or device to perform a given     Investigate the properties of materials. [G]
task. [G]
Activities                                                   Obtain a selection of materials, eg paper, cardboard, straws,
Negotiate the design task.                                   plastics, wood, cotton wool, rubber, glass, ceramics, cork,
Clarify the requirements of the design. [TS18]               pumice, metals, fibreglass, plasticine. [TS26]
Allot students into teams to develop their own structure.    Classify the materials according to several different prop-
Specifications should include such things as being able:     erties, eg ability to float, comparative mass, colour, attrac-
• to support a particular weight                             tion to magnets, transparency, flexibility, conducting
• to transport material                                      heat/electricity.
                                                             List suitability for particular tasks, eg for writing on,
• to protect something
                                                             insulation, absorbing shock, roofing, allowing light to
• to keep something dry.                                     pass through, playing with.
Consider availability of resources and range of materials,   Explore how one or more of the properties may be changed,
eg cupboard, split pins, cotton wool, masking tape. [TS19]   eg concerting a sheet of paper to increase its strength, heat
Make the devices.                                            wood to cause it to burn and char, heating metal may cause
Present and demonstrate the devices and evaluate accord-     a colour change. [TS19]
ing to the requirements of the design brief.                 Identify materials used at other times and other places to
                                                             perform a particular task, eg axe made of stone, fish hook
                                                             made of bone. Suggest why these particular materials
                                                             were chosen. Examine new materials which have replaced
                                                             conventional materials, eg ceramic instead of amalgam
                                                             tooth fillings, kevlar for canvas sails. [TS14]
                                                             Discuss which system of classification is most useful.

                                                             materials that can be usefully reused within the school, eg
Investigate materials that can be recycled, renewed and      yoghurt pots. Organise recyclable materials into those to
conserved. [I]                                               be recycled at school, eg food scraps made into compost,
                                                             and materials that can be sent to a recycling service, eg
Activities                                                   paper, glass.
Examine current waste disposal in the school. (If a recy-    Identify how materials used at home and school could be
cling system already exists, evaluate its function.) Trace   conserved. [I]
where waste products go. Measure the amount of rubbish       Record for a period of two weeks how they conserved or
thrown away in a day, a week. Evaluate the effects of this   wasted materials at home. [TS16]
on the school and wider community. [TS17]                    Design a chart to show the family ways in which com-
Identify materials that can be recycled, eg food scraps,     mon household materials can be conserved.
paper, plastic containers, glass, aluminium cans. Separate   Classify materials as renewable/non-renewable/recycla-

Task                                                         Task
Design and make and organise a system to mass produce        Investigate change of state from solid to liquid. [W]
a product using changes of state. [W]
Activities                                                   Discuss the properties of solids and liquids. Compare the
Suggest materials which can be moulded, eg plaster of        properties of several materials. List materials which are
Paris, chocolate, water/ice, jelly, wax. [TS6]               liquid at room temperature, eg water, ice cream, orange
Select product to be made, considering available moulds,     juice, or solid at room temperature, eg butter, chocolate,
preferences of the class group or other market. Consider     candle wax, toffee. [TS 6]
costs involved and price that needs to be charged. Publi-    Discuss materials which can be changed from liquids to
cise the product’s availability.                             solids and solids to liquids, eg water, chocolate, solid
Identify steps of the process involved, eg mixing ingredi-   cooking oil, candle wax.
ents, melting, filling moulds, cooling.                      Propose explanations as to how solids are changed to
Organise a suitable workspace, ensuring production needs     liquid/liquids changed to solid. Gather materials and test.
are provided for, eg power points, access to refrigerator.   Devise a method to demonstrate the changes, eg melt
Collect materials and equipment, including moulds.           chocolate in sun, resolidify in refrigerator. Discover the
Allot roles for individuals. Ensure the production line      temperature at which the materials will melt/solidify.
works effectively.                                           (Extreme caution is needed when handling hot liquids.)
Make a prototype and evaluate materials, space and           Consider the effect on people if the Earth warmed several
responsibilities. Effect any modifications, as required.     degrees and a lot of the ice on the poles melted. [TS11]
Trial the production of larger numbers. Make the product
and distribute to purchasers.
Evaluate the whole procedure.

                                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    107
A Look Inside                                                                                            Stage 2
The human body

Content Focus                            • appreciate the scientific and tech-     Blood Lines (video), Red Cross Blood
                                           nological contribution made by          Bank
   Living Things                           Australians.                            Computer software: The Human
   Products and Services                                                           Body, Senses
                                         Assessment                                People and places: Life Education cen-
Outcomes                                 Listed below are selected examples of
This unit contributes to the follow-     strategies that may be used in assess-    Materials and equipment: stetho-
ing syllabus outcomes.                   ing this unit of work.                    scope, television ads on tape, newspa-
                                                                                   pers and magazine advertisements, a
                                         • Discuss with groups the ways of
Knowledge and Understanding                                                        variety of materials for construction
                                           maintaining a healthy body.
Students will know and understand                                                  of product
                                         • Listen to students’ discussion dur-
that:                                      ing group work.                         Teaching strategies
• plants and animals live in environ-    • Have students explain how the de-       8 Researching to explore and dis-
  ments that supply their needs            vice for measuring lung capacity             cover
• living things depend on other living     works.                                  12 Clarifying an investigation
  things to survive                                                                13 Trialling and testing ideas and
• materials and resources are used to    Links with other                               concepts
  produce goods and commodities.         Key Learning Areas                        15 Explaining understandings
Students will:                                                                     16 Applying understandings
• recognise that the results of inves-   English                                   20 Developing ideas
  tigations can lead to more ques-                                                 22 Considering appearance and
  tions                                  Exploring questioning for different
                                         purposes, eg surveying other students,         function
• give examples of predictions that      interviewing guest speakers.              23 Evaluating design
  are sometimes supported, some-
                                         Exploring the language used in media
  times disproved
                                         advertising, eg motive, persuasive lan-
• recognise that designs are con-        guage.
  strained by time, skills, tools and
  materials                              Mathematics
• relate planning and evaluating to      Graphing data in a variety of ways.
  each stage of designing and making
• show that technology can enable        Human Society and its Environment
  people to gain access to, organise     Investigating the ways in which ad-
  and use, information.                  vertising appeals to our thoughts and
Students will:                           Personal Development, Health and
                                         Physical Education
• propose explanations using simple
  observations                           Extending understandings of role and
• devise ways of checking or testing     functions of body systems. Promo-
  predictions                            tion of positive health habits and be-
• suggest modifications to design pro-   haviours.
  posals to improve the original de-
  sign                                   Teacher notes
• use basic construction tools, mate-    Some areas are served by mobile Life
  rials and computerised data bases      Education units.
  to refine observations.                Teachers should be aware of their role
Values and Attitudes                     as a model for appropriate behaviours.
Students will:
• demonstrate confidence in them-
                                         Suggested resources
  selves and willingness to make de-     The Magic School Bus – Inside the
  cisions                                Human, Cole, J
• have a positive view of themselves     How our Bodies Work (series),
  and their capabilities                 Macmillan
• show a commitment to fair treat-       The Human Body – A Three Dimen-
  ment to all                            sional Study, Miller, J
• show informed commitment to im-        How My Body Works (series), Collins
  proving the quality of the local en-   About the Human Body (video), Film
  vironment                              and Video Library

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a simple device that will assist in             Investigate the systems of the human body. [G]
measuring lung capacity. [W]
Activities                                                      Research the systems that are part of the human body, eg
Clarify the requirements of the design, eg component to         circulatory, respiratory, digestive systems. [TS8]
catch air breathed out, way of measuring/comparing.             Listen to a guest speaker, watch a video, visit a Life
[TS12]                                                          Education centre.
Invite a guest to discuss the instruments used in measur-       Identify characteristics that indicate performance of res-
ing temperature, blood pressure etc. Try these instru-          piratory systems, eg pulse, lung capacity. Test class mem-
ments out. Note how they work.                                  bers by measuring pulse, breathing rate. Record and graph
Generate ideas for a device to measure lung capacity.           results. Predict how these may change after exercise. Test
[TS20]                                                          and explain the differences.
Discuss how the device will work, gauges, measuring             Explore the path of the digestive system. Identify signifi-
readings, calibrating. Draw the ideas.                          cant organs, eg mouth/tongue/teeth, oesophagus, stom-
Make a sketch, label the parts. Show how it will work.          ach, intestines and research their functions.
Seek the opinion of others.                                     Identify the functions of skin, muscles and skeleton.
Make the device. [TS16] Use the device to test the lung         Observe X-rays of different limbs. Discuss how skin,
capacity of students in the class.                              bones are treated when damaged, eg splints/casts on
                                                                broken bones.
                                                                Identify individual differences between class members.
                                                                Research ways to improve fitness, eg daily fitness pro-
                                                                gram, balanced diet.

Task                                                            Task
Design a fair test to measure the effect of exercise on pulse   Investigate how people’s behaviour and habits can affect
rate. [G]                                                       their health. [I]

Activities                                                      Activities
Identify the things to be measured and how they will be         Research diseases that seriously affect people’s health.
measured. [TS13]                                                [TS8] Talk to experts, visit a Life Education centre.
Discuss what makes a fair test.                                 Include the behaviour and habits that result in these
Suggest ways in which the effect of exercise on pulse rate      diseases, eg smoking, poor nutrition, lack of exercise.
could be made a fair test. Identify how the data collected      Identify things that influence people’s behaviour and
will be recorded.                                               habits, eg the idea is popular with others.
Select appropriate method and trial the test. Discuss the       Construct a survey to determine people’s current habits
test with other students who may suggest refinements.           and/or attitudes, eg exercise regularly, wear hats in sun.
[TS15]                                                          Graph the results. Make hypotheses from results. Predict
                                                                the likelihood of individual students suffering from par-
Make any alterations before using the method and record-
                                                                ticular diseases at some time in the future. Explain how
ing results.
                                                                their behaviour is contributing.
Explain the effects of exercise on pulse rate to the group.
                                                                Observe and discuss media campaigns designed to influ-
                                                                ence others. Identify different aspects of a campaign, eg
                                                                leaflets, TV commercial, radio ads, posters.
Task                                                            Identify positive behaviours that result in good or im-
Design and make a fashion accessory that will promote           proved health, eg personal hygiene, sufficient rest. Re-
behaviour to avoid skin cancer. [I]                             search the benefits to our health.
                                                                Reflect on how everyday activities can affect the health of
Activities                                                      individuals.
Identify the cause of the problem, eg too much sun, fair
skin. Suggest ways of preventing the adverse affects, eg
using skin screens, hats, changing behaviour.
Decide elements to be incorporated in the design, eg
features that provide protection or ways of changing
Select appropriate methods and materials to meet identi-
fied requirements. Consider appearance as well as func-
tion, eg colour, style as well as durability. [TS22]
Make a model or prototype.
Trial the product. Survey reactions.
Make alterations to the design, if necessary, based on
survey results. [TS23]

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                  109
Moving Pictures                                                                                              Stage 2
Making pictures move

Content Focus                              • work cooperatively in groups             Teacher notes
                                           • gain satisfaction in their efforts to
   Built Environments                        investigate, to design and make and      Standard shot sizes (still and moving):
   Information and Communication             to use technology.                       vls – very long shot; ls – long shot; ms
   Living Things                                                                      – mid or medium shot; cu – close up.
   Natural Phenomena                       Assessment                                 Camera angles and shot sizes can be
                                                                                      explored using practice devices, eg
   Products and Services
                                           Listed below are selected example          cardboard frames, an unloaded cam-
   Earth and its Surroundings              strategies that may be used in assess-     era or hands held to make a ‘frame’.
                                           ing the objectives of this unit of work.   Advertisements and music videos are
Outcomes                                   • Students draw pictures of or photo-      particularly useful for exploring the
This unit contributes to the follow-         graph various objects or scenes,         range of camera techniques, eg shot
ing syllabus outcomes.                       showing a variety of perspectives        size, camera angles.
                                             and sizes of shots.                      Many simple devices can be made to
Knowledge and Understanding                • From the results of students‘ efforts    explore the ideas of ‘persistence of
Students will know and understand            to video or make computer anima-         vision’. Refer to references on anima-
that:                                        tions, ascertain the students’ skill     tion.
• people use different technologies          development in
  to organise and communicate in-             - using the video and/or computer       Suggested resources
  formation in different ways.                  technology appropriately;             Film Animation for Schools, Gross, Y
Students will:                                - coordinating sound effects, dia-      Hands On, Taylor, A
• demonstrate that investigations can           logue, music, text and graphics.
                                                                                      Making It Move, Trojanski, et al
  take many forms                          • Through class discussions assess
                                                                                      The Animation Game (video)
• give examples of predictions that          the students’ ability to critically
                                             evaluate the finished products.          Animation: with Oliver Postgate
  are sometimes supported, some-
                                           • Through discussion ascertain the         (video)
  times disproved
• recognise that designs are con-            students’ ability to generalise the      Computer software: computer graph-
  strained by time, skills, tools and        concept of animation, ie in anima-       ics software, eg Deluxe Paint III,
  materials                                  tion each successive picture is only     Fantavision, Survival 3D, Animate
• relate planning and evaluating to          slightly different from the previous     People and places: art galleries, Pow-
  each stage of designing and making         one in a series.                         erhouse Museum
• understand that the use of tools,                                                   Materials and equipment: flip books,
  equipment, software etc requires         Links with other                           eye puzzles, magazines, newspapers,
  the development of specific skills       Key Learning Areas                         photographs, framing device, cameras
• show that technology can enable                                                     Teaching strategies
  people to gain access to, organise       English                                    4 Manipulating to explore and dis-
  and use, information.                    Reading stories/discussing what                cover
Skills                                     makes stories effective, eg introduc-      18 Evaluating designs
                                           tion, problem and resolution. Have         24 Selecting and maintaining tools
Students will:                             students use this knowledge when               and equipment
• state the issue or area to be investi-   creating stories to animate.               30 Sound and lighting
                                           Mathematics                                31 Animation
• propose explanations using simple
  observations                             Extending understandings of time.          34 Video production
• devise ways of checking or testing       Measuring in seconds.
                                           Human Society and its Environment
• suggest modifications to design pro-
  posals to improve the original de-       Investigating the human capacity for
  sign                                     aesthetic expression.
• evaluate materials and processes         Personal Development, Health and
  used                                     Physical Education
• recognise the appropriate use of
                                           Investigating, through movement, the
  tools, equipment, hardware and
                                           human capacity for aesthetic expres-
Values and Attitudes
                                           Creative and Practical Arts
Students will:
• show responsiveness to ideas             Craft/design: extending understandings
                                           concerning images and their
• be honest and open in their deal-
                                           creation. Combining sound and im-
  ings with others

Task                                                            Task
Investigate how pictures are created in different ways.         Design and make an animated program. [G]

Activities                                                      Activities
Identify different types of images from magazines and           Decide on a short story to animate. [TS31]
newspapers. Classify according to students’ own criteria.       Select a method of animating, eg cut outs, pixilation,
[I]                                                             computer graphics, models, line drawing. Explore and
Introduce standard shot sizes and identify the different        evaluate a range of possibilities.
information provided by each type of shot, eg close ups         Prepare characters, props and backgrounds, titles or cred-
show facial expression or detail, long shots give informa-      its. Carefully plan the sequence of events and record for
tion about the setting. Predict how things might appear         reference, eg using a storyboard or script.
from down very low, eg a tree, building, teacher, or how        If using computer software to make the animation, decide
they appear from a high angle. Test using a camera, cut-        on graphics to use to represent the plot, eg prepared
out or framing device. [TS4]                                    graphics or individually drawn. Use the software to make
Collect and display examples of shot sizes, camera angles.      the animation. View on screen or record on video.
Use a framing device to explore different camera tech-          If using film or video, organise how each job is to be done,
niques, the information contained in them and how to            eg camera operator, person responsible for movement of
create them.                                                    each cut out/model/role and a system for coordinating
View a variety of videos and observe the effects of different   movement and shooting (be careful not to get hands in the
camera angles and shot sizes. Explain how the camera            way!). Rehearse the sequence of action so each role or
techniques affect the messages. [W]                             move is familiar. Shoot the footage. View and evaluate.
                                                                Consider whether a reshoot is required.
                                                                Check video, film or computer equipment operation and
                                                                ensure techniques are well understood. [TS24]
                                                                Add soundtrack including sound effects, dialogue and
                                                                music as appropriate. [TS30]
                                                                Screen for the class/school audience. Be receptive to their
                                                                reactions. Compare different production methods and
                                                                their effects.

Task                                                            Task
Investigate how pictures appear to move. [G]                    Design and make a photo story exploring a theme/topic.
Explore how the eye sends contradictory messages to the
brain, eg persistence of vision. Using simple devices, such     Individually or in groups, choose a subject, eg Me!, bicy-
as colour change top, thaumotropes or flip books, demon-        cles, or a technique, eg looking tall, getting closer. Plan the
strate how movement changes what we see. Predict the            types of images required, trying out different effects using
effect of varying the number of pages of a flip book, or the    practice devices. Try to use different shots to convey
speed of movement. Try it out to test the prediction.           particular messages. [TS34]
[TS34]                                                          Take photos/video images (this could be supplemented by
Explore other ways our eyes are ‘tricked’, eg ambiguous         collected images if necessary).
images, optical illusions.                                      Critically evaluate whether the resultant images/photos
Examine a piece of 16mm film. Observe the number of             are as expected. If not, explore why and suggest solutions,
individual images and differences between each image.           eg seems too far away – move closer for mid shots, image
Using a VCR with simple frame advance, observe the              is blurry – camera needs to be held still, or supported on a
changes between images and how the images change.               chair, railing. (This may require further practice or re-
Using a video camera, create simple animations using cut        search.)
out figures, common items, people etc. Predict and test         If necessary, retake photos/images making improvements.
what happens if items are removed, larger/smaller changes       Try different arrangements and note any differences in
are made between shots or the camera is moved to a              effect.
different position. Identify ‘special fx’ that may be gener-    Arrange images for display. Add captions or text and
ated using these techniques, eg making people/objects           present final product.
Explore how an image is animated on the computer by
moving, rotating or changing position of one or more
objects on the screen. Explore the effects of making the
motion faster/slower.
Compare animation using computer technology with
other methods. Identify the features of each method and
discuss the advantages and disadvantages.

                                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                    111
Eating Out                                                                                                   Stage 2
Food production on a larger scale

Content Focus                              • organise systems for small–scale         Creative and Practical Arts
                                             mass production
   Built Environments                                                                 Drama: simple improvisations in as-
                                           • recognise the appropriate use of         sociation with fast food restaurants
   Information and Communication             tools, equipment, hardware and           and role play based on the operation
   Living Things                             software.                                of a restaurant.
   Natural Phenomena
                                           Values and Attitudes
   Products and Services                                                              Teacher notes
   Earth and its Surroundings              Students will:
                                           • show responsiveness to ideas             ‘Eating out’ may include eating at the
                                                                                      home of relatives or friends, eating at
Outcomes                                   • persevere with activities to their       a range of restaurants from different
                                             completion                               cultures or eating out ‘at home’, ie
This unit contributes to the follow-
ing syllabus outcomes.                     • be honest and open in their deal-        take–away food.
                                             ings with others                         The fast food service could be pro-
Knowledge and Understanding                • work cooperatively in groups             vided at a school event, eg sports
Students will know and understand          • be curious about and appreciate the      carnival, fete, or simply as a special
that:                                        natural and made environment             event in itself.
• people create specialised environ-       • gain satisfaction in their efforts to    Consideration needs to be given to
  ments to meet specific needs               investigate, to design and make and      individual dietary needs, eg kosher
• environments are sometimes modi-           to use technology.                       foods, diabetics, vegetarian.
  fied to fulfil new and different re-
  quirements                               Assessment                                 Suggested resources
• plants and animals live in environ-      Listed below are selected example          Kids in the Kitchen, Leng, V
  ments that supply their needs            strategies that may be used in assess-     Understanding Science in the Home,
• living things depend on other living     ing the objectives of this unit of work.   Picton, M
  things to survive                        • Conduct group conferences to as-         Nutritious Snacks for Kids, Ryles, J et
• materials and resources are used to        sess cooperatively how effectively       al
  produce goods and commodities              the students have influenced their
• manufacturing processes convert            designs.                                 Computer software: desktop publish-
  raw materials into useful products.                                                 ing software, eg The Print Shop,
                                           • Have students keep a log book of
                                                                                      Printmaster, Children’s Writing and
Students will:                               their findings about the effects of
                                                                                      Publishing Centre; simulation soft-
• demonstrate that investigation can         food preparation.
                                                                                      ware, eg Lemonade Stand, The Fac-
  take many forms                                                                     tory
• give examples of predictions that        Links with other                           People and places: food outlets, su-
  are sometimes supported, some-           Key Learning Areas                         permarkets
  times disproved
• relate planning and evaluating to                                                   Materials and equipment: menus,
  each stage of designing and making                                                  recipe books, newspapers, magazines
                                           Observing restaurant menus, and
• relate the particular properties of      compiling menus of their own.              Teaching strategies
  materials to end uses
                                           Reading recipes and writing other reci-    8  Researching to explore and dis-
• justify the selection of processes,      pes for others to use.                        cover
  tools, equipment, materials, prod-
                                                                                      13 Trialling and testing ideas and
  ucts and software to meet the re-        Mathematics
  quirements of the task.                  Informal measurement of tempera-
Skills                                     ture, time and 2D space.
Students will:                             Organising simple retailing activities.
                                           Giving change.
• state the issue or area to be investi-
  gated                                    Human Society and its Environment
• propose explanations using simple        Investigating how commercial organi-
  observations                             sations have affected Australian cul-
• devise ways of checking or testing       ture and society.
  predictions                              Personal Development, Health and
• describe needs and wants of people       Physical Education
  in relation to design activities         Extending understandings regarding
• suggest modifications to design pro-     the nutritional value of foods, and the
  posals to improve the original de-       need for hygiene in food preparation.

Task                                                            Task
Investigate methods of preparing food in large quantities.      Organise a visit to a fast–food restaurant for lunch. [W]

Activities                                                      Activities
Observe the methods of production while visiting a fast–        Identify the class’s lunch needs and individual prefer-
food restaurant. Identify different roles of people. Identify   ences.
purposes and function of machinery/utensils. [W]                Suggest a range of possible venues. Consider: location, eg
Follow materials/ingredients from their raw state to            how to get there, whether it would be crowded; the meal,
finished product. Compare processes used to produce              eg whether all preferences and special needs can be catered
different goods. Create a flow chart to record the processes     for, prices; time, eg how long is needed, fitting in with
observed.                                                       other arrangements; any special requirements as identi-
Reflect on how people of other cultures are able to cater for   fied, eg individual dietary needs; other arrangements/
groups of people, eg Aboriginal fish bake.                      preparations that may be required.
                                                                Given the range of factors, decide on venue, dates etc.
                                                                Organise transport, permission, funding etc.
                                                                Evaluate the meal in terms of nutritional value, value for
                                                                money, provision for individual preferences. Compare
                                                                with lunch at school.

Task                                                            Task
Investigate the changes that occur in the preparation of        Design and make a ‘healthy alternative’ fast–food service
foods. [TS8]                                                    for a day. [TS13]

Activities                                                      Activities
Classify foods: eaten raw/eaten cooked/either.                  Discuss plans in the class group. Evaluate existing take–
Examine recipe books. Identify and compare the suggested        away foods, noting positive and negative qualities. [G]
methods of cooking, eg baking, frying, grilling, boiling.       Use computer simulation software to explore the proc-
Predict the effects of cooking foods, eg colour, texture,       esses involved in mass production and marketing. [G]
consistency, flavour, odour. Try different ways of cooking      Consider decisions regarding:
selected foods. Compare changes that take place, eg fried       • food – selecting food items to supply, based on nutri-
potatoes, steamed potatoes.                                       tional value and preferences of potential customers;
Explain why we cook some foods and not others.                  • prices – prices of ingredients, shop around to get the best
Identify other ways foods are changed before eating, eg           prices; other costs involved, eg advertising, equipment,
beating cream or eggs, cooling/freezing, dissolving, grat-        fuel, packaging; prices to charge for the product;
ing/mashing, adding other ingredients. Experiment and           • methods – methods of food preparation, how to make it
observe the effect of these processes.                            appealing, equipment needed, cleaning up.
Reflect on the reasons why we prepare foods in a variety        • packaging the food – type of wrapping to protect and
of ways.                                                          preserve the products, colours to use, materials avail-
                                                                • advertising the service – look at advertisements in
                                                                  newspapers/magazines, TV, radio, as sources of ideas;
                                                                  list qualities that could be promoted and consider pos-
                                                                  sible techniques, eg appeal to the desire to be healthy,
                                                                  good taste; decide on a way to advertise the service, eg
Task                                                              posters, word of mouth, announcements.
Investigate ‘eating out’ in the local area. [TS5]               Make a set of plans to illustrate the steps to take in each
                                                                aspect of production. [W]
Activities                                                      Assign roles for the day, ensuring all tasks are covered
Identify the places where we ‘eat out’. Observe local area,     equitably. [W]
consult phone books, newspapers. Group to show variety
of food available, different styles of venue, eg take away,
set menu, a la carte, cafeteria etc. [G]
Do a daily survey. Record results. Make inferences about
when people eat out. Suggest (other) times that we like to
go out to eat, eg special occasions, just for fun, when on
holidays. [W]
Consider all the data about where and when people eat out
and draw conclusions about reasons why.
Explore the ingredients of take–away food. Evaluate their
nutritional value.
Explore the costs of eating out. Prepare a meal similar to
a bought one and calculate the costs involved. Suggest
reasons for any differences between the two.
Consider other advantages/disadvantages, eg saves wash-
ing up, quality of product, packaging, waste.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   113
On the Move                                                                                                     Stage 3
Moving loads locally, nationally and internationally

Content focus                               • modify and apply their understand-        Links with other
                                              ing in the light of their investigation
   Built Environments                       • use investigation techniques to iden-     Key Learning Areas
   Physical Phenomena                         tify opportunities for design activi-
   Products and Services                      ties                                      English
   Earth and its Surroundings               • develop a design proposal by select-      Modelling with students reading/writ-
                                              ing and refining ideas and justifying     ing graphic and tabular information, eg
Outcomes                                      choices                                   timetables, classification tables. Refer
                                            • select, reject or modify as appropriate   to English strategy ‘Mapping factual
This unit contributes to the following        the elements of design to evaluate the    texts’.
syllabus outcomes.                            procedures and outcomes of a design
                                              task                                      Mathematics
Knowledge and Understanding                                                             Investigating topology, numbers to
                                            • test or propose ways of testing the
Students will know and understand that:       extent to which a product satisfies       1,000,000 and bigger.
• people live in communities and build        the design intentions
  environments to service their com-                                                    Human Society and its Environment
                                            • select appropriate tools, hardware,
  mon needs                                                                             Researching ways in which transport
                                              materials, equipment or software on
• both aesthetic and functional factors                                                 systems facilitate interdependence of
                                              the basis of their specific function
  need to be considered when people                                                     Australians and people of other coun-
                                              and in order to gather information
  make changes to their environments                                                    tries, eg migration, trade.
                                            • identify and report unsafe conditions.
• there are various forms of energy
                                                                                        Personal Development, Health and
• systems are designed to provide par-      Values and Attitudes                        Physical Education
  ticular services                          Students will:
• systems are used to deliver and dis-                                                  Identifying road user responsibility in
                                            • demonstrate confidence in them-           responding to traffic control systems.
  tribute goods                               selves and willingness to make deci-
• environments on Earth have been af-         sions and to take responsible actions     Teacher notes
  fected by technology.                     • exhibit self direction in their own
Students will:                                learning                                  Students can investigate the use of power
• recognise that investigations may be      • show flexibility and responsiveness       sources such as hot air, batteries, air
  conclusive/inconclusive                     to ideas                                  pressure, solar energy, in a variety of
• describe the social, environmental or     • initiate and persevere with activities    ways before deciding on the one to use
  economic implications of new mate-          to their completion                       for their model.
  rials and processes                       • be honest and open in their dealings      Computer software such as Logo can be
• identify investigations which involve       with others                               programmed with sets of instructions
  discoveries leading to unexpected out-    • respect different viewpoints and ways     to control systems.
  comes                                       of living
• show some relationship between the        • work cooperatively in groups              Suggested resources
  process of investigation and the proc-    • show a commitment to fair treat-          Street Sense (kit), Road Traffic Author-
  ess of design and make                      ment for all                              ity
• describe the process of investigation     • gain satisfaction in their efforts to     The Know How Book of... (series),
  exploring and discovering phenom-           investigate, to design and make and       Usborne
  ena and events, proposing explana-          to use technology                         Technology in Action (series), Lothian
  tions initiating investigations, pre-     • appreciate education as a continuing      Computer software: programming lan-
  dicting outcomes, testing modifying         process.                                  guages, Lego lines, Lego TC Logo; data-
  and applying understanding                                                            bases, eg FrEdbase, Appleworks,
• describe the factors that influence       Assessment                                  Microsoft Works, Datasweet
  design                                                                                People and places: Mierals and Energy
• justify the decisions made in design-     Listed below are selected examples of       Centre, travel industry, Power House
  ing and making                            strategies that may be used in assessing    Museum, local area excursions
• justify the combination of materials      this unit of work.                          Materials and equipment: Meccano,
  and techniques in relation to the prop-   • Have students interview potential us-     Lego Logo, Dick Smith components,
  erties required for specific end uses        ers of their proposed transport sys-     construction material, pictures, pictures
• identify that new technologies in-           tem/modifications. Encourage stu-        of traffic control means, eg lights, pe-
  crease the options for designing and         dents to use these results as part of    destrian crossings
  making                                       their own self assessment of the de-
• explain that particular technologies         sign.                                    Teaching strategies
  are significant causes of change in the   • Have students create a concept map        8 Researching to explore and discover
  way people live.                             illustrating their understandings of     11 Predicting outcomes
                                               how traffic systems can be control-      15 Explaining understandings
Skills                                         led.                                     20 Developing ideas
Students will:                                                                          22 Considering appearance and func-
• identify data which support a par-                                                        tion
  ticular prediction                                                                    33 Control systems
                                                                                        38 Databases

Task                                                             Task
Design modifications to a transport system to make it            Investigate how things are moved throughout the local
more efficient.                                                  area.

Activities                                                       Activities
Evaluate the local transport system. Consider how easy it        Identify major transport systems in the local city/town, eg
is to get from place to place; how often facilities run, eg      bus, train, taxi services, road networks. [TS8] Map the
trains, buses; costs; comfort; energy use; convenience etc.      routes available and collect information about frequency
[TS20] Identify any shortcomings or needs for improve-           of service, costs etc. Explore how people and goods can be
ment in the organisation or running of local facilities, eg      moved from one point to another, combinations of sys-
infrequent train service, lack of protection from weather        tems used, how long it takes, costs etc.
while waiting, no direct link between suburbs/towns.
Generate ideas for improvements by making comparisons
between local and other systems.                                 Task
Present a detailed proposal to improve the service. Include      Investigate how things are moved throughout Australia
drawings/plans, eg altered route system or timetable.            and internationally.
Model the system where appropriate.                              Activities
Consider the social and environmental effects. [TS22]            Identify major transport systems that operate nationwide
Evaluate the plan by presenting the proposal to other            and internationally, eg air, ship, rail, road. Explore for
potential users.                                                 each transport form the characteristics of the system.
Contact appropriate authorities or organisations and             Consider the destinations; time taken; quantities carried;
present the plan.                                                energy used; frequency; how goods are carried and pro-
                                                                 tected, eg containers; how people are accommodated;
                                                                 costs etc.
                                                                 Create a database to record findings. [TS38] Use the
                                                                 database to compare and contrast the different means of
                                                                 transporting goods and people. Identify advantages and
                                                                 disadvantages of various options.
                                                                 Predict/suggest the best means (system or combination)
                                                                 of transporting goods from one place to another. Give
                                                                 reasons for the suggestion.

Task                                                             Task
Use computer technology to design a method of control-           Investigate ways the traffic is controlled.
ling traffic in a model transport system. [TS33]
Activities                                                       Observe the variety of transport in a given area, town or
Identify aspects of the transport environment to be mod-         locality and how it is organised.
elled, eg roads, rivers, rail, harbour, buildings. Suggest       Predict the consequences of allowing unrestricted use of
where traffic control is needed, eg to stop traffic at a level   vehicles. [TS11]
crossing, raise a bridge. [W]                                    Identify techniques used to regulate or control individual
Generate ways of addressing the problem, eg warning              vehicles or traffic flow, eg light houses, police officers,
light, boom gate, lighthouse. Draw a plan that demon-            signs and signals, air traffic controllers, level crossings,
strates where devices will be located.                           road markings, roundabouts, traffic lights, one-way streets.
Choose the type of sensor, eg light, pressure, and decide        Group or classify following students own criteria, eg
how it will be activated. [G] Discuss the type of software       involves people, permanent/temporary, involves moni-
program to be used. Write a program for the computer that        toring devices etc. [TS8]
will control the model.                                          Identify those means that involve computer technology,
Construct the model including vehicles, structures and           eg traffic lights, level crossings, toll booths. Identify ele-
control device. Test the program to ensure it runs. Make         ments of the system, eg detectors, timers and how they are
adjustments if necessary.                                        related or linked. Visit a traffic control centre or invite a
Reflect upon applications of similar systems, eg traffic         guest technician, to aid investigation of the ways such
light, the sensor systems used.                                  systems work.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   115
The Best Place to Live                                                                                     Stage 3
The services and products in our community

Content focus                             Skills                                    Links with other
                                          Students will:
   Built Environments                     • modify and apply their understand-      Key Learning Areas
   Information and Communication            ing in the light of their investiga-    English
   Living Things                            tion
   Physical Phenomena                                                               Collaboratively developing appropri-
                                          • use investigation techniques to         ate questions to ask councils etc.
   Products and Services                    identify opportunities for design
   Earth and its Surroundings               activities                              Exploring purposes and features of flow
                                          • develop a design proposal by select-    charts. Jointly constructing flow charts
Outcomes                                    ing and refining ideas and justifying   as a way of organising information.
This unit contributes to the follow-        choices                                 Human Society and its Environment
ing syllabus outcomes.                    • select, reject or modify as appropri-   Developing understandings about the
                                            ate the elements of design to evalu-    way the local area is managed and the
Knowledge and Understanding                 ate the procedures and outcomes of      effect on our natural environments
Students will know and understand           a design task                           and human society.
that:                                     • produce a model, prototype, prod-
• people try to control the conditions      uct or procedure to meet a specific     Personal Development, Health and
  in the environments they build            design brief                            Physical Education
• people live in communities and          • select appropriate tools, hardware,     Identifying community services in re-
  build environments to service their       materials, equipment or software        lation to health education and health
  common needs                              on the basis of their specific func-    promotion.
• Both aesthetic and functional fac-        tion and in order to gather informa-
                                            tion                                    Creative Arts
  tors need to be considered when
  people make changes to their envi-      • use appropriate equipment and tools     Making pictures, mobiles etc out of
  ronments                                  to carry out a particular task, and     garbage.
• the activities of people can change       understand the technology involved      Mathematics
  the balance of nature                     to record and present ideas
                                                                                    Developing coordinate mapping skills
• there are environmental conse-          • use resources with consideration
                                            for the environment and adopt pro-      through map reading, drawing pic-
  quences of production and con-                                                    tures following directions through
  sumption                                  cedures which minimise waste.
                                                                                    coordinate names. Finding actual
• systems are designed to provide par-    Values and Attitudes                      measurements from scaled drawings
  ticular services                                                                  and maps.
                                          Students will:
• systems are used to deliver and dis-
                                          • demonstrate confidence in them-
  tribute goods
                                            selves and willingness to make de-      Teacher notes
• environments on Earth have been           cisions and to take responsible ac-     The emphasis in this unit is in evalu-
  affected by technology.                   tions                                   ating existing products and services
Students will:                            • have a positive view of themselves      and the impact of these on the local
• show some relationship between            and their capabilities                  environment.
  the process of investigation and the    • show flexibility and responsiveness
  process of design and make                to ideas
                                                                                    Suggested resources
• justify the decisions made in de-       • initiate and persevere with activi-     City, Macaulay, D
  signing and making                        ties to their completion                What a Load of Rubbish! Skidmore, S
• justify the combination of materi-      • work cooperatively in groups            Down the Plughole!
  als and techniques in relation to                                                 Wind and Water Power, Sauvin, P
  the properties required for specific    • show informed commitment to im-
                                            proving the quality of society and      People Who Help Us – series (video),
  end uses                                                                          Ministry of Education, Victoria
                                            the environment
• explain the need for safe, ergonomi-                                              Computer software: programming lan-
  cally sound work environments           • gain satisfaction in their efforts to
                                            investigate, to design and make and     guages, Lego Logo, Space, Lego TC Logo,
• describe the process of design and        to use technology                       Lego Lines; simulation software, eg
  make which can involve identify-                                                  SimCity, SimAnt, Map Skills
  ing needs and wants, defining a         • appreciate the scientific and tech-
                                            nological contribution made by          People and places: Snowy Mountains
  design task, generating and select-                                               Scheme, State Pollution Control Com-
  ing ideas, assembling or construct-       Australians and members of other
                                            societies and cultures                  mission, Department of Planning, local
  ing products, systems or environ-                                                 council
  ments, and evaluating outcomes          • develop rational and creative think-
                                            ing.                                    Materials and equipment: rate notices,
• explain that the future must be                                                   local newspaper advertisements
  considered when making choices          Assessment
  of particular technologies                                                        Teaching strategies
                                          Listed below are selected examples of
• evaluate technological activity in      strategies that may be used in assess-
                                                                                    6    Fostering curiosity
  terms of social and environmental       ing this unit of work.                    7    Observing to explore and discover
  cost and benefits                                                                 8    Researching to explore and discover
• explain that particular technolo-       • Have students explain to others the     17   Exploring needs
  gies are significant causes of change     various services provided in their
                                                                                    18   Clarifying a design task
  in the way people live                    local area.
                                                                                    19   Exploring ideas
• describe ways in which resources        • Present a plan for new services to
  can be conserved.                         the principal/council.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a product or service to meet a need of a        Investigate services as an aspect of the built environ-
person or group. [G]                                            ment. [I]

Activities                                                      Activities
Identify the problem or type of special need, as above.         Identify the range of services that are supplied in the built
[TS17] Detail the specific requirements needed to address       environment, eg water, electricity, garbage collection,
the problem. Suggest the type of product or service that        roads, shopping centres, health care and education. Com-
may be of use, eg shopping service for elderly residents,       pare to experiences of students from other cultures. Clas-
devices to assist people with specific tasks. Ideas should be   sify into physical, social. Visit the places where services
based on research. Make a plan or detailed description of       are supplied, eg hospitals, libraries. Identify particular
the product or service. [TS18] Consider the methods,            characteristics of each site. Include how space is used or
equipment, techniques to be used in the proposed design.        managed, materials used in construction, lighting, regula-
Suggest where new technologies could be employed. Dis-          tions on behaviour, facilities available. Suggest reasons for
cuss with others the method of production or organisa-          selections, eg carpet in a library to reduce noise, stainless
tion. [TS19] Can they make suggestions to assist? Con-          steel, glass, in a hospital because of ease of cleaning.
sider costs and whether they could be reduced by mass           Research how these services are provided or are control-
purchasing, or other organisational changes. Collect ma-        led, eg local, state, national governments. Compare to
terials, basing choices on availability and research. Decide    other areas, countries and communities - do they have the
on methods of informing intended users about the prod-          same services? Identify similarities, differences. Match
uct/service. Try contacting existing organisations or self-     services to the need they satisfy
help groups. Seek users’ evaluations of how well the
design meets their needs.

