Strategic Environmental Assessment - Severn Trent Water

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					Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Final Environmental Report
Severn Trent Water Ltd Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP)

Severn Trent Water
June 2010
Prepared by:                                         ........ Checked by:
                       Charlotte Brightwell                                      Sarah Edwards
                       Environmental Scientist                                   Associate Director




       Approved by:                                ...........
                       Nigel Pilkington
                       Regional Director

       Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Environmental Report

         Rev No                                Comments                                     Date
           1       Draft                                                                  April 2008
           2       Final Draft                                                          February 2009
           3       Final for Client Comment                                              March 2009
           4       Revised Final Draft with Client Comment not for issue                  June 2010
           5       Final Environmental Report                                             June 2010



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       fees and the terms of reference agreed between AECOM and the Client. Any information
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       unless otherwise expressly stated in the document.

       No third party may rely upon this document without the prior and express written agreement of
       AECOM.
Table of Contents


1   Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
    1.1    Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1
    1.2    Legislative Context................................................................................................ 1
    1.3    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) ........................................................ 2
    1.4    Progress so Far .................................................................................................... 2
    1.5    Structure of the Environmental Report Documents .............................................. 4

2   Water Resources Management Plan ............................................................................. 5
    2.1    Introduction ........................................................................................................... 5
    2.2    Water Resources Management Plans (WRMPs) ................................................. 5
    2.3    Severn Trent Water Limited (STWL) .................................................................... 5
    2.4    Focus of the Severn Trent Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP) .......... 6
    2.5    Objectives of the WRMP ....................................................................................... 6
    2.6    Structure of the Severn Trent Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP)
           with Respect to the SEA ....................................................................................... 7

3   Baseline.......................................................................................................................... 14
    3.1    Introduction ......................................................................................................... 14
    3.2    Water Resource Zones (WRZs) ......................................................................... 14
    3.3    Catchment Abstraction Management Strategies (CAMS) .................................. 15
    3.4    Key Issues .......................................................................................................... 16

4   Known Pressures .......................................................................................................... 45
    4.1  Introduction ......................................................................................................... 45
    4.2  Restoring Sustainable Abstraction Programme .................................................. 47
    4.3  National Environment Programme (November 2008) ........................................ 48

5   Scoping Summary ......................................................................................................... 50
    5.1   Introduction ......................................................................................................... 50
    5.2   Scoping ............................................................................................................... 50
    5.3   Scoping Consultation .......................................................................................... 51

6   Approach and Methodology......................................................................................... 52
    6.1   Introduction ......................................................................................................... 52
    6.2   Approach ............................................................................................................. 52
    6.3   Methodology ....................................................................................................... 52
    6.4   Assessment Criteria ............................................................................................ 56
    6.5   Mitigation Measures and Enhancement Opportunities ....................................... 56
    6.6   Monitoring Framework ........................................................................................ 56
    6.7   Assessment of Alternatives ................................................................................ 57

7   Options Appraisal ......................................................................................................... 58
    7.1   Introduction ......................................................................................................... 58
    7.2   Overview of Options............................................................................................ 58
    7.3   Assessment of Options ....................................................................................... 59
    7.4   Cumulative Effects Associated with Strategic Options ....................................... 67

8   Assessment of the Constrained List of schemes ...................................................... 71
    8.1   Introduction ......................................................................................................... 71
    8.2   Assessment of the Constrained list of Schemes ................................................ 71
    8.3   Supply-Side Management Schemes .................................................................. 72
    8.4   Production-Side Management Schemes ............................................................ 86
    8.5   Customer-Side Management Schemes .............................................................. 89
    8.6   Distribution Side Management............................................................................ 92

9   Assessment of Final Schemes included in the FWRMP ........................................... 98
           9.1        Introduction ......................................................................................................... 98
           9.2        Supply Side Management Schemes Final Assessment Results ...................... 101
           9.3        Production-side Management Schemes Final Assessment Results ................ 127
           9.4        Customer-Side Management Schemes Final Assessment Results ................. 127
           9.5        Distribution-Side Management Assessment Results........................................ 135

10         Cumulative Effects ...................................................................................................... 144
           10.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 144
           10.2 Cumulative Effects of WRMP Schemes ........................................................... 144
           10.3 Cumulative effects of the WRMP with other plans and programmes ............... 146

11         Monitoring .................................................................................................................... 150
           11.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 150
           11.2 Importance of Monitoring .................................................................................. 150
           11.3 How to Monitor .................................................................................................. 150
           11.4 Indicators and Targets ...................................................................................... 151
           11.5 Discussion and Recommendations .................................................................. 151
           11.6 Proposed Monitoring Report ............................................................................. 153

12         Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 158

Appendices .............................................................................................................................. 162
AECOM   STWL WRMP Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Final Environmental Report                      1




1       Introduction

1.1     Introduction


        This Environmental Report (ER) presents the findings of a Strategic Environmental Assessment
        (SEA) of the Severn Trent Water Limited (STWL) Water Resources Management Plan
        (WRMP).
        The SEA ensures that environmental considerations have been taken into account throughout
        the development of the WRMP.


1.2     Legislative Context


        An SEA of the WRMP is required under Article 3 (2) of the European Directive 2001/42/EC ‘the
        assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment’ (the Strategic
        Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive). The ‘Environmental Assessment of Plans and
        Programmes (England) Regulations 2004’ and The ‘Environmental Assessment of Plans and
        Programmes Regulations (Wales) Regulations 2004’ transcribe the requirements of the
        European Directive into UK law in England and Wales.
        The objectives of the SEA Directive, as set out in Article 1, are ‘to provide a high level of
        protection to the environment and to contribute to the integration of environmental
        considerations into the preparation and adoption of plans and programmes with a view to
        promoting sustainable development’.
        SEA is a systematic process for identifying and assessing the likely significant environmental
        effects of a plan or programme and its alternatives. SEA is a policy-aiding rather than a policy-
        making tool, and helps organisations, plan developers and authorities consider the effects of
        plans and programmes in a structured way to demonstrate that policy development has
        considered environmental and other effects.
        SEA examines the effects of a plan or programme on the environment. It does also, to some
        extent, look at the effects on local populations in terms of air quality, recreation, navigation and
        land use. However, SEA does not consider more complex socio-economic impacts of a plan or
        programme. Taking this into account in terms of the WRMP, the assessment only considers the
        environmental effects of the options and schemes, and does not involve any cost benefit
        analysis of individual schemes. However, it is important to note that, as part of the preparation
        of the WRMP, all schemes are evaluated in terms of their economic costs as well as their
        environmental costs. Further information regarding the WRMP options and schemes is provided
        in Chapter 2 of the Water Resources Management Plan.
        The main requirements of the SEA Directive and the Environmental Assessment of Plans and
        Programmes Regulations 2004 include:
          the preparation of an Environmental Report;
          consultation;
          taking the results of the Environmental Report and consultations into account in decision-
          making;
          providing information on the decision; and
          monitoring.

        STWL undertook a screening exercise to determine whether an SEA of the WRMP was
        required. The screening decision concluded that an SEA of the WRMP was required as the
        options and schemes presented within the WRMP could potentially have significant adverse
        effects on the environment.
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1.3     Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)


        In addition to the main legislative framework for SEA, this SEA also takes into account the
        information provided in the following documents:
          A Practical Guide to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive, DCLG 2005
          Strategic Environmental Assessment – Guidance for Water Resources Management Plans
          and Drought Plans UK WIR
        The Practical Guide to the Directive ODPM 2005 provides advice on the requirements of the
        SEA Directive and its application within the UK. The DCLG guidance breaks the requirements
        of the SEA Directive down into a series of ‘Stages’ (Stages A to E) each of which inform and
        interact with the preparation and production of the WRMP.
        Stages A to E of the SEA process include:
          Stage A – Setting the context and objectives, establishing the baseline and deciding on the
          scope
          Stage B – Developing and refining alternatives and assessing effects
          Stage C – Preparing the Environmental Report
          Stage D – Consulting on the draft plan and the Environmental Report
          Stage E – Monitoring the significant effects of implementing the plan on the environment


1.4     Progress so Far


        This report is the Environmental Report following consultation which represents Stage D of the
        SEA process. It outlines the findings of Stage B: Developing and refining alternatives and
        assessing effects and incorporates the comments received following Stage D:Consultation.
        A Draft Environmental Report (stage C) was produced in April 2008 and was reviewed by the
        Statutory Consultees alongside the Draft WRMP. Following formal consultation on both
        documents, this report now forms the Final Environmental Report which details the findings of
        Stage B, also taking into account the changes in the schemes presented in the Final WRMP. In
        May 2009 STWL published in May 2009 the ‘Statement of Response’ to the representations
        made on the draft WRMP. Defra gave notification in December 2009 that the final WRMP
        should be published, subject to the changes described in the Statement of Response. The
        Final WRMP will be published in June 2010 and this Final SEA Environmental Report will
        accompany it.
        A Scoping Report which incorporates Stage A of the SEA process was issued in August 2007
        for formal consultation with the statutory consultees (Environment Agency, English Heritage,
        Natural England, CADW and the Countryside Council for Wales) and other stakeholders. Prior
        to formal consultation two Stakeholder Meetings with statutory organisations and STWL
        representatives were held on the 9th August 2007, the 16th August 2007. A further meeting was
        held on the 14th November 2007 to discuss the comments raised by Stakeholders.
        A summary of the scoping report is presented in Chapter 5 Scoping Summary.
        Following scoping and taking account of the consultation responses received the SEA was
        undertaken and a draft Environmental Report was produced. Further stakeholder consultation
        was carried out with the EA, NE, and CCW in March 2009 and the draft report updated
        accordingly taking account of their comments. Since March 2009 there have been a number of
        minor updates to the WRMP, and this report has been updated accordingly.
        Figure A below illustrates the SEA process. The flowchart visually summarises the SEA
        process undertaken and highlights the main areas where final document production has
        required changes from the Draft document produced.




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        Figure A: Flowchart outlining the SEA process




                                                  Production and issue of the draft
                   Stage A –                              Scoping Report
                  Setting the
                    context
                establishing the                   Consulting of the draft Scoping
                 baseline and                                  Report
                deciding on the
                     scope
                                                    Production of the final Scoping
                                                               Report


                                                 Assessment of the WRMP Strategic
                   Stage B –                                 Options
                Developing and
                refining options
                                                 Assessment of the WRMP Long List
                 and assessing
                                                           of Schemes
                     effects

                                                  Detailed assessment of the WRMP
                                                         Short List of Schemes


                   Stage C –
                  Production of                         Production of the Draft
                       the                         Environmental Report alongside
                  Environmental                            the Draft WRMP
                     Report


                                                       Consultation on the Draft
                    Stage D –                     Environmental Report and the Draft
                   Consultation                                WRMP


                                                   Amendment of the Draft WRMP and
                                                     Environmental Report in light of
                                                    consultation responses and other
                                                    changes since publication of draft


                                                   Production on Final WRMP and
                    Stage E –                    updated Final Environmental Report
                  Monitoring the
                    significant
                    effects of
                  implementing
                   the WRMP




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1.5     Structure of the Environmental Report Documents


        The following outlines the structure of the Final Environmental Report:
        Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary (a separate report)
        Volume 2: Main Report (this report)


             Chapter 1:           Introduction
             Chapter 2:           Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP)
             Chapter 3:           Baseline
             Chapter 4:           Known Pressures within the Severn Trent Region
             Chapter 5:           Scoping Summary
             Chapter 6:           Approach and Methodology
             Chapter 7:           Options Appraisal
             Chapter 8:           Assessment of Long Listed Schemes
             Chapter 9:           Assessment of Short Listed Schemes
             Chapter 10:          Cumulative Effects
             Chapter 11:          Monitoring
             Chapter 12:          Conclusions
             Chapter 13:          References
             Appendix A:          Assessment matrixes of the Constrained list of schemes
             Appendix B:          Assessment matrixes of those schemes omitted from the constrained
                                  list
             Appendix C:          Figures illustrating the constrained and final schemes
             Appendix D:          Figures
             Appendix E:          Consultation Comments
             Appendix F:          Unconstrained list of schemes
             Appendix E:          Glossary




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2       Water Resources Management
        Plan
2.1     Introduction


        This chapter provides an overview of the Severn Trent Water Limited (STWL) Water Resources
        Management Plan (WRMP).


2.2     Water Resources Management Plans (WRMPs)


        Water Resources Management Plans are now statutory requirements under the amendments
        made to the Water Industry Act 1991 by the Water Act 2003. Water companies are required to
        prepare, maintain and publish a Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP).
        Water Resources Management Plans (WRMPs) set out how water companies ensure that they
        are able to provide sufficient water supplies to meet customers’ demands and how the
        environment will be protected to achieve this over the next 25 years.
        Under new Water Resources Management Plan Regulations (2007) (SI 2007, No 272) (HMSO,
        2007) each water company must publish a draft Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP)
        for consultation and the comments from this consultation should inform the plan where
        appropriate.


2.3     Severn Trent Water Limited (STWL)


        Established in 1989, STWL is part of Severn Trent Plc, and is the fourth largest privately-owned
        water company in the UK. STWL is an environmental services group providing water, waste,
        utility and environmental solution services to businesses throughout the UK. It is a regulated
        business with a statutory duty to supply potable water, and is responsible for all aspects of
        water management within an area of 21,000 square kilometres (km2) in the Midlands and mid-
        Wales, covering the river basins of two of Britain’s longest rivers, the River Severn and the
        River Trent.


2.3.1   Severn Trent Water Limited Services


        STWL provides high quality drinking water services to 7.3 million people in the counties of
        Warwickshire, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire, Shropshire,
        Derbyshire, Leicestershire and a portion of mid Wales with nearly 2 billion litres of water
        supplied per day (2007) (Figure 2.1, Appendix D: The STWL Region). STWL also provide waste
        water / sewerage services to over 8.2 million people.
        Water is supplied through 46,000 kilometres (km) of pipes fed from multiple sources including
        27 impounding reservoirs, 181 groundwater sites, 18 surface water treatment works and 547
        service reservoirs and towers. Underground sources, river derived sources and impounding
        reservoirs provide 35%, 35% and 30% respectively of the total volume of water put into supply.
        From these sources, water is supplied to approximately 3.9 million household and business
        properties1 (comprised of approximately 3.6 million domestic customer households and 0.3

        1
            Severn Trent Water Monitoring Plan for 2005 – 2010, Protecting the health and well-being of our communities.
                                                                                                                           5
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        million business customer properties and sites), and a further 54,000 km of sewers take the
        waste water away to be cleaned and safely returned to rivers and streams through more than
        1,000 sewage works2.
        The STWL sewage treatment works boundary, within which the company treats over 2,740
        million litres of sewage every day, is different to the water supply boundary (Figure 2.1,
        Appendix C). The STWL sewage treatment region encompasses a larger area, including the
        Black Country region in the middle of the STWL supply boundary, where water is supplied by
        South Staffordshire Water plc. South Staffordshire Water supplies a population of 1.25 million
        from the edge of Ashbourne in the north, to Halesowen in the south, and from Burton on Trent
        in the East to Kinver in the West.
        In summary, Severn Trent Water Ltd’s physical assets include3:
             181 ground water treatment works
             18 surface water treatment works
             27 impounding reservoirs
             679 water supply booster stations
             547 service reservoirs and towers
             1,017 waste water treatment works
             2,953 sewerage pumping stations
             39 sludge treatment facilities
             46,000 km of water mains
             54,000 km of sewers
        Between 1989 and 2005 Severn Trent invested over £8,500 million in improving the quality of
        service provided to customers. As a result, drinking water quality has achieved 99.9%
        compliance with regulations for 3 years running, and the region's river quality has improved by
        40% due to better treatment of waste water1.


2.4     Focus of the Severn Trent Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP)


        STWLs draft WRMP was submitted to DEFRA in May 2008, whereafter it was made available
        to the Statutory Consultees and public for the required consultation period. STWL prepared a
        Statement of Response taking into account the comments made by consultees and the public,
        and following this DEFRA confirmed in December 2009 that the Plan could be published
        The WRMP sets out STWL’s 25 year supply / demand strategy to achieve and maintain the
        level of target headroom necessary to ensure it can deliver target levels of service at least cost,
        whilst minimizing the impact on the environment.
        The WRMP is updated every 5 years with the previous edition published in 2004. The current
        WRMP which will be published in June 2010 will be the third WRMP produced by STWL, but
        the first produced as a statutory requirement. It will also be the first to be made available for
        public consultation.


2.5     Objectives of the WRMP


        The overall objective of the draft Water Resources Management Plan is to present the
        company’s preferred proposals to provide a continuous supply of quality water and to meet long
        term demand. The aim is to achieve and maintain target headroom throughout the planning
        period to 2035 in as efficient and sustainable way as possible. Severn Trent aims to achieve
        this through the following actions:
                   Ensure no failures in water quality outside the parameters that are set
                   Reinforce the network to avoid interruptions to supply

        2
            Severn Trent Water (2007) Annual Reports and Accounts
        3
            Severn Trent Water (December 2007), Focus on Water Strategic Direction Statement 2010 to 2035
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                Design, maintain and operate the water supply system with the aim of on average
                having no more than three hosepipe bans in 100 years
                Continue to drive down the level of leakage from the network
                Accelerate the installation of household water meters and sophisticated tariffs
                Continue to promote water efficiency programmes and water recycling for businesses
                and consumers
                Increase the scope for water transfers across the STWL region and with other water
                companies
                Develop sustainable new water resources when required


        When seeking to achieve these actions STWL will give due consideration to:
                The costs and benefits of different investment options
                STWL customers’ willingness to pay for improvements
                Projections of long term growth in demand
                The long run reliability of savings in demand from water efficiency measures
                The vulnerability of STWL supply system to climate change impacts and uncertainties
                The carbon footprint of STWL water supply operations
                The impacts of new and existing environmental legislation
                The sustainable levels of water abstraction
                The time required to plan and deliver any new water resources schemes
                The deliverability of the options available, and whether the proposed plan is achievable
                The relative flexibility of options, and their ability to adapt to changing circumstances in
                future


2.6     Structure of the Severn Trent Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP) with Respect
        to the SEA
        The scheme selection in the STWL WRMP comprises two levels for assessment
            1. Strategic Options/Alternatives
            2. Individual Schemes


2.6.1   Strategic Options


        The WRMP Strategic Options (also referred to as Strategic Alternatives) set the framework of
        the WRMP through the identification of the key areas of improvement, investment or
        development that are required to fill any predicted deficits in the supply demand balance over
        the 25 year period. The strategic options will be delivered through specific schemes which will
        be developed through more detailed analysis of the issues as the plan develops beyond the
        draft stage.
        The Strategic Options identified as part of the WRMP fall under four broad headings:
          Customer-side management options
          Distribution-side management options
          Production-side management options
          Supply-side or resource management options
        More detail about the Strategic Options and the results from the assessment of these Strategic
        Options are discussed in Chapter 7.


2.6.2   Schemes


        A number of detailed schemes have been developed under the Strategic Options. These form
        the mechanism for the delivery or implementation of the various initiatives identified under the
        Strategic Options. The schemes presented in the WRMP have been identified through a
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        process of systematic filtering. Originally STWL identified an unconstrained list of a potential
        141 supply-side management schemes, these are listed in Appendix F. These schemes were
        then reduced to a constrained list of 52 prior to issuing the final list of schemes following a
        number of internal reviews based on a series of engineering, technical, planning and cost
        criteria.
        From the 52 schemes a final short list of schemes for inclusion in the final WRMP were
        identified following further technical and environmental reviews. These schemes include; water
        conservation and efficiency initiatives, metering, leakage control and infrastructure
        developments or improvements. A summary of the 52 constrained list schemes and the
        selected final schemes are presented in Tables 8.1 to 8.4.
        This ER includes the results of the initial assessment of the 52 constrained list schemes
        (Chapter 8) and a more detailed assessment of the final selected schemes (Chapter 9). More
        detail on these schemes is provided in their respective chapters.
        Table 2.1 below, illustrates the relationship between the strategic options and the constrained
        and selected schemes that have been identified.




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Table 2.1: Relationship between the Strategic Options and Constrained and Final schemes identified.