Task                                                            Task
Design and make a model fun park. [W]                           Investigate the supply of a service such as electricity. [G]

Activities                                                      Activities
Visit a fun park. Watch a video. Make a list of services that   Identify services supplied to households, eg water, elec-
are included in the fun park, eg rides, food outlets, rest      tricity, garbage collection. Identify the original source in
areas, shops.                                                   the supply of the service, eg powerhouse. Research activ-
Identify the possible needs people may have when visiting       ity that occurs at such a site, eg producing electricity,
the fun park. List the services that will need to be pro-       water purification. Go on an excursion, watch a video or
vided, eg food, rest areas, lost children area, first aid.      listen to an expert guest.
Consider legal safety requirements for proposed services        Analyse the steps required to bring the service to a house
and activities.                                                 or school, eg high tension wiring, transformer stations,
Make a plan of the fun park using modelling materials or        street wiring. Make a flow chart to show how a service is
drawings. Indicate where activities will be situated, how       provided, eg garbage collection. Compare to flow chart of
power will be supplied to equipment, food outlets, ambu-        a different service.
lance station etc.                                              Identify the people, and their roles involved at each stage,
Assign roles to carry out different tasks, eg making deci-      eg pollution controller to check water. Identify the group
sions about layout, construction of individual pieces.          that has responsibility for providing each service. Re-
Construct a variety of activities for the park. Decide          search how the service is maintained, eg replacing wires
whether they are to be battery powered, or controlled by        affected by storms.
a computer program. Construct other service buildings           Explore how the service is paid for, eg people pay water
and facilities, ensuring all identified requirements are        rates, government subsidy. Identify how the service is
addressed.                                                      used when it reaches the home or school, eg lights,
Devise a plan detailing how to proceed in the case of           doorbell. Research the history of identified facilities and
emergency. Ensure this information is prominently dis-          how they have been provided at different times in the past.
played. Include a map of the park.                              Research areas where services are not supplied and how
Advertise the park, using a number of different media, eg       people compensate, eg on farms people have their own
posters, radio/television ads. Identify the main features to    water tanks.
be used as a selling point.
Consider pricing structures, eg special arrangements for
groups, families etc.

                                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   117
Out in Space                                                                                               Stage 3
Looking at environments beyond Earth

Content focus                             • develop a design proposal by select-     Reading and using numbers to a mil-
                                            ing and refining ideas and justifying    lion and beyond.
   Built Environments                       choices
   Information and Communication          • use appropriate equipment and tools      Personal Development, Health and
   Living Things                            to carry out a particular task, and      Physical Education
   Physical Phenomena                       understand the technology involved       Exploring strategies related to sun
                                            to record and present ideas.             protection.
   Earth and its Surroundings
                                          Values and Attitudes                       Creative and Practical Arts
Outcomes                                  Students will:                             Drama: organising, improving and per-
                                          • demonstrate confidence in them-          forming movement and language
This unit contributes to the follow-
                                            selves and willingness to make de-       through role play of space adventures.
ing syllabus outcomes:
                                            cisions and to take responsible ac-
Knowledge and Understanding                 tions                                    Teacher notes
Students will know and understand         • exhibit self direction in their own      In building an environment of outer
that:                                       learning                                 space students should be able to ex-
• people try to control the conditions    • show flexibility and responsiveness      plain how they’ve catered for people’s
  in the environments they build            to ideas                                 needs. Models of the solar system
• people live in communities and          • initiate and persevere with activi-      should be large enough to demon-
  build environments to service their       ties to their completion                 strate the relative lengths of planet
  common needs                            • be honest and open in their deal-        orbits. Modelling to correct scale may
• information can be represented in a       ings with others                         not be possible.
  number of different forms, includ-      • show a commitment to fair treat-
  ing graphics, sounds and texts            ment for all                             Suggested resources
• the sun is the source of most of the    • be curious about and appreciate the      Library of the Universe (series),
  energy on the Earth                       natural and made environment             Collins
• there are various parts to the physi-   • gain satisfaction in their efforts to
                                                                                     Technology (series), Ashton Scholas-
  cal environment, eg stars, planets,       investigate, to design and make and
  earth, air and water.                     to use technology
Students will:                            • appreciate education as a continu-       Solar System (video), Classroom Video
• identify investigations which in-         ing process                              Seasons and Days (video), Churchill
  volve discoveries leading to unex-      • appreciate the scientific and tech-      Films
  pected outcomes                           nological contribution made by           Solar System (video), Encyclopedia
• show some relationship between            Australians and members of other         Britannica, Travelling through the
  the process of investigation and the      societies and cultures.                  Solar System
  process of design and make                                                         Computer software: Solar System
• identify that new technologies in-      Assessment                                 database, Planetary Construction set,
  crease the options of designing and                                                adventure games, eg Mickey’s Space
  making                                  Listed below are selected examples of      Adventure, Space Apprentice, Space-
• describe the process of design and      strategies that may be used in assess-     ship Earth. Orrery, Orbits, Destina-
  make which can involve identify-        ing the objectives of this unit of work.   tion Mars
  ing needs and wants, defining a         • Describe the features of the device
                                                                                     People and places: Earth Exchange
  design task, generating and select-       which uses the sun’s energy.
                                                                                     Museum, Powerhouse Museum, ob-
  ing ideas, assembling or construct-     • Explain to another class their model
                                                                                     servatories, Energy Authority of NSW
  ing products, systems or environ-         of the solar system.
                                          • Assess production of the play.           Materials and equipment: magnify-
  ments, and evaluating outcomes                                                     ing glasses, foil, various modelling/
• evaluate technological activity in                                                 construction materials
  terms of social and environmental       Links with other
  cost and benefits                       Key Learning Areas                         Teaching strategies
• explain that particular technolo-                                                  8 Researching to explore and dis-
  gies are significant causes of change   English                                       cover
  in the way people live.                 Viewing videos and reading plays to        9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
Skills                                    gain ideas for play writing. Discuss-         cover
Students will:                            ing structure of narrative stories. Us-    17 Exploring needs
• make detailed observations using        ing writing to explain models of the       23 Considering appearance and
  appropriate technologies                solar system.                                 function
• modify and apply their understand-      Mathematics                                33 Adventure games
  ing in the light of their investiga-    Explaining the basis of time measure-      35 Telecommunications
  tion                                    ment in terms of movement of the           37 Animation
• use investigation techniques to         earth around the sun. Measuring in         39 Databases
  identify opportunities for design       kilometres.

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a model of the solar system. [G]               Use a computer adventure/simulation game to stimulate
                                                               students’ interest and further investigate the solar sys-
Activities                                                     tem. [G]
Select appropriate materials to create a model of planets,
comets, moons, asteroids. Decide on a method of con-
struction, including organisation of equipment and steps       Navigate through the fixed environment of the solar
in the process. [TS9]                                          system. Record journey in diary or map form.
Demonstrate relative size of planets, distance from the        Use the factual information provided in the game to help
sun, shape of orbit, relative time taken to complete an        solve the problems posed. Experiment within the simula-
orbit.                                                         tion.

Task                                                           Task
Design and produce a play or video based on a ‘Lost in         Investigate what we find in ‘space’ and the environment
Space’ theme.                                                  and conditions beyond Earth’s surface. [G]

Activities                                                     Activities
Identify the needs of people on earth. [TS17] Compare          Identify planets and conditions beyond Earth’s atmos-
these to particular needs ‘in space’. Identify the different   phere. [TS8] Use a database and other resources to re-
requirements of people in space, eg coping with weight-        search planet features, eg distance from sun. [TS39] Use
lessness, oxygen–free atmosphere, food needs.                  the students’ model to explore the relationships between
Create an environment which would support life outside         the sun and planets, the movement of planets and how
Earth’s atmosphere. Points to consider:                        this determines night and day, eclipses. Visit an observa-
• the interior of the space vehicle (props)                    tory or planetarium, or invite a travelling planetarium to
• the environment on another planet, eg land forms,            the school.
    plant life, creatures etc (props and backdrop)             Identify conditions that characterise/sustain life on earth
• appropriate clothing (costumes)                              (including gravity). Research how the earth’s atmosphere
                                                               provides for our needs, eg air to breathe, protection from
• power sources, movement
                                                               the sun. Compare the atmosphere. Chart discoveries as
• social needs of people.                                      similarities/differences.
Represent ideas in drawings, or a plan (eg use grid paper, a   Reflect on our responsibilities in maintaining a life-sus-
computer graphics program).                                    taining environment on Earth.
Build your model using available materials. Explain how
the planned apparatus would work to meet the identified
Create the story, script and/or storyboard. Organise the
production and perform the play or make the video.             Investigate the contribution Australia has made to the
[TS32]                                                         exploration of space. [I]

                                                               Collect information from Siding Springs Observatory.
                                                               Contact OTC and CSIRO for information on astrospace.
                                                               [TS35] Post a message on Keylink or Fredmail Bulletin
                                                               Boards requesting answers from other students. Find out
                                                               about Australian satellites and telescopes.

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a device or system that utilises the sun’s     Investigate the sun, its energy and its effects on earth. [I]
energy or design a solar still. [G]
Activities                                                     Observe and identify the ways the sun is part of our lives,
Decide the purpose of your device, eg to cook with, dry        eg heat, light, shadows. [TS8] Identify the times when the
substances etc. Draw a plan or model the design. Consider      sun has a negative effect, eg sunburn. Explore and explain
appearance as well as function. [TS23] Make and trial          how we cope with this. Explore how the sun’s qualities are
device. Evaluate. Select ways of launching the new prod-       used to help people in our society and in other societies.
uct and promoting its potential sales.
Design a solar still using clear wrap, a pebble and a glass
with a little water in it. Put a rock/weight on the plastic
so that it sinks down a bit, then put rubber band around the
plastic and around the cup.

                                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   119
Switched On                                                                                                Stage 3
Using and generating electricity

Content focus                            • record the economic, moral, social      Avoid leaving batteries on for long
                                           and environmental consequences          periods of time as they will be quickly
   Physical Phenomena                      of technological advances.              ‘flattened’.
   Products and Services
                                         Values and Attitudes
   Earth and its Surroundings
                                         Students will:
                                                                                   Suggested resources
                                         • exhibit self direction in their own     Electricity and Magnetism, Lafferty, P
Outcomes                                   learning                                Explore Together 3, Jacab, C
This unit contributes to the follow-     • show flexibility and responsiveness     Energy and Natural Resources (se-
ing syllabus outcomes.                     to ideas                                ries) Exploring Energy (series),
Knowledge and Understanding              • show a commitment to fair treat-        Macmillan
Students will know and understand          ment for all                            The Flick of a Switch (video), Cooper,
that:                                    • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   D
                                           investigate, to design and make and     Computer software: simulation soft-
• there are various forms of energy
                                           to use technology.                      ware, eg Rocky’s Boots, Robot Odys-
• a complete circuit is needed for an                                              sey, Lego TC Logo, Make the Connec-
  electrical device to work
• the sun is the source of most of the
                                         Assessment                                tion!, SimCity
                                                                                   People and places: Minerals and En-
  energy on the Earth                    Listed below are selected examples of     ergy Centre, CSIRO Centre, Electric-
• systems are designed to provide par-   strategies that may be used in assess-    ity Commission
  ticular services                       ing this unit.
                                                                                   Materials and equipment: electrical
• there are many physical phenom-        • Have students set up a simple cir-      components, wires, batteries, bulbs,
  ena which change the environment.        cuit.                                   small electric motor or generator, for
Students will:                           • Have students demonstrate the de-       conductivity test; pipe cleaner, thread,
• show some relationship between           vice that uses a simple electric cir-   cotton, toothpicks, foil, metallic look-
  the process of investigation and the     cuit.                                   ing thread, plastic
  process of design and make             • Listen to students’ comments dur-
                                           ing presentations.                      Teaching strategies
• justify the combination of materi-
  als and techniques in relation to                                                8 Researching to explore and dis-
  the properties required for specific   Links with other                             cover
  end uses                                                                         9 Manipulating to explore and dis-
                                         Key Learning Areas                           cover
• explain the need for safe, ergonomi-
  cally sound work environments          English                                   11 Predicting outcomes
• describe ways in which resources       Modelling and jointly constructing        13 Trialling and testing ideas and
  can be conserved.                      questions to ask while on an excur-          concepts
                                         sion.                                     18 Clarifying a design task
                                                                                   24 Evaluating design
Students will:                           Human Society and its Environment         29 Learning safety procedures
• make detailed observations using       Researching the use and management
                                                                                   30 Selecting and maintaining tools
  appropriate technologies               of renewable and non-renewable re-
                                                                                      and equipment
• discuss the factors that might af-     sources including the effects on life-
                                         styles and the environment.               31 Evaluating chosen technologies
  fect an investigation
• devise fair tests                      Personal Development, Health and
• devise a test that will support or     Physical Education
  disprove a prediction                  Health and safety, particularly with
• modify and apply their understand-     regard to electricity in the home.
  ing in the light of their investiga-
  tion                                   Teacher notes
• test or propose ways of testing the
  extent to which a product satisfies    Try to avoid complicated explana-
  the design intentions                  tions.
• use appropriate equipment and tools    It is important that students do these
  to carry out a particular task, and    activities themselves. Previous expe-
  understand the technology involved     rience that some students may have
  to record and present ideas            had with circuits will be diminished
                                         if the teacher merely demonstrates.
• use resources with consideration       Students should be warned of the dan-
  for the environment and adopt pro-     ger of household current. These ac-
  cedures that minimise waste            tivities should only be done using
• identify and report unsafe condi-      batteries.

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a device that uses a simple electric             Investigate the use of electrical circuits in our environ-
circuit. [I]                                                     ment. [W]

Activities                                                       Activities
Observe items that are powered by simple electric cir-           List items in our environment powered by electricity, eg
cuits, eg lights, toys, alarms, door bells. Decide on the type   lights, toaster, computer, torch, portable radio, digital
of device to be made, eg eyes that light up on a simple          watch.
model, a game that matches question and answer by                Classify according to their electricity source, ie mains or
completion of circuit, an alarm, toy box, jewellery box or       battery. Discuss the function of batteries.
manual dexterity device. [TS18]                                  Identify common features, eg wires to carry the current,
Sketch a plan (circuit diagram) of the device. Include           power sources.
construction of the housing, if applicable. Include a switch-    Identify safety features of electrical goods, eg insulating
ing mechanism to turn on and off.                                wires. [TS28] Suggest behaviours that ensure safe use, eg
Collect materials and components needed.                         turning off at power point.
Make device and test its operation.

Task                                                             Task
Using a simple circuit design, make a device to test which       Investigate the conditions needed to be fulfilled to make
materials will/will not conduct electricity. [G]                 an electric circuit. [G]

Activities                                                       Activities
Decide on the type of device to be made and draw a               Research the basic components of a simple electric cir-
diagram to show how it will be constructed, taking into          cuit, eg by observation, reference to examples.
account cost and durability. [TS30]                              Using a variety of materials to choose from, construct by
Assemble the apparatus and design a fair test, using             guess and check a basic circuit using wires, battery, light
materials known to conduct electricity. [TS13]                   globe. [TS9]
Test a range of unknown materials. Discuss the factors           Discuss how it could be turned on and off, eg by complet-
that may affect the investigation.                               ing then breaking a circuit.
From findings, suggest which materials could be used as          Trial a variety of components to see how they work within
electricity insulators and conductors. [TS31] Find exam-         the circuit, eg buzzer, motor, heater, light. [TS24]
ples of these applications.                                      Predict the effects of additional batteries, bulbs, different
                                                                 wiring etc. [TS11] Test and revise hypothesis.
                                                                 Draw a plan of a circuit and label it to show the compo-
                                                                 Predict which materials could be used to create a circuit
                                                                 (those that conduct electricity).

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a presentation demonstrating how                 Investigate the generation of electricity for everyday use.
energy may be supplied to a community without using              [I]
fossil fuels. [G]
Activities                                                       Explore where the electricity we use comes from, eg power
Discuss the power needs of the community. Identify               point, wires in the wall, circuit board, power lines, power
physical features that may be utilised, eg coastal town          station, fuel source.
may use water.                                                   Research how electricity is produced, eg a visit to a power
Decide if the energy source would be appropriate.                station, refer to videos, books.
Use drawings/models to generate and develop ideas.               Observe how a generator operates. Research and trial the
Demonstrate source of power, transportation of power to          range of ways of turning the generator, eg human action,
users, environmental impact.                                     moving water, wind, air, steam.
Collect materials that would be needed, eg wires, genera-        Do further research about the uses of fossil fuels. [TS8]
tor, light globes, construction materials.                       Identify advantages and disadvantages. Make predictions
Model the environment and present details of the plan.           about impact of their use.
Critically evaluate group presentation. [TS24]                   Suggest alternative sources of energy, eg solar, nuclear,
                                                                 List and discuss advantages and disadvantages.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   121
Way out Communication                                                                                         Stage 3
Communications to different places and in different times

Content focus                                 ing and refining ideas and justifying   Links with other
   Built Environments                     •   select, reject or modify as appropri-   Key Learning Areas
   Information and Communication              ate the elements of design to evalu-
   Physical Phenomena                                                                 English
                                              ate the procedures and outcomes of      Exploring the purpose and features of
   Products and Services                      a design task
   The Earth and its Surroundings                                                     various communication forms, eg fax
                                          •   produce a model, prototype, prod-       messages, letters, telegrams. Jointly
Outcomes                                      uct or procedure to meet a specific     constructing examples.
                                              design brief                            Exploring the language of radio, eg
This unit contributes to the follow-      •   select tools, hardware, materials,      ads, news items, radio plays. Con-
ing syllabus outcomes.                        equipment or software on the basis      structing examples.
                                              of their specific function and in
Knowledge and Understanding                                                           Mathematics
                                              order to gather information
Students will know and understand         •   use appropriate equipment and tools     Recording events as part of a sequence,
that:                                         to carry out a particular task, and     eg time. Tabulating information and
• both aesthetic and functional fac-                                                  recording in a variety of graphs and
                                              understand the technology involved      TimeLiner
  tors need to be considered when             to record and present ideas
  people make changes to their envi-      •   identify and report unsafe condi-       Human Society and Its Environment
  ronments                                    tions                                   Recognising individual differences.
• information can be represented in a     •   record the economic, moral, social      Considering past and present devel-
  number of different forms, includ-          and environmental consequences          opments in communications tech-
  ing graphics, sounds and texts              of technological advances.              nologies. Predicting future develop-
• technologies continually offer new                                                  ments.
  ways of creating and sending mes-       Values and Attitudes                        Personal Development, Health and
  sages                                   Students will:                              Physical Education
• there are various forms of energy       • show confidence in themselves and         Assessing effective communication.
• systems are designed to provide par-      willingness to make decisions and
                                                                                      Creative and Practical Arts
  ticular services                          to take responsible action
                                          • have a positive view of themselves        Selecting and assembling appropriate
• environments on Earth have been
                                            and their capabilities                    materials for radio play production.
  affected by technology.
Students will:                            • show flexibility and responsiveness       Teacher notes
• describe the social, environmental        to ideas
  or economic implications of the         • initiate and persevere with activi-       Contact consultants for assistance
  investigation of new materials and        ties to their completion                  with electronic information service.
  processes                               • be honest and open in their deal-         Suggested resources
• identify investigations which in-         ings with others
  volve discoveries leading to unex-      • respect different viewpoints and          You Can Get There From Here
  pected outcomes                           ways of living                            (kit),OTC. Radio Then and Now (kit),
                                          • respect others’ rights and property       NSW Department of Education. TV
• show some relationship between                                                      and Video Technology, Wayland.
  the process of investigation and the    • work cooperatively in groups
                                          • show a commitment to fair treat-          Making a Record, Bassett, A. Media
  process of design and make                                                          for kids - Radio, Butler, M. Technol-
• justify the combination of materi-        ment for all                              ogy in Action (series). Sound Effects
  als and techniques in relation to       • show informed commitment to im-           (audio tape)
  the properties required for specific      proving the quality of society and
                                                                                      Computer software: database
  end uses                                  the environment                           FrEdbase, Carefile, Desktop, Data
• describe the process of design and      • be curious about and appreciate the       Manager, The Critics’ Choice, Make
  make which can involve identify-          natural and made environment              the Connection!, TimeLiner,
  ing needs and wants, defining a         • gain satisfaction in their efforts to     Compute-A-Graph
  design task, generating and select-       investigate, to design and make and       People and places: OTC, local radio
  ing ideas, assembling or construct-       to use technology                         stations, SSP schools, hospitals, old
  ing products, systems or environ-       • demonstrate rational and creative         people, homes, museums, post office
  ments, and evaluating outcomes            thinking.                                 Materials and equipment: cassette re-
• explain that the future must be                                                     corders, pictures of rock paintings,
  considered when making choices
                                          Assessment                                  hieroglyphics, radio, fax, modem
  of particular technologies              Listed below are selected examples of
• explain that particular technolo-       strategies that may be used in assess-      Teaching strategies
  gies are significant causes of change   ing this unit of work.                      9    Manipulating to explore and discover
  in the way people live.                 • Have students present the results         13   Trialling and testing ideas and con-
                                            of their research and show how this            cepts
Skills                                      has influenced their decisions when       16   Applying understandings
Students will:                              designing and making.                     17   Exploring needs
• identify data which support a par-      • Ask students to describe how they         18   Clarifying a design task
  ticular prediction                        would communicate to different            29   Selecting appropriate technologies
• use investigation techniques to           places and in different times of his-     35   Telecommunications
  identify opportunities for design         tory.                                     36   Sound and lighting
  activities                                                                          38   Publishing
• develop a design proposal by select-                                                39   Video production

Task                                                              Task
Design and make a program for people with special needs.          Investigate how science and technology have been used
[G]                                                               to assist people with special needs in communicating. [G]

Activities                                                        Activities
Decide on a story (or ideas) to be told. Consider traditional     Predict situations or circumstances where people in the
stories from various cultures.                                    community may have special needs in communicating.
Consider the special needs of the audience. [TS17]                Specific conditions encountered by people could include:
Choose a way of presenting the story or text that allows for      [TS17]
people with special needs. [TS40]                                 • geographical isolations, eg living on an isolated cattle
Create each part of the story. Consider the information to           station
be included and how it will appear. Think about how to            • sensory impairment, eg blindness, deafness
create the feel required.                                         • learning difficulties.
Select and produce aids that might accompany the story.           • restricted mobility, eg the elderly, those unable to get
Devise a way of ensuring aids match the story when                   around easily
presented.                                                        • social isolation, eg being homebound, new to the com-
Present the program. Evaluate in terms of audience enjoy-            munity
ment as well as personal satisfaction. [TS13]                     • physical disabilities, eg paraplegia, severe arthritis,
                                                                  • language difficulties, eg non-English speakers.
                                                                  Identify the difficulties that may be experienced.
Task                                                              Choose different methods of gathering information, eg
Design and make a way of communicating about present–             interviewing people, direct observation or role play. Ob-
day life to people in future generations. [G]                     serve, in the local environment, adaptations that have
                                                                  been made for people with special needs, eg universal
Activities                                                        symbols, subtitling for hearing impaired, pedestrian cross-
                                                                  ing bleepers, English classes, community language broad-
Consider the range of ways to record messages. Refer to           casting.
investigations for the ideas. [TS18] Choose methods to be         Invite a guest speaker to visit the school.
used, eg illustration, audio recordings, photographs, vid-
                                                                  Explore how computer technology has been used to pro-
eos, tapes, writing. Brainstorm subject matter to be in-
                                                                  vide for people’s special needs.
cluded. What aspects of life would be interesting to future
generations, eg impressions of school, sporting results,          Do a case study to discover changes that have occurred
current affairs? [TS16] Jointly decide on a period of time        over time and developments that address the need, eg
for the information to be kept, eg 5 years, 20 years. Perhaps     medical advances, refinement of devices to aid the senses,
a number of suggestions can be actioned. Make the items           improved long distance communication, changes in so-
to be preserved. Evaluate, determining whether others can         cial awareness and understanding. Compare and contrast
understand what is being said. Can they suggest things            past situations to the present. Include the roles of scien-
that are missing? Consider ways of preserving the materi-         tific research and technological innovation. Suggest fur-
als. Consider the materials used, where to store the mes-         ther advances that may occur in the future.
sages, how long they are to be kept. Identify what things         Explore an organisation catering for people with special
will affect the materials used, eg water, pollution and           needs, eg Royal Blind Society. Research their function and
methods of preventing damage. Choose a method of pres-            the services they provide.
ervation, and put into action. [TS29]                             Reflect on how and why attitudes to people with special
                                                                  needs have changed since past times.

Task                                                              Task
Use appropriate technologies to organise data and com-            Investigate the changes that have occurred in communi-
municate information. [I]                                         cation. [I]

Activities                                                        Activities
Explore how to use a range of technologies, eg use an             Using various resources, research communication meth-
electronic information service (Keylink, Fredmail) to com-        ods used in the past, eg rock paintings, drums, morse code.
municate with radio service, other schools or pen pals, or        [TS9] Observe examples that have been preserved and
to gain access to a remote data base, eg AAP. Use a fax to        interpret the messages, eg Aboriginal rock paintings, Egyp-
communicate with schools or services in the local area;           tian tomb paintings. Evaluate how successfully they have
use an electronic information service to make a newspa-           been preserved. Experiment sending messages using other
per. [TS35]                                                       methods identified, eg semaphore, morse code. Identify
Identify communication systems. Observe in environ-               advantages/disadvantages of each method. Research how
ment, eg satellite discs; visit facilities, eg post office; use   communication technologies evolved to their present
a variety of resources to discover how they operate. Dem-         forms. Record using a time line.
onstrate how some of these work, eg write for the bulletin
board to communicate with another school. [TS38]

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                  123
Sailing, Sinking, Soaring                                                                                        Stage 3
Some properties and uses of air and water

Content focus                               • use resources with consideration for      Mathematics
                                              the environment and adopt proce-          Describing and naming simple objects
   Physical Phenomena                         dures that minimise waste                 and their properties.
   Earth and its Surroundings               • identify and report unsafe conditions     Classifying and sorting objects into
                                            • record the economic, moral, social        groups according to their similarities.
Outcomes                                      and environmental consequences of
                                              technological advances.                   Personal Development, Health and
This unit contributes to the following                                                  Physical Education
syllabus outcomes.                          Values and Attitudes                        Examining water safety aspects.
Knowledge and Understanding                 Students will:
                                            • have a positive view of themselves        Creative and Practical Arts
Students will know and understand                                                       Craft/design: designing and making pa-
                                              and their capabilities
that:                                                                                   per/balsa wood plane.
                                            • initiate and persevere with activi-
• there are various forms of energy                                                     Drama: improvising dance and move-
                                              ties to their completion
• there are various parts to the physical                                               ment activities associated with float-
                                            • respect the rights and property of
  environment, eg stars, planets, earth,                                                ing and sinking.
  air and water.
Students will:
                                            • work cooperatively in groups              Teacher notes
                                            • show informed commitment to im-
• recognise that investigations may be                                                  Although density determines whether
                                              proving the quality of society and
  conclusive/inconclusive                                                               things float, it is not necessary to ex-
                                              the environment
• describe the social, environmental or                                                 plain this concept at this level.
                                            • be curious about and appreciate the
  economic implications of the investi-
                                              natural and made environment              Collect a range of kite designs from
  gation of new materials and processes
                                            • appreciate the scientific and techno-     around the world, especially those
• describe the process of investigation
                                              logical contribution made by Aus-         brought in by students.
  which can involve exploring and dis-
                                              tralians and members of other soci-
  covering phenomena and events, pro-
                                              eties and cultures
                                                                                        Suggested resources
  posing explanations, initiating inves-
                                            • develop rational and creative think-      Water, Soil and Air, Houghton G et al
  tigations, predicting outcomes, test-
                                              ing.                                      Aircraft and Space Rockets, Johnson, H
  ing, modifying and applying under-
  standings                                 Assessment                                  Experiment With (series)
• describe the factors that influence                                                   Travel by Water, Pollard, M
  design                                    Listed below are selected examples of       Kites to Make and Fly, Newham, J
• justify the decisions made in design-     strategies that may be used in testing      The Environment World Issues Series,
  ing and making                            the objectives of this unit of work.        Markham, A
• explain the need for safe, ergonomi-      • Have students describe the results of     Icarus (video), Film Australia
  cally sound work environments                testing materials and explain how        Water, Walpole, B
• identify that new technologies in-           they have incorporated their find-
                                                                                        Wondering About Air (video)
  crease the options for designing and         ings in their kite designs.
                                            • Observe how prepared students are         Computer software: publishing soft-
  making.                                                                               ware, eg Writing & Publishing Centre,
                                               to try out a variety ideas in generat-
Skills                                                                                  Appleworks, FrEdbase, Compute-A-
                                               ing a design proposal.                   Graph
Students will:                              • Have students demonstrate their
                                                                                        People and places: Sydney Maritime
• make detailed observations using ap-         knowledge and understanding of
                                                                                        Museum, Sydney Children’s Museum,
  propriate technologies                       methods of joining and shaping the       Powerhouse Museum, State Pollution
• discuss the factors that might affect        materials selected for model produc-     Control Commission, Water Board
  an investigation                             tion.
                                                                                        Materials and equipment: a variety of
• identify data which support a particu-    • Observe and discuss with students         materials for testing construction ma-
  lar prediction                               the testing procedures for their pre-    terials for boats and kites, soluble mate-
• devise a fair test                           dictions.                                rials
• devise a test that will support or dis-   • Have a teacher - student interview con-
  prove a prediction                           cerning the process of investigation.    Teaching strategies
• select, reject or modify as appropriate                                               8 Researching to explore and dis-
  the elements of design to evaluate the    Links with other                                cover
  procedures and outcomes of a design       Key Learning Areas                          11 Predicting outcomes
  task                                                                                  13 Trialling and testing ideas and con-
• produce a model, prototype, product       English                                         cepts
  or procedure to meet a specific design    Demonstrating how to access factual         16 Applying understandings
  brief                                                                                 20 Developing ideas
                                            information on air, water, pollution.
                                                                                        22 Considering appearance and func-
• test or propose ways of testing the       Modelling the language of prediction,           tion
  extent to which a product satisfies       eg I think this will sink.                  24 Selecting and using material
  the design intentions                     Modelling the construction of informa-      27 Learning safety procedures
• select appropriate tools, hardware,       tion in the form of a report.               29 Selecting and maintaining tools
  materials, equipment or software on                                                       and equipment
  the basis of their specific function in                                               30 Evaluating chosen technologies
  order to gather information

Task                                                                Task
Use simple equipment to measure air and water pollu-                Investigate the effect of pollution on air and water. [I]
tion. [I]
Activities                                                          Discuss what a pollutant is, ie any substance which can
Measure solid air pollution at various locations around             damage health. Research the more common forms of
the school playground, eg close to a corner window sill,            pollution, eg exhaust fumes from cars, sewage into the
outside, inside etc. Monitor substances found at different          oceans, chemicals discharged into sewers. Collect news-
locations in a local creek or drain, over a period of time,         paper articles over a term about water and air pollution in
eg acids, mud, greasy slick, litter. Record and graph               their local area and produce a scrapbook.
results. [TS8]
Task                                                                Investigate the properties of water. [I]
Design and make a water wheel. [G]
Activities                                                          Observe the properties of water, eg flows, exerts a push/
Draw ideas for constructing a wheel. Discuss and decide             pull, expands when freezes. Use a fair test to identify
what materials could be used, eg plastic, wood, something           which materials may dissolve in water, eg sugar, salt,
waterproof. [TS25] Collect materials and construct wheel            sand, flour. [TS13] Discuss with students what is meant
and trial finished product. Discuss possible uses for fin-          by a fair test and how this applies to this investigation, eg
ished product, eg generate electricity, grind cereal into           equal amounts of water, equal amounts of the materials to
flour etc.                                                          be tested etc. Identify that water can exist as a liquid, solid
                                                                    or gas. Identify that air can be dissolved in water.

Task                                                                Task
Design and make a sailing boat that will float. [G]                 Investigate buoyancy with various materials. [G]

Activities                                                          Activities
Collect scrap materials, eg plastic containers, polystyrene         Using a range of readily-available objects observe whether they
foam, straws, paper, cloth. Experiment with designs for a           float or sink. Collect a wider variety of objects, particularly
sailing boat. [TS23] Consider shape, materials, staying up-         ensuring a variety of different materials, eg coins, woollen
right, travelling in straight lines. Use drawings or a model to     objects, plastics, other metals, plasticine, fabrics. Predict
help develop the design. Explore ways of joining and shaping        which will float and which will sink. [TS16] Test the predic-
materials. Select materials that best fit the need, eg can float,   tions and observe the results. Discuss common characteris-
be joined, be shaped. Make the boat, including the sail. Test       tics of items that float, and of items that sink. Can students
the design’s sea worthiness and ease of movement. Make              suggest any modifications that could be made to materials to
repairs or alterations if necessary. [TS30] Consider ways of        make them float. Examine and discuss safety devices used on
improving its performance. Research how some Australians            boats and when swimming. Predict the types of materials and
have been involved in and Australian technology has been            shapes that could be used for this purpose. Test the predictions
used in sail boat design, eg America’s Cup yacht.                   by direct observation of flotation devices brought in. Research
                                                                    correct procedures for use of safety devices, eg talk to experts,
                                                                    refer to pamphlets, videos. [TS28]

Task                                                                Task
Design and make a kite. Devise a useful purpose for the kite.       Investigate the properties of air and how moving air (wind)
[I]                                                                 moves objects. [G]

Activities                                                          Activities
Collect a variety of kites. Compare the different designs,          Observe the properties of air, eg a gas, exerts a push/pull,
noticing how they fly, materials used, how they are control-        compressible, takes the shape of its container. Feel the
led. Use these examples as a source of ideas for individual         effects of the wind, eg by running into the wind, running with
designs. Establish criteria for a successful kite. Develop          the wind behind, running across the wind. Observe things
designs using drawings or models as needed. [TS20] Present          that are moved by the wind, eg clothes blowing on the line,
the designs for discussion with peers. Select and obtain             flag, windmill, leaves. Devise a way to observe and record the
materials that are appropriate for specific design. Consider        direction of the wind, eg by making a paper windmill.
the best methods of construction, including joining materi-         Measure the strength of the ‘pull’ of the wind. Try different
als. Evaluate work at each stage of making. On completion,          ways of measuring. Compare the mass and strength of
test fly the kite. Compare to others. Make adjustments as           different materials and how they may be moved in the wind.
desired, especially to alter performance, eg lengthening/           [TS13] Predict those that would be strongest, lightest, best
shortening the tail. Evaluate according to initial criteria.        as sails etc. [TS11] Devise fair tests to check the predictions.
[TS31] Brainstorm ways of using the kites for a useful              Use your investigation to suggest material for use in kite
purpose, eg to advertise a school event or a product suspend-       construction. [TS25] Consider the purpose of each compo-
ing a sign from the kite.                                           nent, eg the frame, the fabric, and the qualities that would be
                                                                    suitable, eg strength, lightness, appearance. Explore the
                                                                    flight of gliders in the wind, eg using paper or balsa planes.
                                                                    Predict how the glider could be made to fly further, higher or
                                                                    in any other specified way. Make changes and test the new
                                                                    design. [TS13]

                                                                               SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                      125
What’s the Weather?                                                                                       Stage 3
Natural occurrences and their effects

Content focus                             Skills                                    from an address by guest speaker or
                                          Students will:                            during an excursion.
   Built Environments                                                               Exploring the purpose and features of
                                          • make detailed observations using
   Information and Communication            appropriate technologies                written explanations.
   Physical Phenomena                     • devise a test that will support or      Jointly constructing explanations of
   Products and Services                    disprove a prediction                   natural phenomena.
   Earth and its Surroundings             • produce a model, prototype, prod-       Mathematics
                                            uct or procedure to meet a specific
                                                                                    Exploring aspects of position, focus-
Outcomes                                    design brief
                                                                                    ing on mapping.
This unit contributes to the follow-      • test or propose ways of testing the
                                                                                    Measuring temperature, volume and
ing syllabus outcomes.                      extent to which a product satisfies
                                                                                    wind speed using both formal and
                                            the design intentions
                                                                                    informal units.
Knowledge and Understanding               • select appropriate tools, hardware,
Students will know and understand           materials, equipment or software        Human Society and its Environment
that:                                       on the basis of their specific func-    Investigating the influences of natu-
• people try to control the conditions      tion and in order to gather informa-    ral phenomena on lifestyles and envi-
  in the environments they build            tion                                    ronments as part of cultural study on
• information can be represented in a     • use appropriate equipment and tools     a current affairs issue.
  number of different forms, includ-        to carry out a particular task, and
  ing graphics, sounds and texts            understand the technology involved      Teacher notes
• technologies continually offer new        to record and present ideas.
                                                                                    Weather conditions to measure and
  ways of creating and sending mes-       Values and Attitudes                      monitor should include temperature,
  sages                                                                             rainfall, wind direction and speed.
                                          Students will:
• there are various forms of energy
                                          • initiate and persevere with activi-
• the sun is the source of most of the      ties to their completion                Suggested resources
  energy on the Earth
                                          • work cooperatively in groups            Our Planet (series), Eagle Books
• there are environmental conse-
                                          • show informed commitment to im-         World Disasters (series), Macmillan
  quences of production and con-
                                            proving the quality of society and      Weather (video), Mason, J Classroom
                                            the environment                         Video
• systems are designed to provide
                                          • be curious about and appreciate the     Volcanoes (video), Classroom Video
  particular services
                                            natural and made environment
• there are many physical phenom-                                                   Computer software: communications
                                          • gain satisfaction in their efforts to   software, eg Telecom V3, U-Connect,
  ena which change the environment
                                            investigate, to design and make and     K-Connect, Diga, Apple Access II,
• there are various parts to the physi-     to use technology.
  cal environment, eg stars, planets,                                               Netcomm
  earth, air and water.                                                             People and places: Forestry Commis-
                                          Assessment                                sion, museums, World Vision or Com-
Students will:
• recognise that investigations may       Listed below are suggested strategies     munity Aid Abroad, Dick Smith elec-
  be conclusive/inconclusive              that may be used in assessing this        trical components, State Emergency
                                          unit of work.                             Services
• show some relationship between
  the process of investigation and the    • Have students predict the weather       Materials and equipment: electrical
  process of design and make                for various times of the future year.   components, eg wire, batteries, bulbs,
                                          • Students can demonstrate the            mercury (trembler) switches, barom-
• describe the process of investiga-                                                eter, rain gauge, weather sections of
  tion which can involve exploring          windspeed device to successfully
                                            measure the wind’s speed/direction.     newspapers
  and discovering phenomena and
  events, proposing explanations, ini-    • In conferences, students could be       Teaching strategies
  tiating investigations, predicting        encouraged to justify explanations      10 Proposing explanations
  outcomes, testing, modifying and          supporting or disproving results of     11 Predicting outcomes
  applying understandings                   weather predictions.
                                                                                    16 Applying understandings
• describe the factors that influence     • Consider whether students dem-
                                                                                    18 Clarifying a design task
  design                                    onstrate rational and creative
                                            thought.                                19 Exploring ideas
• justify the combination of materi-
  als and techniques in relation to                                                 22 Selecting solutions
  the properties required for specific    Links with other                          31 Evaluating chosen technologies
  end uses                                Key Learning Areas                        35 Telecommunications
• evaluate technological activity in
  terms of social and environmental       English
  cost and benefits.                      Demonstrating ways of taking notes

Task                                                           Task
Design and make an instrument to indicate windspeed or         Investigate weather patterns. [I]
direction on a windy highway, bridge or airport. [I]
Activities                                                     Observe weather patterns over time by collecting weather
Discuss the need to measure natural conditions, eg to          information/maps from newspapers, TV or radio. Discuss
warn of changes. Research and identify the ways that           observations of temperatures, wind direction and cloud
natural conditions are measured. Decide on requirements        patterns in different areas.
of the device, eg must demonstrate wind direction and          Research methods used to measure weather patterns, eg
strength, be clearly visible.                                  gauges, weather balloons, satellites.
Brainstorm ideas about how the indicator will work. Use        Record and graph rainfall readings over time and in differ-
examples from the environment as models. [TS18]                ent parts of the state/country. Predict wettest/driest areas
Draw a plan of the design. Discuss it with others. Trial       or times of year. [TS11] Test predictions by comparing
selected materials for visibility, durability.                 readings with other months of same year and same month
Make the device and trial it.                                  in other years. Note which months are the wettest, driest,
                                                               windiest etc.
                                                               Visit a local weather station and observe the ways weather
                                                               information is gathered and disseminated.

Task                                                           Task
In groups, design and present a weather report. [G]            Use an electronic information service to collect informa-
                                                               tion about weather throughout NSW. [I]
Identify the sorts of details required in weather reports.
Gather information from around the state, over a period of     Define the information required, eg temperature, wind
time.                                                          speed, wind direction, rainfall. Write the message to be
Provide each group with identical information. Select          used. [TS35]
details to be included. Design and prepare graphics, text      Use the bulletin board to post a message to schools in
and method of presentation. (Extension: try to predict         NSW. Log in and read replies.
tomorrow’s weather.) Assign roles to be filled, eg graphics    Analyse the data received. Compare similarities and dif-
creation, director, presenter.                                 ferences around the state. Propose explanations regarding
Class presentation: compare each group’s report and note       patterns that emerge. [TS10] Continue data collection to
similarities and differences. [TS16]                           support/disprove proposed explanations.

Task                                                           Task
Design a plan to cope at school, in the event of a disaster.   Investigate natural phenomena. [G]
Activities                                                     Research natural occurrences that may cause a disaster, eg
Identify a phenomenon that may affect the local area, eg       earthquake, volcano, flood, cyclone. Use books, slides,
flood, fire, earthquake.                                       videos, a guest speaker.
Discuss the action that will need to take place. [TS22]        Include causes, variations in force, areas most likely to be
Include alerting people, evacuation, accounting for every-     affected, early warning systems, occurrences in Australia.
one, communicating with the outside, aiding the injured,       Discuss what makes a natural phenomenon become a
equipment that may be required, informing everyone of          disaster, eg its effect on the environment and people.
procedures. Evaluate technologies which could aid com-         Reflect on whether an earthquake in an unpopulated area
munication. [TS31]                                             or cyclone in the middle of the ocean, would be considered
Make a plan of the action to be undertaken. [TS19]             a disaster.
Consult with other classes to ensure their needs are           List phenomena that may occur in Australia. Identify
considered. Discuss the plan with a friend. Can they           areas most likely to be affected by each variety. Research
identify any important steps that you have missed?             whether any disasters have occurred in your local area. If
Conduct a drill to trial the plan and evaluate its success.    so, describe the damage sustained.
                                                               Research organisations and systems involved in dealing
                                                               with disasters in Australia, eg SES. Visit their headquar-
                                                               ters or invite a member to visit the class.

                                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   127
An Ancient Land                                                                                              Stage 3
Changes that have occurred over time

Content focus                               • use appropriate equipment and tools     Suggested resources
                                              to carry out a particular task,
   Living Things                              understand the technology involved      First Facts (series), Macmillan
   Earth and its Surroundings                 to record and present ideas.            Australian Dinosaurs, Pride, M
                                            Values and Attitudes                      The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth,
Outcomes                                    Students will:
                                                                                      Cole, J
This unit contributes to the follow-                                                  Eyewitness Guides (series), Collins
                                            • have a positive view of themselves
ing syllabus outcomes.                        and their capabilities                  Living in Australia (series), Macmillan
                                            • show flexibility and responsiveness     64,000,000 Years Ago (video), Na-
Knowledge and Understanding                                                           tional Film Board of Canada
Students will know and understand             to ideas
                                                                                      Dinosaurs (video), Ministry of Educa-
that:                                       • initiate and persevere with activi-
                                                                                      tion, Victoria
• the activities of people can change         ties to their completion
                                            • respect different viewpoints and        Computer software: graphics soft-
  the balance of nature                                                               ware, eg Explore-a-Science Dinosaur
                                              ways of living
• groups of living things have changed                                                Construction Kit, Tyrannosaurus Rex,
  over long periods of time                 • respect the rights and property of      Super Print, What Makes a Dinosaur
                                              others                                  Sore, The Print Shop, Fantavision,
• there are various parts to the physi-
  cal environment, eg stars, planets,       • be curious about and appreciate the     Slide Shop, Graphics Bank, Geoworld,
  earth, air and water.                       natural and made environment.           PC Globe
Students will:                                                                        People and places: national parks, lo-
• describe the process of investiga-        Assessment                                cal area, Gould League, Soil Conser-
  tion which can involve exploring          Listed below are strategies that may      vation Service, local historical soci-
  and discovering phenomena and             be used in assessing this unit.           ety, Mineral and Mining Museum,
  events, proposing explanations, ini-      • Have students explain the features      Australian Museum, Earth Exchange
  tiating investigations, predicting          in their model of different landforms   Materials and equipment: construc-
  outcomes, testing, modifying and            (the focus should not be the model      tion materials, pictures of erosion,
  applying understandings                     but their understanding of the fea-     containers of sand and soil, collection
• justify the combination of materi-          tures).                                 of natural materials, eg leaves, bark
  als and techniques in relation to         • Listen to students’ explanations of     Teaching strategies
  the properties required for specific        their created environment to visi-
  end uses                                                                            7 Observing to explore and dis-
                                              tors.                                      cover
• describe the process of design and
  make which can involve identify-                                                    8 Researching to explore and dis-
                                            Links with other                             cover
  ing needs and wants, defining a
  design task, generating and select-       Key Learning Areas                        10 Proposing explanations
  ing ideas, assembling or construct-                                                 13 Trialling and testing ideas and
  ing products, systems or environ-         English                                      concepts
  ments, and evaluating outcomes.           Demonstrating taking notes from a         15 Explaining understandings
                                            variety of sources, eg research speak-    16 Applying understandings
Skills                                      ers, videos. Modelling organisation of
Students will:                                                                        25 Selecting and using materials
                                            information to facilitate making com-
• make detailed observations using          parisons. Writing stories about the       27 Understanding materials
  appropriate technologies                  past.
• devise a test that will support or
  disprove a prediction                     Teacher notes
• modify and apply their understand-        The emphasis in this unit is on the
  ing in the light of their investigation   changes that have occurred over long
• select, reject or modify as appropri-     periods of time.
  ate the elements of design to evalu-      Because Aboriginal people have occu-
  ate the procedures and outcomes of        pied Australia for many years, records
  a design task                             of geological and species changes, eg
• produce a model, prototype, prod-         sea level, volcanoes, species extinc-
  uct or procedure to meet a specific       tion, are found in Dreaming stories.
  design brief                              The first archaeological finds of fos-
• select appropriate tools, hardware,       sils of extinct megafauna were found
  materials, equipment or software          following such references.
  on the basis of their specific func-
  tion in order to gather information

Task                                                           Task
Design and make a model of particular landforms. [G]           Investigate different landforms. [W]

Activities                                                     Activities
Identify a range of different landforms, eg coastal, desert,   Identify natural landforms, and their characteristics, in
mountain/valley. In groups research the characteristics to     the local environment, eg hills, rivers, valleys, beaches.
include for each model. Select a method of representing        Research and identify natural landforms in other environ-
the landforms, eg plasticine modelling, papier-mache,          ments. [TS8] Research how land masses have changed
plaster of paris. Sketch ideas, trying out different combi-    over time. Compare representations of what Australia
nations of elements. Evaluate and make refinements.            may have looked like at different times over many thou-
Make a final plan of the model. Choose and collect             sands of years. Compare with current shape and size.
materials suitable to the environment being represented,       Suggest reasons for rise/fall in sea level. [TS15] Observe
eg sand for beaches, twigs etc. [TS25] Create the model        weather and other natural conditions, eg running water,
using appropriate methods of shaping, joining and com-         wind in identified areas. Predict the effects of these ele-
bining materials. Label the features.                          ments on the land. Create a model to test the predictions.
                                                               Research using videos, reference books or invited speak-
                                                               ers, to collaborate the results. Collect a variety of rocks
                                                               from the local area. Classify by various attributes. Identify
                                                               common characteristics. Research to determine how they
                                                               were formed, eg ask an expert. Observe weathering in local
                                                               environment, eg areas of erosion, roadside cuttings. Ex-
                                                               plore how these effects occurred. Suggest ways of prevent-
                                                               ing further erosion or addressing the problem. [TS16]

Task                                                           Task
Design and make models of animals and their habitats by        Investigate animals that existed in prehistoric times. [I]
changing the classroom into a prehistoric environment.
[G]                                                            Activities
                                                               Explore sources of evidence of life in prehistoric times, eg
Activities                                                     fossils, amber. Make predictions as to how these were
Identify the range of creatures to be modelled, eg land        formed. Test ideas, by simulating/trying proposals or
animals, flying animals, species that live in water. Re-       through research.
search individual features that need to be represented, eg     Research animals that existed in prehistoric times.
physical characteristics, foods eaten, style of movement.      Identify species that were peculiar to Australia, eg
Consider relative sizes. Make suggestions of methods to        diprotodons, giant mammals. Include information on their
use in reproducing the model. Visit theatres, museums          characteristics, habitat, place in the food chain.
and observe techniques used. [TS7] Use as models or            Identify species which have become extinct, eg dinosaurs.
obtain advice. Explore materials that could be used, eg        Suggest possible causes. Explore changes which may have
papier-mache, plaster of paris, plasticine. Consider ways      caused extinction of species, eg climate, balance of nature.
of making appropriate sound effects, moving parts, light-
                                                               Discuss the features of plants and animals which led to
ing effects. [TS36] Create the models using appropriate
                                                               their survival/extinction.
methods of shaping, joining and combining materials.
[TS27] Create the landscape considering materials needed
to simulate the textures, colours and atmosphere re-
quired. Position the models. Invite other classes to make
the trip back in time.

                                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   129
Light Up My Life                                                                                            Stage 3
Light and visual images

Content focus                             • use appropriate equipment and tools      Creative and Practical Arts
                                            to carry out a particular task, un-      Creating props, costumes etc as ap-
   Built Environments                       derstand the technology involved         propriate.
   Information and Communication            and record and present ideas.            Using inks and oil paints on slides for
   Physical Phenomena                     Values and Attitudes                       visual effects.
   Products and Services                  Students will:                             Music
                                          • show flexibility and responsiveness      Explore the use of tone and colour to
Outcomes                                    to ideas                                 create scary, pleasant, peaceful
This unit contributes to the follow-      • work cooperatively in groups             moods/atmospheres.
ing syllabus outcomes.                    • gain satisfaction in their efforts to
Knowledge and Understanding                 investigate, to design and make and      Teacher notes
                                            to use technology.
Students will know and understand                                                    Students will make observations
that:                                                                                about light while exploring and ma-
• both aesthetic and functional fac-
                                          Assessment                                 nipulating materials and objects.
  tors need to be considered when         Listed below are selected examples of      Advertisements and videos are useful
  people make changes to their envi-      strategies that may be used in assess-     for exploring the effects of sound and
  ronments                                ing the objectives of this unit of work.   lighting.
• information can be represented in a     • Discuss informally the processes
  number of different forms, includ-        experienced in creating the puppet       Suggested resources
  ing graphics, sounds and texts            show, shadow play or tape/slide
                                            program.                                 Media for Kids, Butler, M
• technologies continually offer new
  ways of creating and sending mes-                                                  Light and Dark, Catherall, E
                                          • Have students create a flow chart of
  sages                                     the sequences in their play, show or     Light Fantastic, Kerred, R
• the sun is the source of most of the      program developed.                       Tracks into Primary Science, Freer, K
  energy on the Earth                     • Have the students use a computer         and O’Toole M
• light can pass through some mate-         for telecommunications and/or            Lode (series), Longman Cheshire
  rials and not others and when it          multi-media productions.                 Computer software: Energy Efficient
  does it forms shadows                   • Have children predict when light         House, Make the Connection!, Slide
• systems are designed to provide           will/will not pass through a variety     Show
  particular services                       of materials.                            People and places: computer educa-
• there are many physical phenom-         • See if children can adapt, changing      tion contacts, theatres, professional
  ena which change the environment.         size and position, strong/weak/mul-      producers, community theatre groups,
Students will:                              tiple lights, to produce the desired     Powerhouse Museum
• show some relationship between            effects on puppets and shadows.          Materials and equipment: video cam-
  the process of investigation to the                                                eras, video cassette recorders, audio-
  process of design and make              Links with other                           visual equipment, appropriate props
                                                                                     and equipment, simple lights, sound
• describe the factors that influence     Key Learning Areas                         effects, film, coloured screens
• justify the decisions made in de-       English                                    Teaching strategies
  signing and making                      Exploring the purpose, audience and        8 Researching to explore and dis-
• explain that particular technolo-       features of entertainment.                    cover
  gies are significant causes of change   Focusing on the descriptive language       17 Exploring needs
  in the way people live.                 associated with light, shadows and         32 Audio-visual technologies
                                          reflection.                                35 Telecommunications
Students will:                            Mathematics                                36 Sound and lighting
• discuss the factors that might af-      Measuring and calculating duration         41 Computer graphics
  fect an investigation                   of events. Reading and interpreting
• devise fair tests                       timetables.
• modify and apply their understand-      Personal Development, Health and
  ing in the light of their investiga-    Physical Education
  tion                                    Identifying the need for protective
• develop a design proposal by select-    clothing and equipment.
  ing and refining ideas and justify-
  ing choices                             Human Society and its Environment
• produce a model, prototype, prod-       Organising and presenting informa-
  uct or procedure to meet a specific     tion. Extending understandings re
  design brief                            aesthetic needs and how they are sat-

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a shadow play or puppet show. [G]                Investigate the effect light has on materials. [I]

Activities                                                       Activities
Predict what ‘leisure’ will be like in the future. [TS11]        Shine light from a slide projector on to the wall or onto a
Suggest some new activities that might exist, eg day trips       screen. Observe the shape of the light beam. Explore ways
to the moon, hologram shows, computer simulator dome.            of affecting this beam of light. Observe light passing or not
Select an activity to make a play or puppet show. Identify       passing through several materials, eg wood, glass, woollen
characters to be illustrated. Choose the light source, eg        cloth. Collect a range of materials, eg clear plastic, cotton
overhead projector, slide projector, light behind sheet.         cloth, nylon, metal, coloured liquid, lighting gels. Predict
Explore materials that may be suitable. Consider the             whether the light will pass through easily (transparent),
characteristics required, eg allowing no light, some light,      partially (translucent), or not at all (opaque). Test predic-
coloured light through, and how they can be cut and              tions. Record observations. Describe other characteristics
joined. Select materials and make the puppets. Try them          of transparent materials. [TS36]
out and discuss possible improvements. Organise other
aspects to enhance the performance, eg sound effects,
music and voices, darkening the room. [TS32] Combine
all the elements and rehearse the production. Invite friends     Task
to watch the play.
                                                                 Investigate sources of light. [W]

                                                                 Identify light in the environment, eg light from the sun,
                                                                 ceiling lights, candles etc. [TS8]
                                                                 List possible light sources, eg the sun, candles, stars, fire,
                                                                 glow worms, light globes. Group according to common
                                                                 characteristics, eg uses electricity, can be used outdoors,
                                                                 used when the sun’s light is not available.

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a representation of a natural change in          Investigate how sound and lighting can be used to create
the surroundings. [W]                                            ‘special effects’. [G]

Activities                                                       Activities
Choose a scenario to which ‘special effects’ can be added.       Collect a variety of materials, eg cellophane, cotton mate-
(This could be part of a class play.) Discuss the type of        rial, coloured overhead projector sheets, filters.
effects that would complement the chosen scene.                  Trial these materials to see if they can change sources, eg
Discuss the various lighting changes to be observed in the       overhead projector, torch.
environment, eg sunrise, sunset, lightning, cloudy day,          Observe the effects.
gathering storm. Try out various ways of representing            Record observations of the success of various materials, eg
lighting effects with various light sources.                     no light passed through, the light turned purple.
Discuss the sounds that are often heard at special times,        Trial more than one successful material at a time. Discuss
eg birds chirping at sunset. Try out various sounds and          the results of combining different colours.
combinations of sounds that might represent natural
occurrences, eg thunder, rain, leaves rustling. Add the
‘special effects’ to the scene and evaluate their success.
Add a different set of ‘special effects’ to the same scene and
discuss the result.

                                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   131
Environment Matters                                                                                       Stage 3
Effects of human activities on the environment

Content focus                             • describe ways in which resources        managed and the effects of manage-
                                            can be conserved.                       ment practices on natural environ-
   Built Environments                                                               ments and human society.
   Living Things
                                          Students will:                            Personal Development, Health and
   Products and Services                                                            Physical Education
                                          • modify and apply their understand-
   Earth and its Surroundings                                                       Investigating potential health hazards
                                            ings in the light of their investiga-
                                            tion                                    caused by environmental damage.
Outcomes                                  • use resources with consideration        Creative and Practical Arts
This unit contributes to the follow-        for the environment and adopt pro-      Organising movement and language
ing syllabus outcomes.                      cedures which minimise waste            through simulation, addressing issues
Knowledge and Understanding               • identify and report unsafe condi-       of environmental damage.
Students will know and understand
                                          • record the economic, moral, social      Suggested resources
                                            and environmental consequences
• people try to control the conditions      of technological advances.              The Greenhouse Effect – Exploring
  in the environments they build                                                    the Theory, Morris, B et al
• people live in communities and          Values and Attitudes                      The Environment and Health, Ward, B
  build environments to service their     Students will:                            The Ozone Crisis, Mackness, B
  common needs                            • demonstrate confidence in them-         The Humpback Whale, Green, C
• the activities of people can change       selves and willingness to make de-
  the balance of nature                     cisions and to take responsible ac-     Survival (series), Watts
• there are environmental conse-            tions                                   Protect Wildlife (series), Watts
  quences of production and con-          • respect the rights and property of      The Battle of Billy’s Pond (video),
  sumption                                  others                                  British Children’s Film Foundation
• systems are designed to provide par-    • work cooperatively in groups            Drowned Land (video), ABC
  ticular services                        • respect different viewpoints and        Scars on the Landscape (video), ABC
• systems are used to deliver and dis-      ways of living                          Sands of Time (video), Yowie Films
  tribute goods                           • show informed commitment to im-         People and places: Forestry Commis-
• there are many physical phenom-           proving the quality of society and      sion, Soil Conservation Service, Aus-
  ena which change the environment          the environment                         tralian Conservation Service, national
• there are various parts to the physi-   • be curious about and appreciate the     parks, Gould League, State Pollution
  cal environment, eg stars, planets,       natural and made environment            Control Commission
  earth, air and water                    • appreciate the scientific and tech-     Computer software: databases, eg
• environments on Earth have been           nological contribution made by          Goodbye Forever? A Database of
  affected by technology.                   Australians and members of other        Threatened Mammals, Australian
Students will:                              societies and cultures.                 Mammals Database, SimAnt,
• describe the social, environmental
  or economic implications of the         Assessment                                Teaching strategies
  investigation of new materials and      Listed below are strategies that may      8 Researching to explore and dis-
  processes                               be used in assessing this unit.              cover
• explain the need for safe, ergonomi-                                              10 Proposing explanations
                                          • Have students assess the effective-
  cally sound work environments                                                     11 Predicting outcomes
                                            ness of the recycling system they
• describe the process of design and        have implemented in the school          13 Trialling and testing ideas and
  make which can involve identify-          and recommend any modifications.           concepts
  ing needs and wants, defining a         • See how effectively students are        14 Modifying understandings
  design task, generating and select-       able to transfer their ideas for im-
  ing ideas, assembling or construct-                                               22 Selecting solutions
                                            proving the environment into their
  ing products, systems or environ-         lives outside school.
  ments and evaluating outcomes
                                          • What are the observable differences
• explain that the future must be           in students’ behaviour toward their
  considered when making choices            immediate environment?
  of particular technologies
• evaluate technological activity in      Links with other
  terms of social and environmental
  cost and benefits                       Key Learning Areas
• explain that particular technolo-
  gies are significant causes of change   Human Society and its Environment
  in the way people live                  Developing understandings about
                                          ways major world environments are

Task                                                             Task
Design and make a product to satisfy an identified need,         Investigate the effect of human activity on environments
taking into account environmental costs. [G]                     both in Australia and the rest of the world. [I]

Activities                                                       Activities
Evaluate how selected products satisfy human needs. Out-         Identify characteristics of natural environments, include plants
line the environmental impact of the item’s production.          and animals in particular areas. [TS8] Visit national parks,
[TS30] Include packaging, production methods, the prod-          watch videos, etc. List human activities that interact with/
uct’s use and eventual disposal. Design modifications to         impact on natural environments, eg land for farming; hunt-
minimise the effects on the environment, eg an environ-          ing/fishing; mining; urban development; use of resources;
mentally sound product may be poorly packaged, a simple          quality of air/water; use of pesticides, cars/planes. Suggest
object may be made of rare rainforest timbers. [TS20]            effects of identified activities, eg farming leads to reduced
Describe the design problem, including environmental re-         natural habitats/animal food sources . [TS10] Directly ob-
quirements. [TS10] Generate ideas using drawings, words          serve and critically appraise effects of human activity, eg soil
or both. Outline solutions or make a model of the product.       salination, air/water pollution, species endangerment. Use
Include disposal procedures. Research large-scale produc-        reference materials. Research causes of problems, identifying
tion methods. Analyse the design solution, identifying its       as many reasons as possible, eg species endangered through
strengths and weaknesses. [TS21] How is the item received        habitat destruction, introduced species, hunting. Present pros
by others? Get an expert opinion. Present your proposal/         and cons of human activity. [TS10] Explore conservation in
suggestion to the original producers.                            traditional Aboriginal societies. Make predictions for the
                                                                 future, eg forest felling causing species extinction, green
                                                                 house effect. [TS11]
Task                                                             Task
Design and implement/maintain a system to recycle mate-          Investigate the ways people, world wide, are addressing the
rials within the school. [W]                                     problems of environmental damage. [W]

Activities                                                       Activities
Examine current waste disposal in the school. (If a recycling    Review the range of effects human activities have on natural
system already exists, evaluate its function.) Trace where       environments. Evaluate the necessity of human activities, eg
waste products go. Measure the amount of rubbish thrown          farming is harmful to indigenous plants/animals, but necessary
away in a day, a week. Evaluate the effects of this on the       to provide food. Use arguments to justify judgements. [TS10]
school and wider community. [TS11] Identify materials            Classify consequences as preventable or able to be addressed.
that can be recycled, eg food scraps, paper, plastic contain-    Propose ways of preventing problems.
ers, glass, aluminium cans. Separate materials that can be       Research current means of addressing problems using pam-
usefully reused within the school, eg yoghurt pots. Organise     phlets, organisations, references. Areas of enquiry may include:
recyclable materials into those to be recycled at school, eg
                                                                 • identify and contact concerned organisations, eg ACF, State
food scraps made into compost and materials that can be
                                                                    Pollution Control Commission. Discover aims, activities, etc.
sent to a recycling service, eg paper, glass. Define the
                                                                    Contact government agencies and explore legislation or statu-
purposes of recycling system, eg to gather suitable food
                                                                    tory requirements/controls Make judgements about their effec-
scraps and organise compost area. Generate ideas and illus-
trate the steps of the system. Consider location of rubbish
collection points, ways of encouraging their use, systems for    • suggest ways of reducing use of resources and waste. Research
separating different materials, storage, collection by outside      recycling systems. Identify actions being taken in the local
agencies etc. Include an ongoing management plan that may           community, state, other countries.
allow for shared responsibility. Trial the plan over a period    • explore the roles and functions of zoos and botanical gardens
of time and evaluate its effectiveness. [TS13] Make changes         in protecting animals and plants under threat.
as required. Compare amounts of ‘rubbish’ thrown away            Evaluate methods/solutions suggested. Consider their com-
before and after implementation of the plan.                     plexity, expense, applications to other situations.
                                                                 Propose ways that individuals can have some effect. Assess how
                                                                 current activities are changing society’s attitudes and actions.
Task                                                             Reflect on whether ‘technology’ is a destructive force or is it part
                                                                 of the solution to environmental survival?
Investigate the use of renewable and non-renewable re-
sources. [I]
                                                                 Don’t forget to include raw materials, energy use, paper
Activities                                                       cartons and plastics for wrapping, fuel used in transporting the
                                                                 raw materials and finished products to market. Find out what
Research the availability of this service, such as how fre-      processes create pollution of one kind or another. What type
quently garbage is collected, are recycled paper/plastic/        of pollution does the power create? What type of pollution or
bottles collected etc. [TS8]                                     toxic waste is created in the manufacturing of the plastic and
Make a list of everything your family has thrown out in one      the paper from pulp (investigate atmospheric, ground water,
day (or go through your trash can in the house — this may have   and surface water). What impact does logging/mining have on
taken a couple of days to accumulate). Make a second list        loss of top soil, animals losing their habitat, extinction of
which shows how many of these items have only been used          species, or the quality of life of future generations? Investigate
once. Have students brainstorm/design items which do not         what health effects are caused by these toxic chemicals
use up our fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources.       entering the environment. Research some of the ways in
Research how some of the thrown-away material is manufac-        which local councils or the State Pollution Control Commis-
tured (eg plastic detergent containers, poppers, aluminium       sion, Water Board and Department of the Environment re-
cans). Do a flow chart showing how it goes from manufacturer     move the toxic waste.
to the store.
                                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                        133
A Change for the Better                                                                                        Stage 3
Inheritance and environment

Content focus                               • show a commitment to fair treat-         may be called brother/sister, family
                                              ment for all                             may be extended, not ‘nuclear’. Rela-
   Living Things                            • respect different viewpoints and         tionships need to be defined and lan-
   Earth and its Surroundings                 ways of living                           guage explained before commencing
                                            • show informed commitment to im-          family trees.
Outcomes                                      proving the quality of society and       Researching human alterations to
                                              the environment                          plant/animal characteristics should
This unit will contribute to the fol-
                                            • be curious about and appreciate the      be very simple – not an investigation
lowing syllabus outcomes.
                                              natural and made environment.            of genetics.
Knowledge and Understanding
Students will know and understand           Assessment                                 Suggested resources
                                            Listed below are selected examples of      Animal Acrobatics, Nelson
• information can be represented in a
                                            strategies that may be used in assess-     Young Naturalist (series), Hodder &
  number of different forms, includ-
                                            ing this unit of work.                     Stroughton
  ing graphics, sounds and texts
                                            • Encourage supportive peer assess-        The Great Whales (video), Educational
• living things show variation within
                                              ment of how well animal models           Media
  a species
                                              are suited to the described environ-     Computer software: interactive story
• the activities of people can change
                                              ment.                                    writing programs, eg Family Tree and
  the balance of nature
                                            • Conduct conferences with students        Family History, Story Tree, Venture
• groups of living things have changed                                                 Writer. Graphics software, eg
                                              to discuss information selected
  over long periods of time.                                                           MacDraw, MacPaint, Mouse Paint,
                                              from different sources. Focus on
Students will:                                the students’ ability to select and      Deluxe Paint III, 1st Paint, Picture It.
• describe the process of investiga-          evaluate available information.          Database software, eg Appleworks,
  tion which can involve exploring                                                     Microsoft Works, Carefile, Datasweet
  and discovering phenomena and             Links with other                           People and places: Gould League,
  events, proposing explanations, ini-                                                 Native Plant Growers’ Association,
  tiating investigations, predicting        Key Learning Areas                         The Royal Botanic Gardens, farms,
  outcomes, testing, modifying and                                                     zoos, local nursery, field study cen-
  applying understandings.                  English
                                                                                       tres, national parks, Australian Mu-
                                            Discussing the purpose and audience        seum
Skills                                      for oral reports. Role playing a range
Students will:                                                                         Materials and equipment: plant and
                                            of oral languages techniques, eg re-
                                                                                       animal photographs, modelling ma-
• make detailed observations using          porting to small group or whole class.
                                                                                       terials, Osmiroid measuring instru-
  appropriate technologies
                                            Mathematics                                ments
• modify and apply their understand-
  ing in the light of their investigation   Developing and practising a range of       Teaching strategies
                                            measurement skills.
• use investigation techniques to                                                      7 Observing to explore and dis-
  identify opportunities for design         Human Society and its Environment             cover
  activities                                Researching the environment of par-        8 Researching to explore and dis-
• select, reject or modify as appropri-     ticular cultural groups.                      cover
  ate the elements of design to evalu-                                                 15 Explaining understandings
  ate the procedures and outcomes of        Personal Development, Health and
                                            Physical Education                         26 Organising tools, equipment and
  a design task                                                                           processes
• produce a model, prototype, prod-         Exploring growth and development –
  uct or procedure to meet a specific       human reproduction cycle.
  design brief                              Creative and Practical Arts
• record the economic, moral, social        Drawing animals and plants from di-
  and environmental consequences            rect observation at various stages of
  of technological advances.                development. Developing a sequence
Values and Attitudes                        of annotated drawings.
Students will:
• demonstrate confidence in them-
                                            Teacher notes
  selves and willingness to make de-        Care and sensitivity is needed when
  cisions and to take responsible ac-       looking at students’ inherited charac-
  tions                                     teristics. The creation of a family tree
• show flexibility and responsiveness       could be done in groups.
  to ideas                                  Teachers need to be aware that family
                                            relationships may be described differ-
                                            ently in various cultures, eg cousins

Task                                                          Task
Design and publish a way of representing a person’s/          Investigate how characteristics can be passed from one
animal’s place in their family group which illustrates        generation to the next. [I]
inherited characteristics in people or other animals. [I]
Activities                                                    Identify characteristics that may be ‘inherited’. [TS8]
Use an example of a family tree to explore its features.      Choose characteristics, eg eye colour, tongue rolling,
Refer also to computer software.                              attached or detached ear lobes. Chart results of interview-
Decide how the family information is to be set out.           ing each family member, including cousins, aunts and
Explore possible ideas by drawing sketches or plans. Evalu-   uncles, grandparents where possible.
ate by sharing ideas with a friend. Assess whether they can   Observe characteristics of animals that are passed on
follow the relationships.                                     toeach generation, eg skin/fur colour, size, features.
Select the information to be included in each field, eg       Research how the characteristics of domestic animals
names only, or names with descriptions.                       have been changed by people, eg breeding beef cattle,
Enter information into each section, on paper or compu-       merino sheep to maximise wool yields, breeding dogs and
ter. Print out the final design or publish as appropriate.    cats to meet particular criteria.
Report characteristics appearing regularly in the family.
                                                              Investigate animals’/plants’ inherited traits. [W]

                                                              Generalise about the passing on of information from
                                                              parent to offspring. [TS7]
                                                              Predict outcomes of substitute parenting.
                                                              Discuss what will grow if a tomato seed is planted. Why?
                                                              What will hatch if a duck sits on a chicken’s egg? Why?