Option          Option            Strategic Option         Description                                             Constrained List Schemes                         Final Selected Schemes
Number          Category

S1              Supply            Reservoir                Construction of a new reservoir to be filled with           6: Lower Severn Reservoir plus Severn WTWs       None identified
                                                           water, generally in winter wetter months, for storage       extension (Severn)
                                  (Impounding, Pumped      and then release to support abstraction in dryer            12:New WTW from River Idle (East Midlands)
                                  Storage)                 months. The water input into the reservoir may be           13: New WTW at Carsington (East Midlands)
                                                           from its own catchment area (impounding) or                 3: Severn to Draycote (Severn)
                                                           pumped from a river (pump storage). This category
                                                           also includes modification to or changes in operation
                                                           of existing reservoirs.
S2              Supply            River                    Direct abstraction from a river. The river flows may        15: New WTW at Newark (East Midlands)            None identified
                                                           be supported from another source of water such as           108: Omberseley (Severn)
                                                           a reservoir or a groundwater source.                        2: New WTW at Hayden STW (Severn)
S3              Supply            Groundwater              Direct abstraction from groundwater (an aquifer).           127B: Notts groundwater (Company, East           150 Edgbaston
                                                                                                                       Midlands and Severn)                             Borehole
                                                                                                                       86: Milton (East Midlands)                       153 Milton Borehole
                                                                                                                       51: Buckshaft (F&S)                              Trent Transfer
                                                                                                                       29: Mill End (WARA GAC) (Severn)
                                                                                                                       30: Mill End (alternative) (Severn)
                                                                                                                       50: Elmhurst (S&T)
                                                                                                                       150 Edgbaston Borehole
                                                                                                                       153 Milton Borehole Trent Transfer
                                                                                                                       152 Hopton new groundwater source and
                                                                                                                       treatment (Staffs and East Shropshire)
S4              Supply            Artificial Storage       The treatment of `water and then injection, via a           76: Norton Artificial Recharge (Worcs)           76: Norton Artificial
                                                                                                                       (Severn)                                         Recharge (Worcs)
                                  Recharge (ASR)           borehole, into the ground to be stored in an aquifer
                                                                                                                       148 Barston ASR (Severn)                         (Severn)
                                                           and then the subsequent re-abstraction of the stored        151 Highters Heath ASR (Birmingham/Severn)       151 Highters Heath
                                                           water when additional resource is required.                 154 Minworth ASR (Birmingham/Severn)             ASR
                                                                                                                       156 New ASR Warwickshire (Severn)                (Birmingham/Severn)
                                                                                                                       157 Whitacre ASR (Severn)                        154 Minworth ASR
                                                                                                                                                                        (Birmingham/Severn)
                                                                                                                                                                        157 Whitacre ASR
                                                                                                                                                                        (Severn)
S5              Supply            Raw water transfers      The import of raw water from an adjacent operating          158 Sudbrooke to Whadden Pipe (Severn /          None identified
                                                                                                                       Forest and Stroud)
                                  (from outside            area, normally from an adjacent water company, for
                                  operating area)          treatment and distribution in one or more of STWL
                                                           water resource zones. The resource supplying the
                                                           water is not owned or operated by STWL.

S6              Supply            Saline water             The abstraction of saline water from an estuary of          None Identified                                  None identified

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Option   Option     Strategic Option          Description                                             Constrained List Schemes                            Final Selected Schemes
Number   Category

                    (desalination)            coastal area which would then be treated
                                              (desalination) prior to distribution to STWL
                                              customers.

S7       Supply     Water re-use              The treatment of waste water to drinking water              7: Minworth Effluent 300 Ml/d (company,             None identified
                                                                                                          Severn, Birmingham, F&S, East Midlands)
                                              standards for use in public water supply.
                                                                                                          8: Minworth Effluent 30 Ml/d (company, Severn
                                                                                                          and Birmingham)
S8       Supply     Canal transfers           Abstraction from a canal that is being used to              None Identified                                     None Identified
                                              transfer resource, the source of water may be a
                                              reservoir, river or groundwater.

S9       Supply     Licence trading           The purchase of an existing water abstraction rite          None Identified                                     None Identified
                    (outside water            (licence) from a private party to allow us to have an
                    industry)                 increased abstraction quantity for public water
                                              supply.

S10      Supply     Imports (national or      The import of water nationally or internationally,          None Identified                                     None Identified
                    international)            transported in tankers or the towing of icebergs to a
                                              point where water may be recovered from them.

S11      Supply     Conjunctive use           Use of a combination of water resources, such as a          88: River Trent Church Wilne extension (East        None Identified
                                                                                                          Midlands)
                                              reservoir and river abstraction or a river and
                                                                                                          107: Astley Borehole (Severn)
                                              groundwater abstraction, in such a combination to           155 Stanton by Bridge compensation Trent
                                              get the maximum abstraction quantity from them,             (East Midlands)
                                              usually for maximum environmental benefit.

S12      Supply     Intra company             The transfer of raw water from one water resource           None Identified                                     None Identified
                    transfers                 zone to another within the STWL area.

S13      Supply     Level of service to       The level of service to customers is related to the         None Identified                                     None Identified
                    environment               hose pipe ban frequency. Similar to having a level of
                                              service for STWL customers the level of service to
                                              the environment may also be considered and drive
                                              decisions on the level of service that STWL choose
                                              to deliver to STWL customers. Customers influence
                                              this decision through the company Willingness to
                                              Pay Survey and indirectly via consultations on the

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Option   Option       Strategic Option           Description                                               Constrained List Schemes                            Final Selected Schemes
Number   Category

                                                 Environment Agencies Water Resource Strategy.
                                                 This will also in part be driven via EU legislation,
                                                 particularly the Water Framework Directive.

S14      Supply       Validation of              Environmental targets are not always well                     69: Tittesworth Compensation (Staffs and East       75: Prescribed flow
                                                                                                               Shropshire)                                         review (Leam)
                      environmental targets      understood. Some schemes may propose a change
                                                                                                               75: Prescribed flow review (Leam) (Severn)          (Severn)
                                                 in existing operations to allow the benefit of
                                                 additional resource being available for public water
                                                 supply and to no detriment to the environment or
                                                 even to enhance the environment. Research into the
                                                 needs of the environment and potential impact of
                                                 any changes are generally required to confirm if the
                                                 change in operation is a viable option.

P1       Production   Treatment                  Where there is deteriorating water quality at a water         149 Belper Meadows treatement existing              None Identified
                                                                                                               licence (East Midlands)
                      improvements               source or where there is a more conservative
                      (capacity or new           drinking water standard introduced by the Drinking
                      process)                   Water Inspectorate a treatment (or catchment)
                                                 solution may be required to ensure that the drinking
                                                 water quality is compliant. The solution is required to
                                                 maintain the deployable output. Also, where the
                                                 intention is to take more water from a source the
                                                 treatment capacity may need to be expanded.

P2       Production   Reducing WTW               Some water treatment processes have losses                    No opportunities identified
                      process losses             associated with them as a result of needing to
                                                 remove undesirable substances from the water. The
                                                 efficiency of such processes can be examined. If
                                                 there is the potential to make them more efficient this
                                                 will decrease the loss from the works and increase
                                                 the amount of water that is available for public water
                                                 supply.

P3       Production   WTW maintenance            Water treatment works condition deteriorate with age          Assumed that assets are maintained
                                                 and require maintenance and refurbishment over
                                                 time. This type of option is assumed to be ongoing

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Option   Option     Strategic Option           Description                                              Constrained List Schemes                             Final Selected Schemes
Number   Category

                                               and part of business as usual and is not considered
                                               as part of this WRMP.

C1       Customer   Promote water saving       A range of measures to promote water saving                  Demand Management (DM) 1 to 9                        DM1 to 9
                    to existing customers      ranging from advertising, providing or recommending
                    (households,               water saving devices, such toilet cistern devices, and
                    commercial and             facilitating water audits to help companies find
                    industrial)                efficiencies in water usage.

C2       Customer   Promote water              Influence good practice for the installation of water        Specific initiatives to be integrated into the
                                                                                                            WRMP
                    conservation activity      saving devices / technologies in new houses built in
                    with stakeholders for      the region.
                    new builds (code for
                    sustainable homes)

C3       Customer   Household metering         A range of metering policies associated with an              M1 Compulsory change of occupier metering            M1 Compulsory
                                                                                                                                                                 change of occupier
                    penetration                estimate in the water savings associated with
                                                                                                                                                                 metering
                                               metering as customers link water usage with bills
                                               and therefore have the incentive to use less water.

C4       Customer   Tariff management          Where water meters are in place different tariff             This has not been considered in the WRMP
                                               management could be considered to promote the
                                               use of less water during dry periods for example. For
                                               this to be equitable near 100% meter penetration is
                                               required.

C5       Customer   Level of service to        The level of service to customers is related to the          Varying the level of service to customers has
                                                                                                            not been considered in the WRMP
                    customer                   hose pipe ban frequency. In very dry years hose
                                               pipe bans are expected to be required. The STWL
                                               current level of service is a 1 in 33 year frequency.
                                               The decision on the level of service influences in
                                               part the amount of water resources required. For
                                               example, if they are to be less frequent further water
                                               resource would be required, if they are to be more
                                               frequent, less water resource would be required.
                                               Customers influence this decision through the
                                               company Willingness to Pay Survey and indirectly

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Option   Option         Strategic Option            Description                                                Constrained List Schemes                            Final Selected Schemes
Number   Category

                                                    via consultations on the Environment Agencies
                                                    Water Resource Strategy. This will also in part be
                                                    driven via EU legislation, particularly the Water
                                                    Framework Directive which is likely to increase the
                                                    cost of water resources.

D1       Distribution   Supply integration via      Supply integration via new distribution links to make          14: Derwent Valley Aqueduct (DVA) Dup,              14: DVA Dup, Kings
                                                                                                                   Kings Corner to Hallgates                           Corner to Hallgates
                        new distribution links      best use of existing sources intra company. New                26: Hampton Loade to Trimpley
                        (intra company)             pipelines that interconnect exiting distribution
                                                    systems within the company boundary which allow
                                                    better use of resources and facilitates a gain in
                                                    deployable output.

D2       Distribution   Bulk treated transfers      New connections or agreements with neighbouring                11: Yorkshire to Derwent Valley (DV)                None Identified
                        (inter company)             water companies to supply treated drinking water as
                                                    an additional resource and hence deployable output
                                                    for one of STWL water resource zones.

D3       Distribution   Manage leakage by           Considering the level of leakage as influenced by the          142, 143, 144, 145,146 and 147: Leakage             142, 143, 144,
                                                                                                                   control for each zone through combination of        145,146 and 147:
                        mains replacement or        detection and repair policy, mains replacement
                                                                                                                   active leakage control, mains replacement and       Leakage control
                        renewal or pressure         policy and pressure policy. STWL policy has                    pressure control                                    through combination
                        reduction (company          included consideration of the strategy for reducing                                                                of active leakage
                        and supply pipe)            leakage from customer owned supply pipes.                                                                          control, mains
                                                                                                                                                                       replacement and
                                                                                                                                                                       pressure control
D4       Distribution   Resilience                  New distribution pipelines may also have the added             No specific schemes identified                      None Identified
                                                    benefit of increasing the flexibility of the transfer of
                                                    water around the network and hence improve the
                                                    resilience of the network to provide water to
                                                    customers should failure of a water treatment works
                                                    occur, due to flooding for example, and allow the
                                                    continued supply of water from alternative sources
                                                    feeding the distribution network. Some proposed
                                                    options may have the benefit of improving network
                                                    resilience.


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3       Baseline

3.1     Introduction


        The following chapter provides a summary of the baseline environmental characteristics that
        were identified during scoping and taken into account during the assessment of the WRMP
        Strategic Options.


3.2     Water Resource Zones (WRZs)


        To assist with the delivery and management of the WRMP, STWL divides its supply area into
        six Water Resource Zones (WRZs). These are:
          Oswestry (RZ1)
          Staffs and East Shropshire (RZ2)
          Severn (RZ3)
          Birmingham (RZ4)
          Forest and Stroud (RZ5)
          East Midlands (RZ6)
        These zones are defined as the largest possible zone in which all water resources, excluding
        external transfers, can be shared. Hence, it is the zone in which all customers experience the
        same risk of supply failure from a resource shortfall (Figure 2.2a, Appendix D).
        Each zone has data for:
          Raw Water Abstracted
          Deployable Output (DO), which is the maximum demand in the Zone that can be met within
          the Level of Service
          Water Available for Use (WAFU) which is the DO less the reductions made for outage
          allowance.
          Demand which is the water produced plus water imported less water exported.


3.2.1   Oswestry Water Resource Zone (WRZ)


        The Oswestry WRZ covers a small portion of Shropshire and stretches into North Wales. This
        zone incorporates Lake Vyrnwy, a large impounding reservoir providing water supply to the
        North West of England (supplied by United Utilities).
        In 2009/10 the Zone had a population of approximately 69,100 people. The zone had a DO of
        21.5 Ml/d with a WAFU of 21.2 Ml/d. Raw water abstracted was 17.9 Ml/d


3.2.2   Staffs and East Shropshire Water Resource Zone (WRZ)


        The Stafford and East Shropshire WRZ includes the urban areas of Telford, Stafford and Stoke
        on Trent and incorporates the upper River Trent and several of its tributaries.
        In 2009/10 the Zone had a population of approximately 814,100 people. The Zone had a DO of
        243.7 Ml/d with a WAFU of 236.9 Ml/d. Raw water abstracted within this zone was 204.6 Ml/d.
        The zone includes four large treated water reservoirs around Stoke that have distribution links
        between them.



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3.2.3   Severn Water Resource Zone (WRZ)


        The Severn WRZ incorporates areas of the West Midlands, the South West and Wales
        including urban areas such as Gloucester, Cheltenham, Worcester, Coventry, Warwick and
        Shrewsbury. The zone includes most of the river basin of the River Severn. The River Severn
        Corridor extends from Clywedog Reservoir downstream to the regional boundary of the Severn
        Estuary including a substantial part of the Natura 2000 designated site in the Estuary itself. The
        Corridor also includes the Afon Clywedog downstream of Clywedog Reservoir, the Afon Vyrnwy
        downstream of Lake Vyrnwy and the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal. The River Severn is
        classed as a regulated river, where flows are maintained through controlled releases from
        Clywedog Reservoir, Shropshire Groundwater Scheme and Lake Vyrnwy.
        In 2009/10 the Zone had a population of approximately 2,423,300. The Zone had a DO of 648.9
        Ml/d with a WAFU of 602.2 Ml/d. Raw water abstracted within this zone was 596.6 Ml/d.


3.2.4   Birmingham Water Resource Zone (WRZ)


        The Birmingham WRZ includes most of the City of Birmingham, which is principally supplied
        from the Elan Valley Reservoirs in mid Wales, via a 70 mile long aqueduct.
        In 2009/10 the Zone had a population of approximately 1,156,200. The Zone had a DO of 345.5
        Ml/d. with a WAFU of 329.9 Ml/d of WAFU. There is no raw water abstracted from within this
        Zone however 319.2 Ml/d is taken from Elan Valley.


3.2.5   Forest and Stroud Water Resources Zone (WRZ)


        The Forest and Stroud Resource Zone lies within the southern limits of the STWL area. It is
        split into two areas on either side of the Severn Estuary; the Forest of Dean and Stroud.
        In 2009/10 the Zone had a population of 133,400. The Zone had a DO of 45.3 Ml/d with a
        WAFU of 44.1 Ml/d. 39.4 Ml/d of raw water is abstracted from within this resource zone.


3.2.6   East Midlands Water Resources Zone (WRZ)


        The East Midlands Zone includes the River Trent from Staffordshire / Derbyshire border
        towards the Humber Estuary. The major tributaries of the Trent in the zone include the Rivers
        Dove, Derwent, Soar, Erewash and Idle. Major towns and cities include Derby, Leicester,
        Nottingham and Mansfield. There is a major input of water to the Trent catchment from the
        sewage works at Minworth, which treats water supplied to Birmingham
        In 2009/10 the Zone had a population of approximately 2,945,700. The Zone had a DO of
        845.5 with a WAFU of 790.9 Ml/d. Raw water abstracted within this zone was 797.8 Ml/d.


3.3     Catchment Abstraction Management Strategies (CAMS)


        Water resources in England and Wales are managed by the Environment Agency (EA). One of
        the ways that this is done is through licensing the abstraction of water. As part of this
        responsibility it has prepared or is in the process of preparing Catchment Abstraction
        Management Strategies (CAMS) for all catchment areas. The purpose of these CAMS4 is to:
             Inform the public on water resources and licensing practice
             Provide a consistent approach to local water resources management

        4
            http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/research/planning/33372.aspx
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          Help to balance the needs of water users and the environment
          Involve the public in managing the water resources in their area

        The CAMS are of strategic importance to this SEA and the assessment of the strategic options
        prepared by STWL as they set out how water resources within the catchments will be managed.
        The key issues covered by the CAMS include:
          Identification of the most suitable options for managing water resources
          Identification of how much water is needed to protect the river environment, including the fish
          Identification of how much water is needed by abstractors (e.g. water companies) and other
          legal water users (e.g. those involved in navigation)
          Assessment of the availability of water in catchments
        At the time of writing the Scoping Report (2007), there were 23 CAMS river catchments relevant
        to the STWL area. These do not correspond directly to the WRZ boundaries, and whilst some
        CAMS occur within single WRZs, others span two or three WRZ areas (Figure 2.2b, Appendix
        D). Table 3.1 below illustrates the relationship between the STWL WRZs and the CAMS areas
        (note this only includes EA Midland Region CAMS).
        Table 3.1: WRZs and Related CAMS Areas

        Severn Trent WRZ                              Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy (CAMS) areas
                                                      Soar CAMS
                                                      Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS (replaced Trent Corridor CAMS)
                                                      Dove CAMS (abstraction from the Dove is used to supply the East
        East Midlands
                                                      Midlands)
                                                      Idle and Torne CAMS
                                                      Derbyshire and Derwent CAMS
                                                      Tame, Anker and Mease CAMS
        Birmingham                                    Worcestershire Middle Severn CAMS
                                                      Wye CAMS
                                                      Severn Vale CAMS
        Forest and Stroud
                                                      Wye CAMS
                                                      Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
        Oswestry and Ellesmere
                                                      Severn Uplands CAMS
                                                      Warwickshire Avon CAMS
                                                      Worcestershire Middle Severn CAMS
        Severn                                        Severn Corridor CAMS
                                                      Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
                                                      Teme CAMS
                                                      Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
        Staffs and East Shropshire                    Staffordshire Trent Valley CAMS
                                                      Dove CAMS



        The CAMS listed above have all been reviewed, in addition to other information from a range of
        sources (as identified in the SEA Scoping Report) to establish the existing situation with regard
        to water resources and the associated environment in the STWL area. In addition to the main
        CAMS listed above, a review has also been carried out for the following CAMS areas where
        STWL also have licence interests:
          Weaver and Dane CAMS (North West EA)
          Meirionnydd CAMS (Welsh EA)
          Dee CAMS (in progress) (Welsh EA)
          Welland CAMS (Anglian EA)
          Little Avon (consultation document only) (South West EA)
          Cotswolds (consultation document only) (Thames EA)
          Don and Rother CAMS (North East EA)


3.4     Key Issues


        To fully understand how the STWL WRMP will affect the environment it is essential to identify
        what the key issues are within the Severn Trent area. Where possible cross references have
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          been made between each of the CAMS areas and the relevant WRZs (as presented in Table
          3.1) to develop a greater understanding of the key issues influencing the STWL area. The main
          issues taken into account in this summary include:
            Population and housing growth
            Environmental Issues (water quantity (availability), water quality, designated sites,
            biodiversity, fisheries, recreation and navigation)
            STWL Operations (Supply, Distribution and Operations)


3.4.1     Population and Housing Growth


          Table 3.2 illustrates the projected household and population increases for each of the WRZs in
          the STWL area and the relevant CAMS areas. This table also identifies where the key growth
          points are in terms of future housing growth. Projections of population increase and housing
          growth are essential for informing the preparation of, and assessing the environmental effects
          of, the WRMP by identifying areas where demand for water resources, and therefore
          associated pressures on water resources are likely to increase.
          Table 3.2: Population and Housing Growth

                                                                                     Population
                                                           Household Projection
                         Catchment Abstraction                                       Projection (%
          Severn                                           (% increases)
                         Management Strategy (CAMS)                                  increase)       Growth Points
          Trent WRZ
                         areas
                                                               2015         2020     2015     2020
                         Soar CAMS
                         Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS
                         (replaced Trent Corridor CAMS)                                              Derby
          East           Dove CAMS (abstraction from the                                             Leicester
                                                               7%          11.4%     3.5%     5.9%
          Midlands       Dove is used to supply the East                                             (Burton on Trent*)
                         Midlands)                                                                   Nottingham
                         Idle and Torne CAMS
                         Derbyshire and Derwent CAMS
                         Tame, Anker and Mease CAMS
                         Worcestershire Middle Severn                                                Birmingham
          Birmingham                                           7.8%        12.7%     2.9%     4.9%
                         CAMS                                                                        (Burton on Trent*)
                         Wye CAMS
          Forest and     Severn Vale CAMS
                                                               6.2%        10.1%     4.7%     7.7%   None
          Stroud         Wye CAMS
          Oswestry
                         Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
          and                                                  9%          14.7%     5.6%     8.8%   None
                         Severn Uplands CAMS
          Ellesmere
                         Warwickshire Avon CAMS
                                                                                                     Coventry
                         Worcestershire Middle Severn
                                                                                                     Worcester
                         CAMS
          Severn                                               8.6%        13.9%     2.7%     4.6%   Shrewsbury and
                         Severn Corridor CAMS
                                                                                                     Atcham
                         Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
                         Teme CAMS
          Staffs and     Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
          East           Staffordshire Trent Valley CAMS       8.2%        13.3%     1.7%     2.8%   Telford
          Shropshire     Dove CAMS
          Company        All                                   7.8%        12.6%     3.0%     5.1%   NA
          * Burton on Trent is supplied by South Staffs Water and not STWL
          Sources of information (as of end 2007):
          http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=6
          http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1352
          http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1768
          http://www.communities.gov.uk/housing/housingsupply/growthareas/newgrowthpoints/


3.4.1.1   Population Growth


          Population growth within the STWL region is a major issue with respect to water supply. STWL
          population projections reveal continuous growth in population numbers (and thus the number of
          households) between 2007 and 2034 (see SEA scoping report for detailed breakdown of
          projected figures). Based on the information available at the end of 2007, the population within
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          the STWL region is currently estimated to be 7.3 million (2007), and is projected to increase
          annually to approximately 8 million people by 2034.
          In the shorter term the population across the STWL area is expected to increase by 3.0% by
          2015 and by 5.1% by 2020. In relation to this the number of households within the STWL area
          is also projected to increase by 7.87% in 2015 and by 12.6% in 2020, ultimately increasing from
          3.1 million (2007) to 4 million by 2034. Population and household levels are also projected to
          increase within each of the WRZs, although at varying rates. In relation to population growth
          there is also a need to consider how lifestyles changes could affect future water demand.