Task                                                          Task
Design a model to illustrate how animals are suited to a      Investigate how species of plants and animals are suited
particular environment. [I]                                   to their environment. [W]

Activities                                                    Activities
Negotiate whether models should be created individually       Visit a zoo. Include a lesson with the education officer.
or in groups.                                                 Identify the specific characteristics of given animals, eg
Plan steps required in production of the model. [TS26]        kangaroos have large back legs, eat grass etc, possums
Include initial sketches, organisation of materials and       have long claws, large eyes, dark fur, are nocturnal. In-
tools, final construction and presentation.                   clude physical features, habits, food, behaviour.
Using information gained through investigations identify      Research the characteristics of environments, eg desert,
the features and behaviours of selected animal(s). List       savannah, alpine, marine, jungle. Include vegetation, col-
physical characteristics of their environments to be in-      ours, landforms, climate, availability of water. [TS8]
cluded.                                                       Match animals to their native environment. Identify fea-
Explore appropriate materials to be used for animal mod-      tures that make them particularly suited to their environ-
els and for background setting. Consider how well they        ment, eg kangaroos’ fur colour blends with soil or vegeta-
can be moulded, coloured/decorated etc.                       tion colour, largely inactive in heat of day etc. Note
Consider how the model may be made to demonstrate the         similarities and differences between species in a specific
relationship between the animals and their environment,       habitat. Suggest reasons for these. Research the relation-
eg animals moving from one area to another to demon-          ship between species, eg food webs and chains, competing
strate camouflage. Present findings to class.                 for similar food source etc. Case study a particular species.
                                                              Prepare a report detailing how it fits into its environment
                                                              and satisfies its needs.
                                                              Visit a botanic garden to observe plants growing in a
                                                              specific environment. Include a lesson with an education
                                                              officer. Observe plants that are found in particular areas,
                                                              eg arid, mangroves, rainforest, temperate. Identify charac-
                                                              teristics common to each habitat, include leaf type and
                                                              size, fruit, seed pods, flowers, plant size etc. Research how
                                                              characteristics may aid the plant’s survival in that area.
                                                              Make generalisations about plants from different habi-
                                                              tats. [TS15]
                                                              Observe other examples and predict where the plants
                                                              come from. Give reasons for predictions. Research to test

                                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   135
Visual Ventures                                                                                               Stage 3
Film or video production

Content focus                                   ate the elements of design to evalu-   Human Society and its Environment
                                                ate the procedures and outcomes of     Use skills developed in this unit to
   Built Environments                           a design task                          extend ways of organising and pre-
   Information and Communication            •   produce a model, prototype, prod-      senting work in this area.
   Products and Services                        uct or procedure to meet a specific    Exploring the ways people are repre-
   Earth and its Surroundings                   design brief                           sented in a variety of media.
                                            •   select appropriate tools, hardware,    Creative and Practical Arts
Outcomes                                        materials, equipment or software
                                                                                       Drama: developing scripts and char-
                                                on the basis of their specific func-
This unit contributes to the follow-                                                   acterisation for video.
                                                tion and in order to gather informa-
ing syllabus outcomes.                                                                 Craft/design: designing and making
Knowledge and Understanding                 •   use appropriate equipment and tools    props, backdrops.
Students will know and understand               to carry out a particular task, and    Music: investigating sounds and mu-
that:                                           understand the technology involved     sic to complement images, exploring
                                                to record and present ideas            use of music/sound in films and video.
• information can be represented in a
  number of different forms, includ-        •   record the economic, moral, social
  ing graphics, sounds and texts                and environmental consequences         Teacher notes
• technologies continually offer new            of technological advances.             Allow students time to gain confi-
  ways of creating and sending mes-         Values and Attitudes                       dence in using the video.
                                            Students will:
Students will:
                                            • have a positive view of themselves
                                                                                       Suggested resources
• describe the social, environmental          and their capabilities                   Lights, Camera, Action, Curriculum
  or economic implications of the                                                      Development Centre
                                            • exhibit self direction in their own
                                              learning                                 Making a TV Series, Trussell-Cullen, A
• show some relationship between
                                            • initiate and perservere with activi-     Media for Kids– Film, Butler, M
  the process of investigation and the
                                              ties to their completion                 Media for Kids – Television, Butler,
  process of design and make
                                            • develop rational and creative            M
• justify the decisions made in de-
                                              thinking                                 Social Themes and Language (series)
  signing and making
                                            • appreciate the scientific and tech-      Electronic (series)
• identify that new technologies in-
                                              nological contribution made by           The Electronic Rainbow: An Intro-
  crease the options in designing and
                                              Australians and members of other         duction to Television (video)
                                              societies and cultures.
• describe the process of design and                                                   Computer software: graphics soft-
  make which can involve identify-                                                     ware, such as SuperStory Tree,
  ing needs and wants, defining a
                                            Assessment                                 HyperStudio, Deluxe Paint III, Poster;
  design task, generating and select-       Listed below are selected example          multimedia tools, eg Slide Show, Slide
  ing ideas, assembling or construct-       strategies that may be used in assess-     Shop, Hypercard, Linkway, Linkway
  ing products, systems or environ-         ing the objectives of this unit of work.   Live; databases, eg Appleworks,
  ments and evaluating outcomes             • Have students present their video        Microsoft Works, Carefile, Datasweet
• explain that the future must be             to another class.                        People and places: art galleries, Power
  considered when making choices            • Have students use lighting and           House Museum, ‘Stage Lights’ Exhi-
  of particular technologies                  sound to create different moods.         bition
• explain that particular technolo-                                                    Materials and equipment: video cam-
  gies are significant causes of change     Links with other                           eras, video cassette recorders, simple
  in the way people live.                                                              lights, sound effects, props, televi-
                                            Key Learning Areas                         sion programs, cameras, film, lights,
Skills                                                                                 coloured screens, percussion instru-
Students will:                              English                                    ments, video clips, music
• make detailed observations using          Exploring a variety of ways of con-
  appropriate technologies                  ducting audience research, eg value        Teaching strategies
• identify data which support a par-        scales, interview, sampling.               7 Observing to explore and dis-
  ticular prediction                        Exploring the features of shooting            cover
• modify and apply their understand-        scripts or storyboards. Jointly con-       8 Researching to explore and dis-
  ing in the light of their investigation   structing examples.                           cover
• develop a design proposal by select-                                                 16 Applying understandings
  ing and refining ideas and justify-       Developing strategies for recording
  ing choices                               and analysing audience research data
• select, reject or modify as appropri-     using computer software.

Task                                                          Task
Design and make a video production presenting a story to      Investigate the diversity of TV programs and techniques.
sell a product or idea, or inform the audience. [G]           [I]

Activities                                                    Activities
Identify potential audience and conduct audience research     Identify the range of television programs presented in a
if applicable. Consider how this may affect the final         week, including advertisements. Watch samples of each
product.                                                      type of program and note similarities/differences in tech-
Select the subject matter of the program, eg drama, com-      nique. Consider: camera, eg use of framing, angles, shot
edy, advertisement, news presentation, music video, ani-      size; set, eg type of setting places, objects, decor; charac-
mation, or combination of these.                              ters, eg type, age, appearance; editing, eg number and
Carefully plan the production using a storyboard or shoot-    length of each shot, pace and effects on atmosphere; story
ing script. Ensure details are finalised regarding:           line or type, eg drama, sport, comedy, music video.
• script—including sound effects, music, camera tech-         Identify techniques typical of different program formats
    nique                                                     and use these discoveries to aid video production.
• actors or characters
• sound recording if any
• props, costumes and make-up
• lighting.                                                   Task
Gather required equipment, props etc.                         Investigate how sound and lighting can be used to create
Test to ensure equipment is fully functional and that         moods and feelings. [G]
operators are familiar with correct and safe operation.
Shoot the film/video footage.                                 Activities
Evaluate results concurrently and reshoot when neces-
sary.                                                         Observe uses of sound and light in media products. Experi-
Edit to eliminate errors and create the desired effects, eg   ment with simple light positioning, colour and strength to
changes in pace, shot sequence.                               make people look healthy, scary, shocked.
                                                              Explore the sound effects made using everyday objects or
Add music or sound effects.
                                                              instruments. Predict the sorts of music that might be used
Screen and enjoy.                                             to create specific moods. Trial different pieces of music to
Reflect on and discuss how the production would differ if     test the prediction.
made professionally. Include consideration of costs and
how the production would need to be funded.

                                                              Investigate who makes TV programs. [I]

                                                              Visit a production company or studio. Observe and record
                                                              the varying roles people take. Use a flow chart to demon-
                                                              strate relationships between jobs or roles.
                                                              Research the costs of production. Compare different pro-
                                                              gram types. Suggest ways that funds may be raised. Test
                                                              the predictions by seeking information from broadcasters,
                                                              ad companies. Compare non-commercial and commercial
                                                              broadcasters. Consider the implications of this for pro-
                                                              gram choice.

                                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   137
Food for the Tucker Box                                                                                    Stage 3
Food production, preservation and packaging

Content focus                             • use resources with consideration         Creative and Practical Arts
                                            for the environment and adopt pro-       Craft/design: designing and making
   Information and Communication            cedures which minimise waste             packaging for a variety of purposes.
   Living Things                          • record the economic, moral, social
   Products and Services                    and environmental consequences           Teacher notes
                                            of technological advances.
Outcomes                                                                             Food code books are available to indi-
                                          Values and Attitudes                       cate, by numerical code, the additives
Knowledge and Understanding               Students will:                             put into commercially-produced
                                          • demonstrate confidence in them-          foods. These numbers are indicated
Students will know and understand
                                            selves and willingness to make de-       on the packaging.
                                            cisions and to take responsible ac-      Case studies of food production in a
• information can be represented in a       tions                                    variety of communities could include
  number of different forms, includ-
                                          • work cooperatively in groups             traditional Aboriginal food produc-
  ing graphics, sounds and texts
                                          • respect different viewpoints and         tion, as well as other cultures/places
• the activities of people can change                                                in the world.
                                            ways of living
  the balance of nature
• there are environmental conse-          • show informed commitment to
  quences of production and con-            improving the quality of society         Suggested resources
  sumption                                  and the environment                      Identifying Food Additives, National
• systems are designed to provide         • gain satisfaction in their efforts to    Health & Medical Research Council
  particular services                       investigate, to design and make and      Survival, Parbury, N
                                            to use technology.                       Where Food Comes From, Usborne
• systems are used to deliver and dis-
  tribute goods.                                                                     Explainers
Students will:
                                          Assessment                                 Feeding the City (video)
• describe the social, environmental      Listed below are selected example          The Fisherman (video)
  or economic implications of the         strategies that may be used in assess-     Computer Software: desktop pub-
  investigation                           ing the objectives of this unit of work.   lishing software, eg Multiscribe,
• justify the combination of materi-      • Observe the packaging students           Microsoft Works
  als and techniques in relation to         design for distribution of goods over    People and places: Department of
  the properties required for specific      long distances.                          Health, Australian Institute of Food
  end uses                                • Consider how effective the compu-        Science, Australian Nutrition Tech-
• explain the need for safe, ergonomi-      ter-controlled system designed by        nology Foundation, UNICEF, Austral-
  cally sound work environments             the student is.                          ian Museum, supermarkets
• explain that the future must be                                                    Materials and equipment: packaging
  considered when making choices          Links with other                           from foods, magazines
  of particular technologies              Key Learning Areas                         Teaching strategies
• evaluate technological activity in
                                                                                     5 Researching to explore and dis-
  terms of social and environmental       English                                       cover
  cost and benefits                       Designing labels for packaging of prod-    7 Proposing explanations
• explain that particular technolo-       ucts. Investigating the details of label
  gies are significant causes of change                                              8 Trialling and testing
  in the way people live.                                                            13 Clarifying a design task
Skills                                    Investigating properties of 3D objects.
Students will:                            Measuring area and volume using for-
• make detailed observations using        mal units.
  appropriate technologies
                                          Human Society and its Environment
• modify and apply their understand-
  ing in the light of their investiga-    Developing understandings about
  tion                                    interelationships between trade and
                                          transport systems inside and outside
• develop a design proposal by select-
  ing and refining ideas and justify-
  ing choices                             Personal Development, Health and
• produce a model, prototype, prod-       Physical Education
  uct or procedure to meet a specific     Developing understandings about
  design brief                            consumer health, eg reading food la-
• use appropriate equipment and tools     bels.
  to carry out a particular task, and
  understand the technology involved
  to record and present ideas

Task                                                          Task
Design and model a computer-controlled system to be           Investigate food production and processing from raw
used in a food processing operation. [I]                      material to domestic use. [I]

Activities                                                    Activities
Select simple processes to be modelled in the classroom,      Visit a food processing factory. Record as a flow chart the
eg weigh an ingredient, add one ingredient, turn on mixer,    steps from raw ingredients to distribution.
deliver to another place.                                     Observe how the process is controlled. Aspects may in-
Devise a system to carry out the process automatically.       clude: ingredients weighed or combined; processes ap-
Identify the steps of the process to be modelled.             plied, eg baking, preserving; products packaged and loaded
Consider the elements that the system needs to contain:       for delivery. Identify how the machines ‘sense’, ‘decide’
• the sensors, eg light, movement, mass. Make selection       and ‘act’ automatically.
  according to the way it is to be triggered                  Explore how local conditions and available technologies
• the means of processing information, eg write the ap-       influence food production. Identify and case study a vari-
  propriate computer program                                  ety of communities within and outside Australia. Clarify
                                                              aspects to be researched, eg geography, lifestyles, soil
• the reaction. Organise the mechanisms to carry out the
                                                              quality, use of fertilizers, tools and machinery, climate,
  selected actions.
                                                              social structures.
Trial the process and evaluate its operation.
                                                              Organise information to enable comparison, eg using a
                                                              database. Compare and contrast conditions and resultant
                                                              food production. Suggest explanations for differences.
                                                              Assess environmental effects of different methods.

Task                                                          Task
Design and make packaging for local produce for long-         Investigate how food items are preserved. [I]
distance distribution. [G]
Activities                                                    Classify foods as fresh or preserved.
Select item to be marketed.                                   Visit a delicatessen and identify different ways foods have
Identify characteristics that make the product attractive     been preserved, eg salted, smoked, chemical additives,
to purchasers, eg effectiveness, appearance. Identify char-   refrigerated, packaged. Compare with their fresh state and
acteristics that make it difficult to transport overseas, eg   note changes, eg colour, texture, smell, flavour. Compare
short life, liquid nature, fragility.                         the effect of different preserving methods on the same
Define the desirable qualities of the package, eg must be     item, eg peas that are frozen, tinned, dried.
durable, attractive, stackable. Preserve the item if neces-   Experiment using different methods to preserve foods, eg
sary.                                                         apples dried, bottled, refrigerated, stewed and frozen.
Design the packaging, considering need to preserve the        Compare results of preserving various products. Suggest
item, need to protect the item, need to contain the item,     why some methods are more effective with different
appearance, packaging costs, available materials.             foods. Research the nature of food preservatives as indi-
Draw ideas for the package.                                   cated on packaging.
Make a prototype.
Test the design in terms of criteria set initially. Try       Task
devising a way to simulate the travelling conditions in
order to test durability, preservation of goods.              Investigate where food has been produced. [I]
Make necessary adjustments to the prototype.
Evaluate in terms of effectiveness, cost,                     Activities
environmental effect.                                         Visit markets, supermarkets. Identify origins of food items,
Reflect on how technological developments have been           eg areas of Australia, other countries.
able to prevent food wastage.                                 Explore how food items can be transported from distant
                                                              places. Compare packaging, whether fresh or preserved,
                                                              date of manufacture. Compare costs of locally-produced
                                                              items with similar imported products. Suggest reasons for
                                                              Predict how items have been transported to our markets.
                                                              Research to test the predictions.

                                                                        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6                   139
Teaching Strategies
Teaching strategies

The Teaching Strategies are designed to               [TS11] Predicting outcomes
support teachers in their implementation of
Science and Technology K-6. In particular             [TS12] Clarifying an investigation
they will help teachers when designing their          [TS13] Trialling and testing ideas and
own units or when adapting the sample units
of work which are provided in the syllabus.
They include information which will be useful         [TS14] Modifying understanding
when programming and when planning class
                                                      [TS15] Explaining understanding
activities. These strategies also provide an
explanation of particular terms used in the           [TS16] Applying understanding
syllabus and support document.
The strategies are organised into five groups.        Group 3: Designing and
The first group suggests strategies for improving
the learning environment. The next three              making process
explain how teachers can plan for the
development of skills related to Investigating,       [TS17] Exploring needs
Designing and Making, and Using Technology.           [TS18] Clarifying a design task
The final group supports the development of
skills related to a range of specific technologies.   [TS19] Exploring ideas
                                                      [TS20] Representing ideas by modelling
Group 1: Managing the                                 [TS21] Drawing to develop and record ideas
learning environment                                  [TS22] Selecting solutions

[TS1]     Cooperative learning                        [TS23] Considering      appearance     and
[TS2]     Reflecting
                                                      [TS24] Evaluating design
[TS3]     Evaluating resources
[TS4]     Students’ negotiated learning
                                                      Group 4: Using technology
[TS5]     Language development (to be added
          after completion of K-6 English
          Syllabus)                                   [TS25] Selecting and using materials
                                                      [TS26] Organising tools, equipment and
Group 2: Investigating                                        processes
process                                               [TS27] Understanding materials

[TS6]     Fostering curiosity                         [TS28] Learning safety procedures

[TS7]     Observing to explore and discover           [TS29] Selecting appropriate technologies

[TS8]     Researching to explore and discover         [TS30] Selecting and maintaining tools and
[TS9]     Manipulating to explore and discover
                                                      [TS31] Evaluating chosen technologies
[TS10] Proposing explanations

Group 5: Using specific
[TS32] Audio-visual technologies
[TS33] Adventure games
[TS34] Control systems
[TS35] Telecommunications
[TS36] Sound and lighting
[TS37] Animation
[TS38] Publishing
[TS39] Databases
[TS40] Video production
[TS41] Computer graphics

The strategies that follow
use the following general
• Introduction section describes key elements
  in the strategy and details essential issues
  that should be addressed.
• Skill Development, if appropriate to the
  particular strategy, summarises the levels
  through which students progress as they
  acquire relevant skills.
• Managing Learning Experiences gives
  teachers suggestions of activities they may
  use with their students. These are not
  exhaustive and can be modified and used as
  appropriate and directed to the needs and
  abilities of their particular students.
• Special Considerations provides advice on
  issues that may affect students with particular
• Useful Resources provides advice on some
  resources that may be used when working
  through the strategy.

                                                    SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6   143
Managing the learning

Purpose of the management strategies
The strategies in this group are designed to assist teachers in their efforts to provide a supportive,
yet challenging science and technology learning environment for their students. They are
strategies which are student-centred and involve teaching practices which benefit all students.
They are also the types of classroom practices which allow the teacher to be not only a facilitator
but also a learner along with his/her students. These strategies can be used either alone, or in
combination, to ensure the aims and objectives of this syllabus are realised by students and
teachers alike.

                   Teaching Strategies

                   [TS1]        Cooperative learning
                   [TS2]        Reflecting
                   [TS3]        Evaluating resources
                   [TS4]        Students’ negotiated learning
                   [TS5]        Language development (to be added)

Cooperative learning                                                                     [TS1]

Introduction                                        If students’ outcomes are judged by comparing
                                                    one student’s performance with another and
Cooperative learning works for young                rewarding the best performance, they are not
students in pre-school as readily as for a team     going to be taught to value shared learning
of scientists working on a complicated              experiences. The only possible way to assess
investigation. It provides continual                the ability of students to work cooperatively is
opportunities for the development of                to record for each student what they have
important leadership and group skills. These        achieved and where they need to go next. This
skills are essential not only for learning in       can be done by observing how well students
school but also for success in the workplace        are able to put into practice the skills needed
and getting on with people at home, since           to undertake group work.
most human interaction requires cooperation.        Students must be guided into this form of
When working in a cooperative environment           learning. When physically placed in a group,
students are more positive about school, subject    students do not necessarily work
areas and their teachers. Students learn            cooperatively. They require guidelines and
more, achieve more and have more fun in             structures for working. Perhaps the most
cooperative learning groups. Learning to work       important thing to ensure is that each group
together and solve problems in a cooperative        member has a definite role to play.
way promotes the self esteem of everyone
because all the students and their teachers
have an important and valued role to play.          Managing learning
In cooperative learning situations the              experiences
clarifying of problems, together with
                                                    The following recommendations provide
suggestions for their solution, provide students
                                                    teachers with suggestions for improving
with opportunities to communicate their ideas.
                                                    students’ cooperative working ability.
This contributes to the development of
thinking skills and greater levels of               • Ensure that students experience a variety of
understanding.                                        roles when working in groups, eg recorder,
                                                      questioner, organiser, time-keeper.
Students have to practise cooperative skills
long enough to integrate these skills into their    • Observe how the student contributes to the
behaviour. But practising cooperative skills is       group in order to maintain productive
not enough. Students need to discuss, describe        working relationships. This could be noted
and reflect on their use of these skills in order     when students are brainstorming, clarifying
to improve their performance.                         ideas, organising information, finding
                                                      solutions etc.
Students develop skills that are used when
forming groups, such as managing the group’s        • Observe how students manage the
activities to complete the task and to maintain       differences of opinion and conflicting points
productive working relationships within the           of view. Are the students able to see the
group.                                                problem from another viewpoint, able to
                                                      negotiate, reach a consensus etc?
Students develop the ability to take on
leadership roles. They need to develop skills       • Ensure students develop skills such as:
to enable them to manage the differences of           making space for people, staying with the
opinion and conflicting points of view which          group, using a quiet voice, taking turns,
will occur when they are working in a group.          listening to what other people have to say

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           145
• Assess the group as one entity instead of       Special considerations
  individually, so that students realise that
  success depends on the achievement of the       Inclusive cooperative learning is especially
  whole group, not individuals, eg break the      important when students in the classroom
  task into subtasks, the successful              come from different backgrounds and have
  completion of which is necessary to             a wide range of abilities. The inclusion of
  complete the overall task.                      exceptional students into regular classes
• Establish activities in which the whole         requires a collaborative effort. Cooperative
                                                  learning also has important implications in
  class is involved and where everyone has a
  role to play, eg class newspapers, plays,       the development of mutual respect and better
                                                  understanding between boys and girls.
  whole class discussions.
• Regularly change the membership of small
  groups to provide a variety of learning         Useful resources
  experiences for all students. Grouping
  can be based on gender, ability, cultural       Hill, S&T, The Collaborative Classroom
  background, and student preferences.            Johnson, D et al, Circles of Learning
• Groups can compete against each other,          Sharan, S et al, Small Group Teaching
  but it is important to avoid cliques that can
                                                  Edwards, A et al, Investigating Classroom
  undermine class cohesiveness and morale.
• Pit a small group against some external
  force, eg gravity, to see how long they can
  keep a paper aeroplane suspended using
  design modifications.
• Create an imaginary situation where the
  group has to work together within restraints
  established by the situation, eg if you were
  designing an environment in outer space
  for people to live in, what things would you
  need to consider?

Reflecting                                                                                 [TS2]

Introduction                                         Ask students to:
                                                     • reflect upon what they have learnt from an
Reflecting is the act of thinking about what           activity
has been learnt. It often involves putting
learning into a new context, looking at the          • reflect upon and identify the processes they
experiences in a new light, interpreting what          have employed
has been said or done for different applications     • consider how these processes may be applied
or in novel situations.                                in another situation
Therefore reflecting is not only an excellent        • discuss different approaches to situations
review of learning, but leads to:                      by possible options.
(a) the valuing of the learnings
(b) the valuing of the learning process              Special considerations
(c) encouragement of lateral thinking
                                                     Teachers must provide time both during and
(d) transfer of learnings to alternate settings        at the end of any learning experience for
(e) fostering of innovative styles of thinking.      students to contemplate the content and
                                                     processes in which they have engaged. This
Reflecting is one strategy which allows              time needs to allow for individual, small group
students to become aware of the relationships        and whole-class reflection.
between investigating, designing and making.
                                                     Reflecting is one strategy that must not be
The encouragement of lateral thinking through        formally assessed by the teacher. There are no
reflecting upon the learnings of a unit of work      right or wrong answers. Indeed, any judgmental
is effective for all age groups and at all stages.   stance is sure to stultify the reflecting process
Even very young students are capable of              and discourage students from reaching their
reflecting upon their observations and               own conclusions.
experiences. Initially students are more likely
to be able think about situations which are
familiar to them but later they should be able to
consider the social implications of their

Managing learning
To encourage reflecting, the teacher should
pose a question, allow the students to explore
it through introspection, question further and
then discuss.
Opinions can be formed through individual
introspection and/or group consensus.
The students can then be encouraged to express
their conclusions individually either in writing
or verbally.

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           147
Evaluating resources                                                                      [TS3]

Introduction                                         ditioning often reinforces the stereotypical
                                                     images of certain materials and equipment,
A resource is anything which could be used to        placing limitations on student choices.
facilitate or enhance the development of skills,
knowledge, understandings, values and
attitudes. It is something which can contribute      Managing learning
to the learning environment and to the
interactions between learners and teachers.
 A resource may be anything from a tangible          The following ideas could be used by teachers
object, such as a book, computer software or         in their classrooms.
video recording, to something intangible, such       • Supply students with a range of resources
as the viewing of a dramatic performance or            from which to choose. Through this
the recounting of an anecdote.                         experience they will develop the ability to
Resources need to be selected for their relevance      make appropriate choices.
to the needs and learning experiences of each        • Ask students to explain why they chose to
student and their applicability to the                 use a particular resource. It is the
curriculum. While teachers frequently                  appropriateness of choice that is important,
evaluate resources, students also need to              eg to record information a student may
develop skills in evaluating the resources they        choose a video, while another may choose
use.                                                   a still camera for the same job.
While ostensibly increasing students’                • Provide a checklist which assists students
knowledge, materials can, either overtly or            to identify the qualities that are desirable in
subtly, develop misunderstandings on the               a resource.
basis of sex, race, culture and disability. It is
difficult to show that the message from any          • Introduce discussion of images portrayed
one book, kit, illustration or person has a            in resource material, eg Does the resource
negative effect on the attitudes of any one            present positive images and role model?
child. Rather it is the impact of all these on all     Which groups of people are seen as being
children over a period of time which must be           active and/or passive? Which as being
considered.                                            dominant/subservient? Which people as
                                                       being superior/inferior? Which as having
To remove from resource collections all                stereotyped characteristics and roles?
materials which have elements of bias is
unrealistic and unnecessary. Such materials          • Apply specific criteria, depending on the
can be used constructively to assist students in       topic, theme or area and encourage
detecting and understanding this issue. It is          students to give their own answers and
only when such materials are the sole reference        interpretations of the resource, eg Does it
and are used uncritically that they serve to           present a non-violent point of view? What
perpetuate prejudice and misunderstandings.            kind of language and/or images are used?
                                                       Is the language appropriate and non-
Often it is difficult to find materials which          disparaging?
meet all criteria. In many instances one
criterion may be sacrificed for another. The         • Place the material into its historical context,
emphasis should be on providing a balance in           the attitudes and values current at the time,
the total collection in use.                           eg What values and attitudes are being
                                                       rewarded or reinforced? Do they inflate or
Students are quite accepting and uncritical of         deflate a self image?
materials presented to them. Social con-
• Discuss with the class, depending on level       influences which affect students’ choices of
  of understanding of the students, whether        resources. Students’ self concept is influenced
  the resource is unbiased, eg Which groups        by the nature of the material they use and the
  of people are omitted or ignored? Is the         attitudes and values of others towards that
  inclusion of groups representative or            material.
                                                   Teachers should ensure that the atmosphere
• Identify areas of bias in resources, eg values   is secure and non-threatening, as the whole
  presented in newspapers or magazines.            area of prejudice and bias can be emotive.

Special considerations                             Useful resources
All members of the school community should         CEU, Handle with Care
understand the need to critically evaluate
                                                   Tasmanian Media Centre, Resource
resources used by students.
                                                   Management Guide for Australian Schools
Schools should provide opportunities for
                                                   McIntosh, J, Taking Stock
parents and teachers to discuss the types of

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          149
Students’ negotiated learning                                                             [TS4]

Introduction                                        confidence and self-direction. It can lead to
                                                    increased motivation which will result in
Negotiated learning involves the deliberate         more meaningful and worthwhile learning.
planning of the learning program with the           Students are more likely to be willing learners
assistance of students. This can occur from         if they can establish some sense of ownership
the earliest years of early childhood education.    over their own learning.
Negotiating is a very useful device which           Because of the nature of this style of learning,
allows students to work at their own level and      students can talk among themselves, discuss
pace. It caters for the individual interests of     problems, delegate tasks, make their own
the students as well as helping them to become      decisions and are free to see what other groups
independent learners. It allows the teacher to      are doing. This provides students with the
individualise learning and provide                  opportunity to share and clarify ideas with a
opportunities for students to take more control     wider audience. Teachers who have used
over their learning.                                negotiation techniques in classrooms find
                                                    that the level of student language increases
In order to become successful independent
                                                    and the number of student-initiated questions
learners, students need to develop a range of
skills, which include planning and setting
goals, making responsible choices, managing         Significant outcomes of negotiated learning
resources and time effectively and evaluating       include exploration of ideas in greater depth,
their learning.                                     increased confidence when presenting
                                                    opinions and greater willingness to question.
Negotiating the learning process involves the
development of the teacher’s understanding
of the learning process and how to provide          Managing learning
conditions in which learning can best occur.
This means a shift away from teacher-centred        experiences
learning situations to one where a teacher
becomes the facilitator of learning experiences.    Listed below is a range of strategies which
                                                    students can use to negotiate their learning.
Negotiation does not mean that teachers divest
themselves of power and responsibility.             They can:
Teachers are, and always will be, responsible
                                                    • make a list of their own favourite ‘finding
for teaching. However, negotiation does
                                                      out’ activities. This can be a basis for further
involve teachers using their power and
responsibility in ways which will empower
students, ie allow students to exercise their       • initiate their own play activities with
own powers and responsibilities.                      equipment that may be in the classroom,
                                                      eg students decide to make a shadow play
What distinguishes negotiated learning from
                                                      with an overhead projector after they have
other teaching strategies is that it doesn’t only
                                                      seen it used
call for active learning by the student but gives
an emphasis on teaching students to see             • share their interests with others by holding
themselves as learners.                               a hobby day
Negotiated learning is an on-going process          • initiate and design explorations. They could
which is based on the developing relationship         also discuss the procedure for recording
between students and teachers. It enables the         results
teacher to help develop students’ self-             • determine the method of presentation of
                                                      models or work which they have created
• make organisational decisions relating to
  equipment and materials in the classroom
                                                  Special considerations
  setting.                                        All students have a right to be heard within
                                                  the learning context. Teachers should avoid
In many situations teachers can:
                                                  judgemental positions which categorise or
• encourage students who have particular          downgrade students. The teacher has a special
  interests and skills to share them with the     responsibility in a negotiated learning
  whole class. This modelling of behaviour        situation to ensure that each student receives
  will provide a stimulus for other students      the opportunity to participate in the process
  and develop the self esteem of the presenter    of negotiation.
• use observations made by students in their      Negotiated learning focuses on the individual
  own time as a focus for further activities      student learning at a rate appropriate to his
• use something a student brings to school        or her needs. The teacher must be responsive
  to initiate an investigation or as a stimulus   to the varying individual requirements within
  for discussion or other activity                the class.

• establish learning centres within the           Students from diverse language backgrounds
  classroom: students set them up, collect        need to be provided with opportunities to
  materials, establish routines and even plan     express their areas of interest. This may
  some of the activities                          involve using their first language to
                                                  communicate their desires. Classroom support
• hold workshops to address particular            in the form of an interpreter may assist this
  skills or processes. Attendance should be       process.
  negotiated or voluntary and students who
  attend can be praised for their willingness
  to participate
• create databases about students’ areas of
• provide electronic information services or
  student newspapers for use by students.
  The information to be communicated can
  be open to negotiation.

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         151
             Investigating process

                        Teaching Strategies

                        [TS6]      Fostering curiosity
                        [TS7]      Observing to explore and
                        [TS8]      Researching to explore and
                        [TS9]      Manipulating to explore and
                        [TS10] Proposing explanations
                        [TS11] Predicting outcomes
                        [TS12] Clarifying an investigation
                        [TS13] Trialling and testing ideas and
                        [TS14] Modifying understanding
                        [TS15] Explaining understanding
                        [TS16] Applying understanding

Fostering curiosity                                                                     [TS6]

Introduction                                        • Capitalise on observations made in students’
                                                      own time, eg after school, on the weekend,
Curiosity involves the students’ intrinsic            in the holidays. These observations could
desire to learn or know about something.
                                                      include animals seen on farms, in zoos or
Investigations can be initiated as a result of a
                                                      animal parks or in the wild, things seen at
sense of curiosity. As an activity, investigating     the beach such as pumice rock (porous and
capitalises on and develops curiosity. It can
                                                      consequently floats on water), pieces of
be fostered in a stimulating and exciting             algae, skeletons of sea urchins, cocoon
environment and by responding positively
                                                      shells, astronomical observations such as
when students demonstrate curiosity.
                                                      an eclipse of the moon, ‘falling stars’,
Most students possess curiosity about artefacts,      satellites passing across the sky or comets.
events, phenomena, places and living                • Build on students’ own curiosity about the
things. Teachers can use strategies to build on
                                                      world around them, eg the variety of
this existing curiosity and further enhance it.
                                                      animals and plants, both native and
Whatever arouses curiosity will vary among            introduced, how machines at home and in
students because of social, cultural, economic        community work, or curiosity about their
or physical backgrounds.                              own bodies.
To encourage curiosity, students need to be         • Develop interests through set activities, eg
provided with a variety of resources. These           a teacher may set up a science morning for
resources could be familiar things from the           the class with a variety of investigations on
classroom, playground or objects with which           offer. They could include:
students have had little experience.
                                                      • investigating transpiration with celery
                                                        and coloured water. Note any changes,
Skill development                                       especially colour in the leaves
                                                      • pendulum investigations — the long
By the end of Stage 1, students should be able          and the short
to identify areas of interest and inquiry. They
should be able to recognise the purpose of an         • making a shadow measuring device to
investigation and seek further information as           find out about the movement of the sun
a result of their own curiosity.                        as it appears to move across the sky.

At Stage 2, they should be able to undertake        • Discuss students’ own interests, eg the
an investigation as a result of something that        teacher might like to ask students to list
has aroused their curiosity and also be able to       their favourite investigative activities. From
clearly state the issue to be investigated.           this, develop a ‘plan’ of the interests of the
                                                      group or class. This will provide a good
By the end of Stage 3, students should be able        basis on which to plan future activities.
to initiate investigations independently in
order to satisfy their own curiosity.               • Develop new and related interests, eg map
                                                      students’ interests and develop strategies
                                                      related to these, to excite students’ interest
Managing learning                                     in other areas. This includes negotiated
                                                    • Build on incidental learning, eg ‘Why is
Listed below is a range of strategies which           the puddle smaller now?’
teachers can use when planning and managing
learning experiences to foster curiosity.
                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           153
• Encourage as learning models students who         Special considerations
  have particular interests and are willing to
  demonstrate them.
                                                    Special Needs
• Encourage students to tinker with
                                                    Ensure that someone describes visual changes
  equipment, eg camera, magnifying glass,
                                                    to students with visual disabilities.
  bug catcher, magnets, Meccano,
  construction blocks, straws, and explore          Students with special needs may require
  what can be done with the equipment. Give         specialised or modified equipment when
  praise for any construction activity while        tinkering. Some students with gross or fine
  encouraging further imaginative work.             motor coordination disabilities may need
                                                    extra assistance or specialised equipment,
• Encourage students to explore materials, eg
                                                    for observation or manipulation. This may
  wood, leather, paper, rock, woollen cloth,
                                                    influence the range of activities.
  Lego, pipe cleaners, paddle pop sticks, paper,
  cardboard. When students discuss the              Aboriginal students, if they have not attended
  properties of materials, this can lead them       pre-school, may lack experience. They may
   in different directions. Ask students if there   also have deficits in standard English.
  is something they want to investigate that
  isn’t available to them. Attempt to obtain        ESL/NESB
  these materials.                                  Students with English language and
• Ask students to express their observations        experiential deficits may need more structure
  through drawings, talking, role play etc, by      — questioning and prompting.
  using leading questions, eg if the unit is on
  small animals, ask ‘What small animals
  have you seen in your yard?’ or ‘What did         Useful resources
  they look like?’
                                                    Anderson et al, Investigate (series)
• Use television or radio programs—                 Balding, J, Springboards
  documentaries, children’s shows, serials,
  movies, soapies etc—as a stimulus, eg if          Stacey, D, Nifty and Thrifty Science
  you know there was a specific program on          Activities
  the night before ask who saw the program          Fredericks, A, Think About It – Science
  and what they found interesting or exciting,      Problems of the Day
  or if there was something they didn’t
  understand or want to know more about.            Simple Science (series), Hodder and Stoughton

• Use an excursion to stimulate curiosity.
  Have specific questions for the students
  when they go on excursions so that their
  observation has a direction to follow but
  allow them to have an interest in other
  aspects as well. Use this curiosity where
  possible to relate it to a planned
• Use items that students bring to school to
  initiate an investigation, eg a small animal,
  items the student has found such as a rock,
  a strange plant or part of a plant, a toy.