3.4.1.2   Growth Points


          There are nine new Growth Points designated by Central Government within the STWL region.
          These include:
               3 Cities and 3 Counties (Derby, Leicester and Nottingham)
               Birmingham and Solihull
               Coventry
               Telford
               East Staffordshire – Burton on Trent (note STWL do not supply water to this area. They do
               however provide sewerage services)
               Shrewsbury and Atcham
               Worcester
          Local Councils are already planning for new growth areas (associated with and away from
          designated Growth Points as identified above) across the region as part of their emerging Local
          Development Frameworks (LDF). The need for these growth areas reflects the predicted
          population increases as identified in Table 3.2 above. Water cycle studies are being undertaken
          by Council’s to inform the spatial planning process in relation to water availability. Growth points
          have already been designated (and may still emerge) in areas that already experience water
          stress.
          In addition, Wales does not have a big metropolis although South Wales constitutes a semi-
          dispersed metropolis with innate features and 1.8million people. The semi-dispersed population
          poses unique challenges for the effective delivery of services. The scale of population growth
          predicted for Wales is challenging, with a projected growth of 330,000 persons between 2006
          and 2031. To address this, the Welsh Assembly Government is committed to delivering 6,500
          new affordable homes by 2011. One of the main areas identified and located within the STWL
          supply region is the Severn Valley cluster with Newtown identified as a primary settlement. This
          area has been identified by the Wales Spatial Plan partners as a primary settlement for the
          future development of Central Wales5.


3.4.2     Environmental Issues


          Population increase and housing growth is expected to lead to an increased demand for water,
          in particular public water supply. This increase in demand, unless managed appropriately
          through the emerging WRMP could have significant adverse effects on the environment. The
          main areas of concern in terms of environmental effects include:
               Water quantity (surface and groundwater)
               Water quality (reductions in general quality and increased susceptibility to pollution and
               eutrophication etc)
               Designated Sites (designated sites of International, European (Natura) and National
               conservation importance, in particular water related or water dependent sites)
               Biodiversity (Protected Species, Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species and habitats)
               Fishing

          5
              Welsh Assembly Government, 2008. People, Places, Futures, The Wales Spatial Plan 2008 Update
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               Recreation and navigation
               Landscape and cultural heritage

          The following section discusses the general effects of increased demand on water resources,
          and how this demand affects the environment and key areas of sensitivity now and in the future.


3.4.2.1   Water Quantity


          The water quantity available is defined as the volume of water within a water resource (surface
          or ground), and is dependent on:
               the volume of water input to the resource
               the volume of water output from the resource
          In a natural hydrological system, the main inputs to surface water are precipitation (direct or via
          surface runoff and infiltration) and groundwater. Groundwater is dependent on precipitation (via
          infiltration). The main outputs are discharge eventually to the sea and evaporation. In their
          natural state, the only influence over the volume of water within a water source (particularly
          rivers) is the levels of precipitation. During dry seasons, water volumes in rivers and lakes, will
          naturally decrease and will increase during wet periods.
          Many water sources within the UK are managed to provide fresh water to support the
          population. The abstraction of water can, if unmanaged, lead to a reduction in the volume of
          water available, particularly if the volumes of water abstracted exceed the volumes of water
          replaced naturally through precipitation and from groundwater.
          To manage sources (particularly surface sources), inputs can be artificially increased through
          releases from reservoirs or lakes, discharges from sewage treatment works (STWs) or water
          treatment works (WTW) and bulk transfers from other water sources (surface or ground) via
          pipelines and canals. These inputs can be managed to a certain extent to ensure that inputs
          balance the quantities of water removed during abstraction.
          Problems occur where the volume or quantity of water abstracted is greater than the amount of
          water replaced via natural and controlled processes resulting in so called ‘over abstraction’.
          This is of particular concern during dry seasons, where reduced precipitation leads to ‘low
          flows’. Unsustainable abstraction at times of low flow can lead to the volume of water dropping
          to below certain ‘threshold’ levels, whereby environmental damage could occur. The main
          effects associated with over abstraction during periods of low flow include:
               Reduction in water availability for water dependent and water related habitats and species
               (particularly designated sites of nature conservation value)
               Increased susceptibility to water pollution and eutrophication
               Reductions in water quality due to increased concentrations of pollutants
               Reduced navigability of rivers and canals
               Reduced access to watercourses for recreational purposes
               Visual impacts
               Reduced availability of water for customers
               Interruptions to water supply for customers
          The CAMS set out how, by assessing water availability within catchments and managing the
          granting of abstraction licences, the EA seeks to protect the water environment by preventing
          over abstraction during periods of low flow. This has been achieved by identifying the ‘resource
          availability status’ for specific Water Resource Management Units (WRMUs) and Groundwater
          Management Units (GWMUs) within individual catchments. There are four categories of water
                      6
          availability as detailed in Tables 3.4 and 3.5 below:




          6
              http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/pdf/GEMI0907BNFS-e-e.pdf
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        Table 3.3: Key to Tables 3.4 and 3.5 below illustrating Resource Availability Status and Licence Availability
         Indicative Resource
                                    Licence Availability
         Availability Status
         Water Available            Water is likely to be available at all flows including low flows. Restrictions may apply.
                                    No water is available for further licensing at low flows. Water may be available at higher
         No Water Available
                                    flows with appropriate restrictions
                                    Current actual abstraction is such that no water is available at low flows. If existing
         Over Licensed              licences were used to their full allocation they would cause unacceptable environmental
                                    damage at low flows. Water may be available at high flows with appropriate restrictions
                                    Existing abstraction is causing unacceptable damage to the environment at low flows.
         Over Abstracted
                                    Water may be available at high flows with appropriate restrictions



        The following tables illustrates the water / groundwater availability status for each EA Midlands
        Region CAMS area in the STWL area (The Wye CAMS has also been included as it is critical to
        supplies).




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Table 3.4: Water Availability Status in WRMU in the Relevant CAMS Areas

                   Relevant                                                          Water Resource Management Unit (WRMU)
 CAMS Area
                   WRZs       Water Available         No Water Available       Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted       Comments
 Soar CAMS                                                                                                                    Current status of water available at low flow for both
                              WRMU 1. The Soar and
 (Leicester,                                                                                                                  WRMUs. Target (2009 - 2015) of these units is ‘no
                   East       Tributaries
 Loughborough                                         N/A                      N/A                      N/A                   water available’. This will enable continued
                   Midlands   WRMU 2. The River
 and Melton                                                                                                                   development of water resources without comprising
                              Wreake
 Mowbray)                                                                                                                     ecological flow requirements.
                                                                                                                              WRMU 1: Licences will continue to be granted for this
                                                                                                                              WRMU. It is not envisaged that this WRMU will move
                                                                                                                              towards no water available due to large volume of
                                                                                                                              water available and uncertainties as to whether it
                                                                                                                              would be feasible to licence it in timeframe.
                                                                                                                              WRMU2: The target for this unit is to remain at Over
 Lower Trent &                WRMU 1. Rivers Trent,                                                     WRMU 2. Dover Beck
                                                      WRMU 4. River Leen                                                      Abstracted. No more abstraction licences will be
 Erewash CAMS                 Erewash, Greet &                                 WRMU 3. Wollaton         and the Ravenshead
                   East                               and the Hucknall Lower                                                  granted and existing licences will be encouraged to
 (Derby,                      Devon and Diseworth                              Sherwood Sandstone       (south) Sherwood
                   Midlands                           Magnesian Limestone                                                     voluntarily reduce volumes abstracted.
 Nottingham,                  Sherwood Sandstone                               Group GWMU               Sandstone Group
                                                      GWMU                                                                    WRMU3: Target is to stay 'over licensed' with aim to
 Grantham)                    Group GWMU                                                                GWMU
                                                                                                                              move towards 'no water available' this would involve a
                                                                                                                              presumption against the issue of new licences and
                                                                                                                              variations in existing licences.
                                                                                                                              WRMU 4: The aim is to remain at 'no water available'
                                                                                                                              at low flows. Future licences would be granted but
                                                                                                                              would be subject to Hand Off Flow (HOF) conditions.
                                                                                                                              WRMUs 1, 2 and 3: Target for these WRMUs is ‘No
                                                                                                                              Water Available’ to ensure management of the
 Idle and Torne                                                                                                               WRMUs will not have an impact on the River Idle
 CAMS                                                 WRMU 1. Upper Meden                                                     WRMU 4 which is downstream.
 (Doncaster,       East                               WRMU 2. Upper Poulter                             WRMU 4. River Idle    WRMUs 4 and 5: Target is ‘Over Licensed’. This will
                              N/A                                              N/A
 Worksop,          Midlands                           WRMU 3. Oldcotes                                  WRMU 5. River Torne   involve reductions in licensed quantities and
 Retford,                                             Dyke                                                                    abstractions, a presumption against new licences and
 Mansfield)                                                                                                                   renewals subject to local considerations and
                                                                                                                              encourage existing licences to reduce licensed
                                                                                                                              quantities in line with actual abstraction needs.
                                                                               WRMU 1. Derwent
 Derbyshire                                           WRMU 2. Wye and
                                                                               Uplands
 Derwent CAMS                                         Tributaries
                   East                                                        WRMU 3. Middle                                 Further licenses will be granted subject to appropriate
 (Derby, Belper,              N/A                     WRMU 4. Amber                                     N/A
                   Midlands                                                    Derwent                                        HOF conditions
 Buxton,                                              WRMU 5. Ecclesbourne
                                                                               WRMU 6. Derby to
 Matlock)                                             and Markeaton
                                                                               confluence

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                 Relevant                                                              Water Resource Management Unit (WRMU)
CAMS Area
                 WRZs         Water Available         No Water Available         Over-Licensed           Over-Abstracted        Comments
                                                                                                                                WRMU 1: The Target status remains at water avalible
                                                                                                                                for 2013 with the aim of moving to no water available
                                                                                                                                by 2019.
Tame, Anker &
                                                                                                                                WRMU 2: This is over licensed at low flows and this
Mease
                                                                                                                                status is also predicted for 2013. A target of no water
In Progress
                                                                                                                                available has been set by 2019.
(Burton on                                                                       WRMU 2 Blythe
                              WRMU 1 Tame, Anker                                                         WRMU 3 Bourne /        WRMU 3: This is over abstracted at low flows and the
Trent,           Birmingham                           WRMU 4 Mease               WRMU 5 Burton
                              Cole and Trent                                                             Black Brook            target for 2013 remains at this status. The target
Tamworth,                                                                        Groundwater
                                                                                                                                status for 2019 is over licensed.
Hinckley,
                                                                                                                                WRMU 4: The status is no water available and this
Nuneaton and
                                                                                                                                ststus has also been set for 2013 and 2019.
Birmingham)
                                                                                                                                WRU5: This has a current status of over licenced,
                                                                                                                                however a target of no water avalible has been set for
                                                                                                                                2013 and then again in 2019.
Worcestershire                                                                                                                  WRMU 1: Target is ‘No Water Available’. New
Middle Severn                                                                                                                   licences will be granted subject to appropriate HOF
CAMS                                                                                                                            conditions. Existing licences will also be subject to
                 Staffs and                                                                              WRMU 2. Stour, Worfe
(Telford,                                             WRMU 1. Dowles Brook                                                      HOF conditions.
                 East                                                                                    & Salwarpe
Wolverhampton                                         (flows into River Severn                                                  WRMU 2 and 3: Target is ‘Over Abstracted’. No new
                 Shropshire   N/A                                                N/A                     WRMU 3. Triassic
, Dudley,                                             which has No Water                                                        licences will be granted for abstraction at times of low
                                                                                                         Sandstone Aquifer
Kidderminster,                                        Available)                                                                flow. New licences will be subject to restrictive HOF
                 Severn                                                                                  (GWMU)
Bromsgrove,                                                                                                                     conditions. Existing licences will be encouraged to
Droitwich and                                                                                                                   reduce abstraction volumes. No increases will be
Worcester)                                                                                                                      granted at low flow.




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                  Relevant                                                                 Water Resource Management Unit (WRMU)
CAMS Area
                  WRZs         Water Available            No Water Available         Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted        Comments
                                                                                                                                     WRMU 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 20: Target status is to stay
                                                                                                                                     at 'No Water Available'. Licences will be granted with
                                                          WRMU 1: Carey’s Brook
                                                                                                                                     appropriate HOF conditions.
                                                          and Bushley Brook
                                                                                                                                     WRMU 9 and 17: Target status is to move to 'No
                                                          WRMU 2: River Chelt
                                                                                                                                     Water Available' by encouraging voluntary reductions
                                                          and Hatherley Brook
                                                                                                                                     in the licensed volumes down to the actual take.
                                                          WRMU 3: Westbury and
                                                                                                              WRMU 4: Cinderford     Further abstraction licences will be granted during
                                                          Lyd South West
Severn Vale                                                                          WRMU 9: Ell Brook and    Brook                  high flows only and subject to appropriate HOF
                                                          Tributaries
CAMS              Forest and                                                         GWMU                     WRMU 8: Glynch Brook   conditions. WRMU 4, 8, 18 and 19: Target status is to
                               N/A                        WRMU 5: Gloucester
(Cheltenham       Stroud                                                             WRMU 17 Oxenhall         GWMU 18 Bromsberrow    move to 'Over Licensed' by encouraging voluntary
                                                          and Sharpness Canal
and Gloucester)                                                                      South                    WRMU 19 Oxenhall       reductions in actual used volume with equivalent
                                                          Tributaries
                                                                                                              North                  reduction in licensed volume. No new surface water
                                                          WRMU 6: Upper Frome
                                                                                                                                     abstraction licences will be granted at low or medium
                                                          and Tributaries and
                                                                                                                                     flows. Surface water abstraction licences will be
                                                          GWMU 20 Cotswold
                                                                                                                                     granted only during high flows and subject to
                                                          WRMU 7: River Leedon
                                                                                                                                     restrictive HOF conditions. There will be a
                                                          and Red Brook
                                                                                                                                     presumption against any new groundwater abstraction
                                                                                                                                     licences.
                                                                                                                                     For all WRMUs HOF restrictions will apply to new
                                                                                                                                     licences and winter storage reservoirs and other water
                                                                                                                                     efficiency measures will be encouraged.
Shropshire                                                                                                                           WRMU 1 and 2: Target is to maintain ‘Over Licensed’
Middle Severn                                                                                                                        status. Short term licences only will be granted for
                                                                                     WRMU 1. River Perry
CAMS                                                                                                                                 groundwater abstractions. Existing licences will be
                  Staffs and                              WRMU 4. Cound Brook        and associated
(Shrewsbury,                                                                                                  WRMU 3. Coley Brook    subject to same conditions as new licences and
                  East                                    WRMU 5. Rea Brook          groundwater units.
Telford,                                                                                                      and Aqualate GWMU.     reductions in abstraction volumes will be encouraged.
                  Shropshire   N/A                        (flows into the River      WRMU 2. Tern
Newport,                                                                                                      GWMU Sambrook East,    WRMU 3 and GWMU: Maintain ‘Over Abstracted’.
                                                          Severn which has ‘No       Catchment and
Market Drayton,                                                                                               Adneney & Longdon.     Aqualate Groundwater Unit is closed to further
                  Severn                                  Water Available’ Status)   associated groundwater
Church                                                                                                                               licences. Existing licences will be subject to same
                                                                                     units.
Stretton,                                                                                                                            conditions as new licences and reductions in
Oswestry)                                                                                                                            abstraction volumes will be encouraged.
                                                                                                                                     WRMUs 4 and 5: target is to maintain ‘No Water
                                                                                                                                     Available’. Licences for renewals will only be passed
                                                                                                                                     subject to achieving certain criteria.
Severn Uplands                 1. Dulas, 2. Trannon, 3.
CAMS                           Carno, 4. Rhiw, 5          WRMU 8. Tanat                                                              New licences and renewals will be evaluated in
                  Severn                                                             N/A                      N/A
(Oswestry and                  Camlad, 6. Banwy, 7.       WRMU 10. Weir Brook                                                        accordance with national guidance and specific criteria
Welshpool)                     Cain, 9. Morda


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                  Relevant                                                              Water Resource Management Unit (WRMU)
CAMS Area
                  WRZs       Water Available          No Water Available          Over-Licensed             Over-Abstracted           Comments
                                                      River Dene
                                                      (Wellesbourne)
                                                      River Stour (Alscot Park)
                                                      River Arrow (Broom)
                                                      River Avon (Evesham)                                                            Target for all is to remain at or move to ‘No Water
                                                                                                            Rivers Avon (upper
                                                      River Sowe (Whitley                                                             Available’. For all statuses no new consumptive
Warwickshire                                                                                                Avon) and Swift (Rugby)
                                                      GWMU)                                                                           licences will be granted at low flows, surface water
Avon CAMS                                                                                                   Bow Brook (Besford
                                                      River Avon (Kenilworth                                                          abstraction licences will be subject to HOF conditions,
(Coventry,                                                                                                  Bridge)
                                                      GWMU)                       River Sowe (Stoneliegh)                             New licences will have a time limit of 31st March 2013.
Rugby,                                                                                                      River Sowe (Coventry
                                                      River Stour and             River Leam and Itchen                               Existing abstractors will be encouraged to use water
Warwick, Royal                                                                                              GWMU)
                  Severn     N/A                      Isbourne and Badsey         (Leamington)                                        efficient practices. Renewal will be subject to time
Leamington                                                                                                  River Avon (Warwick
                                                      Brook (Cotswold             River Isbourne (Hinton)                             limits.
Spa, Stratford                                                                                              GWMU)
                                                      GWMU)                       Avon Confined (GWMU)                                For ‘no water available’ Groundwater licences from
upon Avon,                                                                                                  Bow Brook (Bromsgrove
                                                      River Avon (Stareton,                                                           minor aquifers will be assessed on case by case
Redditch,                                                                                                   GWMU)
                                                      Stratford, Upper Pound)                                                         basis. No new groundwater abstraction licences from
Evesham)                                                                                                    No River (Avon confined
                                                      Badsbey Brook                                                                   minor aquifers will be granted in ‘Over Licensed’ and
                                                                                                            GWMU)
                                                      (Offenham)                                                                      ‘Over Abstracted’ units.
                                                      Piddle Brook (Wyre
                                                      Piddle)
                                                      River Swilgate
                                                      (Swilgate)
                                                      WRMU 5. River Worfe to
                                                      River Stour confluence
                             A. River Vyrnwy Dam to
                                                      WRMU 6. River Stour
                             Llanymynech
                                                      confluence to River
                             B. Llanymynech to                                                                                        For all units – new and renewals will be subject to time
                                                      Teme confluence
                             Severn confluence                                                                                        limit of 31st March 2010. New or varied abstractions
                                                      WRMU 7. River Teme
                             WRMU 1. Clywedog                                                                                         from Severn and Gloucester and Sharpness Canal will
                                                      confluence to Saxons
                             Dam to Severn                                                                                            be subject to conditions. For River Vyrnwy summer
Severn Corridor                                       Lode
                  Severn     confluence                                           N/A                       N/A                       abstractions will be subject to HOF conditions. For
CAMS                                                  WRMU 8. Saxons Lode
                             WRMU 2. Dolwen to                                                                                        River Severn and River Clywedog, upstream of
                                                      to Deerhurst
                             Crew Green                                                                                               Severn/Vyrnwy confluence, licences subject to HOF
                                                      WRMU 9. Deerhurst to
                             WRMU 3. Crew Green                                                                                       condition. All applications will be assessed in terms of
                                                      Gloucester Docks
                             to Buildwas                                                                                              effect on Severn Estuary
                                                      WRMU 10. Gloucester
                             WRMU 4. Bulildwas to
                                                      Docks to Minsterworth
                             River Worfe confluence
                                                      WRMU 11. Minsterwoth
                                                      to Sharpness




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                  Relevant                                                            Water Resource Management Unit (WRMU)
CAMS Area
                  WRZs         Water Available         No Water Available       Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted         Comments
                                                                                                                                 WRMU1 and WRMU2 - Upper and Lower Trent and
                                                                                                                                 the River Swarbourn. Resource availability status is
                                                                                                                                 'No Water Available'. Any new licences issued will be
                                                                                                                                 subject to HOF conditions.
                                                       WRMU 1: The Upper                                                         WRMU3 - Rivers Sow and Penk. River Sow upstream
Staffordshire
                                                       Trent                                                                     of Doxey Marshes is 'Over Abstracted'. River
Trent Valley
                                                       WRMU 2. Lower Trent                               WRMU 4. Scotch Brook    downstream of Doxey Marshes 'No Water Available'.
CAMS                           GWMU Oulton,
                  Staffs and                           and Swarbourn.           GWMU Rugeley and                                 River Penk has 'Water Available' - existing licences
(Stoke, Stone,                 Hardwick and Hopton
                  East                                 WRMU 3. Rivers Sow       Teddesley                GWMU Tittensor,         will be less restrictive and new licences will be
Stafford,
                  Shropshire                           and Penk.                                         Hatton, Spot and        granted.
Cannock,                       GWMU Coven
                                                       WRMU 5: River Blithe                              Forsbrook.              WRMU4 - Scotch Brook is 'over abstracted'. Scotch
Litchfield,
                                                                                                                                 Brook is closed to new abstractions. Situation will be
Rugeley)
                                                       GWMU Bishops Wood                                                         subject to further review.
                                                                                                                                 WRMU5 - River Blithe has 'no water available' in lower
                                                                                                                                 reaches and 'over abstracted' in upper reaches. River
                                                                                                                                 upstream of Blithfield Reservoir will remain closed to
                                                                                                                                 new licences.
                                                                                                                                 WRMU 1 and 2: Target ‘no water available’ status.
                                                                                                                                 Most significant change is renegotiation on the
                                                                                                                                 conditions on the critical STWL licence at Eddington.
                                                                                                                                 For new licences HOF conditions applied for Marston-
Dove CAMS                                                                                                                        on-Dove and Quixhill. Local HOF conditions unlikely to
                  Staffs and                                                                             WRMU 1. River Dove
(Leek, Cheadle,                                                                                                                  be applied to new licences. No groundwater
                  East         N/A                     N/A                      N/A                      WRMU 2. River Churnet
Uttoxeter,                                                                                                                       abstraction licences will be granted for Leek, Alton,
                  Shropshire                                                                             including tributaries
Ashbourne)                                                                                                                       Tean and Greatgate GWMUs due to dependency of
                                                                                                                                 surface water on baseflow, especially at low flow.
                                                                                                                                 Use of winter storage reservoirs will be encouraged.
                                                                                                                                 Also voluntary revocations of unused licences and
                                                                                                                                 reductions in licence volumes.




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                  Relevant                                                            Water Resource Management Unit (WRMU)
CAMS Area
                  WRZs         Water Available         No Water Available       Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted      Comments
                                                                                                                              Water Resource Management Unit 1 – encompasses
                                                                                                                              the entire Teme catchment.
                                                                                                                              Teme Catchment. The resource assessment for the
                                                                                                                              Unit is ’Water Available’, however the Teme flows into
Teme CAMS
                                                                                                                              the River Severn which forms part of the Severn
(Tenbury Wells,                                        Teme
                                                                                                                              Corridor CAMS which is classed as ’No Water
Ludlow,           Severn       N/A                     Water Resource           N/A                      NA
                                                                                                                              Available’. There is a further requirement on the
Knighton,                                              Management Unit
                                                                                                                              Agency to protect the designated and non designated
craven Arms)
                                                                                                                              sites. As a result this Unit is also classed as ’No Water
                                                                                                                              Available’. There are 123 licensed abstractions,
                                                                                                                              including abstractions for public water supply, spray
                                                                                                                              irrigation and general agricultural uses.
                                                                                                                              WRMU 1 comprises the River Wye downstream of
                                                                                                                              Hereford and below the confluence with the Lugg, and
                                                                                                                              includes the Wormbrook, Dore, Garren Gamber,
                                                                                                                              Monnow and Trothy tributaries. There is ‘No Water
                                                                                                                              Available’ and the current licensing policy will continue
                                                                                                                              to be applied in this unit until the CAMS/Habitats
                                                                                                                              Directive integrated licensing policy becomes
                                                                                                                              available.
Wye CAMS
                                                       WRM 1: (the Lower                                                      WRMU 8 (the main River Wye from the reservoirs of
(Hereford,
                                                       Wye)                                                                   the Elan Valley to just upstream of the confluence with
Monmouth,         Birmingham
                                                       WRMU 8 (Upper Wye)                                                     the River Lugg) and WRMU 10 (River Lugg and its
Leominster,       Forest and   N/A                                              N/A                      N/A
                                                       WRMU 10 (River Lugg)                                                   tributaries the Pinsley, Arrow and Frome). The
Ross-on-Wye       Stroud
                                                       WRMU 17 (Eign/Yazor                                                    strategy for these WRMUs is also to remain at ‘No
and Hay-on-
                                                       Brook)                                                                 Water Available’ and apply the current licensing policy
Wye.
                                                                                                                              until the CAMS/Habitats Directive integrated licensing
                                                                                                                              policy becomes available.
                                                                                                                              WRMU 17 is a relatively small unit containing the Eign
                                                                                                                              and Yazor Brooks to the confluence with the River
                                                                                                                              Wye. The strategy for this WRMU is to remain at ‘No
                                                                                                                              Water Available’. As this unit flows into the River Wye
                                                                                                                              (which is a SAC) all licence applications in this unit will
                                                                                                                              be subject to the Habitats Regulations.




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Table 3.5: Water Availability Status in GWMU in the Relevant CAMS Areas

                  Relevant                                                            Groundwater Management Unit (GWMU)
 CAMS Area
                  WRZs         Water Available          No Water Available      Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted         Comments
 The Tame,        Birmingham   GWMU Sutton,                                     GWMU – Burton            GWMU Lichfield and      GWMU Burton Target Status in 2019 is to achieve “no
 Anker and                     Birmingham, Warton                               GWMU Measham             Shenstone               water available”
 Mease CAM                     Nuneaton and Coleorton                                                                            GWMU Lichfield and Shenstone Target Status in 2019
                                                                                                                                 is to achieve “over licensed”
                               GWMU Meriden                                                                                      GWMU Sutton, Birmingham, Warton Nuneaton and
                                                                                                                                 Coleorton - Target Status is to achieve “No water
                                                                                                                                 available” by 2019.
                                                                                                                                 GWMU Meriden – Target Status is to achieve “No
                                                                                                                                 water available” by 2019
                                                                                                                                 GWMU Measham Target Status is to achieve “ No
                                                                                                                                 water available” in 2019. Due to the SAC designation
                                                                                                                                 of the River Mease, the impacts of all abstractions on
                                                                                                                                 water resources are being investigated under the river
                                                                                                                                 Habitats Directive.
 The
 Worcestershire   Staffs and
                                                                                                                                 There are no proposals for this CAMS to reduce to an
 Middle Severn    East
                                                                                                         GWMU Triassic           “over licenced” status as the reduction in actual
 Catchment &      Shropshire   N/A                      N/A                     N/A
                                                                                                         Sanstone Aquifer        abstraction quantities is beyond the scope of this
 Abstraction
                                                                                                                                 CAMs and would involve financial compensation
 Management       Severn
 Plan
                                                                                                                                 GWMU 18: Target status is to move to ‘Over Licenced’
                                                                                                                                 by encouraging voluntary reductions. There will be a
                                                                                                                                 presumption against any new groundwater
 Seven Vales      Forest and                                                                             GWMU 18:
                               N/A                      GWMU 20: Cotswold       N/A                                              abstractions.
 CAMS             Stroud                                                                                 Bromsberrow
                                                                                                                                 GWMU 20: Target ststus is to stay with No water
                                                                                                                                 available. Licences will be granted with appropriate
                                                                                                                                 HOF conditions.
 The Shropshire   Staffs and   N/A                      N/A                     N/A                      Sambrook East, Adeney   GWMU Sambrook East, Adeney and Longdon Target
 Middle Severn    East                                                                                   & Longdon               Status is to remain as “Over Abstracted” in 2013, and
 CAMs             Shropshire                                                                                                     2019. There are no proposals to reduce to an “Over
                                                                                                                                 Licensed” Status as this would require major
                  Severn                                                                                                         reductions in actual abstraction quantities which is
                                                                                                                                 beyond the scope of this CAM and would involve
                                                                                                                                 financial compensation. However opportunities for
                                                                                                                                 retrieving unused licenses and/or downward variations
                                                                                                                                 will be investigated where possible.


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               Relevant                                                          Groundwater Management Unit (GWMU)
CAMS Area
               WRZs       Water Available         No Water Available       Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted   Comments
The Severn                N/A                     Knockin GMWU             N/A                      N/A
               Severn
Uplands CAMs                                      (extracted from text?)
The            Severn     GWMU Kenilworth         GWMU Whitley             GMUU: Avon Confined      GWMU- Coventry    GWMU Whitley-Target Status in year 2018 is to
Warwickshire                                                                                                          achieve “no water available”. The Strategy for this
Avon CAMS                 GWMU Cotswold                                                             GWMU Warwick      GWMU is to remain at no water available.
                                                                                                                      GWMU Coventry- The Strategy for this GWMU is
                                                                                                    GWMU Bromsgrove   move to over-licensed by 2011. This will be acehived
                                                                                                                      by closing the unit to further abstraction. The CAMS
                                                                                                                      area will also encourage reduction in licensed
                                                                                                                      quantities that are not fully used and will investigate
                                                                                                                      revoking licences which have not been used in the last
                                                                                                                      seven years (or four years if not used since April
                                                                                                                      2004).
                                                                                                                      GWMU Warwick- The Strategy for this GWMU is to
                                                                                                                      move to over-licensed by 2011. This will be achieved
                                                                                                                      by closing the unit to further abstraction and by
                                                                                                                      encouraging a reduction in licensed quantities for
                                                                                                                      public water supply licences that are not fully used.
                                                                                                                      GWMU Kenilworth Individual status is “water
                                                                                                                      available” however when integrated the status
                                                                                                                      becomes “no water available”. The Target status is to
                                                                                                                      achieve no water available by 2018. All Abstraction
                                                                                                                      licence applications will be subject to an assessment
                                                                                                                      to take account of any local issues and be granted on
                                                                                                                      a first come first served basis.
                                                                                                                      GWMU Bromsgrove Target Status for 2011 and 2018
                                                                                                                      is “No Water Available”
                                                                                                                      GWMU Avon Confined – Target Status for 2011 is
                                                                                                                      “Over Licensed” and Target Status for 2018 is “No
                                                                                                                      Water Available”
                                                                                                                      GWMU Cotswold Integrated status is “no water
                                                                                                                      available”. Target Status is “no water available” in
                                                                                                                      2011 & 2018. Status overridden by the ecological
                                                                                                                      needs of the River Severn and Severn Estuary.




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                Relevant                                                           Groundwater Management Unit (GWMU)
CAMS Area
                WRZs         Water Available         No Water Available       Over-Licensed            Over-Abstracted         Comments
                             GWMU Oulton             GWMU Bishops Wood        GWMU Rugeley and         GWMU Tittensor Hatton    Target Status in 2016 – over licensed.
                             Hardiwick Hopton;                                Teddesley                Spot Forsbrook,         The target resource is ‘Over abstracted’.
                                                                                                                               Investigations into certain abstractions in the
                             GWMU Coven                                                                                        groundwater units are being conducted through the
                                                                                                                               AMP scheme. Where necessary the selection of
                                                                                                                               management options is due to be completed in 2010.
                                                                                                                               GWMU Rugeley & Teddesley status in 2016 is to stay
                                                                                                                               at Over-licensed. Current status will be monitored.
                                                                                                                               Investigations are underway into the impacts of
The                                                                                                                            abstractions on Cannock Chase.
                Staffs and
Staffordshire                                                                                                                  GWMU Bishops Wood Status in 2016 is to stay at “no
                East
Trent Valley                                                                                                                   water available”. The current situation will be
                Shropshire                                                                                                     maintained as a balance between the amount of water
CAMs
                                                                                                                               abstracted and the amount of water required by the
                                                                                                                               environment has been reached.
                                                                                                                               GWMU Oulton Hardiwick Hopton target status in 2016
                                                                                                                               will stay at water available.
                                                                                                                               Water is available to be licensed from these units.
                                                                                                                               GWMU Coven target status in 2016 will stay at water
                                                                                                                               available.
                                                                                                                               Water is available to be licensed from these units.




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3.4.2.2   Water Quality


          Biological and Chemical Water Quality
          The Environment Agency (EA) is responsible for monitoring the quality of water in rivers, lakes
          and groundwater in England and Wales. Water quality in rivers is assessed using the General
          Quality Assessment (GQA) scheme. This is a scoring system comprising four key measures of
          water quality:
            Biological – measure of the ‘health of rivers’ based on the diversity of macro-invertebrate
            communities
            Chemical – measure of organic pollution
            Nutrients – measure of nitrate and phosphate levels in water
            Aesthetics – visual appearance of rivers
          GQA is used to derive and assess compliance with River Ecosystem (RE) classification targets.
          RE targets range from RE1 (very good) to RE5 (poor) and relate to the quality of water in terms
          of its suitability as habitat for fish species.
          With regard to biological water quality within the SWTL area in 2005:
            89% of watercourses in the West Midlands had good or fair biological water quality
            97% of watercourses in the East Midlands had good or fair biological water quality
          With regard to chemical water quality within the STWL area in 2005:
            92% of watercourses in the West Midlands had good or fair chemical water quality
            94% of watercourses in the East Midlands had good or fair chemical water quality
          Table 3.6 below summarises (based on available information) the key water quality issues
          associated with CAMS areas:
          Table 3.6: Water Quality in CAMS areas

          CAMS                        Relevant WRZ        Surface Water Quality Issues
                                                          Ecological status of Soar Catchment is good. Water quality
          Soar CAMS
                                                          reduces downstream of major sewage discharges
          Lower Trent and Erewash
                                                          No information
          CAMS
                                      East Midlands
          Idle and Torne CAMS                             No information
          Derbyshire and Derwent
                                                          No information
          CAMS
          Tame, Anker and Mease       Birmingham and
                                                          No information
          CAMS                        Severn
          Worcestershire Middle       Birmingham and
                                                          No information
          Severn CAMS                 Severn
                                                          Water quality varies but is mostly good. River Leadon and its
                                                          tributaries suffer from agricultural runoff. Watercourses running
                                                          through Cheltenham are impacted by urban and industrial uses
                                                          are not good quality. There are five designated Sensitive Areas
          Severn Vale CAMS            Forest and Stroud
                                                          (eutrophic). Designated watercourses include Rivers Leadon,
                                                          Cam, Frome and Chelt as well as the Gloucester and Sharpness
                                                          Canal. A large part of the River Leadon has also been
                                                          designated a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone.
                                      Oswestry
          Shropshire Middle Severn    Severn              Agriculture impacts on water quality due to fertilisers and land
          CAMS                        Staffs and East     management
                                      Shropshire
          Severn Uplands CAMS         Oswestry            Very good water quality in tributaries

          Warwickshire Avon CAMS      Severn              No information
                                                          Very good ecological quality throughout reaches. Risk
                                                          associated with oxygen levels in Severn Estuary. If freshwater
                                      Severn
          Severn Corridor CAMS                            input not sufficient during high tide (due to suspended solids and
                                      Forest and Stroud
                                                          organic matter) can lead to depletion in oxygen levels which
                                                          could lead to fish kills.

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        CAMS                         Relevant WRZ        Surface Water Quality Issues
                                                         Water quality in the Staffordshire Trent Valley Catchment has
                                                         improved in recent years due to improvements to sewage works
                                                         and reductions in numbers of combined sewage overflows and
        Staffordshire Trent Valley   Staffs and East     tighter regulations on discharges. The low-lying slow flowing
        CAMS                         Shropshire          watercourses of the River Sow, Whiston brook and Church
                                                         Eaton Brook have significant failures for Dissolved Oxygen;
                                                         increased levels of nitrates from agriculture also contribute
                                                         towards this.
                                     Staffs and East
        Dove CAMS                                        No information
                                     Shropshire
                                                         The River Teme is mainly associated with good water quality. Of
                                                         the total length of the classified stretches within the Teme
                                                         catchment, 15% has the highest water quality target of RE1,
                                                         73% has the water quality target of RE2, 5% has the target RE3
                                                         with the remaining 7.5% at the lower RE4 target. Improved
                                                         sewage treatment is being implemented in the area to remove
        Teme CAMS                    Severn
                                                         phosphates and protect and improve the water quality of the
                                                         catchment. Although the Teme catchment is a designated SSSI,
                                                         the lower reaches of the catchment are affected by diffuse
                                                         pollution, mainly consisting of nutrients and solids. These are
                                                         generally from agricultural sources and have a detrimental effect
                                                         on water quality.
                                                         Biological quality results for the majority of the Wye catchment
                                                         indicated an overall classification of very good (Grade A) to
                                                         good biological quality (Grade B). The results for the Eign Brook
                                                         are an exception to this, indicating a classification of fair
                                                         biological quality (Grade D). This is a reduction in quality from
                                                         fairly good (Grade C) in 2000, the last year that the complete
                                     Birmingham
        Wye CAMS                                         network of biological sites was monitored.
                                     Forest and Stroud
                                                         Chemical water quality results indicated the majority of the
                                                         catchment is classified as very good (Grade A) and good (Grade
                                                         B). The results for the Eign Brook are slightly lower and are
                                                         classified as good (Grade B) and fairly good (Grade C). The
                                                         Wye catchment presents an ecosystem that is at or close to
                                                         natural and the water quality is suitable for all abstractions.



        Sources of Water Pollution
        There are two main sources of water pollution:
          Point sources – direct pollution of watercourse from a specific source e.g. discharge or
          accidental spillage or release of pollutants to water
          Diffuse sources – pollution of watercourse from surrounding areas e.g. runoff from
          agricultural land (pesticides, nitrates and phosphates associated with fertilisers etc) or from
          urban areas (salts, grits, oils, or substances). High levels of nitrates and phosphates can lead
          to the eutrophication of water bodies (reduced levels of oxygen water)


        Introduction of the Water Framework Directive
        The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is replacing the existing methods of monitoring riverine
        water quality and has introduced a holistic approach with greater emphasis on ecological status
        as a broader indicator of river health. It requires Member States to take action to ensure that all
        water bodies achieve at least good status for all surface waters by 2015. Good status
        comprises either good ecological status (GES) or good ecological potential [if the water body is
        designated as artificial or heavily modified (A/HMWB)], and good chemical status. There are,
        however, certain situations in which it may be possible to extend the deadline for achieving
        good status from 2015 to 2021 or 2027, or even to set a less stringent target.
        As well as achieving GES, Member States should also strive to promote the use of water as a
        sustainable natural resource and conserve habitats and species that depend directly on water.
        The ecological status of all watercourses within England and Wales is presented in the River
        Basin Management Plans (RBMP) that have been prepared for each River Basin District
        (RBD).The STW water resources plan falls within four RBDs. The majority of the plan is within
        the Severn RBD and the Humber RBD. Two small areas on the western and eastern boundary
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        lie within the Western Wales RBD and the Anglian RBD, respectively. The catchments of the
        four RBDs that fall within the SWT plan area are listed below:


              Humber RBD
                       o Don and Rother river
                       o Idle and Torne river
                       o Derbyshire Derwent river
                       o Dove river catchment
                       o Lower Trent and Erewash river
                       o Staffordshire Trent Valley river
                       o Tame, Anker and Mease river
                       o Soar river catchment
              Severn RBD (all 10 catchments)
                       o Severn Uplands
                       o Shropshire Middle Severn
                       o Worcestershire Middle Severn
                       o Teme
                       o Severn Vale
                       o Warwickshire Avon
                       o Wye
                       o Usk
                       o South East Valleys
                       o Bristol Avon and North Somerset Streams
              Western Wales RBD
                       o North West Wales
              Anglian RBD
                       o Welland


        Tables 3.7, 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10 present a summary of the available water quality classification for
        all water bodies within the STW area under the WFD.

        Table 3.7 Status objectives for water bodies in the Humber RBD (*)
          Water Body          Current                 Status Objective
           Category           Status
                                                                                      Less than
                                             Predicted to                                                Total Number of
                                                               Predicted to be      Good status in
                                             be Good or                                                   Water Bodies
                           Good or High                         Good or High            2015
                                            High status in
                                                               status in 2027
                                                2015
                                                             Overall
        All                      -          59               483                   424                 483
                                                      Natural Water Bodies
        Rivers                   -          44               255                   211                 255
        Lakes                    -          0                2                     2                   2
                                 -
                                               Heavily Modified Water Bodies/Artificial
        HMWB                     -            11               193                  182                   193
        AWB                      -            4                33                   29                    33
        (*) The information presented refers to the catchments within the Humber RBD that fall within the STW Resources Plan
        Source: EA Humber RBMP Appendix B Objectives for Waters (December 2009)


        Table 3.8 Status objectives for water bodies in the Severn RBD
          Water Body          Current                 Status Objective
           Category           Status
                                                                                    Predicted to be
                                             Predicted to                                                Total Number of
                                                               Predicted to be      less than Good
                                             be Good or                                                   Water Bodies
                           Good or High                         Good or High         status in 2015
                                            High status in
                                                               status in 2027
                                                2015
                                                              Overall
        Rivers             214              260               791                  531                 791
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          Lakes            35              35               75                  40                75
          Estuaries        1               1                6                   5                 6
          Groundwaters     26              26               40                  14                40
                                                    Natural Water Bodies
          Rivers           167            208               629                 411               619
          Lakes            0              0                 13                  13                13
          Groundwaters     0              0                 1                   1                 1
                                           Heavily Modified Water Bodies/Artificial
          HMWB             36             39                148                 109               148
          Artificial       47             49                91                  42                91
          Source: EA Severn RBMP Appendix B Objectives for Waters (December 2009)


          Table 3.9 Status objectives for water bodies in North West Wales catchment in the
          Western Wales RBD
           Water Body           Current             Status Objective
            Category            Status
                                                                               Predicted to be
                                           Predicted to     Predicted to be                        Total Number of
                                                                               less than Good
                                            be Good or       Good or High                           Water Bodies
                           Good or High                                         status in 2015
                                          High status in     status in 2027
                                               2015
                                                    Natural Water Bodies
          Rivers           48             57               176                 119                176
          Lakes            2              2                13                  11                 13
                                               Heavily Modified Water Bodies
          HMWB             10             11               46                  35                 46
          Source: EA Western Wales RBMP Appendix B Objectives for Waters (December 2009)


          Table 3.10 Status objectives for water bodies in Welland catchment in the Anglian RBD
           Water Body           Current             Status Objective
            Category            Status
                                                                                Predicted to be
                                            Predicted to      Predicted to be                      Total Number of
                                                                                less than Good
                                             be Good or        Good or High                         Water Bodies
                            Good or High                                         status in 2015
                                           High status in      status in 2027
                                                2015
                                                     Natural Water Bodies
          Rivers            4              4                 14                 10                14
                                                Heavily Modified Water Bodies
          HMWB              0              0                 18                 18                18
          Artificial        8              8                 19                 11                19
          Source: EA Anglian RBMP Appendix B Objectives for Waters (December 2009)


          There are a number of reasons why these watercourses may not achieve good status by 2015.
          Physical modifications due to urbanisation, water storage and supply, flood protection, barriers
          to fish, land drainage and recreation are key reasons for failures in the status of the water
          bodies within the Western Wales, Humber, Severn and Humber RBDs. Diffuse pollution from
          agriculture and urban areas, together with point source discharges from the water industry and
          sewage works, also play a key role in determining the status of these water bodies.