Observing to explore and                                                                [TS7]

Introduction                                       similarities and differences (eg touching,
                                                   smelling, seeing different types of plants). They
An observation is data acquired through the        should be able to make progressively more
senses. Through observation, students are able     detailed records as observing skills are refined.
to obtain direct information related to their      By Stage 3, as students mature, they should be
environment. Accurate observation requires         able to use diagrams and interpret data. They
checking each observation against others. It       should be able to identify trends as they emerge
does not involve an interpretation of what is      in the data. They should also begin to use a
observed. For example, students are                wide range of increasingly complex tools and
investigating the distances they are able to       equipment to assist with observations.
push a toy vehicle. They could observe and
measure the actual distances that the vehicle
moved. Interpretation of the information could     Managing learning
be that one student is the strongest because
that vehicle travelled the greatest distance       experiences
and this would not be included as an               Listed below is a range of strategies which
observation.                                       teachers can use to develop skills in observing
Students should appreciate that the term           when planning and managing learning
‘observing’ is not restricted merely to the        experiences.
operation of seeing. It refers equally to using    • Play games to identify objects by touch,
any of the five senses: sight, taste, smell,         taste, smell, sight, sound.
hearing and touch. When making
observations, students should be encouraged        • Isolate one sense and use the other senses to
to use all relevant senses to discover               identify objects, eg blindfolding, blocking
information. Experiences should include              nose.
observations of a quantitative nature              • Compare how the senses influence each
concerning, for instance, number, size and           other, eg while blindfolded, listen to
mass. Students should also include                   someone whispering , smell and taste an
observation of changes occurring over time.          onion while the nose is blocked.
Competence should be developed in the use
of devices to assist observation such as rulers,   • Explore sense thresholds, eg getting closer
lenses and scales, since this permits a              to a warm object.
refinement of observation. To obtain accurate      • Use devices to aid observation, eg binoculars,
data students should record more than one            magnifying glass.
set of observations, eg in an activity where the
                                                   • Discover changes in objects or events, eg by
students are measuring the distance they are
                                                     sketching and labelling, explore how plants
able to push the toy vehicle each distance
                                                     grow from seeds, describe observations
should be measured and recorded twice. The
                                                     using all the senses.
importance of accuracy of record keeping is
particularly relevant.                             • Make qualitative observations and record
                                                     them in verbal or written form, eg record on
                                                     tape a description of the behaviour of a
Skill development                                    specific animal.
At Stage 1, students need to develop skills in     • Make tables which classify objects on the
identifying. This should involve observing           basis of the senses, eg sweet smells, loud
using one or several senses to readily identify      noises etc.

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           155
• Record observations that can be               Useful resources
  quantitatively measured and compared, eg
  how high students in the class can jump.      Skills Guide for Teachers, Addison-Wesley
• Record observations in graphic and/or         Chapman, P et al, Introduction to Science
  numerical form.
                                                Gould League, The Urban Book
• Make a graph which demonstrates a
                                                Gould League, Urban Survival
  phenomenon over a period of time, eg record
  the noon temperature over a month.            Hope, C, Seasons Themes Through the Year
• Use various tools to measure observations,    Stokes, D, Monsters and More Mini beasts II
  eg stopwatch, tape measure, thermometer.      Ward, D, Streets
                                                What is the Difference (series), Hodder &
Special considerations                          Stoughton

Research shows that Aboriginal students tend    The Know How Book of (series), Usborne
to have well developed and high-order spatial   The Young Scientist Investigates (series),
and observation skills. These skills could be   Oxford
catered for and utilised in these teaching

Researching to explore and                                                               [TS8]

Introduction                                       databases or people. They should also select
                                                   and devise ways of gathering information.
When researching, students are concerned           By Stage 3, students should be involved in
with finding information that is relevant,         researching and deciding about issues which
understandable and useful. Students need           arise at school. They should become
to recognise that information can come from        competent in the gaining of information from
a variety of sources, including other people,      a variety of sources and be able to experiment
places, equipment and machines.                    with new techniques and skills as technologies
The amount of technological and scientific         change.
information is increasing at a rapid rate with
the result that students cannot ‘learn’ all the
information available to them. Students need       Managing learning
to develop skills in accessing and using           experiences
information as an important aspect of
investigating.                                     Listed below is a range of strategies which
                                                   teachers can use to develop research skills
People within the community can play an
                                                   when planning and managing learning
important part in supporting students’
understanding by providing information.
Libraries can be a source of information in        • Evaluate resources on the basis of
a wide variety of forms: audio cassettes,            suitability, information offered, credibility
computer software, pictures and video tapes.         and relevance to students’ needs, and select
                                                     the most appropriate of these sources
                                                     accordingly. Resources made available to
Skill development                                    students must be non-sexist in language
                                                     and should not contain stereotyped roles.
When students arrive at school the range of          It should be appropriate to the development
knowledge about the gaining of information           of the students, be accessible to the students,
is wide and varied. All students, however,           have instructions that can be understood
will have drawn on the information in their          and describe clearly activities that can be
environment in some way and have begun to            done.
develop skills in using that information. The
school builds on the students’ present abilities   • Provide opportunities to access a variety of
and aims to further develop those skills.            resources. There is a need to ensure that all
                                                     such resources are suited to the particular
The school has the responsibility to determine       developmental level of the students, eg
the needs of students and teachers in                books, pictures or magazines in the
providing access to resources.                       classroom, school library, community
The school also has the responsibility to            library or the home; data on disks;
provide adequate procedures for teachers             information available through keylink;
and students to approach people and other            other students or teachers; guest speakers;
resources in the community.                          radio or television; other resources in the
                                                     classroom or playground.
At Stage 1, students should gather information,
eg survey, interview, listen and recall.           • Define exactly what it is the student needs
                                                     to find out, and whether it is applicable to
At Stage 2, students should research familiar
                                                     the exercise or purpose of the activity.
environments in a number of ways, eg books,

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6            157
• Make decisions about selection from             • Organise and present the information that
  information obtained. Students should             students obtain through a variety of
  decide whether information is closer to fact      methods, eg posters, reports, tapes, video
  or opinion and access the credibility of          tapes. Students need to consider the nature
  sources which express opinion. Teachers           of the audience for the presentation and the
  should encourage the critical discussion of       type of information being gathered. They
  information encountered in terms of               would need to select a form of technology
  credibility, bias and other characteristics,      appropriate to the audience and the content
  eg if information has come from a particular      of the material, eg when visiting a science
  company the instructions may be biased            and technology museum to gather
  towards using apparatus that is made by           information about machines, students
  that company.                                     would need to take notes and draw
• Make decisions about the relevance of             diagrams. They could give an oral and
  information students obtain to the original       visual presentation to other class members.
  task, eg when students gather information       • Assess the information students obtain and
  on how cities are planned they may gather         set goals for further development, eg
  a whole range of information on things            students who were researching how people
  such as the site for a city, the type of rock     in various cultures or places use their leisure
  it should be built on, the maximum                time would need to assess if they have
  population suitable for its facilities, the       included different groups of people such
  maximum height for buildings and where            as children, families and young adults.
  green areas should be located. The students       They may then decide to examine leisure
  may then decide that setting a maximum            activities within one particular sub-culture
  size for the population and specifying the        by comparing the amount of time each
  type of rock may not be appropriate to the        group has for leisure.

Manipulating to explore                                                               [TS9]
and discover

                                                   manipulating by providing opportunities
Introduction                                       for the students to share experiences.
Manipulation involves purposeful handling          By continuing to manipulate materials and
of materials and objects to explore and discover   objects students should develop further
various phenomena. Through manipulation            understandings of properties, capabilities and
students can better develop important skills       characteristics of a wide range of natural and
such as observing and classifying and gain a       made materials.
better understanding of their environment.         By Stage 3, students should be able to
Manipulation can involve playing or tinkering      manipulate a wide range of objects, materials
with equipment. The teacher can set up guided      and processes, including making models and
play activities, catering for the needs and        using equipment such as cameras, tape
interests of both boys and girls, and can guide    recorders, thermometers, electrical equipment
the explorations and discoveries required from     and kitchen utensils.
students. Outcomes may be planned or
                                                   Managing learning
Students may be organised into investigations
that may be less directed, or involve more         experiences
negotiation or group work. Where                   Listed below is a range of strategies which
investigations are less formally structured,       teachers can use to develop skills in
students are able to negotiate the direction of    manipulation when planning and managing
their learning.                                    learning experiences.
Students should be encouraged to use all their     • Students need to play and work together
senses to observe what occurs as a result of         and at the same time be given equal access to
their manipulation. Students should be
                                                     equipment. This equipment needs to cater
encouraged to discuss explanations offered by
                                                     for the needs and experiences of all students
others.                                              in developing their abilities. Special
                                                     consideration will need to be given to the
Skill development                                    grouping of students and choice of objects
                                                     or equipment for students with physical
When students begin school they will have            disabilities.
already explored many objects and                  • Manipulate material to make a model or
environments. It must be remembered that             model system, eg make a model aeroplane,
their experiences will be extremely varied           manipulate water and sand to simulate
and some students will have had limited              erosion.
opportunities for manipulatory play.
                                                   • Pool discoveries with the class using a
In general, many boys will have had greater          variety of media for expression. Ensure
access to, and experience with, equipment            that all students are able to contribute,
which can be assembled and pulled apart.             using both qualitative and quantitative
Opportunities for ‘catch up’ experience should       descriptions.
be provided whenever the need arises.
                                                   • Manipulate to explore the function or
In the first few years of formal education, the      condition of an object that might have
school builds on these experiences by exposing       changed, eg placing the two north ends of
students to a wide and varied range of materials     magnets together or moving an ice cube
and tools. Teachers should develop the skill of      from the shade to a sunny position.

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          159
• Handle living things with care to find
  more about their characteristics, eg care
                                                  Special considerations
  for animals in the classroom to observe         Research shows that Aboriginal students have
  their behaviour, needs and characteristics.     well-developed high-order spatial and
• Use tools to investigate a range of articles,   observational skills. In managing learning
  how they are assembled and how they work,       experiences in manipulating to explore and
  eg use tools to disassemble an unwanted         discover these skills could be catered for and
  clock.                                          utilised.
• Use specific materials to explore specific
  technologies, eg dressmaking, knitting,         Useful resources
  miniature furniture making, leatherwork.
                                                  Dalton, J, Adventures in Thinking
• Discover the scientific principles behind
  toys by playing with them, taking them          Vickery et al, The Process Way to Science
  apart and putting them back together again      Investigating (series), Harcourt Brace
  and make discoveries which are incidental       Jovanovich
  or intended.
                                                  Make and Discover (series), Collins
• Explore ways of repairing toys or equipment.
                                                  Dunn, S, Design Technology, Children’s
• Use measuring instruments and devices           Engineering
  that are extensions of the senses, eg
  balances, stop watch, measuring jugs, hand

Proposing explanations                                                                  [TS10]

Introduction                                         Managing learning
Proposing an explanation, or inferring, involves     experiences
providing a tentative explanation for an             Listed below is a range of strategies to involve
observation. Students constantly propose such        students in proposing explanations which
explanations as they strive to make sense of         teachers can use when planning and managing
their environment. This should be actively           learning experiences.
encouraged by the teacher. Students attempt to       • Form explanations based on observations,
fit explanations of observations related to their      eg students propose an explanation for the
environment into a framework of prior                  cause of an inland midden (a pile of material,
experiences. The environments and past                 usually sea shells, produced by people).
experiences that students have are often varied
                                                     • Model an event to illustrate the cause and
and must be taken into consideration when
                                                       effect process, eg a student could use the
providing educational experiences for students.
                                                       effect of heat from the sun on an ice cube to
Proposing explanations will involve making             simulate molten rock causing a lava flow,
one or more observations during an investigation.      or explain why a building falls when a base
Students should draw one or more inferences            block is removed.
from an observation or set of observations. It is    • Discuss the adequacy of test results, eg
essential that the student is able to distinguish      whether the test provided clear results,
between an observation and an inference.               whether the results of an investigation
Students should engage in formal and informal          support an explanation, whether the results
activities which will develop their understanding      prompt other questions, and whether new
of cause and effect relationships.                     explanations are needed.
Testing of the proposed explanation may: (a)         • Discuss reasons for changing a design in a
support this explanation, (b) prove it to be false     specific way, eg students improve the design
or (c) indicate that a revision of the original        of a shopping trolley by discussing and testing
statement is warranted.                                effective designs and subsequent redesigning
                                                       of the trolley.

Skill development                                    Special considerations
Initially students should be provided with
activities where they may form explanations          ESL/NESB
using only one factor (variable). This is based      Provide ESL students with suitable language
upon only simple observation and one inference.      experiences to assist them in making
To form explanations, data must be interpreted.      explanations, eg through group work, using
By the end of Stage 3, it should be possible for     matrices, vocabulary activities or problem
them to distinguish between results which            solving strategies.
support and do not support a particular              Aboriginal students may also need language
explanation, and to formulate an explanation         experiences.
of these results. At this stage, too, students
should be able to use more complex methods of
observation and identify the variable.               Useful resources
                                                     National Parks and Wildlife (kit)
                                                     Harlen, W, Primary Science – Taking the

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           161
Predicting outcomes                                                                [TS11]

Introduction                                      Managing learning
When students predict, they attempt to forecast   experiences
outcomes based on selected information.           Listed below is a range of strategies for
Predictions are the foundation for forming        predicting outcomes which teachers can use
hypotheses. An hypothesis is a general            in planning and managing learning
statement that attempts to provide an             experiences.
explanation based on previous experience.
                                                  • Gather information using one or more of
Predicting can be viewed as a way of applying       the five senses, and organise the information
information which has been gathered and             to determine similarities, differences or
organised. Predictions can be made even if          patterns in order to make a prediction, eg
they are not correct, but they must be              record observations over a period of time
accompanied by information which supports           comparing ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ potted plants in
the prediction. Once predictions have been          order to predict the water requirements of
made they can be tested for their validity.         plants.
Practice should be given in forecasting           • Recognise patterns in phenomena in order
consequences, with students recognising cause       to make a prediction, eg explore the
as well as effect. Students should develop          playground for examples of plants which
skills in designing objective procedures and a      reach toward the sun.
language competency which will allow them
to justify their predictions clearly.             • Record findings in an appropriate medium
                                                    so that a prediction can be made, eg
                                                    pictographs of foods eaten for lunch to
Skill development                                   predict the most popular lunch bought from
                                                    the school canteen.
At Stage 1, students should be encouraged to
interpret information and make predictions        • Analyse observations and discuss whether a
based on their own observations. They will be       complete prediction can be made or whether
able to justify these by using appropriate          more data need to be investigated.
arguments. Predictions should be based on         • Share predictions with small groups or the
direct relationships, eg ‘If this… then….’          class. Predictions can be made even if they
By Stage 2, they should be able to make a           are not correct, but they must be
prediction using the data collected by other        accompanied by observations made which
students.                                           support the prediction. All predictions must
                                                    be tested and results used to substantiate or
At Stage 3, students should be able to identify     disprove the prediction, eg predict whether
and use specific data which will support a          plants to be grown in a red pot grow better;
particular prediction. These students will          predict whether a plastic or metal spoon
be able to place greater emphasis on accuracy.      will heat up first when placed in hot water,
At this stage students should be introduced         predict whether wet or dry sand will build
to the word hypothesis. Students should be          the sturdiest castle.
provided with opportunities to develop skills
in formulating hypotheses.                        • Control variables and forecast their effect
                                                    upon investigations. A control must be set
                                                    up when a factor is being tested, eg put one
                                                    plant in a cupboard and one in sunlight to

  test a prediction that the sun has an effect     Special considerations
  on plant growth.
• Design tests which challenge predictions         Special Needs
  associated with selected variables, eg
                                                   Predicting outcomes is difficult for students
  teacher gives a reference pitch while
                                                   with learning difficulties. Many concrete
  students investigate by blowing glass
                                                   examples are required in practising these skills.
  bottles with different levels of water to
                                                   To predict may be an unrealistic outcome for
  match that pitch.
                                                   some students and the students’ needs should
• Design tests in order to disprove predictions,   be evaluated accordingly before practising
  eg devise a way to compare the view of a         skills in specific areas.
  tree from a low angle with a drawing which
                                                   In predicting outcomes Aboriginal students
  has been made to predict how it might
                                                   may need to use their own language, Aboriginal
                                                   English. Aboriginal students may perform
• Make an alternative prediction when testing      better using diagrams.
  disproves a previous prediction.
• Work with students to develop the idea that
  predictions are ‘educated guesses’ based on      Allow the students to record their predictions
  observations, ideas and their previous           in their own language.
  experiences. Provide opportunities/              Show students how to record their predictions
  experiences for the students to make             using diagrams, to cater for students who do
  predictions from their observations or past      not have the language to express their ideas.
  experiences with similar situations, eg large
  ice blocks take longer to melt than others       Use the students to translate predictions to
  because they are the biggest.                    the class so that NESB students feel included
                                                   in the class discussions.
• Use specific predictions made from their
  observation to form a general statement
  (hypothesis), eg large ice blocks take longer    Useful resources
  to melt than small ones.
• Suggest the different facilities that could      Markle, S, Science Sampler
  be available in the future, eg make drawings
  or models of different forms of transport
  (On the Move 3).
• Use survey results to discuss how lifestyles
  may be affected by a particular building
  design, eg how a building may be better
  insulated (Hot or Cold).

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6            163
Clarifying an investigation                                                         [TS12]

Introduction                                       managing Science and Technology learning
                                                  experiences by the following.
It is only through regular and frequent
                                                  • Discuss and make decisions concerning
opportunities to investigate that students will
                                                    what, why and how about the investigation.
be able to clarify investigations.
                                                  • Identify any steps that need to be taken in
Providing students with non-threatening             order that an investigation can take place.
activities using materials and objects with         Isolate particular steps, identify why they
which they are familiar encourages them to
                                                    are important and consequently how they
experiment. These investigations can verge          will be approached.
on active play. Investigation arises naturally
out of curiosity, so it must be encouraged.       • Devise a plan for carrying out the
                                                    investigation. This might include forming
Students should be encouraged to state what
                                                    questions to be answered, where or how the
they intend to do and suggest reasons for their     answers will be found or how the particular
proposed course of action. Teachers need to
                                                    findings may be presented.
offer guidance at this stage and help students
develop the ability to determine what action      • Define terms by drawing answers from
may cause a particular result and the               students, eg concerning transport: ‘How do
procedures that will achieve this result.           you travel to and from school?’ ‘How is
                                                    using a car or a bus different from walking?’
Students should develop the ability to see
                                                    Use pictures or other prompts to assist
that an investigation is a series of orderly        responses.
steps undertaken to acquire knowledge.
                                                  • Practise identification of all the variables
Students need to be able to analyse the steps       associated with a particular activity.
in an investigation and decide how they are
going to contribute to the intent of the          • Further clarify the task before, during and
investigation.                                      after an investigation to eliminate
                                                    extraneous variables.
                                                  • Allow the use of a variety of materials in all
Skill development                                   activities. It may involve the exploration of
By Stage 2, students should be able to clarify      media, eg a student constructing a bridge
a problem by asking questions of others.            from paper may not know of the
                                                    strengthening effects of rolled paper. This
At Stage 3, students should be able to discuss      exploration may improve the quality of the
factors that might influence an investigation       result. Students could substitute cardboard
and be able to recognise the limitations that       for paper.
may be placed on the investigation process.
They should also be able to discuss issues,       • Record activities in a variety of ways so that
phenomena or events that have led other             students can make sense of their results, eg
people to investigate.                              make a video, keeping a diary on a daily
                                                    basis of the activities carried out for one or
                                                    two weeks. It allows the student to keep on
Managing learning                                   task by continually clarifying their task.
                                                    This can also be useful to students who can
experiences                                         compare their activities with those of others.
Teachers can develop student skills in
clarifying an investigation when planning and

• Record activities in a variety of ways, eg        Special Needs
  photographs, comic strips, so that the
  investigation or design and make activity         The use of specialised equipment might be
  becomes clearer in the mind of the students.      necessary for students with physical
  By recording, students can see the direction      disabilities.
  and will discover if a clear trend is emerging,
                                                    Pictorial/diagrammatic recording could be
  eg make a checklist of characteristics of
                                                    incorporated for visually impaired students.
  living and non-living things. Look for any
                                                    Consider a cassette recorder.
  overlap. Does this seem feasible? By testing
  it will be seen that certain characteristics      ESL/NESB
  belong only to living things while others
  belong to non-living things.                      Students with language deficits will need a
                                                    much more structured approach with liberal
• Reflect on the initial clarification by           use of prompts and cues.
  ascertaining whether the results of an
  investigation answer a problem or support         Group work for these students may be more
  an explanation.                                   appropriate than individual work. Careful
                                                    consideration of the group composition would
• Apply a newly-discovered understanding to         be necessary to provide unobtrusive peer
  other uses.                                       support.

Special considerations                              Useful resources
Aboriginal Students                                 Barman et al, Science Skills Guide for
Aboriginal students learn well through
demonstration and imitation and these               Ainley, D, Science Problems to Investigate
processes are important for this strategy.          Mills, G, Scientific Problems Solving – An
However these processes should be balanced          Introduction to Technology
with others. Aboriginal students may have
deficits in standard English.                       Carin, A et al, Teaching Science Through
Use a range of students to demonstrate to the

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6       165
Trialling and testing ideas                                                             [TS13]
and concepts

Introduction                                        one in the wind and one out of the wind. To
                                                    discover the result the amount of water left in
Testing involves devising, designing and            each glass would be measured after a similar
carrying out activities to determine whether a      period of time.
proposed explanation can be supported or a
prediction verified. Testing can be carried out
in a variety of ways, including                     Skill development
experimentation, researching an idea or
                                                    By Stage 2, students should engage in informal
conducting interviews.
                                                    activities which develop their understandings
For students to be able to design their own         of cause and effect relationships in developing
tests, they should be encouraged to be              their own ‘experiments’. They should predict
systematic without losing the curiosity,            outcomes by proposing explanations and test
imagination and creativity embodied in the          to see if their predicted outcomes eventuate.
day-to-day testing of ideas.                        As students develop skills in predicting and
In teaching students how to select appropriate      testing they are encouraged to design more
methods of devising tests, teachers should          formal experiments which will facilitate the
encourage students to try different test designs.   manipulation of a variable. Students should
                                                    become competent at using instruments which
Experiments try to establish cause and effect       record information precisely. Analysis of data
relationships by manipulating variables to          associated with experiments should be
determine their influence on the outcome of         expressed both orally and in writing. With
the experiment.                                     guidance, students should devise activities
Providing students with familiar materials          which seek to verify previous results. Some
and objects encourages them to experiment           may use the predictions of others for these
with confidence in a non-threatening                activities.
environment.                                        At the end of Stage 3, students should be able
Students should be encouraged to state what         to question their own explanations, formulate
they intend to do and give reasons for their        hypotheses and devise ways of testing,
suggested course of action. By stating their        depending on whether the explanation is
intended course of action they will in fact         supported, or the test was inconclusive. Finally
predict an outcome. Once a problem or task          students should become competent in
has been stated, the students should begin to       designing their own experiments and trials
predict possible results of their experimental      where they control variables to clarify the
activity.                                           best possible scientific outcome. In doing
                                                    this, students are setting their own agenda;
Students should be able to identify all the         using language they need to explain their
factors in their experiment. They need to           work, building into their work an open-
realise that all factors, except the one they are   endedness that could be developed as far as
testing, should be held constant. They need to      time/teaching/learning constraints allow.
set up two situations for comparison, one with
the variable, one without (this is the control),
eg the problem might be to find out if water        Managing learning
evaporates faster if there is a wind. The
constant factors may be two glasses containing
the same amount of water (one experiment,           Listed below is a range of strategies for trialling
one control). This involves placing                 and testing ideas and concepts which teachers

can use to develop these skills when planning     Testing/experimentation is a feature of
and managing learning experiences.                Western science. Many cultures do not use
• Observe the relationship between cause          this.
  and effect, eg students devise a test to        If testing is based on socio-cultural factors, eg
  discover the outcome of placing an iceblock     eye colour, be sensitive to Aboriginal people.
  on hot cement as against cold cement.
• Predict expected outcomes of a particular
  investigation, eg removal of any block from     Allow for group work and translators.
  a tower.                                        Labels need to be made for language
• Select or devise an appropriate method to       development.
  test an expected outcome, eg plants die if      Allow for individual testing of different
  we don’t water them.                            investigations as the student must see the need
• Conduct the investigation using the chosen      to test predictions in order for them to be
  test and record results, eg try picking up      meaningful.
  different materials with a magnet to find
  out what is common to materials attracted
  by magnets.                                     Useful resources
• Manipulate a variable in an experimental        Ward, A, 1000 Ideas for Primary Science
  situation, eg use materials with different
  properties when investigating insulating        Carin, A, Teaching Science Through Discovery
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen
  test, eg did the investigation support or
  disprove the original explanation?
• Test a prediction by designing and making,
  eg students design and make a container to
  cover seeds so that they can be tested in
  total darkness.
• Trial a design, device or idea.
• Before, during and after an investigation,
  discuss in groups, testing alternatives.

Special considerations
Aboriginal Students
Aboriginal students may need to be encouraged
to trial and test ideas because they may not be
interested in this strategy to explain things
which are fixed in their culture.
If students are doing this the teacher must
start with the students’ interests.
Aboriginal students may know their
environment and therefore may not need to
test or trial.
Be careful not to stereotype individuals or
groups when testing socio-cultural
backgrounds or concepts.
                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6            167
Modifying understanding                                                            [TS14]

Introduction                                       At Stage 2, they should be able to suggest
                                                   appropriate ways to test an explanation for
Modifying understandings concerns the ability      some event.
to change one’s preconceived ideas to              By Stage 3, students should be able to compare
accommodate the new understandings arrived         the outcomes of tests with predicted outcomes
at through trialling and testing. Students need    and so be able to modify their understandings.
to appreciate the value of testing preconceived
notions to arrive at a change in outcome. In
doing this, students are being encouraged to       Managing learning
assess their ideas critically and then
substantiate them using arguments developed        experiences
from their testing. This process will encourage    Listed below is a range of strategies which
the development of trialling and testing to        teachers can use to develop skills to modify
explore other variables. This in turn will lead    understandings when planning and managing
to new testing to substantiate the outcomes.       learning experiences.
Initially the teacher will spend much time         • Verbalise predictions about certain
guiding the student towards improving those          phenomena, eg students say they think
particular skills to promote clearer                 that earthworms are random in their
understanding, at times directing the student        responses to environmental change or that
in the kind of thing to look for.                    there will be no difference in pendulum
Students tend to be more able to modify              arcs between two tyres on different lengths
understandings when the classroom is                 of rope.
supportive and open to the discussion of ideas.    • Compare the outcomes of the test with the
Once a student is able to verbalise an               predicted outcome so that understandings
understanding it can be more easily recognised       can be modified, eg in studying pendulum
and therefore questioned. Students need the          arcs, the students may discover that the
opportunity to trial ideas before they are           rope length actually affects the time of the
finalised or made public. In a positive and          swing.
encouraging environment students can take
risks and move from subjective evaluation to       • Choose an appropriate test for the
demonstrating confidence in testing their            explanation that has been proposed, eg in
understandings. The encouragement of this            seeking to explain the behaviour of
skill development has a compounding effect           earthworms, the test may involve the
as students become better ‘functional learners’.     observation over a day of worms placed on
                                                     wet and dry surfaces.
                                                   • Propose an explanation by clarifying the
Skill development                                    variable(s), eg the only difference in our
At Stage 1, students should be able to accept        investigation of the growth of two plants is
that the result of a test may be different from      the colour of the containers we used.
what was originally expected. As skills in
verbalising develop, students should be
encouraged to question their own
understandings as well as those of others.

Explaining understanding                                                         [TS15]

Introduction                                    Students should examine proposed
                                                explanations and data accurately so that they
Explaining understandings is the                will be able to explain new understandings.
interpretation of observations to establish     At the end of Stage 3, they should then be able
relationships and patterns between them.        to verbalise, demonstrate, illustrate, report
Because of their natural curiosity, students    etc the understandings acquired through
appreciate understanding and knowing how        investigation and apply these by predicting
things work, or what has happened. In           the proposed explanations of a similar
explaining understandings, students are         investigation.
involved in talking about, drawing or writing
about an observation, an activity or an
outcome. Students can report what they have     Managing learning
discovered by using various media. This can
take several forms: written reports, talks,
demonstrations, drawings, working models        Listed below is a range of strategies involving
etc.                                            explaining understanding which teachers can
In developing understandings through            use when planning and managing learning
investigations, students can be actively        experiences.
challenged because they are highly motivated    • Explain understandings in an informal
to explain the results or understandings to       setting, eg free access to a variety of play
others and to demonstrate their new-found         equipment. Through group negotiation
discoveries.                                      students determine the use of the
Within the framework of explaining                equipment, then explain how they arrived
understandings, appreciation by others must       at those decisions.
always be encouraged. An emphasis on the        • Explain understandings in a formal setting,
part of the investigator to explain the           eg groups of students may be asked to
understandings in an acceptable manner            explain what happens in a presentation to
should also be encouraged. While explaining,      their peers.
students should also identify the processes
that helped them arrive at their                • Explain understandings, eg ask students
understandings.                                   to explain to the class a new discovery they
                                                  have just made.
                                                • Explain by comparing and contrasting
Skill development                                 new and previous understandings.
At Stage 1, students should explore informal    • Engage in group discussion within the class.
situations and could also explain their         • Challenge students’ findings and encourage
understandings to others. They should then        them to argue their explanations logically.
be engaged in a directed activity where they
have the opportunity to explain their           • Investigate based on certain explained
understandings.                                   understandings, eg icebergs float in the
                                                  ocean just as ice cubes float in a glass of
By Stage 2, students should be able to design     water.
an investigation to verify understandings
and will then subsequently contrast these       • Challenge understandings through
understandings with past experiences.             investigations, eg students find that by
                                                  rubbing sandstone, one can get sand, but

                                                       SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          169
  when presented with a piece of granite etc,     • Create a reference group, eg consult experts
  wonder why it can’t it be rubbed to get soil.     from the local community such as parents,
                                                    business people, scientists etc.
• Predict, using understandings, other
  investigations or situations, eg students       • Prepare presentations in the form of models,
  could predict the resulting landform from         videos or talks for a variety of audiences, eg
  the weathering of a rock outcrop. Possible        to parents or community members to
  changes could be holes formed in sandstone        explain discoveries or other understandings.
  by wind carrying sand particles, or holes       • Publish findings, perhaps writing for a
  formed in watercourses by pebbles being
                                                    ‘discovery’ column in the school newspaper,
  swirled around in rock. Another result could      or writing to a local newspaper.
  be the effects of soil being deposited on the
  bed of an inner curve of a slowly-flowing

Applying understanding                                                              [TS16]

Introduction                                      Managing learning
In applying the understandings that have been
discovered, students will develop appropriate     Listed below is a range of strategies which
problem solving strategies and work on using      teachers can use to develop skills in applying
these to solve increasingly more sophisticated    understandings when planning and managing
problems.                                         learning experiences.
It is vital that all students are encouraged to   • Apply students’ understandings by
apply their understandings, because by doing        encouraging investigations which develop
so, they are being engaged in thinking and          lateral thinking, open-endedness and
developing strategies, ideas and empathising        incidental    learnings.     Interaction,
within a total life and social plan.                questioning and reflection are essential
Teachers are in the business of developing          elements of this learning situation.
‘functional learners’— students who are           • Seek and understand how alternative
encouraged to develop ideas, investigate and        explanations to natural phenomena have
take risks. Students will have the confidence       been applied by other people living in other
to apply their understandings so that they          places and/or other times, eg Dreamtime
are actively thinking through problems by           explanations of Aboriginal people.
themselves or with the help of a teacher or
their peers.                                      • Manipulate investigations so that
                                                    understandings will be developed which
In engaging students in using understandings        can then be applied to solve problems and
generated through investigations they can be        make products.
encouraged to apply these to other situations
so that there is lateral thinking, open-
endedness and incidental learning.                Special considerations
                                                  Aboriginal Students
Skill development
                                                  For Aboriginal students with a language deficit
At Stage 1, students should be able to relate     or disability in standard English there may be
their knowledge and understandings to             a need to make more use of concrete examples
particular domestic, environmental or             and directions.
industrial situations and as time passes
should be able to interpret their observations    ESL/NESB
accurately and use these to better understand
                                                  This strategy may be difficult for students
their world.
                                                  with a language deficit so there is a need to use
By Stage 3 they should be able to identify and    concrete examples and directions.
give accurate explanations for some natural
phenomena that have been given by people
living in other times or in other places of the

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           171
      Designing and making skills

                              Teaching Strategies

                              [TS17] Exploring needs
                              [TS18] Clarifying a design task
                              [TS19] Exploring ideas
                              [TS20] Representing ideas by
                              [TS21] Drawing to develop and
                                     record ideas
                              [TS22] Selecting solutions
                              [TS23] Considering appearance
                                     and function
                              [TS24] Evaluating design

Exploring needs                                                                     [TS17]

Introduction                                       Managing learning
Exploring and identifying needs and wants          experiences
precedes designing and making activities.
                                                   Listed below is a range of strategies which
It involves the examination of social or           teachers can use in exploring needs when
environmental issues and an exploration of         planning and managing learning experiences.
needs in the students’ living environment as
                                                   • Interview people, eg family, peers, people
well as within other cultures and times. The
                                                     with special needs, to find out their needs.
exploration of needs should relate directly
                                                     The needs of food, transport/mobility could
to the student so that relevance will aid
                                                     be considered.
                                                   • Observe the needs of living things in a
When considering needs, students should be
                                                     particular environment, eg plants in the
aware that conflicting needs may exist.
Personal needs might contradict community
needs. Students must practise establishing         • Select a need and expand on it, eg the need
priorities in order to identify the benefits and     for food in a variety of situations, the needs
disadvantages to various interest groups.            of a baby compared with the needs of an
                                                     adult and the needs of a very elderly person,
The needs of people from a diverse range of
                                                     the needs of people on a special diet such
cultures and from other times should also be
                                                     as a diabetic or an athlete on a high
considered in addition to the needs of
                                                     carbohydrate diet before an event.
individuals within the immediate
environment. A comparison of the needs of          • Identify present technology and suggest
groups within cultures should also be included.      improvements to better satisfy needs, eg
                                                     look at past/present/future ideas. In
The opportunity should also be provided
                                                     transport consider the technologies
for students to explore and discuss needs
                                                     involved in the buggy pulled by a horse,
and ‘wants’ and the relationship that exists
                                                     the bicycle, the motor car, the Very Fast
between them.
                                                     Train, aeroplanes, spaceships. Investigate
Students, will then develop skills to explore        technological developments for the
and identify the needs of people and other           wheelchair, eg manually operated by
living things.                                       someone else, manually operated by the
                                                     person in the wheelchair, electronically
                                                     operated, wheelchairs that can go up and
Skill development                                    down stairs.
By Stage 2, students should be able to employ      • Investigate a product that has been reported
a variety of methods of research and                 to have problems and try to improve the
investigation to identify the needs of other         design, eg a pencil sharpener that continues
people and living things.                            to break the lead when it sharpens.
At the end of Stage 3, students should be able     • Research the needs of people from a variety
to use questions and research the results of         of cultures, eg look at the needs of people
their investigations to identify needs and to        in a hot climate (cool clothing, air
suggest how new technologies can meet their          conditioning, cool leisure activities)
needs in improved ways.                              compared with those in a cold climate
                                                     (warm clothing, central heating, hot and
                                                     more fatty meals, indoor sport).

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           173
• Research how people’s needs have changed        popular. Recent changes in entertainment
  over time with changing technologies, eg        include VCRs to give people more choice of
  entertainment one hundred years ago could       TV programs and compact discs(CDs) to
  have been singing around the piano or           improve the quality of music and the
  going to a dance. With the invention of the     longevity of discs.
  radio and movies, entertainment would         • Identify, verbalise and list needs associated
  have included listening to radio plays and/     with a particular group, eg what are the
  or music on the radio and going to the          requirements for a school bag for preschool/
  movies occasionally. When television was        secondary students?
  introduced to Australia, this largely took
  over from listening to the radio as family    • Analyse the needs of a target group, eg what
  entertainment and the movies became less        are the needs of a rheumatic person?

Clarifying a design task                                                                [TS18]

Introduction                                          Managing learning
It is important for the student to have a clear       experiences
statement of the problem or task he or she has
                                                      Listed below is a range of strategies which
to solve or address. This statement is called a
                                                      teachers can use to develop skills in clarifying
design brief or task.
                                                      a design task when planning and managing
It is equally important that students are             learning experiences.
given sufficient opportunity to develop an
                                                      • Use observation, analysis, interviews,
understanding of the nature of the task or
                                                         research and/or discussion to clarify a design
brief. In clarifying the task students will:
                                                        task, eg when designing improvements to
• establish the objectives that are to be satisfied     the school playground, identify problem
  or the needs that are to be addressed, eg             locations within the school environment,
  transmit a message from one classroom to              discuss ‘black spot’ accident areas in the
  other classrooms; lift a load from the                playground. Analyse the characteristics of
  floor to the tabletop                                 these areas to determine why accidents
• identify the restrictions or limitations that         occur there.
  might be applied to the design process, eg          • Discuss the nature of a problem with the
  the design must: use only electricity stored          target group, eg discuss with mothers who
  in a battery; use equipment available from            bring their babies to school how they
  the resource room; be completed in three              negotiate flights of stairs with their prams.
  weeks; cost less than five dollars
                                                      • In small groups discuss a problem in order
• state the criteria to be used when assessing          to clarify the task, eg produce several
  the design, eg the vehicle will carry the load        solutions to the problem. Through group
  from one side of the room to the other; the           negotiation select one solution and devise
  advertisement should attract a further 10%            one list of procedures to complete the task.
  of customers.
                                                      • Explain the objectives of the task to another
                                                        student or to a teacher.
Skill development                                     • Observe how an inexperienced person
                                                        copes with a problem, eg discuss how they
At Stage 1, students should be encouraged to            cope with an ‘out of reach’ shelf.
state clearly what they are designing, eg ‘I am
making a bridge out of straws’.                       • Analyse the target objectives associated with
                                                        everyday items, eg a pencil case is able to be
By Stage 2, students should be able to identify         locked, is light weight and is easy to open.
some limitations which may exist in carrying
out a design task, eg ‘I cannot use a drill           • Write design briefs, then swap briefs so
because I haven’t learnt how to use it yet’.            that peers have the opportunity to write the
                                                        target objectives associated with the briefs.
At Stage 3, students should be able to further
clarify their design tasks by questioning or
other research methods. They should also be           Useful resources
able to identify cultural, social or legal
influences on design activities.                      Williams, P et al, Design and Technology 5-12
                                                      Dunn, S, Design Technology – Children’s

                                                              SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           175
Exploring ideas                                                                       [TS19]

Introduction                                       able to estimate resource requirements (time,
                                                   materials, tools, skills) and check on their
It is important that all students are provided     availability.
with frequent opportunities to explore and
                                                   At Stage 3, they should be able to develop and
develop their own ideas for designs. The
                                                   justify their ideas and design proposals by
successful generation of ideas will often
                                                   selecting and refining ideas by using models
depend upon the students’ modelling, drawing
                                                   and drawings. If necessary, they should be
and other communicating skills. However it is
                                                   able to develop and present these ideas and
important that teachers distinguish between
                                                   make modifications where appropriate.
the actual value of a student’s ideas and how
                                                   Students should also be able to reflect on and
successfully they have been interpreted.
                                                   evaluate the elements and assess the
Students should be encouraged to:                  implications of the availability of the resources
• think laterally                                  required to carry out their tasks.

• explore how other people have solved similar
  problems                                         Managing learning
• work collaboratively to develop ideas            experiences
• explore made and natural forms
                                                   Listed below is a range of strategies which
• research, using a wide range of materials.       teachers can use when planning and managing
It is essential that students appreciate the       learning experiences.
value of exploring a range of ideas and of re-     • Brainstorm to generate ideas. Brainstorming
developing particular ideas that are considered      is a popular creative technique which, when
to have merit.                                       correctly executed, will facilitate the
The success of particular ideas should be            generation of ideas. It is useful for developing
assessed in terms of the intent of the task.         creative thinking processes and promoting
Through their exploration of the task, students      discussion. Students’ language development
will gain an appreciation of the range of            is enhanced since clarity and brevity of
acceptable solutions. The explorations will          statements is encouraged. All students need
inevitably lead students to ideas that can be        to experience a diversity of roles in group
developed further.                                   work; one being the recorder of brainstormed
                                                   • Discuss what is involved in brainstorming
Skill development                                    before practising a brainstorming situation.
                                                     In brainstorming, students should
At Stage 1, students should be able to suggest
                                                     appreciate that quantity is not a goal, that
opportunities for investigations and design          judgement is deferred, that developing
activities and suggest practical changes that        another’s ideas is permitted and that novel
could be made.
                                                     ideas are acceptable. Brainstorming is a
At Stage 2, they should be able to explore ideas     structured activity which progresses
for investigations and their design proposals        through established stages and must not be
in order to identify where decisions still need      confused with discussion groups.
to be made, and suggest possible courses of
                                                   • Investigate a stimulus to generate ideas, eg
action, including modifications to improve            hermit crabs’ ‘homes’ leading to a study of
their original proposals. They should also be        ‘homes’ of different animals.

• Analyse features of a stimulus which            • Develop and revise a range of ideas. Discuss
  generates ideas for solving specific problems,     and develop these ideas with another student
  eg visit an exhibition home to examine how        or expert. Modify and further develop the
  specific problems have been solved by              ideas.
  the architect.
                                                  • Practise lateral thinking after experiencing
• Document different suggestions to solve a         role modelling situations by teachers or
  problem. Evaluate the good and not so good        experts.
  points of all the suggestions – select the
                                                  • Research previous attempts at solving
  most appropriate suggestion.
                                                    similar design tasks.

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6        177
Representing ideas by                                                             [TS20]

Introduction                                     characteristics of both natural and
                                                 manufactured materials and components. They
In science and technology, models can be         should safely manipulate a range of appropriate
regarded as two- and three-dimensional           hand tools and equipment. Current research
representations of forms, environments,          indicates that primary school students are
images and systems. Modelling is an important    capable of developing quite complex models
means by which students can develop, express,    that ‘work’ and can be controlled by computer
record and communicate their ideas.              languages such as ‘Logo’.
Modelling is done to model key features; after   By Stage 3, students should be provided with
this students can be creative. Modelling is      opportunities to choose appropriate means of
intended to preserve a key feature of what’s     modelling their ideas. They should be provided
being modelled. It encourages group work         with learning experiences that will encourage
and expression. The process of modelling can     them to develop fluency in expressing their
assist students to develop an understanding of   ideas through modelling.
function, form, visual and tactile
                                                 Managing learning
Students should be encouraged to examine
and explore different types of models and        experiences
understand how and why they have been
                                                 Listed below are a range of strategies which
made, eg ‘visual’ models of aeroplanes can be
                                                 teachers can use when planning and managing
constructed from commercial kits. It is also
                                                 learning experiences.
possible to make ‘working’ models of kitchen
appliances to show how they might work or        • Make models from plastic materials, eg
function.                                          ‘playdough’, plasticine, clay.
In many instances computers can be used to       • Make working models using construction
model by means of graphic programs.                blocks and modelling systems, eg Lego,
Students should be encouraged to interpret
and discuss their modelling and their models.    • Make model structures using strip timber
This provides a useful way of clarifying           and cardboard triangular corner gussets.
understanding and developing vocabulary.         • Make working models and ‘mock up’ a
                                                   housing or body for an appliance or machine.
Skill development                                • Use computers to model ideas using
                                                   graphics, eg Logo.
At Stage 1, students should make three-
dimensional models from materials that can       • Have children bring their own models from
be moulded. As students develop manipulative       home to represent an idea.
skills they should be encouraged to expand       • Enlist local cultural community
the range of materials with which they work.       involvement where appropriate, eg visitors
They should also be challenged to produce          explain methods and materials used:
different types of models, eg working models       architectural models, clothes designs.
from construction blocks etc.
                                                 • Form a human model of a graph, eg students
In Stage 2, students should explore the            line up to indicate likes/dislikes.
properties, capabilities and working

Special considerations                             ESL/NESB
                                                   Students should be encouraged to interpret
Aboriginal Students                                and discuss models in their first language.
                                                   This may involve translation and could involve
Incorporate group work and movement in
                                                   peers and parents in assisting the explanation
the lesson which is suitable for Aboriginal
students. Ensure not all directions come from
the teacher so that students may also direct
activities.                                        Useful resources
Girls                                              Aitken, J, Creative Technology
Ensure suggestions for models meet the             Dunn, An Introduction to Craft, Design and
interests of both girls and boys. Allow girls to   Technology
work together until they gain confidence.

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         179
Drawing to develop and                                                               [TS21]
record ideas

Introduction                                      Skill development
In science and technology, drawing is an          At Stage 1, it is important that students should
important means of expressing, recording          be provided with opportunities to express
and communicating ideas. A drawing can            themselves freely by drawing. They should use
be a product in its own right, eg a poster, an    their own schema, codes or symbols when
illustration or a sign. More importantly the      creating images.
process of drawing can be used to explore
                                                  At Stage 2, in order to develop drawing skills,
ideas and solve problems.
                                                  they should be encouraged to observe carefully
Learning activities in this Key Learning Area     the form and detail of the objects they draw.
will require students to use a range of           This will be reflected in the images they
technologies and methods to produce               create and record. They also should be
drawings. Freehand drawing will enhance           encouraged to add notes to their drawings
the students’ ability to manipulate ideas.
                                                  when details are difficult to clarify graphically,
More formal drawings will enable students
                                                  eg ‘This has hairs on it’, ‘The handle turns’.
to communicate, present and evaluate
information, ideas and proposals. Computer        By Stage 3, as students need to use more complex
technology will extend the range of images        scientific and technological concepts, they
that a student can create. It provides a means    should also develop a need to record and express
of storing information and images for further     their ideas using the codes, symbols and systems
use.                                              that are part of graphical language. These
The process of drawing will lead students to a    codes, symbols and systems should be
clearer understanding of form, shape, colour,     introduced only in response to the student’s
texture and symbols and will enable them to       need to record and express ideas.
appreciate the images in their environment.
                                                  At all stages it is important that students are
Accuracy in drawing is dependent on, and can
                                                  provided with experiences that will promote
lead to, the development of observation skills.
                                                  fluency in expressing ideas through freehand
Fluency in drawing is developed through           drawing.
practice. Frequent opportunities should be
provided for students to express themselves       Managing learning
graphically by sketching and freehand drawing.
The computer should be used extensively as a      experiences
graphics tool.
                                                  Listed below is a range of strategies which
Students should be encouraged to interpret        teachers can use when planning and managing
and discuss drawings and illustrations. This      learning experiences.
provides a useful way of clarifying
understandings and developing vocabulary.         Drawing from One’s Imagination
It is a particularly important strategy to be     • Visualise an animal or machine of the future.
used with students of non-English speaking          Make a model of it, using any model-making
background.                                         materials, eg clay, card, wax, plasticine.
It is not recommended that in developing and        Make a drawing of the animal or machine in
recording ideas, students construct formal          its possible surroundings.
drawings using geometrical instruments.
However, students should be introduced to the     • Model a design from construction blocks.
notion that codes, symbols and drawing              Draw the model. Redraw the model from
systems are a part of graphical language.           different positions. Use the drawings to tell
                                                    the class about the design.

• Make a drawing of a design. Make a model       Using Codes, Symbols and Systems
  from the drawing. Modify the model. Make       • Read and interpret drawings that use
  a drawing to present to the class or group.      common symbols or codes.
• Redesign an existing object, product or        • Use drawings that include symbols or codes
  environment. Draw it from observation.           to make a model. Discuss the meanings of
  Change the drawing to reflect the changes        the drawing with an expert.
  that could be made to the design.
                                                 • Use symbols or codes when making a
Drawing from Observation                           drawing of a design. Use the drawing to
• Model a design from construction blocks.         explain the design, eg develop an electrical
  Cover the model. Attempt to draw it from         circuit for a torch. Discuss how the torch
  memory. Uncover the model. Redraw it             operates.
  from direct observation. Compare the           • Use simple line diagrams to demonstrate
  drawings. Describe the differences.              such things as electrical circuits, travel
• Use rubbings to record details of natural or     directions, how to thread sewing machines.
  made objects. Draw the object, including all     Research the symbols that are commonly
  details included in the rubbing.                 used in such diagrams.
• Make a drawing to represent an idea that is    • Use a computer to create, manipulate, alter
  expressed in another form, eg in writing.        and place images and illustrations.
• Use sequenced sketches to record
  phenomena and events observed in an            Useful resources
  investigation, eg growth of a plant,
  movement of a machine. Use the drawings        Design World journal
  when discussing the observations and           Visual Arts Syllabus K-6
  proposing explanations.
• Explain how a product, appliance, tool or
  piece of equipment functions. Make
  drawings to illustrate the explanation.
Learning from Other Peoples’ Images
• Explore how, over time, societies and
  cultures have used images to record ideas,
  eg Aboriginal art, images carved on rock,
  images on the walls of the pyramids. Discuss
  the drawing techniques used.
• Use X-ray technique to show details inside
  something students have designed. Use the
  drawing to explain how the design works.
• Cut out and collect drawings and images
  that have been created for magazines.

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6        181
Selecting solutions                                                                    [TS22]

Introduction                                          Function
                                                      • Would it perform the identified task?
Selecting the appropriate solution involves
constantly referring back to the task identified      Ergonomics
in the design brief. The selected solution            • How big?
should satisfy the identified need and address        • What shape?
all the limitations, restrictions and latitudes
                                                      • Can it be used/applied             without
In the process of exploring ideas, students           • Is it easy and efficient to use?
should be encouraged to make several attempts
at solving a problem and each of these attempts       Appearance
should view the problem from a different              • What will it look like?
perspective. There is little value in producing
several solutions using the same approach.            Technology
Any idea generated, no matter how                     • Can it be made to work?
insignificant, should be preserved. From these        • Do you have the technology to make it?
isolated ideas can come a combination of
interesting or inspiring innovations that may         Safety
provide a solution. With all the information          • Is it safe to make?
at hand it is possible to select the most efficient   • Will it be safe to use?
way of addressing the problem.
In selecting the final solution all attempts
should be looked at, whether they are in the          • What will be the consequence of making it?
form of brief notes, sketches, models,                The important aspects of selecting the
drawings, even recordings. This collection            appropriate approach are that:
of possible solutions should be regarded as
                                                      • it should satisfy the design brief
an ‘ideas box’ from which a solution might
immediately present itself or, from the variety       • the student should feel satisfied that the
of isolated concepts, a combination of ideas            outcome can be achieved.
may form one suitable outcome.

When selecting the appropriate solution it is
                                                      Skill development
important to consider some of the following           By Stage 1, students should be able to identify
questions.                                            the basic requirements of a design brief and
                                                      select a solution that addresses the expressed
Time                                                  need for the design.
• How much time is available to complete
  the task?                                           At Stage 2, the students should be able to
                                                      explore different solutions and select features
• Is the design too elaborate or too basic?           from different solutions to come up with a
Materials                                             single, more suitable, outcome.
• What materials are available?                       At Stage 3, students should be able to select
• How much would they cost?                           solutions having considered the societal and
                                                      environmental consequences of their
• Are the facilities available to work with
                                                      selection. This will allow them to make
  the particular material?
                                                      modifications to their design to satisfy these
Managing learning                                  were these identified? How did the one
                                                   selected satisfy the need of the person or
experiences                                        group?
Listed below are a range of strategies which     • Select from a variety of venues a suitable
teachers can use when planning and managing        place to have a school function, eg sports,
learning experiences.                              picnic etc. Describe why this venue was
• Provide a range of design briefs and get
  students to brainstorm a list of aspects       • Draw up a grid. On one axis show the
  they will look for when selecting a suitable     criteria to be considered for a particular
  outcome.                                         design brief, on the other axis the possible
                                                   solutions. For each solution place a tick in
• Display/provide a range of containers.
                                                   the box to establish the criteria that the
  Describe what the content of the container
                                                   particular solution satisfies. Compare the
  will be and how it will be dispensed. The
                                                   boxes for each solution to determine which
  class can select an appropriate container
                                                   one best satisfied the criteria of the design
  and explain the reasons for their choice of
  this container.
• Select from a variety of transport systems
  how to get from one place to another. Why

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         183
Considering appearance                                                              [TS23]
and function

Introduction                                       stimuli might include different natural
                                                   resources. Nature provides the students with
In the design process, consideration must be       millions of different forms even though they
given to functional, material and visual           all perform similar functions. The advantage
requirements. The aim of the process is to         of natural over made resources is that the
produce not only something that works, but         ideas have to be actively transferred from one
something that is pleasing to the senses.          medium to another to meet the design task.
Appearance is a result of deliberate attention
to construction, shape, form, colour               Skill development
combinations, texture and how well it will
complement its final environment.                  At Stage 1, students should generate and select
The arrangement of components also                 ideas to best meet the design task objectives
influences an object’s appearance. Designs         by using pictures, drawings and models, and
characterised by unified appearance facilitate     give simple reasons why they have chosen a
the eyes taking in and giving a pattern to these   certain idea. They should be able to combine
objects. In turn, the brain can better process     materials and demonstrate that these are
the information it receives about the object.      appropriate for the task in hand.
Three means of promoting unified appearance        By Stage 3, they should go a step further by
in designs are rhythm, symmetry and                using graphical and written data to record
proportion.                                        their exploration of different ideas for their
Function is the job something has to do. Some      design proposals. Students should be able to
articles are designed to perform more than         use and manipulate a wide variety of
one function. That means one has to look at        materials and tools. They should also have
several different aspects of function. Function    the knowledge of a wide range of the working
includes size: eg will the dog fit into its new    characteristics of materials and techniques
kennel?; strength: eg will the garden seat hold    so that they can improvise when faced with
the weight of three people; adaptability: eg       unforeseen difficulties.
will the article be used by more than one
person for more than one purpose?. Another
important aspect of function is ‘life’ or
                                                   Managing learning
durability, eg how long is the item to remain      experiences
in service? Compare the function of a milk
bottle with that of a milk carton.                 Listed below is a range of strategies which
                                                   teachers can use when planning and managing
Function and appearance must always                learning experiences.
complement one another, although different
cultures have different ways of interpreting       • State and explain likes and dislikes, eg
these qualities. There are times, however,           survey likes and dislikes of others, carry
when one aspect might dominate the outcome,          out market surveys to determine which
depending on the design task.                        designs are most ‘saleable’.

Students should be provided with the resources     • Compare proposed designs with the
and opportunities to produce different results.      requirements of the brief; does it fulfil
A wide range of resources is necessary from          requirements?
which to produce these different results. Such     • Analyse existing products in terms of their
                                                     effectiveness, appearance and value.

• Decorate an object, eg decorate a glass jar     Special considerations
  with paint, pasted pictures, fabric or any
  other accoutrements to improve its              Aboriginal Students
  appearance as a flower vase.
                                                  When there are Aboriginal students in the
• Display and arrange research materials,         class, students should be encouraged to look
  eg on mobiles, walls, windows and display       at artefacts from Aboriginal cultures.
  boards related to a theme under discussion.     Aboriginal students should not be placed in
  Pay particular attention to appearance,         the position of being required to be experts on
  layout, positioning and function.               all aspects of all Aboriginal cultures.
• Make a model or representation, eg cut and      Aboriginal students with Standard English
  paste pictures from furniture magazines,        deficit or disability will need to be allowed to
  brochures and leaflets to arrange the            use their language, Aboriginal English.
  furniture and fittings. This is done on a
  prepared and selected background to             ESL/NESB
  represent the carpet.
                                                  Encourage students to look at objects from
• Bring in a variety of objects from home to      different cultures. Appreciate that some objects
  discuss appearance and function.                will not be familiar to everyone, so an
• Redesign existing products to improve their     opportunity should be provided for explanation
  function/appearance.                            and use of students’ first language.

• Devise means of testing designs for strength    Take care not to promote a particular culture.
  and endurance.                                  Accept different opinions of appearance and
                                                  the need for function in different cultures.
• Identify service conditions and discuss
  how a design might be affected by such
  conditions.                                     Useful resources
• Identify the market for the design and
                                                  Choice magazine
  discuss how to design for particular markets,
  eg the young, the aged.                         Royal Australian Institute of Architects, The
                                                  Source Book
• Arrange lengths of timber on blocks, bricks
  or boxes for class seating at an outdoor
  activity. Remember to investigate the length
  of the spans between the supports, how
  easily seating can be adapted, how strong
  the seats would have to be and for how long
  the arrangement is needed.

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           185
Evaluating design                                                                 [TS24]

                                                 relating to their own designs, students are
Introduction                                     better equipped to alter defects which have
Evaluating designs occurs throughout the         come to light.
design process and not just as a final step.
During the design process students evaluate
how a design is developing in relation to the
                                                 Skill development
final product, whether materials are suitable     In Stage 1, students should recognise and
and whether alterations are needed before        discuss with others the strengths and
proceeding.                                      limitations of what they have done and make
Students should be critical of their own         comparisons about what they like and dislike
work. They need to appreciate that an            about familiar products, systems or
important part of the designing and making       environments.
process is to look at something they have        By Stage 2, they should be able to make
designed and made and decide if it fulfils       adjustments to their original intention when
the original design brief. The brief may be to   designing as a result of problems or
design and make a gift for someone. Students     improvements that occur to them.
need to decide if the gift they have made is
appropriate to the person they made it for       At the end of Stage 3, they should be able to
and if they are happy with the quality of the    critically evaluate the materials, components,
gift. Students should develop proficiency in     procedures, techniques and processes used
evaluating not only the outcomes of their        and suggest possible improvements where
own designing and making activities, but         necessary. They should also be able to evaluate
also the products of their peers and             the form and function of existing products,
commercial designers. By evaluating the          systems or environments and those from other
varied designs of others, students not only      times and/or cultures. Students should be able
become more informed consumers, but also         to make comparisons and make some simple
acquire ideas for their own solutions to         value judgements about the social and
problems.                                        economic implications of these products,
                                                 systems or environments. They should be able
Students should develop skills in using the      to evaluate the ways in which their designs
design objectives when evaluating outcomes.      have developed, justifying their decisions and
Firstly, the designer should talk about and      evaluating outcomes in terms of original
try out their solution or watch a peer try it.   intentions. They should then draw conclusions
This aspect of evaluation is essentially         about the outcome of design tasks in meeting
objective in nature. Students should develop     users’ needs and how they might be improved.
skills in systematically measuring whether
performance satisfies the perceived needs.
This facilitates more accurate observation       Managing learning
and appraisal than mere guesswork.
Secondly, judgement of a solution is influenced
by personal opinion. This aspect of evaluation   Listed below is a range of strategies which
is unavoidably subjective in nature.             teachers can use to develop skills in evaluating
                                                 designs when planning and managing learning
The information gleaned from evaluations
should be recorded in formats which allow
reference to the original design and             • Explain what they like and dislike, eg bring
specifications. By analysing evaluations           a few toys to school. Show all the toys to a

  small group. Select your favourite toy and        • Make comparisons about the social and
  explain why you prefer it to the other toys.        economic environment in analysing and
• Identify a number of environments in the            identifying target objectives associated with
  school and discuss why students prefer              a design, eg what needs would be associated
  certain areas. Make a painting of a favourite       with a picnic storage container? List these in
  environment. Label the aspects underlying           terms of standards which can be assessed
  students’ subjective evaluations, eg the sand       objectively: does it leak? is it lightweight?
  pit area, the grassed area under the trees,         Use the container to determine the degree to
  the sick bay.                                       which the target objectives have been met.
                                                      Students devise a recording format and
• Analyse      pictures       of    contrasting       indicate ratings for each inferred design
  environments and explain why students               specification. Discuss the picnic storage
  prefer certain environments and which is            container with peers and explain subjective
  their favourite, eg sea shore, shopping centre,     assessments to each other.
                                                    • Evaluate ideas at the start of the design
• Objectively evaluate outcomes against               process, eg ‘I thought of two ways to use
  design objectives, eg students display their        the sun’s energy and I decided to make
  designs and talk about what they have               something that would cook an egg.’
  done. Analyse whether or not the electrical
  circuits of a scary creature should light
  up. See if the pulley system which operates       Useful resources
  the creature’s tongue produces the desired
  effect. Have a number of other students           Williams, P et al, Design and Technology 5-12
  operate the design. See if they can work it,      Dunn, S, Design Technology – Children’s
  observe any difficulties they had and
  attempt to rectify these.
• Make adjustments as a result of evaluation
  that occurs during the design process, eg
  ‘I could see that paper wouldn’t be strong
  enough to hold my model steady so I
  decided to use cardboard instead.’

                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          187
       Using technology process

                         Teaching Strategies

                         [TS25] Selecting and using materials
                         [TS26] Organising tools, equipment and
                         [TS27] Understanding materials
                         [TS28] Learning safety procedures
                         [TS29] Selecting appropriate technologies
                         [TS30] Selecting and maintaining tools
                                and equipment
                         [TS31] Evaluating chosen technologies

Selecting and using                                                                [TS25]

Introduction                                     • become aware that these properties affect
                                                   how the material is used.
Whenever we make an object or formulate an       By the end of Stage 2, students should be aware
idea, some kind of material is generally used.   that:
Materials must be organised in such a way as
to assist the activity.                          • there is a greater variety of materials

To select appropriate materials students must    • materials have different properties
have experiences that encourage the use of a     • properties affect the use to which materials
variety of materials in a wide range of            are put.
applications. Several factors will influence
the choice.                                      In Stage 3, students should understand that:

Students need to:                                • the properties of materials can be
                                                   investigated by testing or trialling
• develop understandings related to the
  properties of materials which are              • the uses of materials for specific applications
                                                   are based on the properties of the materials.
  transformed from a raw state by the primary
  processes of cutting, forming, fastening and
                                                 Managing learning
• consider the appropriateness of materials
  for the task at hand
• develop understandings about selecting and     To develop these skills when planning and
  using appropriate materials. Students must     managing learning experiences, teachers could
  have experiences that encourage the use of     provide the folowing activities for students.
  a variety of materials in a wide range of      • Classify materials according to use, eg visit
  applications.                                    a building site and observe the materials
Organising material for a project is done in       used in the construction of houses and
conjunction with the design brief. The             buildings. List the observable properties of
organisation, supply and preparation of            some of the materials used in construction.
appropriate materials involves noting design       Discuss how the properties of these
developments and the needs of students. Some       materials, such as glass, have been used.
materials need preparation before they can be    • Investigate the different types of containers
used. Preparation might be as simple as mixing     that the children can find and identify what
paints.                                            they are made from, eg why have the
                                                   materials been used? Which materials are
                                                   waterproof? Which materials are strong?
Skill development                                  Compare different containers such as egg
At Stage 1, students should:                       cartons, milk cartons, and soft drink cans or
                                                   pet food cans. Identify the materials from
• gain expertise in manipulating materials         which they have been made and discuss
  that are available in the classroom              how each suits its purpose.
                                                 • Test materials for water absorbency. Make
• become aware that materials have different       a list of materials, showing comparisons
  properties                                       of how well they absorb water. Identify the
                                                   materials from which they are made.

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           189
• Test a variety of materials to identify their   Special considerations
  ability to conduct electricity. Use a variety
  of materials to complete an electric circuit    Special Needs
  powered by a battery. Can a bulb light up
  when it is used in a circuit?                   Good hands-on material should be provided
                                                  for students with special needs. There should
• Investigate how materials are joined            be direction and good structure for these
  together. Observe materials in the              activities.
  environment. Test a variety of ways of
  joining materials and decide if some ways
  are better than others.                         Useful resources
                                                  Good, K, Starting Craft, Design and

Organising tools, equipment                                                           [TS26]
and processes

Introduction                                         handling and maintenance of expensive
                                                     equipment, so that unnecessary expenses
‘Tools and equipment’ refers to collections          are not incurred.
of hand and mechanical implements that
are used daily, eg overhead projector,
transparencies and marker pens, computers,         Skill development
disks and printers, hammers or scissors.
                                                   At Stage 1, students should be able to combine
When investigating:                                a variety of appropriate materials, images,
• students need to have access to tools and        components and elements to make simple
  equipment which have been systematically         models, drawings and structures.
  organised                                        By the end of Stage 2, they should be able to:
• it is essential that teachers do not assume      • make choices as to what they construct
  prime responsibility for organising tools
                                                   • assess the properties, capabilities and
  and equipment
                                                     working characteristics of both natural and
• teachers should identify and organise              manufactured materials and components
  resources according to the needs of their
                                                   • improvise, within limits, when confronted
  students, for example:-
                                                     by unforeseen difficulties
  - storing the scissors out of the reach of the
                                                   • use their knowledge of the working
    kindergarten students reflects lack of
                                                     characteristics of a range of readily-available
    appreciation of user needs
                                                     tools and equipment to assess the most
  - in preparing to make a design or set up an       suitable for the task in hand
    experiment, it is important that students
                                                   • use processes safely, accurately and with
    are able to identify and select the most
                                                     respect for future use.
    appropriate equipment and tools for the
    tasks at hand.                                 In Stage 3, they should be able to identify,
                                                   organise and use the tools, equipment,
‘Processes’ describes the path from an idea to
                                                   materials, workspaces, people and other
an outcome, taking into account the various
                                                   resources that are most suitable for their
inputs and constraints which impinge on the
Teachers should aim to develop in their
students:                                          Managing learning
• positive attitudes towards safety and            experiences
  resource maintenance
                                                   To develop these skills, when planning and
• skills which will allow them to organise         managing learning experiences, teachers could
  tools and equipment both in the classroom        provide the following activities for students.
  and in relevant out-of-school activities
                                                   • Identify and define the properties and
• a realisation of the importance of striving        capacities of available tools, processes and
  for an ordered, safe and functional set of         equipment.
  tools and equipment
                                                   • Identify safety factors of tools and
• a vigilance in identifying faulty equipment        equipment.
• a commitment to the appropriate storage,

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           191
• Identify and define the organisational        Special considerations
  needs of a target audience, eg survey peers
  to determine how and where they would         Aboriginal Students
  like their sports equipment stored for easy
                                                Look at materials used by Aboriginal cultures.
• Develop ideas relating to organisation        Special Needs
  and display of tools and equipment, eg        Good hands-on material should be provided
  brainstorm ideas to generate an array of      here for students with special needs. There
  solutions to ways of organising the           should be a definite direction and structure for
  distribution of tools for a science lesson.   these activities.
• Identify and select appropriate tools and     ESL/NSB
  equipment for an identified task, eg select
  tools and equipment according to the ways     Look at how different cultures organise tools,
  they are used; make a display of tools        equipment and processes, eg cooking utensils,
  giving reasons for their particular           multi-purpose tools.
• Manipulate tools and equipment with care,     Useful resources
  eg teacher or peers act as role models and/
  or students explain a system of resource      Pluckrose, H, Cut it!
  maintenance that works for them.
                                                Pluckrose, H, Join it!

Understanding materials                                                                   [TS27]

                                                         which facilitate classification of objects
Introduction                                             into made and natural categories. Classify
Students should develop understandings related           natural materials as ‘once living’ and ‘never
to the properties of materials. Knowledge relating       living’. Identify made materials in familiar
to such properties best stems from investigations.       and broader contexts.
Students’ natural curiosity precipitates informal      • Identify readily-available materials in terms
discoveries. These provide a framework for more          of their composition, eg draw a picture of
formal investigations which teachers can                 your house or classroom. Design symbolic
stimulate. Experiences with a wide variety of            indicators for materials used in these contexts
materials in a diversity of situations will              which were: (a) once alive, (b) non-living
maximise the development of understandings.              materials but never living, (c) made. Research
Materials can be classified in terms of their basic      objects according to their composition by
composition and the manner in which they are             talking to adults, reading literature etc. Label
used. Students’ understandings can be                    them with symbols appearing in a key.
maximised by observing where and how                   • Explore the properties of materials, eg collect
materials are used in the environment. They              a number of wooden, plastic and metal rulers.
should develop skills in evaluating the                  Test them for hardness, weight, durability,
effectiveness of materials in both familiar and          strength and thermal properties (heat
unfamiliar contexts.                                     retention).
                                                       • Classify a range of materials with different
Skill development                                        attributes, eg hardness.
At Stage 1, students should explore the
                                                       • Explore and manipulate materials by designing
characteristics of various types of materials.
                                                         and making a product, eg try making ‘solid’
They should recognise that some materials occur
                                                         shapes using ‘soft’ materials to make them
naturally, while others are made.
                                                         look ‘like the real thing’, eg a soft drink can
By Stage 2, they should recognise the important          formed in sponge rubber, a biscuit in plastic,
similarities and differences between the                 a piece of cheese in wood, a golf club in
characteristics of a range of materials.                 rubber. Design ways of tricking people by
At the end of Stage 3, students should investigate       using an inappropriate material.
the properties and uses of a wider range of            • Evaluate a classification of materials and have
natural and made materials. They should use a            students develop their own way of organising
variety of materials so that comparisons can be          materials of their environment.
made regarding properties such as strength,
hardness, flexibility and solubility.                  Special considerations
Managing learning                                      ESL/NESB
                                                       Look at materials from other countries which
experiences                                            students may not have seen, eg fabrics,
To develop these skills when planning and              earthenware bowls, tools.
managing learning experiences, teachers could          Look at machines from other countries and the
provide the following activities for students.         materials from which they are made.
• Consider the knowledge Aboriginal people
  have of all types of timber, eg for bark painting,   Useful resources
  boomerangs, digging sticks, spears, fire.
                                                       Yarwood, A et al, Design and Technology
• Classify materials according to their
                                                       Whyman, K, Structure Materials
  composition, eg investigate the school
  playground to develop understandings                 Burt, E, Natural Materials
                                                       UNICEF, Appropriate Technology

                                                               SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6            193
Learning safety procedures                                                            [TS28]

Introduction                                        to make them safe for use by all. When
                                                    designing for safety, it is important to first
Attention to safety in the design process can       analyse the needs and the people who will use
prevent accidents. Accidents can often be           the item.
attributed to inadequate attention to safety
instructions or factors in the design process.
Many accidents could be prevented by obeying        Skill development
safety instructions and anticipating problems
                                                    Students will aim at caring for equipment as
which arise from slippery floor surfaces,
                                                    well as the safety, health and well-being of
trailing wires, fragile toys and incorrectly
                                                    everyone and the environment.
positioned shelves. The likelihood of accidents
happening can be reduced by paying attention        At Stage 1, students should be able to identify,
to the strength, durability, wear, balance,         choose and operate appropriate classroom tools
moving parts, surface finish, combustibility        with safety and to care for the equipment in
and toxicity of materials, electricity, sharp       their immediate surroundings.
edges and corners, and hot surfaces. The best       By Stage 2, students should be able to maintain
example of this safety in design would be the       basic tools and equipment used during class
latest control box on pedestrian crossings.         activities and to recognise the appropriate
The design features for safety include a variable   use of tools, equipment, hardware and
sound for the blind, a pulsating arrow for the      software. They should also be able to use the
deaf and blind, a robust structure, a practically   technologies which are available in the school
indestructible button mechanism, a smooth           environment, including basic constructional
finish with no sharp corners and a completely       and design tools.
weather-resistant casing.
                                                    At the end of Stage 3, students should be able
Learning safety procedures should be an             to identify and report unsafe conditions and
integral part of the processes and practices        use basic machines and equipment safely and
undertaken in the curriculum. This includes         correctly. They should also be able to improve
the activities, attitudes and organisational        the efficiency of machines and be able to
aspects which are relevant to teachers and          identify and select the most appropriate tool,
students in schools, in homes or the wider          equipment, material, hardware or software
community. Instruction in safety procedures         for a particular task.
should take two forms:
i) a formal aspect of a safety program where
   regulations and procedures are emphasised.       Managing learning
   Individuals and group roles are identified       experiences
   and safety drills performed
ii)an informal and pervasive part of the            To develop these skills when planning and
                                                    managing learning experiences, teachers could
   processes and practices in class. This
                                                    provide the following activities for students.
   includes not only safe behaviour patterns,
   but also the establishment of routines in        • Identify ‘high risk’ items and locations in
   cleaning work areas and safely storing             the classroom and in the playground.
   materials, tools and equipment.
                                                    • Collect pictures of warning symbols used
Various technologies and design features have         in our society. Discuss the colours used to
been incorporated in the manufacture of most          warn of danger. Design safety logos which
items at home, at school and in the community

  could be stuck or painted onto danger areas      • Research play patterns in the school
  at school.                                         playground. Design a playground which
                                                     accommodates the identified play
• Discuss, and record pictorially, the nature
                                                     preferences of all groups, facilitates safety
  of injuries that people sustain as a result of
                                                     in terms of providing unrestricted traffic
  using made items, eg burning yourself on
                                                     routes to the wash area and makes use of
  the iron.
                                                     grassed spaces for games in which children
• Discuss layout of classroom furniture.             might often fall. Trial and evaluate. Present
  Identify congested areas where collisions          findings at an assembly, in the library or in
  are possible. Brainstorm needs and solutions       some format that will reach the school
  to the problem. Discuss and select criteria        community.
  by which to evaluate a modified layout.
                                                   • Interview a range of pupils about the type
  Build a classroom model layout and evaluate
                                                     and location of playground accidents. Record
  it. Trial improved use of space designed by
                                                     data on a graph. Observe the students’ play
  pupils, eg model in blocks, match boxes to
                                                     practices during breaks. Design a
  determine safer classroom movement.
                                                     playground, and construct a model, which
• Collect a range of examples and pictures           accommodates the safety and recreation
  of everyday products that pose a danger to         needs of the pupils.
  people. Classify these according to which
                                                   • Design an interview and then question
  can cause, for example, bruises, burns,
                                                     parents and other adults regarding the
  collisions, cuts, electric shocks, falls,
                                                     accident patterns which occur in, for
  poisoning, skin irritation, slipping,
                                                     example, the kitchen. Determine the
  suffocation, swallowing, trapping.
                                                     precise nature of the safety problem. Is it,
• Collect and investigate a range of toys for        for example, a floor surface, hot surface or
  safety and potentially dangerous features.         a balance problem? Identify user needs
  Display the toys and record observations on        and then design and, if practical, make the
  accompanying card, or similar.                     solution.
• Identify factors necessary to be kept in         • Visit a park. Study the equipment to
  mind when designing and display findings,          determine items which put the safety of
  eg surface finish, electricity, durability,        young children at risk. Incorporate design
  strength, sharp edges.                             modifications into models built from
• Publish pupils’ accounts of accidents              different materials.
  which have happened to them when using           • Research the physical attributes of young
  everyday products. Create a data bank of           children. Design and make a model of a safe
  brainstormed safety measures which could           piece of play equipment for a park. Design
  be incorporated into the designs. Draw             and draw a scale model of a balcony railing
  suggestions or make prototypes of some of          suitable for a house where toddlers live.
                                                   • Observe the traffic outside the school.
• Design and make a container with a ‘child          Observe the school bus areas, parents’
  proof’ locking device that would be                parking area and their practices. Observe
  suitable for storing small, dangerous items.       good and potentially dangerous safety
• Make a list of possible dangers associated         situations. On a plan or model display
  with the following examples and suggest            proposed design improvements.
  ways of reducing the risks. Prepare
  lecturettes on students’ findings. Make use
  of sketches to explain suggestions, eg roads,
                                                   Useful resources
  trucks, bicycles, fixed playground               Toft, P, Craft, Design and Technology for GCSE
  equipment, chair lift, extension cord,
  frayed electrical cord, skateboards,
  stairs, frypans, hair dryers.