3.4.2.3   Nature Conservation – Designated Sites


          Within, and related to, the STWL area there are a number of important designated sites of
          International, European and National nature conservation importance. The main designated
          sites include:
            Ramsar Sites: Wetlands of International Importance designated under the Ramsar
            Convention (Figure 2.3, Appendix D)
            Special Protection Areas (SPAs): sites designated under the EC Directive on the
            conservation of wild birds (79/409/EC) (Birds Directive 1979) for the protection of rare or
            vulnerable birds and regularly occurring migratory species (Figure 2.4, Appendix D).
            Special Areas of Conservation (SACs): sites designated under the EC Habitats Directive
            92/43/EEC1992 for the conservation of habitats and species (excluding birds) identified in
            Annexes I and II of the Directive (Figure 2.5, Appendix D).
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          Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) (Figure 2.6, Appendix D): these are the best sites
          for wildlife and geology across England designated under the Wildlife and Countryside Act
          1981 (amended by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000). Many of these sites are
          also National Nature Reserves (NNRs) (Figure 2.7, Appendix D) and Local Nature Reserves
          (LNRs) (Figure 2.8, Appendix D) and also include areas designated as SACs and SPAs.
          Under the Habitats Directive, SPAs and SAC comprise the network of protected wildlife sites
          (known as Natura 2000 sites) across the European Union.
        A large proportion of the designated sites within the STWL area are water dependent, or are
        related to the surface water and groundwater sources. Approximately 384 of the SSSI’s and 43
        sites of European importance within or hydrologically connected to the STWL region are
        considered to be water dependent and could potentially be affected by implementation of the
        WRP. Therefore changes in the water regime (surface or groundwater) through abstraction,
        discharges and pollution could potentially affect the integrity and condition of these designated
        sites. The main potential effects that the STWL WRMP needs to take into account with regard
        to water use and designated sites include:
          Water pollution (point and diffuse sources)
          Effects on species and habitats due to water levels falling to below the minimum required to
          sustain communities or habitats due to over abstraction during periods of low flow
          Effects on species or habitats associated with the increased occurrence of eutrophication
          where freshwater levels are insufficient to dilute sewage discharges or agricultural runoff.
          This is also an issue in estuaries where high tides lead to the re-suspension of organic matter
          and solids.
          Increased turbidity and concentration of other pollutants due to reductions in freshwater
          dilution
          Changes in channel morphology leading to the loss, fragmentation or disturbance of habitats
          Changes in flow regime where water levels increase and decrease significantly altering
          hydrological conditions for habitats and species
        It is therefore important in considering requirements for water that the abstraction of water does
        not cause river flows, groundwater levels or water levels in wetlands to fall below the minimum
        level required for the conservation of the aquatic environment and water dependent and related
        designated sites.
        In addition to the abstraction of water and discharges to water the infrastructure associated with
        the distribution of water around the Severn Trent region (e.g. pipelines) and the management of
        water resources (e.g. winter storage reservoirs) can also have adverse effects on designated
        sites of nature conservation importance. These effects are discussed in more detail in Chapters
        8 and 9: Assessment Results.
        In total there are 28 water dependent SACs that are within the Severn Trent Water region.
        There are also four water related SPAs and five Ramsar sites. However another 15 (including
        the Severn and Humber Estuaries protected sites) are hydrologically connected to the region.
        In total there are more than 800 SSSIs within the region of which 384 are water related. Some
        of the SSSIs relate to the CAMS area (these do not correspond exactly with the STWL area but
        could still be affected by SWTL activities within the part of the catchments contained within the
        Severn Trent Region). There are also a number of other designated sites located within the
        surrounding areas that could be affected by STWL activities. The distribution of water related
        SSSIs, SACs, SPAs and Ramsar sites is illustrated in Table 3.11 below.
        Table 3.11: Distribution of Designated Sites across the Severn Trent Region

                                                          Water Dependent or Water Related Designated Sites (SACs
        CAMS                         Relevant WRZ
                                                          and SPAs)
                                                          35 water related SSSIs
        Soar CAMS                    East Midlands
                                                          No SACs, SPAs or Ramsar Sites
                                                          50 water related SSSIs
        Lower Trent and Erewash
                                     East Midlands        Trent flows into the Humber Estuary SPA, cSAC and Ramsar
        CAMS
                                                          Site
                                                          43 water related SSSIs
                                                          Hatfield Moor SAC
        Idle and Torne CAMS          East Midlands
                                                          Thorne Moor SAC
                                                          No SPAs or Ramsar Sites
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                                                         Water Dependent or Water Related Designated Sites (SACs
        CAMS                         Relevant WRZ
                                                         and SPAs)
                                                         Bees Nest & Green Clay Pits SAC, SSSI
        Derbyshire and Derwent                           Peak District Dales SAC
                                     East Midlands
        CAMS                                             South Pennines Moors Phase 2 SPA
                                                         Peak District Moors (South Pennines Moors Phase1) SPA, SAC
                                                         33 water related SSSIs
        Tame, Anker and Mease        Birmingham
                                                         River Mease SAC
        CAMS                         Severn
                                                         Ensor’s Pool SAC
                                                         17 water related SSSIs
        Worcestershire Middle        Birmingham          Fens Pool SAC
        Severn CAMS                  Severn              Lypard Grange Ponds SAC
                                                         No SPA or Ramsar Sites
                                     Forest and Stroud   25 water related SSSIs
        Severn Vale CAMS
                                     Severn              Cotswold Beechwoods SAC
                                                         32 water related SSSIs
                                                         The Stipperstones and the Hollies SAC
                                     Oswestry            Clarepool Moss SAC
        Shropshire Middle Severn     Severn              Fenn’s, Whixall and Bettisfield SAC
        CAMS                         Stafford and East   Wem and Cadney Mosses SAC
                                     Shropshire          Brown Moss SAC
                                                         Midland Meres and Mosses Phase 2 Ramsar Site
                                                         No SPAs
                                                         49 water related SSSIs
                                                         Montgomery Canal SAC
                                                         Granllyn SAC
        Severn Uplands CAMS          Oswestry
                                                         Midland Meres and Mosses Phase 2 Ramsar Site
                                                         Fenn’s, Whixall, Bettisfield, Wem SAC
                                                         Cadney Mosses SAC
                                                         49 water related SSSIs
        Warwickshire Avon CAMS       Severn              Breedon Hill SAC
                                                         Dixton Wood SAC
                                                         Exact number of water related SSSIs to be determined
                                     Severn
        Severn Corridor CAMS                             Severn Estuary* Ramsar Site, SPA, cSAC
                                     Forest and Stroud
                                                         Walmore Common Ramsar Site, SPA
                                                         17 water related SSSIs
                                                         Midland Meres and Mosses Phase 1 Ramsar / West Midlands
                                                         Mosses SAC
                                                         Chartley Moss SAC and Ramsar
        Staffordshire Trent Valley   Staffs and East
                                                         Cannock Chase SAC
        CAMS                         Shropshire
                                                         Pasturefields Saltmarsh SAC
                                                         Motley Meadows SAC
                                                         Cannock Extension Canal SAC
                                                         Cope Mere Ramsar
                                                         Exact number of water related SSSIs to be determined
                                     Staffs and East
        Dove CAMS                                        Peak District Dales SAC
                                     Shropshire
                                                         South Pennines Moors Phase 2 SPA
                                                         The whole of the River Teme is a designated SSSI.
                                                         Parts of the River Clun, which is a tributary of the Teme, are
                                                         classed as a SAC due to the biodiversity of habitats and species
        Teme CAMS                    Severn              in the river.
                                                         The Welsh section of the river lies within the Radnor ESA. The
                                                         English section runs through the Clun ESA and Shropshire Hills
                                                         Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB)
                                                         River Wye SAC
                                                         River Wye and River Lugg SSSIs
                                                         Drostre Bank SAC
                                                         Elenydd SAC
                                                         Llangorse Lake SAC
                                     Not within a STWL
                                                         Mynydd Epynt SAC
                                     WRZ but is
        Wye CAMS                                         Rhôs Gôch SAC
                                     hydrologically
                                                         Elenydd - Mallaen SPA
                                     connected
                                                         The River Wye flows into the Wye Estuary, which subsequently
                                                         discharges into the Severn Estuary. The Wye Estuary is
                                                         designated as a SAC and the Severn Estuary as a SSSI, a
                                                         candidate SAC, a Special Protection Area (SPA) and a Ramsar
                                                         site.

        Within the STWL area but
        not identified within a                          34 water related SSSIs
        CAMS Area



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                                                           Water Dependent or Water Related Designated Sites (SACs
          CAMS                        Relevant WRZ
                                                           and SPAs)
                                                           Migneint – Arenig – Dduallt SPA
                                                           The Dee Estuary Ramsar Site, SPA, cSAC
                                                           Thorne and Hatfield Moors SPA
          Other Important Sites
                                                           Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau SAC
          outside the STWL area
                                                           Rutland Water Ramsar Site, SPA
                                                           Cors Fochno and Dyfi Ramsar Site, SPA, SAC
                                                           Brown Moss SAC


3.4.2.4   Protected Species


          European Protected Species (EPS) are those which are afforded protection under The
          Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 (which implement EC Directive
          92/43/EEC, known as The Habitats Directive). Under these Regulations it is a criminal offence
          to deliberately kill, capture, or disturb a European Protected Species, or to damage or destroy
          the breeding site or resting place of such an animal. Thus, EPS are protected wherever they
          occur and not just within designated sites. EPS known to be present within the STWL area
          include great crested newt, bats, dormouse and otter.
          European Protected Species are different to those species for which SACs are designated. The
          specific list of EPS within the Regulations, is more limited than the list of species for which
          SACs can be designated. The following is a list of species, found in Annex II of the Habitats
          Directive, that have been found within the STWL region:
            Freshwater pearl mussel
            White clawed crayfish
            Brook lamprey
            River lamprey
            Allis shad
            Twaite shad
            Bullhead
            Atlantic salmon
            Great crested newt
            Otter
            Floating water plantain
          In addition to The Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010, some species are
          also afforded protection at a national level under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as
          amended). As well as covering some species that are listed in Annex II of the Habitats
          Directive, this Act also includes other species that are of national conservation importance. For
          example, water voles are one of the species listed in Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside
          Act 1981 that are found within STWL area. Although the Plan is water related, not only water
          dependent species should be considered as there may be effects on non-water dependent
          species, from, for example, the construction of pipelines.
          Table 3.12 presents a summary of the water dependent protected species known to be present
          within the STWL (by CAMS area).
          Table 3.12: Water Dependent Protected Species by CAMS Area

          CAMS                        Relevant WRZ    Water Dependent Protected Species
                                                      Otter, white-clawed crayfish, great crested newts, water vole,
          Soar CAMS                   East Midlands
                                                      bullhead and brook lamprey
          Lower Trent and Erewash
                                      East Midlands   Otter, white clawed crayfish and water vole
          CAMS
          Idle and Torne CAMS         East Midlands   Otter and water vole
          Derbyshire and Derwent
                                      East Midlands   Salmon, white clawed crayfish
          CAMS
          Tame, Anker and Mease       Birmingham
                                                      Bullhead (designation of River Mease SAC)
          CAMS                        Severn
          Worcestershire Middle       Birmingham
                                                      Nothing noted
          Severn CAMS                 Severn
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          CAMS                         Relevant WRZ      Water Dependent Protected Species
                                       Forest and
          Severn Vale CAMS             Stroud            Otters, white clawed crayfish, great crested newts and water voles
                                       Severn
                                       Oswestry
          Shropshire Middle Severn     Severn            Floating water plantain, otters, white clawed crayfish, great crested
          CAMS                         Staffs and East   newts and water voles
                                       Shropshire
                                                         Salmon, otter, great crested newt, lamprey and white clawed
          Severn Uplands CAMS          Oswestry          crayfish. Floating water plantain and grass wrack pond weed present
                                                         in Montgomery Canal
          Warwickshire Avon CAMS       Severn            Otter, white clawed crayfish, great crested newts, water vole.
                                       Severn            Otters, lamprey, salmon, great crested newt and white clawed
          Severn Corridor CAMS         Forest and        crayfish. Allis and twaite shad are found in the lower reaches of the
                                       Stroud            River Severn.
          Staffordshire Trent Valley   Staffs and East
                                                         Floating water plantain
          CAMS                         Shropshire
                                       Staffs and East
          Dove CAMS                                      Great crested newt, bullhead and brook lamprey
                                       Shropshire
                                                         Otter, white clawed crayfish, freshwater pearl mussels, Atlantic
          Teme CAMS                    Severn
                                                         salmon, bullhead and brook lamprey, twaite shad.
                                       Birmingham        Atlantic salmon, bullhead, allis shad, twaite shad, brook lamprey, sea
          Wye CAMS                     Forest and        lamprey, river lamprey, white-clawed crayfish, European otter and
                                       Stroud            water crowfoot.


3.4.2.5   Biodiversity


          There are a number of species and habitats that have been identified as being of conservation
          importance under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UKBAP). Some of these BAP species and
          habitats are present within the STWL area. A large number of these species are listed above in
          regard to European and UK protected species. The BAP habitats present within the STWL area
          include:
            Eutrophic standing waters
            Mesotrophic standing waters
            Blanket bog
            Fens (e.g. alkaline fens if the Wye Valley)
            Lowland meadows
            Lowland fens
            Wet woodland
            Blanket, basin and valley mires
            Reedbeds
            Upland hay meadows


3.4.2.6   Fishing and Angling


          As with designated sites and protected species, reductions in water flow and water quality can
          also affect freshwater fisheries. A number of the rivers within the STWL area are important in
          terms of nursery or spawning grounds (salmonid species), coarse fishing and game fishing. A
          large number of the fish supported by the rivers are recognised protected species (see above).
          Many stretches of river are designated under the EC Freshwater Fisheries Directive for their
          salmonid and cyprinid populations.




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        Table 3.13: Summary of the key fisheries areas within the STWL region by CAMS area

        CAMS                   Relevant WRZ        Fisheries
                                                   Upper reaches are important spawning areas for salmonid species.
                                                   Chub and dace present in upper reaches, so is brown trout but
        Soar CAMS              East Midlands       declining population. Downstream of confluence with River Sence,
                                                   Soar supports most species of coarse fish. Tributaries of Soar support
                                                   coarse fish and trout.
                                                   Good fisheries along its length with diverse population of coarse fish
        Lower Trent and
                               East Midlands       and a recovering salmon population. The tributaries are also important
        Erewash CAMS
                                                   as spawning and nursery grounds.
                                                   Fisheries of the tributaries of the River Idle are impacted by poor
                                                   habitat, poor water quality and over engineered channels in certain
                                                   locations (exacerbated by abstraction). The upper reaches of the
        Idle and Torne CAMS    East Midlands       Rivers Meden and Poulter and the River Ryton downstream of
                                                   Worksop all support populations of brown trout. Elsewhere, cyprinid
                                                   species dominate. The lower reaches of the River Ryton and River Idle
                                                   support organised angling clubs.
                                                   The upper catchment has brown trout throughout most river and
        Derbyshire and                             tributaries and is notable as a spawning area for a range of species.
                               East Midlands
        Derwent CAMS                               The Lower Derwent provides a high quality coarse fishery. Occasional
                                                   trout and salmon have been noted in the Borrowash area.
                                                   Good coarse fisheries in the Rivers Blythe, Trent and Anker and viable
        Tame, Anker and        Birmingham          fish populations in the Cole, the Tame downstream of Lea Marston
        Mease CAMS             Severn              Lakes and in the areas extensive canal network which is supported by
                                                   riverine water.
        Worcestershire         Birmingham
                                                   Nothing noted
        Middle Severn CAMS     Severn
                                                 Rivers and streams support resident brown trout and coarse fish
                                                 populations, migratory eels and salmon. River and brook lamprey are
                               Forest and Stroud
        Severn Vale CAMS                         also found in some rivers. However, low flows in some rivers have
                               Severn
                                                 adversely effected fish populations, particularly nursery and spawning
                                                 grounds.
                               Oswestry
        Shropshire Middle      Severn
                                                 Nothing noted
        Severn CAMS            Staffs and East
                               Shropshire
                                                 Upper reaches dominated by salmonid species, brown trout and
                                                 migratory Atlantic salmon. Tributaries of the Severn are extensive
                                                 spawning grounds for both. Protected species bullhead and brook
        Severn Uplands
                               Oswestry          lamprey are common in upland streams. Also migratory sea lamprey
        CAMS
                                                 present. Grayling are vulnerable to low flows in tributaries. Chub and
                                                 dace present in lower reaches of larger tributaries (River Banwy and
                                                 River Tanat).
                                                 Warwickshire Avon fisheries are good quality. River Avon supports
        Warwickshire Avon
                               Severn            huge diversity of coarse fish species and population densities are
        CAMS
                                                 excellent or good throughout the catchment.
                                                 Wide variety of fish, both game and coarse species including some rare
        Severn Corridor        Severn            and protected (e.g. allias and twaite shad in lower reaches). Salmonid
        CAMS                   Forest and Stroud in upper reaches with spawning in upper and middle reaches. Migratory
                                                 corridor for shad and lamprey.
                                                 Upstream of Stoke-on-Trent the River Trent is small and supports
                                                 brown trout, bullheads and brook lamprey. Through the Potteries poor
                                                 habitat and intermittent pollution within the urban environment limit fish
        Staffordshire Trent    Staffs and East   populations. Downstream of Stoke water quality is poor and poor
        Valley CAMS            Shropshire        habitat due to channel engineering for land drainage and flood defence.
                                                 Downstream of Sow confluence with Great Haywood fish include
                                                 barbel, chub, roach, dace, perch and pike. There is a fish pass at
                                                 Nethertown to allow fish migration between Trent and Blithe.
                                                 River Dove has numerous high quality coarse trout and grayling
                                                 fisheries. Dove contains some of best game fishing in the Country in
                               Staffs and East
        Dove CAMS                                headwaters and middle reaches. Downstream is popular for coarse
                               Shropshire
                                                 fishing. Churnet joins the Dove at a point that is a very important area
                                                 for salmon spawning and juveniles




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          CAMS                   Relevant WRZ         Fisheries
                                                   The salmonid species Brown Trout and migratory Atlantic salmon
                                                   dominate the majority of the Teme as its tributaries provide extensive
                                                   spawning grounds. Distribution of Atlantic salmon is limited by
                                                   presence of obstacles which prevent movement. In addition the
          Teme CAMS              Severn            protected species Bullhead and Brook Lamprey are common. Sea
                                                   Lamprey and Twaite Shad also spawn within the catchment. From
                                                   Ashford Carbonell to its confluence with the River Severn the River
                                                   Teme is one of the best coarse fisheries in England and Wales –
                                                   particularly for its Barbel and Chub.
                                                   The River Wye is a well-established and nationally significant salmon
                                                   rod fishery. Atlantic salmon are found throughout the Wye catchment
                                                   except in the upper reaches of the Monnow, Frome and upper sections
                                                   of the Lugg. This is mainly due to partial or complete barriers to fish
                                                   migration in the form of weirs. Salmon fishing in the areas below
                                 Birmingham        Monmouth can be impacted during falling river flows and under
          Wye CAMS
                                 Forest and Stroud extended periods of low flows. Salmon “in-rod season” migration into
                                                   reaches upstream of Monmouth may be adversely affected, reducing
                                                   angling opportunities in such reaches. The River Wye is also a locally
                                                   important coarse fish fishery. Elver fishing takes within the tidal reaches
                                                   of the Wye. Brown trout angling is widespread in the River Wye and its
                                                   tributaries4.


3.4.2.7   Navigation


          Water flow can also affect the ability to use the river or canal networks for the purposes of
          navigation. A number of the rivers and canals within the STWL area are navigable. Under the
          Water Act 2003 licences are required for abstraction and transfer of water for navigational
          purposes. A summary of the key navigation routes in the relevant CAMS areas are summarised
          in Table 3.14 below.
          Table 3.14: Navigational Routes in CAMS

          CAMS                        Relevant WRZ           Navigation
                                                             The navigable River Soar and the Grand Union Canal are inter-
                                                             connected, separating and re-joining, until the confluence with
          Soar CAMS                   East Midlands          the River Trent. Together the Soar and the canal provide a
                                                             significant navigation route from the River Trent to the south
                                                             and on to London.
                                                             Water resources of the Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS are
                                                             used to supply water to support the Nottingham, Beeston and
                                                             Erewash Canals. The River Trent is navigable from Shardlow to
                                                             the Humber with Canal bypasses at Sawley, Cranfleet and
                                                             Beeston. The Stainforth and Keadby Canal connects the River
          Lower Trent and Erewash                            Don at Stainforth to the River Trent at Keadby and allows
                                      East Midlands
          CAMS                                               passage to the River Ouse, the South Yorkshire navigation and
                                                             the Aire and Calder Navigation. The Fossdyke Canal near
                                                             Torkesy allows boats to travel to Lincoln and Boston. The
                                                             Grantham Canal is currently not Navigable however there are
                                                             some restoration works currently underway towards restoring
                                                             navigation.
                                                             The only navigable river within the Idle & Torne catchment is
                                                             the River Idle. For an 11-mile stretch from Bawtry to the River
                                                             Trent, boats are allowed to navigate this river with the
          Idle and Torne CAMS         East Midlands
                                                             Environment Agency’s permission. Two canals are also
                                                             present, the Chesterfield Canal and the Stainforth and Keadby
                                                             canal.
                                                             The lower stretch of the Derwent River is a recognised
                                                             navigation system. The River Derwent has a right of navigation
          Derbyshire and Derwent
                                      East Midlands          from Derby downstream to the River Trent and at one time
          CAMS
                                                             canals linked Derby with the Trent and Mersey Canal near
                                                             Swarkestone and the Erewash Canal near Sandiacre.




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          CAMS                         Relevant WRZ        Navigation
                                                           The Ashby, Birmingham and Fazeley are within the CAMS area
                                                           as are parts of the Coventry, Grand union, Stratford on Avon,
                                                           Trent and Mersey, Worcester and Birmingham Canals all of
          Tame, Anker and Mease        Birmingham          which are used for navigation. A section of the Ashby Canal
          CAMS                         Severn              stretching from Conkers to beyond Moira Furnace has recently
                                                           been restored and there are plans to extend this further
                                                           opening a derelict section to navigation with the potential for a
                                                           marina at Measham.
                                                           A number of rivers in the Severn Vale CAMS are used to supply
                                       Forest and Stroud   the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal. In the future water may
          Severn Vale CAMS
                                       Severn              need to be supplied to the Stroudwater Canal and Hereford and
                                                           Gloucester Canal.
                                       Oswestry
          Shropshire Middle Severn     Severn              The only navigable canal is the Shropshire Union Canal. There
          CAMS                         Staffs and East     are plans to restore the Shrewsbury / Newport Canal.
                                       Shropshire
                                                           The inland part of the River Severn is navigable between
                                                           Stourport and Sharpness - a distance of some 50 nautical
          Severn Uplands CAMS          Oswestry            miles. There is a proposal to restore the navigation between
                                                           Stourport and Shrewsbury (the original navigation went as far
                                                           as Welshpool).
                                                           The River Avon is navigable from Tewkesbury to Alveston,
                                                           immediately upstream of Stratford. The Avon Ring provides a
          Warwickshire Avon CAMS       Severn              circular route by using the Grand Union Canal; the Stratford
                                                           Canal; the Worcester and Birmingham Canal and the River
                                                           Severn resulting in a total loop of 109 miles.
                                                           British Waterways manages the navigable section of the River
                                                           Severn from Gloucester to Stourport and for the Montgomery,
                                       Severn
          Severn Corridor CAMS                             and Gloucester and Sharpness Canals. The Waterways Trust
                                       Forest and Stroud
                                                           intends to restore the Montgomery Canal (which has been
                                                           designated as a SSSI and is also a cSAC).
                                                           Associated with the Staffordshire Trent Valley are five canals,
                                                           all of which interact with the main channel of the Trent.
                                                           Associated with the Trent are six canals (as described below),
                                                           all of which take water from, or provide water to, the main
          Staffordshire Trent Valley   Staffs and East     channel of the Trent, in effect, acting as abstractions from or
          CAMS                         Shropshire          discharges to the river. British Waterways have certain rights to
                                                           abstract water from rivers and streams as part of its
                                                           navigational duties. These rights are enshrined in Acts of
                                                           Parliament and abstractions do not require a licence from the
                                                           Agency.
          Worcestershire Middle        Birmingham
                                                           No information available
          Severn CAMS                  Severn
                                                           The Caldon Canal is the only navigable waterway in the Dove
                                                           catchment. Rudyard Lake, Stanley Reservoir and Endon Brook
                                       Staffs and East     are used to maintain water levels in the canal and provide
          Dove CAMS
                                       Shropshire          enough water for lock gates to operate. Restoration schemes
                                                           are currently being proposed to extend the Caldon Canal into
                                                           Leek.
          Teme CAMS                    Severn              No Information available
                                                           Downstream from Hay-On-Wye the river has public right of
                                                           navigation. Along this stretch of river the Environment Agency
                                                           is the designated navigation authority. Upstream of Hay-On-
                                                           Wye, navigation rights are by informal land access agreements.
                                                           There are other recreation activities available in the Wye CAMS
                                       Birmingham
          Wye CAMS                                         area including water based recreation such as canoeing,
                                       Forest and Stroud
                                                           kayaking, rafting and rowing. On Llangorse Lake and the Elan
                                                           Valley Reservoirs windsurfing and sailing also occur. Slalom
                                                           canoeing takes place at Symonds Yat, which is a nationally
                                                           important area for this activity. Motorised tour boats also
                                                           operate in this area.


3.4.2.8   Archaeology and Historic Built Environment


          There are two World Heritage Sites in the STWL area (Figure 2.9, Appendix D):
            Ironbridge Gorge: a symbol of the industrial revolution in the Severn Valley in Shropshire

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                Derwent Valley Mills in Derbyshire: a series of 18th and 19th century cotton mills and an
                industrial landscape of high historical and technological interest.
           STWL themselves are also responsible for historical assets on their landholdings. There are
           several examples of listed buildings which would have to be recognised when developing sites
           e.g. old pumping stations.
           Undesignated sites and areas of archaeological significance will be present across the STWL
           region. For example, the Severn Corridor is rich in resources of historic value and many of
           these assets are related to the water environment e.g. the navigable river (many are not listed
           or scheduled). Water dependent archaeological sites are also an important feature throughout
           the region and particularly so within river floodplains and within the environs of standing
           waterbodies. The Trent corridor is also rich in archaeological sites and remains, many of major
           importance. Generally, archaeology is under threat along the Trent corridor (the severity can
           differ between locations). As many of these archaeological sites may be hydrologically linked,
           or may be water dependent, the potentially negative effect of water abstraction on these sites
           should be considered. Figures 2.10 and 2.11 in Appendix D illustrate Scheduled Monuments
           and Listed Buildings within the STWL region.


3.4.2.9    Landscape, Townscape and Visual Amenity


           The STWL Region is characterised by its diversity of landscapes and townscapes. The great
           variety of natural features (hills, rivers, meres, etc.), agricultural landscapes and manmade
           features interact to provide a large number of distinctive landscapes that characterise the
           region. Much of the region consists of rolling hills dissected by lowland river valleys, notably the
           Severn, Trent, Teme and Avon. Many of the upland and hilly areas are designated as Areas of
           Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) (Figure 2.12, Appendix D) reflecting their landscape
           quality, and the Peak District is designated as a National Park because of its importance as an
           environmental and recreational resource.


3.4.2.10   Alien Species


           Alien species have been identified within both the Severn River Basin District7 and Humber
           Basin District8 ‘Summary of Significant Water Management Issues’ documents. Key species of
           concern include Japanese knotweed, Himalayan balsam, Giant hogweed, floating pennywort,
           Australian swamp stonecrop, Water fern, Parrots feather, Common cord grass, Mink, Signal
           crayfish, Chinese mitten crab, Slipper Limpet and Zebra mussels. All can have significant
           adverse impacts upon aquatic ecosystems, native species and biodiversity if left unchecked
           and unmanaged.
           Over 32% of river length is at risk from alien species within the Severn Basin District with the
           Severn Estuary assessed as probably at risk. Although figures are unavailable for the Humber
           River Basin District, within this region many alien species are prevalent, particularly Japanese
           knotweed, Himalayan balsam and Giant hogweed. The most widespread species across the
           STWL region are also Japanese knotweed, Himalayan Balsam, Giant hogweed.


3.4.3      Severn Trent Water Operations


3.4.3.1    Reducing Unplanned Interruptions to Supply


           Figures for 2006/07 deteriorated compared to those for 2005/06 as a result of five operational
           events in the 2006 summer. 36,100 properties (or 1.07% of connected to network) experienced

           7
               Water for Life and Livelihoods (2007): Severn River Basin District Significant Water Management Issues. EA.
           8
               Water for Life and Livelihoods (2007): Humber River Basin District Significant Water Management Issues. EA.
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          an unplanned supply interruption compared with 15,200 in 2005/06 (or 0.45% of properties
          connected to network).
          In 2007 a serious flooding event impacted on water supply with the inundation of the Mythe
          Water Treatment Works at Tewkesbury. This was a one in over 200 year event but resulted in
          the loss of a drinking water supply to some 340,000 people for over a week.
          Health risks may also result associated with water availability, contaminated water supplies, or
          with the inability / delays in cleaning up effectively after a flood event.
          Other cause of unplanned interruptions can be from power cuts, thunderstorms and pollution
          events.


3.4.3.2   Planned Interruptions to Supply


          Planned interruptions to supply will occur. These will be associated with STWL operations such
          as maintenance shutdowns or engineering works.


3.4.3.3   Supply Restrictions


          Supply restrictions are a real possibility under extreme dry weather conditions when STWL may
          have to enforce restrictions on water use for non-essential purposes (e.g. hosepipe and
          sprinkler bans). STWL operate to a level of service of 3 hosepipe bans per hundred years.


3.4.3.4   Cross Boundary Water Transfer


          STWL has three major cross boundary water transfers as part of its water supply network.
          These are:
            The River Wye (Elan Valley in Wales) is an import of raw water via the Elan Valley Aqueduct
            to Birmingham (c. 330 Ml/d)
            The Derwent Valley (is an export of raw water to Sheffield (c. 50 Ml/d)
            The River Severn via Hampton Loade Treatment Works is an import of treated water to the
            Wolverhampton area (c. 40 Ml/d)

          There are also several other smaller transfers in existence between STWL and its neighbours
          including 18 Ml/d from Anglian Water’s Wing Treatment Works and 9 Ml/d from Mitcheldean
          Treatment Works to Ross-on-Wye (Welsh Water).

3.4.3.5   Reducing Leakage

          Severn Trent operate around 46,000 km of water pipe network, and at the current rate of asset
          replacement, the pipe network is slowly deteriorating (an estimated 16 Ml/d of leakage appears
          every year due to this aging). Leakage increased in the year prior to 2005/06 and despite
          significant financial investment, STWL reported that they will not attain the annual average
          target level of leakage set by Ofwat2. However, current leakage detection has improved, as
          STWL have recently reported that they are now on track to meet their 2007-08 target.
          STWL have, in setting their long-term supply / demand balance strategy, considered leakage
          options alongside water resources, treatment and distribution enhancement options to derive
          the overall least cost mix of investment schemes. The least-cost analysis supporting the Draft
          WRMP set a new economic level of leakage target of 476 Ml/d by the end of AMP5. The least-
          cost modelling also identified that the economic level of leakage would rise in most resource
          zones over future AMP periods if new water resources are brought on line. STWL remain
          committed to an economic appraisal of leakage reduction within a twin track approach, and
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          believe their methodology conforms to Defra’s, Ofwat’s and EA’s expectations of a best practice
          planning approach.
          In preparing for the Final WRMP STWL have updated their assessment of the costs and
          benefits of leakage activities, and refined the least-cost modelling approach used. In the final
          plan, their revised AMP5 target is to reduce leakage to 453Ml/d by 2014-15, which compares to
          a target of 476Ml/d in the draft plan. For the final plan they have assessed the cost impact of
          never allowing leakage targets to rise over the forecast period and their strategy is now based
          around this principle. For the Final WRMP STWL have reviewed the potential leakage benefits
          that could arise from their new policy around household meter location. Going forward they will
          be adopting a new policy of installing household meters at the point where customers’ supply
          pipes join STWL’s pipes. This policy should enable them to identify more quickly where there
          are leaks on customers’ supply pipes, and so this policy change will deliver leakage reduction
          benefits.


3.4.3.6   Protecting Water Supply from Drought


          Surface water drought is a key issue and a number of sites have been identified for potential
          Drought Permit applications through the Drought Contingency Plan. These are:
             Tittesworth Reservoir and River Churnet
             Rivers Avon/Leam at Rugby and Leamington
             River Wye at Mitcheldean
             River Severn at Trimpley
             River Derwent at Derwent Valley and Ambergate
          The majority of groundwater is abstracted from the Sherwood Sandstone aquifers which overall,
          has a high resilience to drought. Groundwater droughts are not a significant issue within the
          STWL area compared to those experienced in the South east where the principal aquifers are
          chalk.


3.4.3.7   Flooding


          One key Water Treatment Works (WTW) is known to be present within a floodplain and
          therefore at risk of flooding. This is at Mythe WTW near Tewksbury, where in July 2007, the
          works was inundated as waters over-topped the existing flood defences. As a direct
          consequence of this forced closure of Mythe, around 140,000 households (approximately
          340,000 customers) in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire endured over a week without
          potable water.


3.4.3.8   Climate Change


          In terms of considering future water resources, the WRMP has to take into account the effects
          on the environment likely to result from climate change. There is currently an element of
          unpredictability with regard to climate change, particularly in terms of how it will affect STWL
          weather in the future.
          Considerations of climate change for the development of the plan
          It is predicted that climate change could lead to longer periods of dry weather interspersed with
          high intensity storms and wet weather periods. As well as increasing the risk of flooding, these
          changes in weather patterns may also influence how water resources are managed, in
          particular how to minimise environmental damage during dry periods (such as addressing
          increased evaporation from surface water which could lead to exacerbated low flows) and how
          to the capture and store large volumes of water produced during storms, and intense periods of
          wetter weather.
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        Possible warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns associated with climate change
        are also expected to affect the environment in particular biodiversity due to habitat changes or
        loss and the potential for the increased occurrence of invasive species.




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4       Known Pressures

4.1     Introduction


        The previous Chapter sets out the existing baseline situation and key issues within the STWL
        area. This chapter will take the information detailed in Chapter 3 and highlight areas within the
        region where there are known pressures which in turn will highlight constraints to the WRMP.
        In over abstracted areas abstraction is already unsustainable. In over licensed areas the
        classification represents the potential for damage should the full licence amount be abstracted.
        Tables 4.1 and 4.2 below illustrates the main WRMU and GWMU identified as being over
        abstracted or over licensed within each of the CAMS areas, and identifies any associated water
        dependent protected sites.
        Table 4.1: WRMU within CAMS areas that are over licensed and over abstracted

                                                                 Currently Over
                                                                                        Water dependent protected
         CAMS Region         WRMU                                Abstracted / Over
                                                                                        site
                                                                 Licensed

                             WRMU 3. Wollaton                    Over Licensed
         Lower Trent &       WRMU. 2 Dover Beck and
         Erewash CAMS        Ravenshead (south) Sherwood         Over Abstracted
                             Group GWMU

                             WRMU 4: River Idle                  Over Abstracted        25 water related SSSIs

         Idle and Torne                                                                 Thorne Moors SAC, Hatfield
         CAMS                WRMU 5: River Torne                 Over Abstracted        Moors SAC.

                                                                                        13 water related SSSI

                             WRMU 1: Derwent Uplands             Over Licensed
         Derbyshire
                             WRMU: Middle Derwent                Over Licensed
         Derwent CAMS
                             WRMU 6: Derby to confluence         Over Licensed

                             WRMU 2 Blythe                       Over Licensed          4 water related SSSIs
         Tame, Anker &
                             WRMU 5 Burton Groundwater           Over Licensed
         Mease
                             WRMU 3 Bourne / Black Brook         Over Abstracted        1 water related SSSI

         Worcestershire
                             WRMU 2. Stour, Worfe & Salwarpe     Over Abstracted
         Middle Severn

                             WRMU 9: Ell Brook and GWMU          Over –Licensed

                             WRMU 17 Oxenhall South              Over –Licensed

         Severn Vale         WRMU 4: Cinderford Brook            Over Abstracted

                             WRMU 8: Glynch Brook                Over Abstracted

                             WRMU 19: Oxenhall North             Over Abstracted

                             WRMU 1: River Perry and
                                                                 Over Licensed          2 water related SSSIs
                             associated groundwater
         Shropshire
         Middle Severn       Ensdon and Whittington GWMU         Over Lisensed

                             WRMU 2: River Tern and associated   Over Licensed          Ramsar: Midlands Meres &

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                                                                Currently Over
                                                                                        Water dependent protected
         CAMS Region         WRMU                               Abstracted / Over
                                                                                        site
                                                                Licensed

                             groundwater                                                Mosses

                                                                                        SACs: Fenn’s, Whixall,
                                                                                        Bettisfield, Wem & Cadney
                                                                                        Moss, Clarepool Moss, Brown
                                                                                        Moss

                                                                                        7 water related SSSIs

                                                                                        Midland’s Meres and Mosses
                             WRMU 3: Coley Brook and Aqualate   Over Abstracted         Phase 1 Ramsar

                                                                                        1 water related SSSI

                             WRMU 2: Stoneleigh                 Over Licensed           2 water related SSSIs

                             WRMU 4: Leamington                 Over Licensed           2 water related SSSIs

         Warwickshire        WRMU 11: Hinton                    Over Licensed           1 SSSI
         Avon
                             WRMU 1: Rugby ( Upper Avon and
                                                                Over Abstracted         3 water related SSSIs
                             Swift catchments

                             WRMU 13: Besford Bridge            Over Abstracted         7 water related SSSIs

                                                                                        Scotch Brook is a BAP site for
         Staffordshire                                                                  water voles and also an AMP
                             WRMU 4: Scotch Brook               Over Abstracted
         Trent Valley                                                                   site due to concern over low
                                                                                        flows.

                             WRMU1: River Dove                  Over Abstracted         8 water related SSSIs
         Dove                WRMU 2: River Chumet including
                                                                Over Abstracted         7 water related SSSIs
                             tributaries



        Table 4.2: GWMU within CAMS areas that are over licensed and over abstracted

                                                                Currently Over
                                                                                        Water dependent protected
         CAMS Region         WRMU                               Abstracted / Over
                                                                                        site
                                                                Licensed

                             GWMU: Sherwood Sandstone within
                                                                Over Licensed
         Lower Trent &       WRMU 3
         Erewash             GWMU: Sherwood Group within
                                                                Over Abstracted
                             WRMU 2

                             GWMU Burton                        Over Licensed           No designated sites mentioned

         The Tame, Anker     GWMU Lichfield and Shenstone       Over Abstracted         2 SSSI
         and Mease                                                                      2 SSSIs
                             GWMU Measham                       Over Licensed
                                                                                        River Mease SAC.

         The                                                                            15 SSSIs
         Worcestershire      GWMU Triassic Sandstone Aquifer    Over Abstracted
         Middle Severn                                                                  Fens Pool SAC

         Severn Vale         GWMU 18: Bromsberrow               Over Abstracted

         The Shropshire      GWMU: Sambrook East, Adeney &
                                                                Over Abstracted         9 SSSIs
         Middle Severn       Longdon


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                                                                Currently Over
                                                                                        Water dependent protected
         CAMS Region         WRMU                               Abstracted / Over
                                                                                        site
                                                                Licensed

         The                 GWMU Bromsgrove                    Over Abstracted         1 SSSI
         Warwickshire
         Avon                GWMU Avon Confined                 Over Licensed           20 SSSIs

                             GWMU Tittensor Hatton Spot
                             Forsbrook,                         Over Abstracted         5 SSSIs
         The Staffordshire
         Trent Valley
                             GWMU Rugeley and Teddesley         Over Licensed           8 SSSIs




4.2     Restoring Sustainable Abstraction Programme


        The Restoring Sustainable Abstraction (RSA) Programme was set up by the EA in 1999 to
        identify and catalogue those sites that may be at risk from abstraction.
        As part of the process the EA has published a list of environmental improvement schemes
        referred to as the National Environment Programme (NEP) which identifies those schemes
        which apply to water companies.
        The RSA Programme also included non-water company abstractions and the following CAMS
        documents have identified sites that are being investigated for inclusion in the RSA programme.
        The Water Framework Directive river basin characterisation process which is being undertaken
        by the EA will also influence this programme.


        Tame Anker and Mease CAMS:
          The largest abstractions from the Lichfield and Shenstone GWMU are being investigated
          under the RSA programme
          Abstractions from the Rivers Blythe and Bourne, Litchfield and Shenstone groundwater units
          and around Hopwas Hayes Site Of Biological Importance (SOBI) investigated under the RSA
          programme.
          Within the WRMU River Blythe the effects of the public water supply abstraction at the
          bottom of the River are being investigated under the RSA programme.


        Idle and Thorne CAMS
          WRMU 1: Upper Meden Sookholme Brook SSSI which is located in the lower reaches of the
          WRMU has been included in the RSA programme.


        Worcestershire and Middle Severn CAMS
          Within the WRMU 2: Rivers Worfe, Stour and Salwarpe, the following rivers suffer from low
          flows and have been included as part of the RSA programme: River Worfe, Blackedown
          Brook, Battlefield Brook, Hoo Brook, Meryhill Brook and Checkhill Bogs.