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          195
Selecting appropriate                                                                 [TS29]

Introduction                                        range of technologies, teachers can assist them
                                                    to gain a greater control of their lives and be
Technology in the classroom includes, but           aware that ultimate decision-making related
extends beyond, the tools and technical items       to technology usage rests with each one of us.
available to students. It must be remembered        It is the teacher’s responsibility to ensure that
that technology also includes materials,            the range of technologies and tools available
processes, products and information. As well        to the students is appropriate, having regard
as being anything that you use to help you          to safety and the skills to be developed by the
meet a goal, technology also involves the           students. Students will appreciate that by the
application of knowledge and resources to           purposeful and creative use of resources, their
make things work. Technology is precipitated        task is simplified, the outcomes are enhanced
by human needs. It involves meeting those           and the range of their endeavour is broadened.
needs or solving identifiable problems.
Selecting appropriate tools and technologies        Skill development
not only has safety connotations but also
requires the mental process of visualising the      At Stage 1, students should be able to identify
design and how the tools will be manipulated        the different forms of technology in their
to produce the result. It involves consideration    immediate environments and explain how
of the relationship between the task to be          they help us.
completed, the tools available and the abilities
                                                    By Stage 2, they should be able to choose
and skills of the potential user.
                                                    those tools, equipment and processes suitable
Students have already had much first hand           for making their designs and to use and
experience with forms of technology before          store these safely and accurately so that they
they came to school. In many instances the          will be readily available at a future time.
tools and technologies selected might not have
                                                    At the end of Stage 3, students should be able
been appropriate and the result obtained less
                                                    to evaluate technologies so that they can
than favourable. Selecting the appropriate
                                                    change and adapt processes and procedures
technology is important to maximise the level
                                                    when they encounter obstacles and/or seek
of success. Young children frequently make
                                                    help if necessary. They will be able to adopt
selections regarding the most appropriate form
                                                    procedures which will minimise waste and
of technology to accomplish certain goals. A
                                                    pay regard to cost, accuracy and finish.
child typically selects a clear, secure container
for pet beetle storage as opposed to an opaque,
less secure vessel. Teachers should provide         Managing learning
opportunities for students to develop skills in
identifying and exploring the capabilities of       experiences
technologies and using these in the classroom.
                                                    To develop these skills when planning and
In practising classroom decision-making             managing learning experiences, teachers could
related to which form of technology is most         provide the following activities for students.
appropriate for a task at hand, students develop
                                                    • Identify forms and purposes of pieces of
technology-related analytical skills. These will
serve them in all aspects of their lives, since       equipment.
there is a pervasive spread of sophisticated        • Discuss the equipment involved in an
technologies in our world today. By giving the        activity and identify how it was used.
students opportunities to handle and use a

• Discuss the forms of equipment and how            their advertisement using specific
  students enhanced the product. Discuss            technologies: on masonite, letters and
  the skills needed to operate the forms of         graphics in black on a white background,
  technology.                                       lights (powered by simple circuits)
• Explain to peers how to go about using a          appearing at 10 cm intervals. Design and
  form of technology to produce the best            make a cost-effective game for a young
  effects.                                          child. Students list target objectives. They
                                                    explore materials which will stand up to
• Select an activity and identify forms of          the handling of the target group. Use
  equipment or processes which can be used          community resource people to broaden
  to satisfy identified needs, eg pencil and        skills associated with designing and
  paper were used to keep the score; a bucket       making.
  was used to carry the balls; label a collage
  according to the technologies which             • Evaluate outcomes in terms of strengths
  contributed to its production and design          and limitations of the technologies used.
  and make mini posters to highlight safety       • Analyse the technologies used to create a
  precautions associated with classroom             product. Survey target audiences, eg
  technologies; use the equipment focused           students evaluate advertisements they
  on by someone else and share perceptions          have designed and made. Discuss the
  about how/when safety precautions were            pamphlets produced with the aid of Print
  taken while using the particular technology;      Shop (computer software); was it cost/time-
  create a data bank of forms of technology         effective, did it make best use of scarce
  used for making linear measurements; use          resources from a conservationist’s
  the equipment; share the categorised list         perspective, was it eye-catching, was the
  with peers and provide insight into how           layout balanced? Were the materials
  they can operate the equipment.                   selected resistant to dampness? Students
• Manipulate in order to fully control              suggest more appropriate technologies for
  equipment.                                        future use. Were skill deficits apparent?
                                                    Students suggest ways of improving these
• Explore the variety of ways in which a tool       so materials can be used more effectively.
  or piece of equipment can be used, eg pencils     Question which features of an
  used on the side produce a shading effect.        advertisement appealed to them/caused
  Apply this knowledge gained through peer          them concern. Analyse survey data to
  tutoring. Teacher or a peer can model the         determine if a more appropriate technology
  use of an overhead projector, the basic           could have been chosen or if a refinement
  processes involved in using databases, word       of the same process would enhance the
  processing programs, video cameras.               product.
• Select and use appropriate tools and
  equipment, processes and resources.
                                                  Useful resources
• Trial the appropriateness of a selected
  technology by making models. Skill              UNICEF, Village Technology
  deficits can be remedied by the teacher,
  peers or a community resource person, eg
  present the students with a design brief,
  eg to advertise the forthcoming fete within
  the local community. Discuss methods of
  advertising: pamphlets, posters, talks at
  assemblies using various aids. Students
  decide on the medium of communication
  which appeals to them and form groups
  within these frameworks. Group members
  discuss the creation and organisation of

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         197
Selecting and maintaining                                                            [TS30]
tools and equipment

Introduction                                      Skill development
Selecting involves purpose. In order to operate   At Stage 1, students should be able to select
the correct tool, the task must be considered.    simple materials and tools that are appropriate
                                                  for a specific task. They should be able to
At various times throughout history, processes    operate basic tools with safety, eg scissors,
for developing tools for specific tasks were      stapler, camera, tape recorder. Students should
worked out, eg for cultivating soil. Selecting    also be able to maintain and care for equipment
the appropriate material and shape for the        in the immediate surroundings, eg chairs in
tools changed, as the different tasks and         class, seating and play equipment in the
possibilities of designing improved. With the     playground. They should be able to store tools
growing trend towards mechanisation, more         carefully and properly to avoid damage to the
power tools and more sophisticated equipment      tools and possible injury to people.
were available.
                                                  By Stage 2, students should be able to select
Most tasks prove to be simple when the most       software and hardware appropriate to a
appropriate tool or equipment is selected and     specific activity and explain the reason for
used. No matter how appropriate the selected      their selection. They should be able to use
tool or piece of equipment might be, if its       more complex tools or equipment to aid their
condition is poor the quality of the work will    investigations, eg use a stopwatch, video
be equally bad. As part of skill development,     camera. Students should be able to maintain
students need to be aware of the value of         basic tools and equipment used during a
maintaining basic tools and equipment. This       class activity, eg brushes, hot plate, magnifying
involves storing, lubricating, cleaning and, in   cube, camera. The tools and equipment should
some instances, repairing. It is emphasised       be kept clean and stored correctly to ensure
that attempting to repair electrical or other     continued good function.
sophisticated equipment is discouraged for
safety reasons. Nevertheless, reporting on        At the end of Stage 3, students should be
malfunctions or potential danger, eg frayed       able to select appropriate tools, hardware,
electrical leads, is regarded as an aspect of     and equipment. They should be able to select
maintenance.                                      software and materials on the basis of what
                                                  the software and materials are supposed to
During the early years of their schooling         do. Students should be able to evaluate the
when students are acquiring a degree of           use of materials and equipment in order to
independence and self-sufficiency, teachers       understand their function.
should encourage students to select tools and
equipment from a central distribution point,
eg teacher’s desk, cupboard, store. This          Managing learning
encourages them to evaluate selected tools
with regard to size, weight, usefulness,          experiences
appropriateness and whether it works or not.      To develop these skills when planning and
Selecting and maintaining tools and               managing learning experiences, teachers could
equipment is a process that accompanies most      provide the following activities for students.
practical classroom activities and is basic to
                                                  • Select tools and equipment needed for all
all good housekeeping.
                                                    designing and making activities, eg cutting
                                                    and shaping tools for making shadow

• Before commencing a class project, students      whether the tools and equipment need
  list the tools and equipment needed. One         maintenance, repair, or replacement.
  student may act as stores controller. After
                                                 • Discuss the brief of an outdoor activity.
  the activity, and on returning the tools and
                                                   List the tools and equipment needed for the
  equipment to the stores controller, students
                                                   activity. Assess how well tools and
  should evaluate whether the tools are in
                                                   equipment are organised and stored and
  good condition or in need of repair.
                                                   how easily they can be located and obtained.
• Select the appropriate tools and equipment
  needed for an excursion. Check to see

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6        199
Evaluating chosen                                                                    [TS31]

Introduction                                      Skill development
Technology can be regarded as a creative          At Stage 1, most use of technologies by
human activity. It is therefore essential that    students in class is teacher-directed, however
the chosen technology brings about the            students should be encouraged to evaluate
desired change through design and the             whether the choice of tools, equipment and
application of knowledge. It is the               software was appropriate to perform the given
responsibility of teachers and students to        task. The students should be made aware of
ensure that the technology chosen will not        technologies that can perform similar tasks
lead to the detriment of the individual,          but achieve different results.
society or the environment. Choosing an           At Stage 2, students would be expected to
appropriate technology can be as simple as
                                                  select different technologies and explore
the selection of the correct adhesive or as       alternatives as part of this skills development.
complex as the particular paper milling
process.                                          By Stage 3, students would have acquired a
                                                  variety of technological skills and should be
The successful outcome of a process can
                                                  able to evaluate a chosen skill in terms of its
sometimes be directly related to the              social and environmental implications.
technology chosen. In model making, the           Students should be able to choose and modify
card trimming process can be achieved by          existing technologies to suit and satisfy their
using different technologies, such as scissors,   immediate needs.
Stanley knives or a guillotine. Each technology
has its own specific advantage, such as cutting
internal or external curves or angles or          Managing learning
trimming straight lines. The success of the
process depends on the technology selected        experiences
for a specific task.
                                                  To develop these skills when planning and
There are many different ways of obtaining        managing learning experiences, teachers could
similar results using different technologies.     provide the following activities for students.
Similarly there are many instances where the
                                                  • Evaluate a project completed by the class.
same technology can obtain a totally different
                                                    Examine whether the success/failure was
result under a different set of circumstances.
                                                    a direct result of having used the correct or
Using the Stanley knife to cut cloth might not
                                                    incorrect technology. Suggest alternatives.
have the same result as using it to cut through
                                                    List the technologies involved from the
leather. Students are encouraged to access,
                                                    planning stage to the final product.
organise, use and evaluate information
relevant to the chosen technology.                • Display and examine a range of artefacts
                                                    such as clothes pegs, bottle openers, spoons,
In evaluating the chosen technology it is
                                                    bottle tops, corks, lids, milk carton, plastic
important to consider whether the technology
                                                    cups, glasses, cooking pots etc. Identify which
selected would provide students with the
                                                    can be used for the same purpose, which can
opportunity to gain experience in identifying,
                                                    be used for more than one purpose and
selecting and using the appropriate hardware
                                                    which, during or after manufacture, can be
and to evaluate, design and use appropriate
                                                    environmentally unfriendly. Under what
software and kits.
                                                    conditions would a particular technology
                                                    not be regarded as the correct one, eg using
                                                    a plastic cup as a container for
                                                    a solvent.
• Compile cards with images of various              outback of Australia, which technologies
  technologies, such as a telephone, television     would be introduced first and why?
  set, video camera, typewriter, computer,        • Students imagine they are taken back in
  pencil, drawing board, eraser, paint brush,       time. They suggest or adapt technologies
  cloth, chalkboard duster, bicycle, motor          that they would introduce, considering the
  cycle, car, bus, truck, train etc. Students
                                                    resources available at that time.
  respond to various briefs by choosing the
  appropriate technologies. At times there
  might be only one appropriate technology        Useful resources
  while at other times there might be several.
• If one had the task of selecting and            Macaulay, D, The Way Things Work
  introducing appropriate technologies for a      UNICEF, Appropriate Technology and
  poor, traditionally rural community in the      Children

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6       201
      Using specific technologies

                             Teaching Strategies

                             [TS32] Audio-visual technologies
                             [TS33] Adventure games
                             [TS34] Control systems
                             [TS35] Telecommunications
                             [TS36] Sound and lighting
                             [TS37] Animation
                             [TS38] Publishing
                             [TS39] Databases
                             [TS40] Video production
                             [TS41] Computer graphics


The syllabus recognises the need for              Communication
technology education to embrace the tech-
nology of computers and communications.           technology
In so doing, students will appreciate that
                                                  Communication technology is constantly
these technologies influence almost every
                                                  changing, increasing the options available to
facet of all our lives and are some of the most
                                                  communicators. The design and production
significant causes of change for people in the
                                                  of communication products involve a variety
latter half of the twentieth century.
                                                  of technological processes and equipment. All
                                                  communication products are the results of
Computer technology                               many decisions made by different people at
                                                  each stage of the production process.
Computer technology is in our homes, our          This Key Learning Area is concerned with the
shopping centres, our schools and our             technology that creates and delivers
entertainment venues. Students should be          communication products. Students will be
aware of a wide range of applications of          involved in creating communication products
computer technology. They should appreciate       as well as using a variety of communication
that computers influence the way we travel,       technology. Communication technologies
the games we play, the way we learn and           include telecommunications, video,
work, what happens to us when we are ill,         television, radio and print media (including
how we handle money, how we communicate           magazines, billboards, leaflets). Students
and how we get information. They should           should be aware of the wide variety of
recognise that the food we eat and the            communication technologies that exist and
merchandise we buy have more than likely          become competent users of these technologies.
been processed, packed and priced using
computer technology.
This Key Learning Area is concerned with
providing experiences which allow students
to understand computers by using them.
Students will be provided with opportunities
to use computers to learn new things and to
learn traditional things in new ways.
Computer education assists students to meet
new challenges and to make appropriate
decisions concerning the use of computers
now and in the future.

                                                        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         203
Audio-visual technologies                                                             [TS32]

Introduction                                         Students need to develop skills in evaluating
                                                     the appropriateness of a technique to the task.
Audio-visual technologies involve creating
and reading messages using sound (audio)             Skill development
and pictures (visuals), either separately or in
combination.                                         At Stage 1, as students may use simple, single-
                                                     medium forms such as taking photographs,
Students interact with a vast range of
                                                     recording sounds or voices, or creating simple
information sources every day. These range
                                                     combinations, eg captioned pictures.
from simple visual images and sounds, through
more structured examples, to those involving         By Stage 2, as students increase in familiarity
conventions of written language. Often school        with a range of techniques and tools, they may
activities concentrate on the written language       combine media to create more complex
aspects, forgetting the frequency of use and         products. This may include manipulation of
effectiveness of other forms. If students are to     audio-visuals to change their form, eg cropping
become fully proficient members of a                 photos, editing sounds, matching sounds and
technological society, they need to be able to       images.
use a wide range of tools and techniques to          By the end of Stage 3, students should exhibit
acquire and communicate meaning.                     greater proficiency that may lead to
Audio-visual technologies should be used             sophisticated manipulation of processes and
by teachers for the benefit of students in           equipment, and creation of new applications
motivating activity, clarifying concepts,            for chosen techniques.
processes and purposes and providing
experiences or information beyond the scope
of the school or community.                          Managing learning
A wide range of technologies should also be          experiences
used by students themselves. This may be in
                                                     Listed below is a range of strategies which
gathering and recording information,
                                                     teachers can use when planning and managing
clarifying, organising and illustrating ideas,
                                                     learning experiences that use audio-visual
and communicating their thoughts.
The range of technologies used should be as
broad as those available: overhead projectors;       Stimulating Activity
still pictures in the form of photographs, slides,   • Use stimulus pictures or sounds to arouse
magazine pictures, cartoons, posters etc; tape         curiosity and stimulate investigation.
recordings; video and film; computer software;
                                                     • Motivate students by using and creating
diagrams; music; spoken word; CD; microfiche
                                                       personalised materials, eg reports,
and video discs, as they become part of
                                                       pamphlets, using photos of students or
everyday life.
                                                       photos taken by students.
Students need to have a very clear purpose in
                                                     • Extend students’ experiences by observing
using any method of gathering, organising or
                                                       activities that cannot be seen first hand, eg
presenting information. This is particularly
                                                       video material of a volcano, audio
so in using audio-visual media. Selection of
                                                       recording of a symphony orchestra.
the medium and techniques used should be
made because they fulfil particular                  • Provide audio-visual records of working
requirements, rather than for their own sake.          models or machinery as a source of ideas for
                                                       designing and making.

Gathering Information                             Communicating
• Record excursions or school events, eg          • Use a range of images to create a powerful
  using photos of places, people and events,        message, eg using photomontage, photo
  audio recordings of sounds of the bush or         stories, sound sequences.
                                                  • Create moods or atmosphere, eg sound
• Take photos of animals, structures, plants,       effects, project slides in a darkened room
  physical features to enable more detailed         to accompany stories/reports, continuous
  observation and analysis.                         projection of images behind dramatised
• Record change through a sequence of images,       action.
  eg photos over a period of time, stop-motion    • Present information to group or class, eg
  or time lapse video.                              using OHP, slide projections.
• Make selective tape recordings of particular    • Document processes, eg using comic strips,
  sounds, eg warning signals, transport             photo sequences.
                                                  • Use images and sounds to complement or
• Interview other people using audio or video       contradict text messages, eg advertisements,
  tape.                                             posters, exploring irony.
• Explore phenomena, eg use overhead              • Provide visual or aural evidence in support
  projector (OHP) to investigate light and          of an argument.
  shadow, shape and size; dismantle a speaker
                                                  • Record live performances to share with
  to observe vibrations caused by sounds.
                                                    others, eg video or photos for visual
• Record steps or stages of a process, eg           performance or sporting events, audio tape
  photos used to recall and summarise.              for music performances.
• Make a record of work, eg products such as
  puppets, posters, experiments, dramatised
  activities or steps taken in investigating or
                                                  Useful resources
  designing and making.                           Curriculum Development Centre, Canberra,
Organising or Illustrating Information            1980, Classroom Photography, Learning by
                                                  Making Photographs
• Make comparisons between sets of images
  or sounds, eg discriminating between            NSW Dept of School Education, Photos in
  sounds, identifying differences/similarities.   Print

• Explore abstract concepts through annotated     NSW Dept of School Education, Photo
  pictures, eg strength, stability, change.       Sequences

• Develop language skills using photos, sound     Butler, M, Media for Kids: Print, Television,
  effects or moving images to support written     Film
  language.                                       Gross, Y et al, Film Animation for Schools
• Illustrate relationships, eg use OHP to
  create flow charts of steps in a process or
  people involved in a production.
• Provide directions for non-readers.
• Sequence events.
• Record activities to assess performance, eg
  video tape a play rehearsal.

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         205
Adventure games                                                                      [TS33]

Introduction                                       Adventure games are truly cross-curricular in
                                                   nature. Good adventure game software
Computerised adventure games create a              provides a natural springboard for a variety of
fantasy world in the real classroom. They          activities that give the students many
provide a problem-solving environment.             opportunities to develop skills in logical and
Adventure games vary from being structured,        deductive thinking, problem solving, decision
where there is only one correct path to follow,    making and cooperating. These skills are in
through to the totally open-ended game, where      addition to those relating more specifically to
there are many different paths. In all adventure   the individual broad learning areas.
games there are set goals to achieve. The          The effective use of adventure games requires
achievement of these goals involves the            skill and planning on the part of the teacher.
students in making decisions in order to solve     Software must be selected carefully and
puzzles and problems along the way.                examined thoroughly to ensure the suitability
The value of adventure games lies not so           of the content. Activities need to be planned but
much in the games themselves but rather in         should allow for flexibility. One of the greatest
the experiences they provide and generate          difficulties for most teachers is to minimise
for students. A well-chosen adventure game         their intervention in the game itself. There will
provides students with a relevant context for      be times when students need assistance in
the development of problem-solving skills in       achieving goals set in the game and times when
an interactive learning environment.               they are best left alone. Teachers must try to
                                                   limit themselves to providing help by asking
Students will be involved in many stages of
                                                   questions, encouraging students to review what
the investigation process. They will predict
                                                   they have done and what they know, using a
what might happen in the game and they will
                                                   variety of resources and thinking logically and
propose explanations and test them. Because
an adventure game can be replayed, students
will have opportunities to test new predictions
that they may have developed. Students will        Skill development
use strategies and understandings to solve
problems in the game. As they become better        At Stage 1, students should begin working
problem solvers, they will be able to apply        with adventure games and will be developing
these strategies and understandings to solve       their skills in cooperating. They should begin
different problems. The concepts introduced        to develop some problem-solving skills, such
by an adventure game can motivate the student      as recording their progress through the
to explore new areas of interest and study.        adventure, making decisions, taking risks and
Some adventure games require students to           formulating their own solutions to proble-s.
create their own adventures, thus involving        By Stage 2, as students gain experience and
students in the designing and making process.      develop a wider range of problem-solving
For example, some games allow students to          strategies, they should begin particularising
use an adventure shell in which they set the       strategies to specific instances arising within
scene themselves and define their goals. There     the adventure game situation. Their writing
are also interactive story-writing programs        skills should be developed as adventure games
which allow students to design and write           encourage students to record their progress
stories with many different paths. These           as well as to motivate them to write in different
adventure stories can be printed in book form.     genres.

At the end of Stage 3, students should have         • Keep an accurate record of an adventure in
progressed from the ability to use basic              the form of a journal. All adventure games
thinking strategies, eg simple deductions,            require students to keep notes of some
to the ability to apply sophisticated problem         kind. Notes should reflect decisions made
solving skills, such as building models to            and places ‘visited’ within the game.
explain how something works.
                                                    • Record movements on a map or diagram.
                                                      Have students discuss the more successful
Managing learning                                     ways of recording their journey. Discuss
                                                      the need for accuracy and the possible
experiences                                           consequences of errors. Relate this activity
                                                      to map-making techniques in a commercial
Listed below is a range of strategies which           sense.
teachers can use when planning and managing
learning experiences.                               • Read ‘twist-a-plot’ stories and decide on the
                                                      path to be followed. This will ensure the
• Simulate reality by using an appropriate            students understand the concept of multiple
  adventure game. Some adventure games                paths or options that are presented in
  often include a simulation. For example,            adventure games. Students should then have
  the students might transform into the               opportunities to use an adventure shell to
  skipper of a racing yacht or become a               write their own adventure or use interactive
  seismologist endeavouring to predict the            story-writing programs.
  exact time and destruction force of an
  imminent earthquake.
                                                    Special considerations
• Discuss proposed explanations and other
  specific strategies that students are using       ESL/NESB/Aboriginal Students
  in any part of the adventure game. Students
                                                    Some adventure games can reflect a
  verbalise about proposed explanations and
                                                    multiplicity of cultural names because they
  other specific strategies used so that they
                                                    allow users to put their own name into the
  become aware that they are using a specific
                                                    If an adventure game reflects a Western
• Make analogies to other situations. The
                                                    consciousness, then discuss this with the
  teacher’s role is important in pointing out
                                                    students rather than not using the game at all
  specific strategies that the students are using
                                                    and hence, perhaps, denying the students a
  to help solve a problem in the adventure
                                                    good learning experience.
  game. The teacher should help the student
  make an analogy to another remote situation       Girls
  where the same specific strategy or               Adventure games with violence in them are
  understanding might be used. When                 not attractive to girls. Violence is unacceptable
  students begin making their own analogies,        in adventure games for boys and girls. Some
  they are on the way to becoming good              games create unacceptable stereotypes for
  problem solvers.                                  males and females. Some games are aimed at
• Be stimulated to take part in a unit of work.     male players, eg when the goal is to rescue the
  Develop a unit of work around an adventure        princess, or the player must take on a pre-
  game by negotiation or incorporate an             defined male role. Such games are
  adventure game into a unit of work to             unacceptable.
  stimulate the students.
• Review what students have done and what           Useful resources
  they know, use a variety of resources and
  think logically and laterally. Teachers           CEU productions:
                                                    Adventure games... A stimulus for creative
  should limit their involvement to asking
  questions, providing analogies, suggesting        Using Adventure Games
  strategies and encouraging risk-taking, but       Primary Guidelines
  they should never give answers.                   Software Evaluations

                                                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           207
Control systems                                                                     [TS34]

                                                  Other examples of closed loop control systems
Introduction                                      would be a microwave with a temperature
Technology is used to control many of the         probe. In this case the power comes from the
electronic and mechanical machines and            electrical generator of microwaves. The
devices which people in a modern society          mechanism is the device used for generating
have to deal with every day. These range from     the microwaves and the controller is a
toys, watches, traffic lights and microwave
ovens, through to a car wash and car
manufacturing production lines. This strategy
introduces students to some of the elementary
concepts and processes used in control. To
assist students in gaining an understanding of
these concepts and processes, they should
investigate real-life control systems and build
one of their own.
Students should understand that control
systems are made up of two systems, one of
which affects the behaviour of the other. One     computer chip which records time, counts
system contains power which drives a              down and receives the signal from the
mechanism (eg gravity enables the wheels on       temperature probe. The feedback comes from
a billycart to move down a hill) and the other    the sensor which is the temperature probe.
system called the controller governs the first    Programmable toys are normally open loop
system (ie the person steering the billycart).    control systems but sometimes they have a
A mechanism consists of moving parts that         sensor on them that reacts when the toy hits
perform some function, eg the arms moving         an object and this sensor sends a signal to the
on a toy drummer. Power is the energy that it     controller to adjust its course. So in this case
gives to the mechanism, eg the motor driving      the feedback is provided or initiated by the
the arms to move. Control is the governing of     sensor.
the power, eg the cam in a toy drummer            An open loop system has no feedback and is
which controls how the arms will move.            not fully automatic. A washing machine, a
There are two types of control: open loop         microwave without a temperature probe and
control (or feed forward) and closed loop (or     a light that switches on at a certain time are
feedback) control.                                all examples of open loop systems. These
                                                  machines run through their programs without
A closed loop control system uses some sort       any variation and then stop. There is no
of feedback to control it. In the illustration    feedback to the controller to change the course
the controller (the girl) is controlling the      that the machine is going through. For
mechanism (toy car) that is powered by            example, a microwave will continue to cook
batteries. The feedback in this case is           something for as long as it has been timed
provided by the girl’s eyes which constantly      even though the food may be cooked. However
compare the actual state (position, course,       this microwave would be a closed loop system
speed) with the desired state (the place to       if a temperature probe was attached to the
which she wants the car to go). She will          food to send feedback to the controller
control the car according to the feedback she     indicating when the food is cooked.

Skill development                                    • Learn about control technology and control
                                                       systems by building and experimenting
By the end of Stage 1, students should be able         with different projects. Students design
to manoeuvre floor robots. They should be              and build their own projects which can be
able to move the robot around obstacles and            controlled, eg a robot, traffic system, a
through a simple maze. Students should be              floor buggy. Construction kits such as Lego
able to understand what makes certain toys             Technics, Fischertechnics and Capsella
move, eg sound, winding mechanism, batteries           supply a good range of sophisticated
etc.                                                   components, eg motors and gears. If
By Stage 2, students should experience                 students are familiar with using wood,
working with simple motors to power models             plastics and sheet metal this could be a less
that they have made from construction sets             expensive alternative. A floor buggy would
(including Lego Technics, Fischertechnics,             be a simple robot device to design, build
etc) or other building materials. Students             and control. The buggy is linked to a
should begin to look at everyday objects, eg           computer by a cable through which the
traffic lights, washing machines, elevators,           motors receive their instructions and power.
etc and discuss the sensors that are controlling       The buggy could have sensors on it so that
them, eg pushing the button (sensor) at the            when it bumps into obstacles, signals are
traffic lights causes the lights to change.            sent back to the controller to change the
By Stage 3, students should have an                    direction of the buggy.
opportunity to work with sophisticated               • Visit a factory or workshop where machines
components, such as motors and gears, to               in use are controlled in some way. Students
construct models and use computers to control          could observe machines at a factory, car
them. They should be able to discuss the               wash etc and seek the controlling device and
different parts of a control system (mechanism,        the different sensors used to send messages
power source and controller).                          back to the controller.
                                                     • Create a database on controlled systems. The
Managing learning                                      fields for the database could include open or
experiences                                            closed loop, power, mechanism, controller,
                                                       sensors, special features such as safety,
Listed below is a range of strategies which            efficiency, reliability etc.
teachers can use when planning and managing
learning experiences.                                • List the control systems in which computers
                                                       are used, eg traffic lights, printers, disk drives
• Students use their senses as sensors. Students       etc.
   participate in activities that demonstrate that
   their senses act like sensors. When controlling
   a remote control toy, students use their sight
                                                     Useful resources
   as a sensor to give feedback to their brain       Heinz Kurth, Robots
   which determines the desired place to which       Richard Pawson, The Robot Book
   the toy should move. Students could be            Lego Technics, Fischertechnics, Capsella
   blindfolded and then asked to pick up a           construction kits
   particular object. They would use their nerves
   as sensors to give feedback to their brain
   about position, shape and size of the object
   that they were asked to pick up.
• Investigate how traffic lights work. Students
   could observe the traffic lights at an
   intersection and discuss the sensors and the
   controller that are part of the traffic system.

                                                             SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6              209
Telecommunications                                                                      [TS35]

Introduction                                         to mailbox and by accessing electronic
                                                     bulletin boards. By placing one message on
Telecommunication systems allow signals to           a bulletin board, any user can read and
be transmitted and received over long                respond to the message. In this way, a group
distances. They exist because people have a          of students can request information from
need to communicate with each other. To              their peers without necessarily knowing
communicate there must be a message, the             beforehand to whom they are addressing
need to send that message, a means by which          their request. Information can come from
the message is transmitted, a medium through         any user who reads the message on the
which the message is carried and a means by          board.
which the message is received and decoded.           Using the bulletin board allows students to
Great advances have been made in                     collect information as a prelude to an
telecommunications technology over the past          investigation. For example, students who have
decade. Australia, by virtue of its large internal   an investigation in mind, such as how people
distances and relative isolation from the rest       spend their leisure time, could specifically
of the world is, by necessity, at the forefront of   post a notice on a bulletin board requesting
telecommunications technology. Australia has         this information, thus collecting information
several domestic satellites that service both        from a wider audience (including students
Australia and the near Pacific countries. The        from interstate and overseas).
telephone network in Australia is one of the
largest in the world and Australia has the
world’s largest optical fibre communications         Skill development
                                                     At Stage 1, students should understand that
An example of telecommunications                     there is a need for appropriate tele-
technology which is used extensively in              communications systems and that people use
schools is an Electronic Information Service.        these systems to send and receive messages
This involves sending of information                 over distances. They will begin to understand
between one computer and another, often by           aspects of electronic communications such as
way of telephone lines. In this way, schools         speed of delivery, time and distance.
can use the computer in their school and
                                                     By the end of Stage 2, students should begin
their telephone line to send information
                                                     to understand that one type of electronic
quickly and efficiently to each other. They
                                                     information service is a mail system that can
can also gain access to very large amounts of
                                                     store and retrieve information (eg their letters).
information stored on remote mainframe
computers. Schools can use any computer,             By Stage 3, students should develop an
communications software, a modem and a               understanding that people in our technol-
telephone line to access this data.                  ogical community rely on effective
                                                     telecommunications systems. They should
There are many electronic information
                                                     understand that Australia needs an effective
services available in Australia, including
                                                     telecommunications network because of its
electronic mail, electronic bulletin boards
                                                     size and relative isolation. They should be
and online databases. The electronic
                                                     able to use a range of telecommunications
information service used by many schools in
                                                     technologies for specific purposes, eg using a
NSW is called Keylink.
                                                     bulletin board from an electronic information
Keylink allows users to communicate to               service as an avenue for reaching a wide and
other students in two ways: from mailbox             previously unknown audience.

Managing learning                                   – Students set up a class mail box and write
                                                      and post letters to their classmates.
                                                    – Students could visit the post office and
Listed below is a range of strategies which           investigate private post boxes as being a
teachers can use when planning and managing           good analogy with the Keylink mail
learning experiences.                                 box. The address on the letter is like the
                                                      username, the key to open the mail box
General                                               is like the password. The post office
• Explore the purposes of communication.              itself can be compared to the storage of
                                                      information on a mainframe computer.
• Conduct a survey to find out how many
  students have relatives interstate or           • Develop reading, writing and publishing
  overseas. Find out how and why they               skills whilst communicating with a large
  communicate.                                      audience.
• Discuss the need to send emergency                Students use an electronic mail service
  messages, what people use to call the             (Keylink) to communicate. When students
  emergency services and how they are used.         write, their audience is usually limited to
• Visit an emergency service establishment.         their classmates or perhaps their
                                                    schoolmates, however, electronic mail
  Observe     the   operation      of  the
                                                    offers a far wider audience — that of all
  communications systems.
                                                    registered users. Access to this large
• Role play an emergency situation where            audience is possible without leaving the
  students make the calls, receive the message      classroom.
  and contact the appropriate emergency
                                                  • Collect information from a wide audience
                                                    in order to carry out an investigation.
• Make a device that will send messages in
  code such as a morse code telegraph.              Students may have an investigation in mind,
                                                    eg what hobbies do people have. They could
• Explore and experiment with sending               specifically post a notice on a bulletin board
  messages to a person in another room and to       to collect information about this.
  other places around the school.
                                                  • Send and receive responses instantaneously.
• Set up ‘relay stations’ so that the messages
                                                    Electronic communication is very fast.
  can be sent around corners or up stairs.
  What is the role of the relay station?            Using more traditional forms of
                                                    communication such as the postal service,
• Research the history of telecommunications        students must wait a considerable amount
  and the various technologies that have            of time for a response to their letter. The
  been used. Create a database of the main          time needed to complete a project involving
  discoveries in telecommunications.                postal communication must, therefore, be
Electronic Information Services                     quite lengthy. This often means that
                                                    enthusiasm is lost by the time the response
• Develop students’ understanding of                has been received. Using electronic
  electronic communications by using off-           communication, responses can be sent and
  computer activities.                              received instantaneously.
  – Students could use a fuzzy felt board and     • Use an electronic bulletin board as a wire
    cut-outs of a modem, micro computer,            service in order to simulate the publication
    mainframe computer, satellite and cables        of a commercial newspaper.
    etc. Students create different scenarios of
    sending information electronically, eg          Primary students prepare articles for their
    two computers with two modems where             school newspaper, using word processing
    the two modems are hooked together              packages on their computers. On a
    and one is put into answer mode and one         predetermined day they select two or three
    put into send mode.                             articles which would be of interest to a

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           211
  wider audience and send these to the bulletin   • provides ‘visible’ language/communication
  board. Any school can then read the articles      for the deaf: they can have experiences with
  on the board and select items to include in       natural language patterns, including
  their own school newspapers. The paper is         colloquial language, as they communicate
  then published and distributed around the         with people from a wide range of locations
  school and to other schools whose news has
                                                  • gives students who are ‘reading/writing
  been used, eg Newsday.
                                                    reluctant’ reasons to write and read. The
• Survey the school and the local community         motivation and ownership is high because
  to determine who has a FAX machine                the purpose and contents relate to their
  and who uses them. Locate public FAX              needs
  machines and investigate how they operate.
                                                  • allows students to participate in Deaf
Radio Services                                      Awareness Week (DAW), which is a bulletin
                                                    board set up during this week for people to
• Investigate Citizens’ Band (CB) radios, who
                                                    communicate their ideas, thoughts etc,
  uses them, why they use them and how far
                                                    while developing their computer
  they can transmit and receive messages.
                                                    technology skills
• Locate and question any HAM radio
                                                  • complements     other   modes       of
  operators about the HAM network and
                                                    communications such as letters, disks,
  possibly establish links with international
                                                    photos etc
  HAM operators and students in other
  countries.                                      • allows participation in National Aborigines
                                                    Week, which is a bulletin board set up
                                                    during the week which celebrates NAW.
Special considerations                              This board gives Aboriginal students
                                                    opportunities to communicate across
NESB/Aboriginal Students                            Australia to one another. It gives Aboriginal
When using an electronic information service        students an opportunity to present their
students will:                                      culture and ideas to all.
• communicate with people in a variety of
  different communities
• write for a wider audience
• have a real purpose for writing, eg swapping
  recipes, making a newspaper, making and
• have opportunities to further enhance their
  self-esteem and promote a positive image,
  especially in their ethnic identity, through
  such bulletin board projects as The Festival
  Recipe Book.
Special Education
Using electronic information services:
• allows the physically disabled to ‘explore’
  and interact with their environment, eg
  using remote electronic databases that
  allow them to do their shopping, banking
  etc, enabling them to function more easily

Sound and lighting                                                                   [TS36]

Introduction                                           Discuss how sounds enhance the overall
                                                       film effect. How do the sounds help build
Sound and lighting play important roles in             up the story, add atmosphere, mood and
many forms of presentation. Often the                  character?
emphasis is on one element in isolation, eg        •   Discuss which sounds are natural and which
sound in radio/audio presentations, gathering          sounds are added effects. Categorise those
information on tape or to accompany singing            created using electronics, natural sounds,
or musical items, lighting in still photography,       human voices etc.
for mime performances or in silent films/
                                                   •   Collect a range of sounds from home and
video. Just as frequently we use a combination
                                                       school using cassette recorder and
of sound and lighting to create desired effect:
                                                       microphone. Listen to sound effects records/
as in live performances, film and video
                                                       tapes. Identify the sounds.
production, or computer presentations.
                                                   •   Listen to an electronic keyboard’s sound
Sound helps to create atmosphere and                   effects, a music computer or a sampling
heightens dramatic action. Through the use             keyboard. Identify the sounds being re-
of skilled lighting practices, moods,                  created. Compare with recordings of the
atmospheres and characters may be altered or           actual sound. Suggest advantages and
strengthened as required.                              disadvantages of synthesised sounds.
For each application, particular techniques        •   Investigate the effects that can be created
may be used. However the strategies listed can         using musical instruments.
be applied equally to many of the suggested        •   Investigate how many useful sound effects
situations. It is important to remember that           students can create using their voices.
while the two elements are treated separately,
                                                   •   Experiment making noises with every day
they are often used in combination and have
a degree of effect on each other.                      objects, eg cellophane screwed up in the
                                                       palm of your hand sounds like a fire
                                                       crackling. Sound effects studios have trays
Skill development                                      of sand, water and twigs used to create
At Stage 1, students may begin identifying             sound effects after the pictures have been
simple effects of sounds and lighting (including       shot (eg a person walking on a particular
colour) in creating moods and feelings.                type of surface).
By Stage 3, students should be able to             •   Collect a number of items from a ‘Sound
manipulate equipment and other resources               Effects Kit’.
to create both sound and lighting effects          •   Catalogue sound effects collected from a
appropriate to a range of situations.                  variety of sources using an index system or
Managing learning                                  •   Investigate natural environmental sound
                                                       distortions, including wind, echo and
experiences                                            vibration.
Sound                                              •   Investigate ways of manipulating or
                                                       interfering with recorded sounds, eg
• View a short dramatic film or video sequence
                                                       experimenting with bass and treble
  without any sound. Watch the same
                                                       controls, speed controls, reverb and echo
  sequence again with the sound turned on.
                                                       units, sampling keyboards. Suggest ways
                                                       these effects may be used.