        Warwickshire Avon CAMS
          Local impacts on the North Kilworth aquifer which is within the Rugby GWMU are being
          assessed as part of the RSA programme
          The Dixton Wood SAC within the WRMU River Avon, Upper Pound has been identified as a
          RSA site



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4.3     National Environment Programme (November 2008)


        The National Environment Programme (NEP) is the name given to a five yearly environmental
        improvement programme for water companies. The EA sets out what needs to be done in order
        to improve the environment through the following:
          Setting out which discharges need to be improved
          Identifying where impact investigations and/or changes to abstraction strategies are needed
          Determining legal consents
          Reviewing conditions of consents
          Meeting the needs of European Directives and UK Legislation


        The NEP is broken down into two parts, water resources and water quality and includes a
        requirement for water companies to undertake improvement schemes, or where more evidence
        is required, to investigate a particular problem.
        From the latest NEP which was published in November 2008, a total of 239 environmental
        improvement actions have been identified for STWL, for a combination of water resources and
        water quality. Of those 98 improvement actions have been identified where the EA have
        evidence that there is a problem which needs to be addressed. The EA has also identified 141
        investigations where it thinks that there could be a problem, but investigations are needed to
        confirm this.


4.3.1   Water Resources


        Out of the 239 actions in the STWL region 32 have been assigned to water resources. One is
        an improvement action to meet Habitats Directive requirements and 31 are investigations.
        The 31 investigations have been identified in order to assess the impact of STWL abstractions
        at a particular site or water body. The investigations have been identified under a number of
        environmental drivers, the number of actions under each of the drivers are set out in Table 4.3
        below:
        Table 4.3: Investigations identified by the NEP for water resources within the STWL region.

         Environmental Driver                 Investigation                                                   Number

                                              These will investigate whether they are impacting on a
         Habitats and Birds Directive                                                                         0
                                              Habitats Directive site

                                              These will investigate whether they are impacting on Sites of
         Countryside and Rights of Way Act                                                                    2
                                              Special Scientific Interest

                                              These will assess whether the abstraction will impact on
         Biodiversity Action Plan                                                                             2*
                                              national targets of species/habitats of principle importance.

                                              These will identify where action may be required to address a
         Local priorities                                                                                     8 **
                                              problem on a local water body

                                              These will investigated whether there will be an impact on
         Water Framework Directive            achieving good ecological status of all surface water bodies    22
                                              by 2015


                        •   - one site is shared local/BAP
                        •   ** - two sites are shared WFD/local

        The specific information associated with these actions is restricted on grounds of national
        security as it discloses information on drinking water abstraction points.



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 4.3.2   Water Quality


         Out of the 239 actions and investigations within the STWL region 207 refer to water quality. Of
         these 96 are improvement actions and 66 are investigations. A further 45 are catchment
         management improvement actions and/or investigations. The catchment management
         improvement actions and investigations are where water companies will seek to identify if water
         quality can be improved by the adoption of good agricultural practice and possibly by changing
         how land surrounding a water body is used. Table 4.4 below sets out the number of
         improvement actions and investigations which have been identified under their environmental
         drivers.


         Table 4.4: Improvement actions and investigations that have been identified within the Severn Trent region

                                                                      Improvement action / Investigation /
          Driver                                                                                             Number
                                                                      catchment management

          Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. Ensures
          sewers of a minimum size are provided for urban waste
          water, that sewage is treated to a minimum standard         Improvement actions                    29
          before discharge, and more stringent treatment is used in
          sensitive area such as areas at risk of eutrophication.

          Groundwater, prevention of dangerous chemicals from
                                                                      Improvement actions                    8
          polluting groundwaters

          Fish, ensures for the improvement of water bodies which
          both support or would be capable of supporting fish.
                                                                      Improvement actions                    2
          Minimum standards are required for waters designated
          under the Freshwater Fish Directive

          Habitats, ensures for the protection of protected sites
                                                                      Improvement actions                    1
          (Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)).

          Countryside and Rights of Way Act, ensures for the          Improvement actions                    3
          protection of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)   Catchment management                   4

          Flow, ensures that discharges from sewage treatment
                                                                      Improvement actions                    37
          works do not damage the water

          WFD specific actions

          Ammonia, seeks to reduce the amount of ammonia
          discharged from sewage treatment plants into water          Improvement actions                    10
          bodies

          Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), seeks to decrease
                                                                      Improvement actions                    5
          the level of BOD in water bodies

          Dissolved Oxygen, seeks to increase the amount of
                                                                      Improvement actions                    1
          dissolved oxygen in water bodies

          Drinking Water, seeks to improve the quality of water in    Investigations
                                                                                                             45
          areas designated as Drinking Water Protected                Catchment management

          Priority Substances, seeks to quantify the risk from
                                                                      Investigations                         62
          dangerous chemicals in water.



         The 98 improvement actions have been identified across a range of water bodies and
         groundwaters and have completion dates which range from 2012 to 2015.


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5       Scoping Summary

5.1     Introduction


        The following chapter presents a summary of Stage A of the SEA process (Scoping) and a
        summary of the key comments from scoping consultations. The aim of the Scoping Report is to
        provide relevant information to aid the reader in understanding how the SEA framework was
        developed. The SEA framework is a tool used to assess the potential significant effects and the
        sustainability of the WRMP. It enables cross examination of the strategic alternatives contained
        within the WRMP to help understand the potential effects of each option, particularly on social
        and environmental aspects.


5.2     Scoping


        The Scoping Report for the SEA of the STWL WRMP was prepared in accordance with Stage A
        of ‘A Practical Guide to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive’ (ODPM, 2005). It
        sets out the background to the SEA of the WRMP and contains a summary of:
          Other plans, programmes and environmental objectives identified as being relevant to the
          WRMP
          The baseline situation (environmental)
          Key environmental issues in the Severn Trent area (see Chapters 3 and 4 of this report)
          The SEA objectives used to appraise the WRMP
          The consultation process and responses
          The contents to be included in the Environmental Report (this report)
        The SEA Scoping Report is aimed primarily at statutory consultees and other key stakeholders.
        The scoping process was undertaken between July and December 2007.


5.2.1   Relevant Plans, Programmes and Policies


        The SEA Scoping Report presents a review of all relevant plans, programmes, policies and
        sustainability objectives that are relevant to the Severn Trent area and the WRMP. During
        formal consultation statutory consultees made reference to additional documents that should be
        added to those that were already reviewed. In accordance with both the Environmental
        Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004, the additional documents were
        reviewed post consultation to produce a more complete Scoping Report.
        For each plan or policy reviewed, the key objectives, indicators and targets were identified and
        where appropriate information regarding the implications for the WRMP and for the SEA was
        recorded. Although the list may not be exhaustive as new documents are constantly emerging,
        the documents that were listed were considered to be the plans, programmes, policies and
        objectives which hold the most relevance to the WRMP and SEA at this stage.
        The relevant policy objectives from the review were used to assist the development of the SEA
        objectives to ensure consistency within the wider policy framework. These objectives set the
        framework for the assessment of the strategic options and schemes contained within the
        WRMP.


5.2.2   Baseline Information




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        The baseline information collated as part of the Scoping Report provides a description of the
        existing characteristics of the Severn Trent Area. The information collected is used to provide a
        standard against which future predictions can be made prior to the implementation of the
        WRMP.
        The collation of baseline data is an iterative process and continued to be collected throughout
        the development of the WRMP and into this appraisal process. Baseline has been collected
        through a range of methods including literature searches and consultation with STWL and
        consultees.


5.2.3   Key Issues


        The key environmental issues in the Severn Trent area are summarised in Chapters 3 and 4 of
        this report. Identifying and understanding the key sustainability issues within the Severn Trent
        area is an important part of the SEA process.


5.3     Scoping Consultation


        Consultation is an important element of the SEA process. A five-week period of formal
        consultation on the scope of the SEA is required by the ‘Environmental Assessment of Plans
        and Programmes Regulations 2004 (England and Wales)’. Therefore the Scoping Report was
        sent to the following statutory consultees for their comments:
           Countryside Council for Wales (CCW)
           Environment Agency (Wales)
           Cadw
           English Heritage,
           Environment Agency
           Natural England
        In addition, the Scoping Report was issued to other non-statutory key stakeholders such as
        RSPB and Wildlife Trusts. Two stakeholder meetings were also held prior to the formal
        consultation phase, which included representatives from the statutory consultees and STWL.
        Statutory consultees were invited to one additional meeting post formal consultation to finalise
        the scoping stage.
        Comments received on the SEA Scoping Report have been considered and where possible
        incorporated into this Environmental Report (ER).




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6       Approach and Methodology

6.1     Introduction


        This chapter describes the approach and methodology used for the completion of Stages B and
        C of the Environmental Assessment.
        This Environmental Report builds upon the Scoping Report and includes details of impact
        prediction, evaluation, mitigation and monitoring of the environmental, effects of the emerging
        WRMP.


6.2     Approach


        Figure B below presents the approach that was taken in assessing the impacts of STWL
        WRMP on the environment. Initially a very high level low detail assessment was carried out of
        the strategic options. This then lead to a more detailed assessment of the final short listed
        schemes that were selected for inclusion within the Final WRMP.


        Figure B: Approach used to assess STWL WRMP




                               Strategic Options                                   High level
                         (Unconstrained list which may or                     assessment low detail
                              may not be feasible)




                                52 Constrained                Level of
                               options/schemes                 detail




                                    Final
                              schemes/options
                             selected in FWRMP
                                                                                 Detailed assessment




6.3     Methodology


        The main focus of the SEA process is to assess, at a strategic level, the potential effects of a
        plan / programme on the environment. The SEA Directive and associated regulations identify a
        number of components / topics for which impacts can be assessed.
        It is proposed that, due to the complexity and nature of the water environment and associated
        uses that it would be more appropriate to focus the assessment on the SEA topics rather than
        the ‘specific’ SEA objectives that were developed during the early stages of this SEA. Although
        the use of SEA objectives is not a statutory requirement of the SEA Directive or SEA
        Regulations (England) 2004, it is recognised as standard practice in the SEA process as a
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        mechanism for identifying all ‘possible’ effects that need to be addressed in the assessment.
        However, they do not always offer the flexibility required when assessing complex plans or
        environments.
        In the context of the more detailed final schemes, it was considered that the use of the initial
        SEA objectives that were developed to assess the ‘Strategic Options’ could over complicate the
        assessment process and presentation of results. It may also have led to key elements of the
        environment that may be affected by a particular scheme being over looked because it was not
        included within the ‘objective’. The SEA ‘topics’ that have been assessed as part of this SEA
        are presented in Table 6.1.
        Table 6.1: SEA Topics

         SEA Directive Topics       STWL WRMP SEA Topics                           Important Factors

                                                                       Ramsar Sites
                                                                       Special Protection Areas (SPA)
                                                                       Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)
                                Protected sites and species
         Biodiversity, Flora                                           Sites of Special Scientific Interest
         and Fauna                                                     National Nature Reserves
                                                                       Local Nature Reserves
                                                                       BAP Species and Habitats
                                Biodiversity and Ecosystems
                                                                       Ecosystems (Components and whole)
                                                                       Soil and Geology
                                Soil and Geology
                                                                       Soil Moisture
                                                                       River Morphology
         Water, Soil                                                   River Flow (Low Flow)
         (Sediment)             Hydrology                              Groundwater
                                                                       Flooding
                                                                       Water Table
                                Water Quality                          Risk of pollution
                                                                       Historic Parks and Gardens
                                                                       World Heritage Sites
                                                                       Registered Battlefields
         Archaeological         Historic Environment and
         Heritage               Archaeology                            Parks (Wales)
                                                                       Ancient Woodland
                                                                       Scheduled Monuments
                                                                       Listed Buildings
                                                                       Water Table
                                Agriculture
                                                                       Soil Moisture
                                                                       Water sports and recreation
                                Tourism and Recreation                 Water dependent habitats
                                                                       Canals and Boat Trips



         Population
                                                                       Use of canals and rivers for transportation
                                Transportation
                                                                       Recreation




                                                                       House Boats
                                Housing                                New Housing developments and population
                                                                       growth
         Material Assets                                               Sustainable water supply
                                Water resources (sustainable           Reduce demand for water
                                management)                            Increased efficiency of water use
                                                                       Resilience
                                                                       Pipelines
                                Material Assets                        Pumping stations
                                                                       Waste Water Treatment
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         SEA Directive Topics          STWL WRMP SEA Topics                         Important Factors

                                                                       Bridges
                                                                       Reservoirs
                                                                       Canals
                                                                       Weirs
         Noise                  Noise                                  Noise and Vibration
         Air Quality            Dust                                   Dust
                                                                       Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
                                                                       Character Areas
         Landscape              Landscape
                                                                       Natural Areas
                                                                       Areas of local importance (local designations)
                                                                       Energy consumption and CO2 (associated
                                Reducing CO2 Emissions                 with water supply)
         Climate                                                       Renewable Energy
                                                                       Flooding
                                Adapting to a change in climate
                                                                       Drought


        SEA is an iterative process which can be used to inform the development of plans and
        programmes. The methodology used for this SEA has assisted in the development of the final
        schemes to be included in the Final WRMP. The following flow chart (Figure C) sets out the
        SEA method in relation to the development of the WRMP. Identified schemes were cross
        checked with an initial assessment of the strategic options in order to identify their impact on
        the environment. STWL had developed a list of 141 schemes/options, which after an initial
        review was reduced to a constrained list of 59 schemes. However, this initial filter of schemes
        from 141 to 59 was based primarily on analysis of technical and financial issues and did not
        involve any input from the SEA.
        A high level assessment of the constrained list of 59 schemes before and after the
        implementation of generic mitigation measures was then carried out. The results of this
        assessment in combination with technical, financial, time and planning inputs and analysis were
        used to refine this list to a final constrained list of 52 schemes; 4 were removed on the basis of
        the SEA assessment and 5 as there was not currently a need for resources in some locations.
        These final set of schemes were then for the most part selected following least cost modelling
        (which included financial and environmental and social costs) and a final suite of schemes was
        selected for inclusion within the Final WRMP. These final schemes have been assessed in
        detail and receptor specific mitigation identified for each. The results of the assessment of the
        final schemes has been presented in Chapter 9.




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        Figure C: Flow chart illustrating the method used




                    Review of the baseline                  WRMP development of
                         information                          strategic options




                    Identification of known
                     pressures within the
                         STWL region                        WRMP development of
                                                             141 unconstrained
                                                             schemes / options

                                                                                          Technical and
                                                                                         financial review
                     Options appraisal – a
                        very high level
                    assessment of how the
                     strategic options will
                         impact on the                          Initial filter of 141
                          environment                       unconstrained schemes
                                                              to an initial list of 59
                                                             constrained schemes
                                                                                           Technical,
                     High level qualitative                                              financial, time
                     assessment of the 59                                                 and planning
                     long listed schemes                                                     inputs
                      and identification of
                       generic mitigation
                                                             WRMP development of
                                                                 final list of 52
                                                            constrained schemes for
                                                              consideration in the
                                                                  Final WRMP
                                                              Least cost modelling
                                                                   undertaken
                       Detailed qualitative
                    assessment of the short
                    listed schemes selected
                    for inclusion in the final
                    WRMP and identification
                                                             Final list of schemes
                       of receptor specific
                                                             included in the Final
                            mitigation.
                                                                     WRMP




6.3.1   Assessment Layout


        Chapter 7: Options Appraisal, presents the results of the assessment of the strategic options
        against the SEA topics. This assessment does not consider any schemes and provides a
        generic overview of the effects of these options on the environment.
        Chapter 8: Summary of the assessment of the 52 constrained schemes. Detailed assessment
        tables for all 52 schemes are presented in Tables A1 to A11 in Appendix A. The assessment
        tables for the nine schemes that were excluded from the constrained list of schemes due to
        technical, financial and environmental reasons have been presented in Appendix B.

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        Chapter 9: Assessment of Final Selected Schemes, presents a more detailed assessment of
        those schemes that have been selected for inclusion within the Final WRMP.


6.4     Assessment Criteria


        Table 6.2 below sets out the assessment criteria used to assess the impact of the options /
        schemes on the environment.


        Table 6.2: Assessment Criteria

         Potential Effect                Assessment Criteria
                                         The precise measure for significant adverse effect will vary across the different
                                         SEA topics. However, in general, the key factors influencing the potential for a
                                         significant adverse effect to occur are likely to include:

                                                  Permanent, long term or irreversible change in baseline conditions e.g.
                                                  reduction in quality of baseline environment or effect on baseline
                                                  features (receptors)
                                                  Direct and indirect effect on baseline features of international or
                                                  European importance e.g. habitats, species and sites designated under
         Significant                              the EU Habitats or Birds Directives,
         Adverse                                  Direct effect on baseline features of national importance (e.g. habitats or
                                                  species of national value/importance)

                                         It should be noted that each SEA topic, and the baseline environment/features
                                         (receptors) associated with that topic, will need to be considered on a case by
                                         case basis. There is potential that the criteria listed above will be subject to
                                         modification during the assessment to reflect specific characteristics of the
                                         baseline environment within the STWL region. However, any modifications will be
                                         reflective of the main principles of an assessment of significant adverse effect
                                         listed above.
                                         As above, the measure of negative effect will vary across the different SEA
                                         topics. However, in general, the key factors influencing the potential for a
                                         negative effect to occur are likely to include:

                                                   Temporary, short term or reversible change in baseline conditions e.g.
         Negative                                  reduction in quality of baseline environment or effect on baseline
                                                   features (receptors)
                                                   Indirect effect on baseline features of national importance (e.g. habitats
                                                   or species of national value/importance)
                                                   Direct effect on baseline features that are not designated under
                                                   international, European or national legislation
                                         There will be no change in baseline environment/features resulting from the
         No Effect             ~
                                         implementation of options / particular schemes with the STWL region.
         Slight                          The implementation of an option / particular scheme within the STWL region will
         Beneficial                      have a slight positive effect on the baseline environment/features.
                                         The implementation of an option / particular scheme within the STWL region will
         Beneficial
                                         have a slight positive effect on the baseline environment/features.




6.5     Mitigation Measures and Enhancement Opportunities


        A series of mitigation measures have been developed to reduce, prevent or minimise any
        significant adverse effects that the assessment identifies. Opportunities for enhancements have
        also been identified. These mitigation measures are presented in both Appendix A (Assessment
        of Constrained Schemes) and Chapter 9 Assessment of Final Schemes.


6.6     Monitoring Framework


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        A monitoring programme to examine the effects of implementation of the WRMP on the
        environment has been developed based on the indicators identified during Scoping. This has
        been presented in Chapter 11.


6.7     Assessment of Alternatives


        This SEA has carried out a high level assessment of all schemes that STWL have identified
        within their constrained list. Whist the final WRMP presents a short list of final schemes to be
        implemented in order to secure and meet the future water supply / demand balance the
        remained of the schemes presented within the constrained list could be implemented as
        alternative options. If during detailed design or for any unforeseen reason any of the final
        WRMP schemes could not be implemented then this assessment of alternatives should be
        used a platform from which to build upon for further environmental assessment of any of the
        alternative options.




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7       Options Appraisal

 7.1    Introduction

        The WRMP comprises a number of strategic options and specific schemes. The strategic
        options set the framework for the WRMP through the identification of the key areas of
        improvement, investment or development that are required to fill any predicted deficits in the
        supply demand balance over the 25 year period.

        In total 26 strategic options have been identified. These fall under four broad headings:

          Customer-side management (demand management) options (options C1 to C5)
          Distribution-side management (leakage management) options (options D1 to D4)
          Production-side management (production management) options (options P1 to P3)
          Supply-side management (resource management) options (options S1 to S14)



 7.2    Overview of Options

        A description of the individual options is presented in Chapter 2 Table 2.1. An overview of these
        options is presented below.

7.2.1   Supply Side Options

        The main focus of these options is the supply of water for public water supplies. These supply
        options and any schemes developed under these supply options are only considered where
        investigations have identified that the implementation of water efficiency measures and leakage
        controls are insufficient to bridge gaps in the supply/demand balance that occur within certain
        WRZs across the STWL region.
        The assessment results presented in Table 7.2 illustrates that there are a range of options
        available for increasing supply of water for consumptive purposes.
        The standard approach to the management of water supplies by STWL is to utilise a range of
        different sources; river, groundwater and reservoirs. This increases the flexibility of water
        supplies, making it more robust and able to adapt to changing seasons and related weather
        patterns. For example, during wet periods e.g. winter months, supplies from the rivers are
        generally consistent, reliable and subject to constant recharge. It is therefore preferable to
        maximise the use of these during wetter periods to allow reservoirs to fill up. The use of
        reservoirs in some areas tends to be limited during wet periods, particularly where they are
        required at other times of the year to support river flows during prolonged dry periods or
        droughts.
        Groundwater also provides a significant proportion of the volume of public water supplies
        across the STWL region. Sandstone groundwater sources in general tend to be less vulnerable
        to changes in weather e.g. dry and wet periods. However, they can be subject to over
        abstraction and storage replenishment tends to take longer. As with reservoirs, dependency on
        groundwater sources tends to increase during prolonged dry periods when rivers are at low flow
        levels.


7.2.2   Production Side Management Options

        The main focus of these options is improving the efficiency, performance and capacity of STWL
        WTWs.


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7.2.3     Customer Side Management Options

          The main focus of the Customer-side (Demand Management Options) is water conservation
          and promoting the efficient use of water. Options C1, C2 and C3 focus on water conservation in
          general. Whereas options C4 and C5 place a greater emphasis on water conservation and
          improved water efficiency during dry periods when the risk of low flows and water shortages are
          greater.
7.2.4     Distribution Side Management Options


          The main focus of these distribution-side options is on the distribution system and ensuring that
          it operates at maximum efficiency and effectiveness. This is achieved through the coverage of
          the network in terms of the distribution of pipelines across the STWL region, and the efficiency
          of the network in transferring water e.g. leakages and distances between sources and outputs.