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          213
• Select a scene from a film or video. Compose     • Record a series of brief sequences that use
  a short sound effects sequence to be               lighting to create given moods and
  performed to the image as it is viewed.            atmospheres, eg create a feeling of
• Try using inappropriate sounds with                loneliness, horror, celebration, early
  particular actions. Discuss the effect.            morning, mystery etc. Students may work
                                                     as members of a small group or video unit.
• Listen to the music from a film sound
  track or piece of orchestral music.              • Experiment with placing plastics, fabrics
                                                     and other materials in front of a light source.
• Identify and explore the use of specialised
                                                     Observe how this changes the light. Coloured
  sound recording equipment, eg ‘boom poles’
                                                     plastic sheets placed in front of a light
  (long rods with the microphone attached to
                                                     source are called ‘gels’.
  the end used for recording sound so that the
  microphone can’t be seen), headphones.           • Evaluate which particular video exercises
                                                     worked the best and why. Suggest ways
• Explore the differences between
                                                     the film exercises may be improved. Add
  microphones, eg directional, omni-
                                                     suggestions to the resource book.
  directional, and radio microphones.
                                                   • When preparing film or video scripts, plan
• Identify any background noise that might
                                                     how the production should be lit. Consider
  interfere with recording your soundtrack,
                                                     natural, as well as artificial, lighting,
  eg planes, cars.
                                                     positioning of light sources, use of gels or
• Visit a film/sound studio.                         filters.
• Invite a sound engineer or Foley artist          • Investigate how lights can be best hidden
  (someone who creates sound to be added             from view (on stage or when shooting film/
  to films or video after they’ve been shot) to      video). Cords must also be hidden.
  visit your school.
                                                   • Get to know the lighting requirements of
• Produce a radio play.                              cameras and film used, eg cameras requiring
Lighting                                             a large amount of light because of low film
                                                     speed, variation between video camera use
• Explore the effect of various lighting
                                                     inside and outdoors.
  positions on a person’s face or whole body
  or on a group of people. Positions may           • Investigate the requirements of different
  include lighting from the rear/back, side,         film type. (Film distributors will supply
  above, below.                                      information sheets.)
• Explore the effect of different types of         • Complete a non-dialogue film which relies
  light source, eg reflected light (using white       heavily on light to tell its story.
  card or mirrors), candle light, torch light,     • Learn how to use a light meter.
  fluorescent tubes, lamp light, moving light       • Invite a ‘lighting person’ to visit the class.
  sources.                                         • Discuss the special lighting problems that
• Compile a lighting resource book where             may exist in outer space, under the water,
  students draw/record the effect that               in caves, in moving vehicles etc.
  different techniques have on the ‘look’ of       • Investigate the use of ‘shadow’ in film.
  the subject. Use brief descriptions to record
  the way each technique creates mood,             Useful resources
  tension, atmosphere, eg back lighting can
                                                   A cassette player or reel-to-reel recorder.
  create mystery by silhouetting a character or
                                                   Microphones (with windsocks if possible). ‘Red
  be used to disguise models, low front lighting
                                                   head’ lighting kit
  can be used to create a horror effect.
                                                   Sound effects records/tapes (for use as
• Explore how light can be used to change the      example)
  look of a scene or character.
                                                   Film Data sheets are available free from the head
• Examine photographs and how light is used        offices of Kodak, Fuji (Hanimex) and Agfa
  to create particular moods and effects.
                                                   Australian Film, Television and Radio School,
• Examine films that use lighting for strong       Teaching Resources Catalogue
  dramatic effect. Most television and film
  studios try to use natural-looking lighting.
  Compare this with the use of light in horror
  sequences, advertisements etc.

Animation                                                                            [TS37]

Introduction                                        As a classroom activity, animation is
                                                    immediately accessible to all students once
Animating people, objects and images involves       the basic principles are understood. The
making them move or seem to move. This              materials required for many varieties of
relies on ‘persistence of vision’, the ability of   animation are readily available in any
the eye to retain an image for a fraction of a      classroom and simple film/video or computer
second. A sequence of slightly different images     equipment is all that is needed for more
appears without interruption if projected at a      elaborate projects. Because animation relies
speed of more than approximately ten per            on thorough preproduction planning, there
second.                                             should be little need for editing.
As the basis of all moving pictures, animation      Students have the opportunity to work in a
can be used to demonstrate how movement is          highly motivated, creative and cooperative
recorded on film and video. Movies comprise         class situation, where they develop skills in
a series of ‘captured moments’ or still pictures    organisation, sequencing ideas and events,
(24 or 25 frames per second) projected at a         patience and working with others.
speed that makes it impossible for the eye to       Animated film-making has an enormous range
discern each image. An illusion of smooth,          of applications. Films/videos can be made
continuous movement is created. (Some 8mm           relating to work being done in any learning
film is projected at 18 frames per second.)         area or activity. It is a particularly useful
Although the computer is a different                method of students recording or demonstrating
medium to film, computer animators use              change over time, movement or a sequence of
the same techniques of breaking a movement          events.
down into separate poses, each one like a
still photograph. Computer animation is
different to film animation in some ways. It        Skill development
is fast, and the ability to save and replay
                                                    Beginning with simple optical ‘toys’ or devices,
what has been animated makes editing
                                                    students can explore persistence of vision,
easier. Many of the titles, station
                                                    how pictures appear to move and the variations
identifications, music videos and
                                                    needed in each image.
commercials seen on television have been
created using computerised animation                The simplest forms of animation include stop
systems. Some animators draw by hand their          motion, pixillation and the use of 3D objects
characters and then use computer technology         or single-piece cutouts.
for highlighting as well as for registering         As skills develop these techniques can be
the position and movement of the character.         employed with greater sophistication. More
Refer to the strategy on Computer Generated         complex techniques, such as jointed cutouts,
Graphics for specific information on using          progressive drawings and cell animation, can
computer graphics.                                  also be developed.
The intrinsic fascination of animated images
lies in the ability to make the impossible
happen. Students’ ideas, experiences, toys,
artwork can be brought to life and shared.
There is almost no limit to the creative
possibilities available to even the youngest of

                                                           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           215
Managing learning                                 by shooting the projected image in real time
                                                  (as objects are moved out of shot) or frame
experiences                                       by frame.
Listed below is a range of strategies which       Progressive drawings — pictures drawn
teachers can use when planning and managing       by adding a line or stroke between each 2/
learning experiences.                             3 frames shot. Pens, pencils, paints, chalk
                                                  and a variety of other media produce easy
Animation Without a Camera                        and effective results.
• Make simple devices to explore persistence
                                                  Time lapse or stop motion — condensing
  of vision, eg thaumotropes or rolled paper
                                                  hours of action into seconds of film/video
                                                  by shooting only a small amount of action
• Use or make optical toys, eg                    at given periods, eg to record the growth of
  phenakistoscopes — large discs containing       a seedling, building a house, the setting
  a cycle of images, rotated and viewed in a      sun. The camera is set in a fixed position,
  mirror; flip books — a series of pictures       eg on a tripod, and a few frames are shot
  quickly flipped to simulate movement;           each hour, every ten minutes, daily or as
  zoetropes — a cycle of images attached to       appropriate. On playback the change or
  a rotating cylinder and viewed through a        movement is accelerated.
  series of slits between each image.             3D objects — toys, blocks, buttons, pencils,
• Identify the differences between each frame     string and other everyday objects can be
  of 35mm or 16mm film, eg examine pieces         animated to do anything students can
  or project on OHP, act out the movement/        imagine. Each figure or object is moved
  changes.                                        slightly between shots.
• Draw or scratch on 16mm film. Bleach used       Modelling materials — any materials that
  film to remove emulsion and use OHP pens        are easily moulded bit by bit make excellent
  to create sequences of images. Scratch          and available subjects. Characters can be
  patterns into the emulsion of used or black     built up, made to change shape, move etc.
  film, then colour. Screen using a 16mm
                                                  Pixillation — real people, animated to do
                                                  the impossible, create interesting effects.
Animation Using Film or Video                     Climb stairs without moving your feet,
                                                  travel the playground sitting down, pop
• Visit animation studios or artists.
                                                  in and out of the picture etc. Between each
• View a variety of animation films/videos        shot the subject moves to a new position.
  using different techniques, eg Captain          Both camera and subject are still when the
  Pugwash stories use cutouts, The Red and        image is recorded.
  the Blue uses animated plasticine. Identify
                                                  Cell drawings — individual drawings, each
  the ways techniques are used, any special
  effects etc.                                    slightly different, are shot in sequence. If
                                                  using transparent cells, several layers can
• Explore a wide range of animation               be employed, eg for backgrounds, character
  techniques and combinations of different        outlines, facial features. The cells need to
  styles.                                         be ‘registered’ to ensure they are each shot
  Cut outs — 2D objects drawn, decorated          in the same position.
  and cut out. Sections such as limbs can be    • Explore different types of animated
  hinged at the joints to enable movement.        movement, eg changes made to the actual
  Various materials can be used to create         object/picture, changes in their position.
  different textures and effects.
                                                • Test ideas for film/video/computer
  Overhead projections — either coloured          animation by trialling sequences using
  transparencies or opaque objects used to        flipbooks or other simple devices.
  create silhouettes. Animation is achieved

• Examine commercial cartoon characters and      • Plan an animated story using similar
  identify how they are drawn. Generally they      procedures to other video/film production,
  are simple enough to be drawn many times,        eg storyboard, shooting script. Details of
  eg study a drawing of ‘Mickey Mouse’ and         each moving character need to be recorded.
  note how his head is composed of easily        • Add a sound track incorporating voice-over
  repeatable circles.
                                                   narration, sound effects, music and even
• Divide the class into ‘art teams’, each          character dialogue. In animated films, sound
  responsible for one aspect/character of a        for any spoken dialogue must be recorded
  more elaborate class production. This may        first and then mouth movements animated
  include creating and controlling a character     to match the appropriate length of time.
  during shooting.                               • Research the history of film animation.
• Practise the movements of subjects (real or
  models) before the shoot, rehearsing both
  where and how far to move with each shot.      Useful resources
• Create cycles of movements for often           Halas, J et al, The Technique of Film
  repeated actions, eg walking legs, waving.     Animation
• Experiment by varying the number of shots      Focal Press, Shooting Animation
  used, to change the speed of action. The
  greater the number of moves between two        Wilson, S et al, Puppets and People
  points, the slower the movement appears.       Da Silvy, R, The World of Animation
• Compare shooting the same sequence on          Solomon, C, The         Complete      Kodak
  film and video. Identify the disadvantages     Animation Book
  and advantages of each.
                                                 Laybourne, K, The Animation Book
• Use different backgrounds to create desired
                                                 Australian Film, Television and Radio School,
  moods, stories etc. Experiment with moving
                                                 Teaching Resources Catalogue
  the background while keeping the characters
  still.                                         Video camera, tripod, copy stand lights,
                                                 monitors, video recorder, Super-8 camera, copy
                                                 stand, Super-8 and 16mm projectors, screen.

                                                        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6         217
Publishing                                                                        [TS38]

Introduction                                     Techniques for critical appraisal appropriate
                                                 to primary students include:
Student publishing activities should include     • annotating sketches and photographs, and
both studying and making publications.
                                                 • filling in sheets with columns in which
By studying publications, students can             students record their observations (either
investigate:                                       visually or verbally) in one column, make
• the variety of publications and their            judgements about these observations in
  purposes (eg picture books, novels,              the next and explain and support these
  magazines, newspapers, manuals,                  judgements in a third column.
  textbooks, brochures)                          The work that students do in planning,
• how publications are developed for different   observing, discussing, recording and appraising
  audiences (eg appropriate content, reading     will generate material that will allow students
  level, visual style)                           to engage in purposeful publishing activities.
                                                 These publishing activities require students
• the techniques and technologies that are
                                                 to determine:
  used in publications (eg photojournalism,
  fashion photography, factual reporting,        • their intended audience
  commentary, word processing, typesetting,      • how they wish to address this audience (eg
  illustration, computer generation and            to persuade, inform, amuse, entertain)
  transfer of material, printing and binding)
                                                 • criteria for selecting appropriate material
• who makes publications (including                for the publishing activity
  production, marketing and distribution) and
  why they do it.                                • how they will use this material to produce
                                                   a print media product for a particular
By designing and making publications,              audience (eg a school newspaper, a class
students learn ways to record, develop and         book or a poster).
share their observations, ideas, beliefs and
feelings. For example, to record their           For some publishing activities handwriting
perceptions of the world, students may need      and drawing will be appropriate, but others
to engage in discussion, planning, drawing,      will require or benefit from more sophisticated
interviewing, making annotated sketches,         production which could include the use of
keeping diaries and taking photographs.          photographs and typed material and the
Focus questions at an appropriate level for      assembling of many materials into a layout.
the students can be particularly useful for
students to clarify the ways they record their   Computer technologies can be useful in
observations.                                    publishing activities, particularly when more
While engaging in the processes of making        sophisticated production is required. At the
these personal records, students will begin to   simplest level, text, including titles and
develop judgements about those things they       captions, can be developed on a word processor,
are observing. These interpretations can form    This not only allows students to revise their
the basis of a critical appraisal whereby        writing as they proceed from recording to
students give their opinions about the things    appraising and then to using this material to
they are viewing, justify these opinions in      develop a publication, it also allows them to
their own words and decide whether they          adjust the way this text is presented (eg
need to undertake further investigations.        changing the width of the text so that it can

be pasted onto a sheet in more than one           manipulate text into an appropriate format
column, or so that images can be incorporated     for a publication (eg use of bold, italic and
with the text). More specialised computer         underline; sizes for text, captions and
software can allow students to assemble a         headings; appropriate width of text for
greater part of their publication on a computer   intended publication).
(eg combining text in multiple columns with
computer graphics—preferably graphics             Stage 3
produced by the students—and possibly             Students should be able to predict and/or
incorporating students’ illustrations and         select the elements that will make a
photographs through scanning and digitising).     publication suit a particular audience.
If appropriate desktop publishing software is     Students should be able to select appropriate
available to students, it will allow them to      computer software to process words and
more easily investigate alternatives in layout    images for a publication.
and to continue to process text during the
layout stage.
                                                  Managing learning
Skill development                                 experiences
Stage 1                                           Although in publishing activities students
                                                  should engage in exploring, preparing,
Students should recognise that there are many
                                                  recording, interpreting and communicating,
types of publications and these are often
                                                  many of these processes will occur
produced for different audiences. They should
                                                  concurrently. Managing learning experiences
also realise that publications are prepared by
                                                  in publishing activities requires teachers to
assembling many elements (words, images,
                                                  be aware of the different elements that are
graphics, paper, inks, binding and covering
                                                  required and ensuring that each of these
                                                  elements is present. Publishing activities will
Students should be able to combine images         be most valuable to students when they are
and text to communicate ideas.                    directed at allowing students to represent
Students should be able to use a simple word      and communicate their world of experiences,
processor to enter and edit text.                 beliefs and understandings.

Stage 2
Students should recognise how publications
                                                  Useful resources
are made to suit different audiences (eg          Adams, E and Ward, C, Art and the Built
content, visual and verbal style, marketing).     Environment
Students should be able to use computer
software both to write and edit text and to

                                                        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          219
Databases                                                                              [TS39]

Introduction                                        school has a database on Australian birds and
                                                    a student requires information about birds
A database is a collection of information which     that eat meat and are found along the eastern
is related and which can be organised and           coast of Australia, a database containing this
manipulated.                                        information would quickly yield a list of birds
                                                    meeting the criteria.
The information in databases is organised in
a particular way. Records are a collection of
information related to a person, object or          Skill development
animal. Each record is divided into fields
which contain particular information about          At Stage 1, students begin to learn that
that person, object or animal. The content of       databases, like books and matrices, are a
each field is data.                                 means of storing information. Students need
A recipe file, a telephone directory and a          to develop specific skills that relate to the
library catalogue are databases. It does not        retrieval of material stored in this way.
matter if the data are stored on cards, in a book   By Stage 2, students would be able to add data
or as a computer file: the concept remains the      to a teacher prepared database and begin to
same.                                               understand terms such as ‘field’, ‘data’, ‘record’
When using the example of the telephone             and ‘sort’. They will begin to select and sort
directory, the information about each person        data according to a single criterion search, eg
is the record. Each record is divided into the      what do kookaburras eat? At this stage they
fields of surname, initials, address, and phone     will be able to design a simple search strategy
number, eg                                          for a specific purpose. They will be able to
                                                    interpret data.
                   RECORD                           By Stage 3, students should be encouraged to
                                                    design databases and design a search strategy
                                                    based on at least two criteria, eg birds that eat
                                                    meat and live on the east coast of Australia.
                                                    They should have opportunities to interact
                                                    with a remote/online database. Students
                    FIELDS                          should be encouraged to question the accuracy
                                                    of data. Advanced students will use databases
When students are investigating databases           to test proposed explanations, eg all birds eat
they will be provided with many opportunities       meat. They should interpret graphs that have
to develop these skills.                            been generated by a database.
Students will be engaged in the process of
designing and making when they are
constructing a database. They will need to
                                                    Managing learning
make decisions about the most appropriate           experiences
field names, about consistency of data and
exactly what data go into the database.             Listed below is a range of strategies which
                                                    teachers can use when planning and
By computerising databases, more information        managing learning experiences.
can be stored and it can be handled more
quickly. Also the user can manipulate the           • Sort data into fields and use data to form
data in more ways. For example, assuming a            hypotheses.

• Design personal profile cards on cardboard       • Students prepare a text-based response to
  and make decisions about the fields that           their questions. A prompt sheet might be
  need to be included in each profile card           helpful, eg:
  (record), eg name, sex, hair colour, favourite     Our question was…
  food etc.
                                                     We thought the answer might be…
• Read profile cards and discuss the
  information to decide to whom the card             We tested our guess by…
  belongs.                                           and we found that…
• Form and test hypotheses using the data,         • Use a prepared database as a research tool,
  eg all students with blond hair have blue          eg students use prepared databases such as
  eyes.                                              The Solar System, Weather Patterns,
• Demonstrate the function of a computerised         Volcanoes, Census Information, to gain
  database file and the need for consistency         access to an extra resource for their units of
  when entering data.                                work or own topics of interest.
• Demonstrate a prepared database to               • Prepare activities for students that involve
  students so that they are aware of what a          them in interrogating those databases to
  computerised database looks like, eg The           gather data.
  Solar System, Australian Lizards Database.
• Use a database program to prepare a blank        Useful resources
  record card using the fields suggested by the
  students (name, sex, age etc).                   Databases CEU, Finding Out
• Discuss the need for consistency when            CEU, Using Educational Databases
  determining the rules for data entry. The
                                                   DISCussion CEU, Information
  computer is unable to interpret the students’
                                                   Handling…Skills for a New Age
  meaning. Students must say exactly what
  they mean, eg some students’ entries in the
  field of sex may vary from female, girl,
  w, f, g etc, so that when a search is made for
  female, the computer will only find those
  entries which actually say the word female
  when, in fact, the student requires the
  other entries as well.
• Students record their own information into
  the blank database record.
• Sort and search the records in the database,
  eg age equals seven and hair equals brown.
  If there is a paper copy of the information,
  demonstrate the speed of sorting by having
  a race against the computer.
• Use a database to write a report.
• Prepare a set of questions that could be
  answered from their personal profile
  database such as ‘How many girls have
  brown hair and brown eyes?’
• Students estimate the answer to each
  question then check their estimate against
  a database search.

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           221
Video production                                                                    [TS40]

Introduction                                       have a working knowledge of the function of
                                                   equipment and the skills of designing, making
Film or video production can take many             and selecting images, sounds and language.
forms and be used for many purposes, eg
making advertisements to sell a product or
idea, recording events, aiding observations,       Managing learning
expressing ideas, entertaining people,             experiences
communicating information.
                                                   Listed below is a range of strategies which
Throughout production activities students
                                                   teachers can use when planning and managing
will gain skills in organising images, sound
                                                   learning experience.
and language. This involves making decisions
about what to include in their images, how         Story, Scripting and Planning
pictures and sounds can be created and how         • Explore a wide variety of program types,
these relate to selected forms and conventions       from advertisements, music clips, or news
of language.                                         to suspense thrillers, comedy or animation.
All activities rely on investigating the methods     All involve similar basic processes, with
of creating images and sounds, and on a firm         variation in specific applications of
knowledge of the capabilities and limitations        techniques.
of equipment and software.                         • Prepare a plan, treatment or description of
A good source of ideas to motivate and inform        ideas.
students is their own observation of and           • Collect a variety of video/TV/film scripts
interaction with mass media products, from           and explore their features, eg directions
cartoons and ads to news and drama. Each             written in, information regarding sound
type of program is characterised by a range of       effects, voice tone etc.
techniques which can be used as a stimulus
and model for students’ own work.                  • Develop a script that includes dialogue (if
                                                     needed), details of setting and action.
Video or film production involves the
combination of several crucial aspects, eg         • Create a storyboard to organise the pictures
story or ideas, camera and sound techniques,         and how they fit the script. Use simple
props, setting and costumes, planning and            drawings (even stick figures) to indicate the
editing.                                             size, angle and content of the shot planned.
                                                   • Match dialogue and any sound effects or
                                                     music to the pictures and write details
Skill development                                    alongside.
At Stage 1, students should investigate and        • Ensure that sound requirements are planned
create ‘still’ pictures, selecting their content     as carefully as the script and pictures.
and exploring the effects of colour, texture,
                                                   • Encourage students to try out a range of
arrangement of people etc. Early use of video,
                                                     techniques before making too many
with teacher assistance and direction, enables
familiarisation with equipment, safety rules
and maintenance.                                   • Have students shoot some ideas and play
                                                     them back, trying to be critical in order to
By Stage 3, students should be able to
                                                     discover what ‘works’ to achieve the effect
participate in a group production, undertaking
a variety of different roles in the process and

Camera Features and Techniques                     • Explore, by observing video products and
• Students should make the video or film              experimenting with framing devices, how
  productions short, maintaining the interest        objects and people can be made to look
  of both producers and audiences.                   taller or smaller.

• Students should familiarise themselves           • Identify low angles (used to make people or
  with the camera features and operations,           things look taller and menacing!), high angle
  eg set up a video camera, with a monitor, in       (for the reverse), shots taken from the side
  the classroom and have pairs of students           and the back, as well as from the front, and
  explore and experiment with the camera             explore their effect.
  during other class activities. This also         • Watch videos of different types and identify
  provides opportunities for students to             the camera movements, angle and shot sizes
  become used to seeing themselves on screen.        used, eg mystery or thriller will use longer,
• Use the focus to avoid fuzzy images when           slower shots to build up suspense; a music
  zooming. Automatic focus should be                 clip might have lots of fast, zappy images
  avoided, if possible, as it takes a                taken from all sorts of unusual positions or
  disconcerting few seconds to respond to a          angles.
  change in framing.                               • Complete short exercises in creating a
• Introduce standard shot sizes, ie close up         required mood using various camera
  (cu), mid shot (ms), long shot (ls), very long     techniques.
  shot (vls), and find examples in magazines        Sound Techniques
                                                   (Refer to Teaching Strategy on Sound and
• Investigate the amount and type of               Lighting)
  information in pictures of different shot
  size or framing, eg a close up (cu) gives you    • Listen to video programs and identify the
  facial expression and detail. To ‘set the          sounds used, in addition to dialogue and
  scene’ longer shots (ls or vls) are needed to      music.
  provide background and information about         • Suggest places where sound effects could be
  the setting.                                       used to add to the production.
• Explore the effect of changing the shot size     • Explore ways of creating or obtaining
  or creating differently framed images, eg          sound effects, eg recording real sounds,
  using simple framing devices or the zoom           using sound effects tapes/records, creating
  ring on the camera.                                the effects using instruments or everyday
• Explore the use of the zoom and encourage          objects.
  practice of slow, smooth movement.               • Refer to instructions to find out how the
• Explore ways of moving from one shot to            microphone system works and practise
  another, eg the zoom allows you to move            using it properly.
  from one shot size to another but overuse is     • Explore the features of sound recording
  irritating and slows down the action. A cut        software, eg video tapes have two sound
  between shots gives you more control over          tracks—one for dialogue and sound
  the pace of the video as well as being easier      recorded at the same time as the pictures,
  to watch.                                          another used to add special effects or
• Investigate the ways the camera can be             music after editing the images.
  moved, eg hand-held, on a tripod or stand.       • Listen to different types of music and explore
• Demonstrate panning (moving the camera             the ways they are used to create atmosphere,
  from side to side) and tilting (moving up and      build tension etc.
  down).                                           • Select pieces of music to complement the
• Discover the most pleasing ways of effecting       action of the film/video.
  camera movements, eg slowly and smoothly.        • Investigate the legalities of using recorded
                                                     music and consider this in students’ choices.

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           223
Props, Costumes, Sets                            Editing
                                                 • Explore how editing can be used to get rid of
• Observe how props and settings are used          any mistakes or alter the pace or tension of
  to create different characters or images of      the plot, eg count the number of ‘cuts’ in a
  people, places and events, eg laboratory         film or video program and compare different
  setting, people in white coats, test tubes       types of program. (A lot of short shots gives a
  etc, all convey a sense of objectivity,          sense of fast-paced action. Lengthy shots,
  credibility etc.                                 where the camera moves around in a scene,
• Decide on the sets, costumes and props that      slow things down and build up tension.)
  are appropriate for the desired effect and     • Ensure students are proficient in the use of
  collect or create them using appropriate         editing systems, eg VCR to VCR for simple
  and available materials.                         editing, editing suites, if available.
• Experiment with lighting to create a variety   • Visit professional editing facilities and
  of effects, eg spot lights, flood lights,        discover methods used.
  coloured cellophane, overhead projector.
                                                 • Add additional sound tracks, if appropriate.
• Explore natural lighting available at
  different times of day and reflect upon the
  effects created.

Computer graphics                                                                    [TS41]

Introduction                                       used to obtain computer images of real world
A computer-generated graphic is a                  Programming Languages
representation of an idea in a pictorial form.
It can be edited and customised and stored         The most basic way of creating a picture with
for later use. Computer-generated graphics         a computer is to write a computer program.
come in many forms. There is a wide range of       The computer programming languages BASIC,
applications of computers to graphics. Some        Logo and Pascal all provide graphic functions.
software allows the use of more than one           Being able to create pleasing images through
application.                                       the use of a few powerful yet simple commands
                                                   is highly motivating for all students.
Poster and Sign Creation
These allow the creation of posters, signs,        Graphs
cartoons etc from a bank of prepared graphics      Software is available that allows the user to
already stored on the disc. They may be altered    create different types of graphs, eg column,
within the package. The package usually            bar, line and pie graphs from tables of numbers.
allows for some sort of layout of components.      This software is usually integrated with
The graphics may be used within the package        spreadsheet or database software.
or it may be possible to use them in other
packages. Other uses of this application           Animation
include the creation of cards, signs, labels and   Animation software assists the user in the
resource materials. Some software packages         creation of image sequences. The image is
enable whole documents to be published by          animated on the computer screen. These
combining text, cartoons, graphics etc. More       animated sequences can be stored and shown
detail about desktop publishing is located in      on the computer or on video tape, where they
the strategy on publishing.                        can be mixed with video images. By using an
Draw and Paint Packages                            animation program many of the normally
                                                   tedious and repetitive tasks can be
These allow users to draw or paint their own       accomplished easily and quickly.
graphics using a mouse, graphics tablet or
joystick. Draw packages usually offer more
precise/technical drawing facilities than          Skill development
paint packages. There are a variety of tools
for drawing available. The draw and paint          At Stage 1, students should be able to create
applications can be combined with prepared         signs, posters and construct monsters, masks,
graphics, thus allowing the user to customise      faces etc using graphics packages. They
graphics.                                          should have opportunities to manipulate
                                                   (moving and placing graphics to desired
Digitising                                         position) and modify stored graphics. Also,
Video digitisers attached to a computer allow      from an early age, students will be able to
video (TV) pictures to be captured as computer     combine graphics with word processing by
graphics. The resulting computer image can         using appropriate software packages.
then be modified by using computer graphics        By Stage 2, students should have opportunities
software, particularly painting software. The      to use a variety of graphics creation tools
video picture could be from a VCR, directly        when using draw and paint software. They
from television or from a camera, and can be       should be able to modify stored graphics and

                                                          SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6           225
be able to use appropriate graphics for a given     The students will be able to edit and resize
theme.                                              the graphics to meet the particular need or
                                                    the format of the newspaper. Students
At the end of Stage 3, students should be able
                                                    manipulating graphics in this way develop
to import graphics between software
                                                    a clear understanding of the inter-
packages. They will be able to use appropriate
                                                    relationship between the software packages
software to make slide show and animation
                                                    and the hardware as well as of the actual
                                                    mechanics of the publication process.
                                                  • Use draw and paint programs to make a
Managing learning                                   graphic representation or map. Students
experiences                                         prepare a graphic representation of a
                                                    particular area such as their classroom, or
Listed below is a range of strategies which         school environment, using a paint or draw
teachers can use when planning and managing         program. Students still practise and
learning experiences.                               develop the fundamental skills involved
                                                    in carrying out this activity manually, but
• Provide opportunities to develop an               by using computer software they are able
  understanding about manipulating graphics.        to make changes to their work and correct
  Students can use graphics construction            errors without destroying the whole work
  software to design and make a mask. They          or spoiling its appearance with visible
  can construct masks that demonstrate              remnants of corrections.
  expressions of different emotions. Students
  select face shape, nose, mouth, eyes and so     • Modify commercial graphics. There are
  on from a graphics bank and move these            graphics packages that allow students to
  features to the most suitable position on         select a standard picture or graphic and
  the mask. The masks can be printed and            edit it to meet their own needs. The edited
  used for a variety of purposes.                   or customised graphic can be saved and
                                                    further edited at a later date, thus increasing
• Create resource materials using graphic           the resource bank and the usefulness of the
  packages. Students could use packages             original package. Customised graphics can
  that contain a large bank of pictures or          be useful in illustration reports or any
  use packages that allow them to add text          writing or research task.
  to graphics before printing them. Printed
  pictures could be used to decorate future       • Design a slide-show presentation on the
  work, to make badges or they could be             computer to illustrate a design proposal.
  used in sorting, classifying or pictograph        Students create a storyboard to demonstrate
  activities.                                       their ideas for the sequence of pictures. The
                                                    script and description of sound effects are
• Use cartoon software to express a point of        included on the storyboard. Students use a
  view or to illustrate depth of knowledge          paint or draw program to produce ‘slides’
  and understanding of a particular topic.          on the computer, modifying and
  Students may design and create a cartoon          manipulating the graphics to suit the needs
  strip or single frame cartoon, using              of the presentation. Use a slideshow program
  appropriate software, to promote a topic,         to sequence and time the slides. The slides
  eg a healthy lifestyle. Students can select       will automatically flip to the next slide.
  the character they need, add a background         Record the script and the sound effects in
  and selected ‘props’. Headings and speech         time with the slideshow on the computer.
  bubbles can also be added and the finished         The computer and audio can be combined
  cartoon printed out.                              and recorded onto video.
• Use software packages that allow graphics       • Manipulate, modify and copy graphics to
  to be incorporated into written work for          create a ‘flip book’ cartoon. Students create
  the production of material in a newspaper.        the basic ‘slide’ that they want for the
  By using this type of software students can       background and print it. Copy this graphic,
  enhance the appearance of published work.

  enlarging or moving it slightly to create the     will use commercial graphics and modify
  second slide and print it also. Continue to       them or draw their own graphics. As with
  copy the graphic, moving, enlarging or            the activity of the ‘flip book’ students will
  shrinking it slightly each time. Print out each   be able to create a background slide and
  new slide. When 10-20 slides have been            repeat it for each sequence. Students can
  created students hold them together, in order,    eliminate the tedious duplication of images
  by the bottom edge and quickly flip through       by copying and pasting pictures. If they are
  the stack. This will give the effect of           using some paint programs they could select
  movement. This activity is well suited to         an image and create a brush and thus produce
  computer technology because it eliminates         multiple copies of that image. The students
  the need to redraw the basic graphic for each     then animate their sequence of events using
  slide.                                            the facilities of the program and show them
• Use an animation or paint program to              on the computer or on a video. Sound and
  demonstrate a life cycle. Students will create    text could be added using a presentation
  a storyboard about the sequence of events.        program or the facilities within the package
  They will make decisions about what the           itself.
  graphics will look like and whether they

                                                         SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY K-6          227
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Anderson, J Spare Parts for People      Reef Frenchs Forest: Child&              University Press, 1990
Melbourne: Thomas Nelson, 1989          Associates, 1990                         Focal Press Shooting Animation
Australian Broadcasting Commission      Computer Education Unit Finding          London: Focal Press, 1978
Buildings Australian Broadcasting       Out About Databases Computer             Forman-Anderson, M One World
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Studies 40,000 Years of Technology      Information Handling Skills for a New    Problems of the Day Cheltenham:
Canberra: Australian Institute of       Age, DISCussion CEU, 1989                Hawker Brownlow Education, 1989
Aboriginal Studies, 1982                Computer Education Unit Using            Friends of the Earth Hazardous
Balding, J Springboards Melbourne:      Adventure Games Computer                 Chemicals Sydney: Friends of the
Thomas Nelson, 1980                     Education Unit, 1985                     Earth
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Teachers Menol Park: Addison            Educational Databases Computer           Ecology Sydney: Friends of the Earth,
Wesley Pub Co , 1989                    Education Unit,1990                      1990
Bassett, A Making a Record              Curriculum Development Centre            Galletly, M Faces London: Franklin
Auckland: Shortland Publications        Classroom Photography Canberra:          Watts, 1987
Ltd, 1988                               Curriculum Development Centre,           Good, K Starting Craft, Design and
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Gosford: Ashton Scholastic Pty Ltd,     Curriculum Development Centre            Educational, 1989
1989                                    Learning by Making Photographs           Gould League Environmental
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Dinosaur Publications, 1985
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Brown, R The World that Jack Built
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Fitzroy: ACF Books
                                        Development Centre, 1980                 Gould League, 1981
Burt, E Natural Materials Hove:
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Wayland Ltd, 1989
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Gosford: Ashton Scholastic Pty Ltd
1989                                    Drew, D Tadpole Diary Sydney:            Gross, Y et al Film Animation for
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1989                                    Hills: Dellasta Pty Ltd, 1990            Animation London: Focal Press, 1976
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Halley, E TV News: An Interview         Laybourne, K The Animation Book           Pluckrose, H Ways to Join It London:
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Curriculum Development, 1984            Nurnberg, W Lighting for Photography      GSCE        London:        Heineman
Johnstone, H Aircraft and Space         London: Focal Press, 1975                 Educational Books, 1987
Rockets London: Franklin Watts,         Parbury, N Survival: A History of         Vickery, et al The Process Way to
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Kerrod, R Light Fantastic Bath:         Sydney: Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs,   Walpole B Water London: Hodder and
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