 7.3      Assessment of Options

          A summary of the results of the assessment of the options without mitigation is presented in
          Table 7.2. Where the cells are split this illustrates the difference between short and long term
          effects and in some cases where impacts are split.

7.3.1     Supply-side Management (Resource Management) Options – Assessment Results

          With regard to the assessment of the strategic options, it should be noted that STWL have not
          identified any new reservoir schemes for inclusion within this current WRMP. However,
          reservoirs have been assessed, along with all other options, as there may be a requirement in
          the longer term (future WRMPs) for these alternative options to be considered, in particular
          taking account of future climate change and the requirements of the Water Framework Directive
          (WFD) which could place tighter constraints on abstractions from rivers and groundwater.
          The results of the assessment have identified that the different strategic options proposed in
          terms of improving water supply have varying levels of impact on the environment. However, it
          is also recognised that some options, whilst giving rise to potentially major significant effects in
          the shorter term, have longer term benefits. E.g. reservoirs may have major adverse effects
          during construction but are likely to have minor or neutral effects in the long term once the
          reservoir is established (except visual and landscape).
          Desalination plants are also likely to have significant adverse effects in the short term, and may
          have some longer term residual effects in terms of landscape and visual impacts, abstraction of
          water from estuaries or coastal areas, and the energy costs associated with the desalination
          process, but may, in the very long term, be required to contribute to water supply.


7.3.1.1   Option S1:Reservoirs

          As identified in the results presented in Table 7.2 the construction of a reservoir is likely to have
          temporary significant effects on the environment in terms of landscape and visual impacts,
          changes to hydrological systems (e.g. river flow, water quality, channel morphology), and
          related impacts on aquatic ecology (particularly designated sites and protected species).
          However, reservoirs are important in terms of water supply. They provide necessary storage of
          water collected during the wet months so that it is available for use during the dry periods. As
          well as storing water reservoirs can also be used to regulate flows. The River Severn is a good
          example how reservoirs can be used to regulate flows. The River Severn is regulated by the
          Clywedog Reservoir located in the Severn Uplands. Water is released from this reservoir during
          dry periods to support flows and allow abstraction to continue. Flows in the River Severn are
          also supported by releases from the Shropshire Ground Water Scheme (SGS) and Lake
          Vymwy.

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          The Severn Estuary is a designated Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Special Protection
          Area (SPA) and Ramsar site. This illustrates that whilst initially the construction of reservoirs
          can have major adverse effects on the environment in terms of hydrology, ecology and
          landscape, they can also have significant positive effects by assisting in the regulation of rivers.
          For example the River Severn supports 6 million people without regulation, the level of
          abstraction required to support a population of this size would have significant adverse effects
          on the environment and the integrity of the estuary.
          The baseline information presented in Chapter 3 identified the availability of water within the
          various CAMS areas. There are a number of CAMS areas where Water Resource Management
          Units (WRMUs) and Groundwater Management Units (GWMUs) are either over licensed or
          over abstracted during low flows. This has led to the EA closing these units to any new
          abstractions or setting Hands Off Flow (HOF) conditions where if flow or levels in a river drops
          below that which is required to protect the environment the abstraction must stop.
          The review of the CAMS identified that in some areas winter storage reservoirs would be
          encouraged. These areas include the Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS, where the Coley Brook
          and Aqualate GWMU are over abstracted and River Perry and Tern Catchment is over
          licensed, and the Dove CAMSs, where the River Dove and River Churnet are both over
          abstracted.
          However, with regard to the Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS, any future proposal for winter
          storage reservoirs would have to take into full account the Shropshire Hills AONB. The Dove
          CAMS would also need to consider potential effects on the Peak District National Park. With
          regard to other catchments, any proposed reservoirs in the Severn Vale CAMS would have to
          take account of the Malvern Hills AONB and the Cotswolds AONB. Any future reservoirs would
          also be subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).


7.3.1.2   Option S2: River Abstraction

          As discussed above, there are a number of WRMUs within the STWL region that are already
          designated as being over licensed or over abstracted. These include:

            Idle and Torne CAMS: River Idle and River Torne (both over abstracted)
            Derbyshire and Derwent CAMS: River Derwent (over licensed)
            Worcestershire Middle Severn CAMS: Rivers Stour, Worfe and Salwarpe (over abstracted)
            and Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer (over abstracted)
            Severn Vale CAMS: Ell Brook (over licensed), Cinderford Brook and Glynch Brook (over
            abstracted)
            Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS: River Perry and Tern Catchments (over licensed), Coley
            Brook and Aqualate GWMU (over abstracted)
            Warwickshire Avon CAMS: River Sowe, River Leam and Ithcen (Leamington), River Isbourne
            and Avon Confined GWMU (over licensed); River Avon (upper Avon) and River Swift, Bow
            Brook, River Sowe (Coventry GWMU), River Avon (Warwick GWMU) and Avon confined
            GWMU (over abstracted)
            Staffordshire Trent Valley CAMS: GWMU Rugeley and Teddesley (over licensed) and Scotch
            Brook (over abstracted)
            Dove CAMS: River Dove and River Churnet (both over abstracted)
            Wye CAMS (no units classified as ‘over abstracted’ or ‘over licensed’)
            In relation to growth points and population growth the main areas of concern in terms of
            water shortage due to high demand illustrated in Table 7.1 below:

          Table 7.1: Growth Points and Relevant CAMS

          Severn
                       Growth Points     Main WRMU and GWMU            Status              Relevant CAMS
          Trent WRZ


          East         Derby             River Derwent                 Over Licensed       Derbyshire Derwent


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           Severn
                           Growth Points       Main WRMU and GWMU             Status               Relevant CAMS
           Trent WRZ

           Midlands                            River Dove                                          Dove CAMS
                           Leicester                                          Water Available
                                               River Soar                                          Soar CAMS
                                               River Trent                                         Lower Trent and Erewash
                           Burton on Trent *                                  In progress
                                               groundwater                                         CAMS
                                               Rivers Trent, Erewash, Greet
                           Nottingham          and Devon                      Water Available
                                               Sandstone
                                                                                                   Lower Trent and Erewash
                                               River Leen and the Hucknall
                           Nottingham          Lower Magnisian Limestone      No Water Available
                                               GWMU
           Elan            Birmingham          River Wye
           Forest and
                           None                River Wye                      N/A                  Severn Vale CAMS
           Stroud
           Oswestry                                                                                Shropshire Middle Severn
           and             None                Groundwater                    N/A                  CAMS
           Ellesmere                                                                               Severn Uplands CAMS
                                               River Sowe
                           Coventry                                           Over Abstracted      Warwickshire Avon CAMS
                                               Groundwater
                                               River Severn                                        Worcestershire Middle
                           Worcester                                          No Water Available
           Severn                              Groundwater                                         Severn CAMS
                                                                                                   Severn Corridor CAMS
                           Shrewsbury and
                                               River Severn                   No Water Available   Shropshire Middle Severn
                           Atcham
                                                                                                   CAMS
                                                                                                   Shropshire Middle Severn
           Staffordshire                       Mad Brook and River Worfe
                                                                                                   CAMS
           and East        Telford             River Tern                     Over Abstracted
                                                                                                   Worcestershire Middle
           Shropshire                          Groundwater
                                                                                                   Severn CAMS
          * Burton on Trent is supplied by South Staffs Water and not STWL


          For most WRMUs that are over abstracted or over licensed, the EA has indicated that no new
          licences will be granted or has placed restrictions on future abstractions, whereby licences will
          be subject to HOF conditions during periods of low flow. Therefore in terms of new supplies
          from rivers, STWL may need to consider alternative sources where there is sufficient flow for
          abstractions to be granted throughout the year, however winter abstractions may still be
          granted from WRMU that have been classified as over abstracted during winter months.
          However, this will increase pressure on resources in other locations, therefore STWL are also
          looking at the options for improving the efficiency of their existing abstractions and promoting
          water conservation and leakage controls in conjunction with any new river abstractions, as well
          as considering links with groundwater schemes as identified in Option S11: Conjunctive Use.


7.3.1.3   Option S3: Groundwater

          The major aquifer in the STWL region and the main source of groundwater is the Triassic
          Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer. This covers a large proportion of the STWL area, i.e. the Severn
          Zone, where it is also utilised under the Shropshire Groundwater Scheme (SGS), the East
          Midlands Zone, the Staffs and East Shropshire Zone and the Idle and Torne CAMS. Part of this
          aquifer has been found to have been over abstracted e.g. in the Worcestershire Middle Severn
          CAMS area and the Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS area. However, other parts have water
          available.
          There are also parts of the Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer in the Tame, Anker and Mease CAMS
          area, and around Coventry and Nottingham where changes in land uses (reductions in
          industrial activities) and industrial activity have lead to reductions in abstractions leading to
          increases in ground water levels in these areas.
          As with rivers, STWL are looking to promote this water source and abstracting where possible,
          focusing on areas of growth and highest demand. Most of the main supply based schemes
          included in this WRMP are related to groundwater resources. However, in addition to new
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          licence or variations to existing licences, STWL should also look at improving the efficiency of
          existing abstractions in conjunction with water conservation and leakage control measures to
          help reduce gaps in the supply/demand balance in certain WRZs.


7.3.1.4   Option S4: Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)

          ASR involves the treatment and then injection of water via a borehole into the ground to be
          stored in an aquifer. This water can then be re-abstracted when additional resource is required.
          The aquifers into which water is injected are usually remote from other abstractions and often
          confined beneath impermeable strata. This reduces the potential for the mixing of treated and
          raw groundwater or the water being taken by other abstractors. As there are usually minimal
          connections with other groundwater sources or links to surface water the process of ASR is
          used purely for storage purposes and not as method for regulating and sustaining ground water
          levels.
          Where ASR can be carried out, it is seen as a more practical solution to water storage than the
          construction of reservoirs, as it does not significantly affect any other water resources and it
          utilises existing aquifers therefore reducing the need for the construction of any storage facilities
          or structures. The main potential environmental effect associated with ASR is the energy
          required to treat the water (water has to be treated prior to injection into the aquifer and on re-
          abstraction), to inject the water into the ground, and then to pump it back out. However, the
          treatments are not as energy intensive as those required to treat raw water.
          This option is a specific form of conjunctive use scheme. It takes water at times of high flows
          and puts it into storage ready for use in dryer periods.


7.3.1.5   Option S5: Raw Water Transfer (from outside the operating area)


          As with the transfer of raw water from within the STWL region to neighbouring area (D2 inter-
          company transfers, this process would have positive effects on the receiving area but could
          have negative effects on the area from where the raw water originated by increasing pressures
          on resources within that area. The future implications on these transfers in terms of climate
          change and requirements of the WFD should be considered. No specific schemes have been
          identified for inclusion in this WRMP with regard to this option.


7.3.1.6   Option S6: Saline Water (Desalination)

          In addition to reservoirs, rivers, groundwater, external and internal transfer of water and
          groundwater storage (ASR) one other very long term option is desalination plants. These are
          very expensive to construct and operate, have a very high energy demand and are likely to
          have major significant effects on coastal and estuarine environments. However, they may need
          to be considered in the very long term with regard to future WRMPs, particularly taking into
          account climate change, population growth, requirements of the WFD and the already
          vulnerable and in some parts over-exploited natural river and groundwater sources.
          One of the major factors affecting the potential or opportunity for the use of desalination
          techniques in the STWL region is its ‘inland’ position. STWL does not have any coast line
          however the tidal limit of the Severn does extend into the STWL area. There are a number of
          temporary environmental effects associated with the construction of a desalination plant and
          increased energy usage associated with the operation.


7.3.1.7   Option S7: Water Reuse


          Water re-use has also been identified as a possible solution to increasing water supply in some
          locations. Although a couple of potential water reuse schemes were identified in the long-listed
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           43 schemes (Appendix A), these have not been included in the WRMP, as the economic,
           environmental and energy costs associated with the treatment of waste water to drinking water
           standards could not be justified in terms of the gap in the supply demand balance.
7.3.1.8    Option S8: Canal Transfers

           As with the internal and external transfer of water, canal transfers would potentially displace the
           issues of water demand and shortage rather than addressing them (e.g. reduce pressure in
           destination but increase pressure at source). However, there are potentially significant positive
           associated with canal transfers in terms of canal restoration and recreation.


7.3.1.9    Option S9: Licence Trading

           Licence trading could potentially help to address in the short to medium term gaps in the supply
           /demand balance where there is sufficient licence available. However, there are no guarantees
           that licences will be available in the longer term therefore this option should only be considered
           as being supplementary to other, more reliable options for securing water supplies. Licence
           trading would also involve the need to vary licences as a change of use would be involved.


7.3.1.10   Option S10: Imports


           In comparison to the other options proposed this is the least sustainable option and would have
           the potential to have the most significant environment effects. It is highly likely that there would
           be substantial economic and energy costs involved in the import of water from abroad by
           tanker, both in terms of the transport of the water and the subsequent treatment. The potential
           effects on the environment from which the water is taken would also need to be considered,
           and could well be highly significant. When considering the towing of icebergs to provide water,
           the exploitation of an environment that is already showing significant signs of damage as a
           result of climate change would be of major significance in terms of biodiversity. There would
           also be significant effects in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with
           the towing of icebergs, water treatment and the import of water to the STWL region. The SEA
           assessment concludes that this would not be a sustainable solution (short term or longer term)
           to bridging the gaps in the supply/demand balance within the region.


7.3.1.11   Option S11: Conjunctive Use


           Option S11 recognises the need for the conjunctive use of a range of water supplies (river and
           groundwater abstraction and reservoirs). The general approach to the management of water
           resources adopted by STWL is through conjunctive use and a number of the schemes
           discussed below could also be considered in terms of conjunctive use schemes. The benefits of
           this option is that there is not reliance on one water source e.g. river or groundwater or
           reservoir. This provides greater flexibility and reduces the pressure on individual resources,
           lessening the risk of unacceptable environmental effects.


7.3.1.12   Option S12: Intra Company Transfers


           Intra-company transfers would have significant positive effects on water resources across the
           STWL region by maximising the efficiency of the water distribution network to move water from
           areas where there is water available (surplus) to where there are gaps in the supply/demand
           balance. The proposed DVA duplication scheme (Kings Corner to Hallgates) which is discussed
           in respect to Option D1 (distribution-side management) is an intra company transfer.



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7.3.1.13   Option S13: Level of Service to the Environment

           The level of service to the environment may be considered and drive decisions on the level of
           service that is provided to customers (e.g. in relation to hose pipe bans as discussed in relation
           to the customer-side management option C5). Customers influence this decision through the
           Willingness to Pay Survey and indirectly via consultations on the EA’s Water Resource
           Strategy. This is also partially driven by European law, in particular the Water Framework
           Directive (WFD). Whilst no schemes have been identified specifically in relation to this option, it
           is integral to all schemes developed and included within the WRMP.

7.3.1.14   Option 14: Validation of Environment Targets

           Many of the existing river and reservoir abstractions are controlled by environmental targets
           some of which were set over a hundred years ago. There is the need to re-evaluate some of
           these working in conjunction with the EAs CAMS and WFD requirements. For example several
           reservoirs have compensation releases specified which were originally designed to support
           downstream abstractions e.g. industrial abstractions. Much of this industry has now gone and
           there is therefore an opportunity to re-evaluate compensation releases to optimise for
           environmental benefit and to maximise the benefit for public water supply.


7.3.2      Production-side Management (Production Management) Options – Assessment Results

           In terms of the SEA, the environmental effects associated with these options are minimal as the
           main focus relates to the engineering of the WTW’s and processes involved in the treatment of
           water.
           Ultimately the main effects that these options will have in terms of the environment relates to
           the improved efficiency of the WTW. Process losses at the WTW will be reused at the works so
           is not lost and improving the efficiency of the WTW will mean less water is taken from the
           environment. This will reduce pressures on the actual water resources by reducing or, in
           response to increased demand, being able to maintain at existing levels abstraction volumes.
           This will help to minimise the effects of water abstraction on the environment, in particular
           designated sites, protected species, biodiversity and fish.


7.3.3      Customer-side Management (Demand Management) Options - Assessment Results


           Overall the assessment concludes that the Customer-side (Demand Management) options are
           unlikely to have any major significant, adverse effects on the environment as the main focus for
           the options is the promotion of water conservation and water efficiency. Option C4 tariff
           management has not been considered at this time due to the level of meter penetration being
           inadequate to implement this option.
           The assessment also concludes that, although all of the options identified are likely to have
           significant effects on the environment in terms of water conservation, it would only be possible
           to fully realise these positive effects through the implementation of the full range of options
           identified. The main reasons for this are:


             Option C1 will be difficult to enforce due to reliance on individuals adopting water efficiency
             and water conservation measures
             Option C2 is enforceable (to a degree) but would only have an effect in relation to ‘new
             developments’ not existing developments
             Option C3 household metering penetration would have positive effects in terms of
             encouraging water saving and efficiency. However, due to costs and resources involved in
             the installation of meters, it would be over a much longer timescale before the full positive
             effects of this option are realised, therefore other initiatives need to be introduced to improve
             water saving and efficiency in the short term
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          Option C4 could have positive effects on water consumption, particularly in the dry periods
          where some water sources are at risk of, or are already over abstracted at low flows.
          However, this initiative, without support from other options could be seen as disadvantaging
          certain groups of the community
          Option C5. It has been identified through the assessment that, although ‘hose pipe bans’ are
          currently only used as a last resort, there could be options to repackage and re-label hose
          pipe bans as more positive water saving or water conservation initiatives e.g. ‘Water
          conservation periods’. This would reinforce the other customer-side strategic options,
          increase the perceived ‘acceptability’ of a ‘hose pipe ban’ and would possibly enable STWL
          to introduce these measures at a higher frequency to further reduce environment pressures
          during dry periods.

        The main options that are likely to have greatest significance are Options C1, C2 and C3.
        Option C1, the water efficiency strategy, is likely to have a significant effect by promoting water
        efficiency with household and non-household customers. At the time of developing the Draft
        WRMP and SEA there was insufficient data to allow a full assessment of the costs and benefits
        of water efficiency initiatives, and as a result, limited options were included at that stage and
        this was reflected in the water efficiency savings predicted in the Draft WRMP document.
        Positive benefits of this strategic alternative could be realised through a full range of initiatives
        such as programmes investigating efficiency opportunities in both domestic and institutional
        properties. In addition, in November 2008 Ofwat set STWL a new water efficiency target for
        2010 to 2015, requiring a reduction in customer consumption by on average 1 litre / property /
        day over the next five years, equating to 3.27 Ml/d annually or 16.35 Ml/d by 2015.
        Option C2 is considered to be of greatest significance in terms of minimising the potential
        effects that increased demand associated with future housing growth would have on water
        resources and the environment, due to Government intentions to make it mandatory for ‘public’
        and ‘private’ housing development to achieve Code for Sustainable Homes (CfSH) Level 3
        (equivalent to BREEAM very good rating). For new developments to achieve CfSH Level 3 they
        have to gain maximum scores against a number of energy saving, waste reduction, carbon
        reduction, environmental improvement and water conservation initiatives. It should, be noted
        that that the Code for Sustainable Homes has not yet been adopted by the Welsh Assembly
        Government. There is, however, an aspiration for all new buildings in Wales to be zero carbon
        (equivalent to code 6) by the end of 2011, but this is reliant on a change to Building Regulations
        and devolution of powers to the National Assembly for Wales.
        Option C3, metering penetration is also expected to have significant positive effects by raising
        customer awareness of household water usage and associated costs, encourage improved
        efficiency and water conservation. Since 1995, STWL have offered household customers the
        option of having a water meter installed for free and paying for water on a metered basis. Also,
        all new properties have had water meters fitted since 1989. The aim for this option, based on
        current levels of demand for free water meters, is to achieve 66% penetration of all households
        by 2035.
        Option C5 also has the potential to have significant positive effects on water resources and the
        environment. This could be achieved through the repackaging of hose pipe bans as ‘water
        conservation periods’ or introducing ‘water conservation periods’ in addition to hose pipe bans.
        This could be used to help to reduce demand during periods of ‘low flow’ particularly in the
        WRZs where current and any future abstraction licences are subject to Hands Off Flow (HOF)
        conditions requiring abstractions to stop if flow or water levels drop below that which is required
        to protect the environment.


7.3.4   Distribution-Side Management (Leakage Management) Options – Assessment Results


        There were four main options considered in terms of the Distribution-side Management. These
        options are discussed below in terms of their potential effects on the environment.


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          As with the Customer-side Management options it was determined, through the SEA process,
          that the adverse effects of the distribution side management options on the environment are
          likely to be minimal and that improved effectiveness and efficiency of the distribution system will
          have positive effects on the environment particularly with regard to water conservation.


7.3.4.1   Option D1: Supply Integration

          Option D1 looks at supply integration via new distribution links (intra company). The main focus
          of this option is to improve the effectiveness of the distribution network across STWL’s region
          by:

            Ensuring there are sufficient network links available to supply water to areas of population
            and housing growth
            Ensuring that the resources are distributed efficiently throughout the region by creating new
            links where necessary so that existing resources can be maximised (e.g. if one area of
            supply is generating surplus water or abstraction licences are not being used to their full
            volume due to lack of demand in an area then water from that source can be redistributed to
            areas of greater demand

          In terms of the effects on the environment, improvements in the efficiency of the distribution
          network will help to optimise the use of existing resources and remove or delay the need for
          new resources.

7.3.4.2   Option D2: Bulk Transfers

          This option looks at transferring water between the STWL region and neighbouring water
          companies. Most positive effects on the environment will be in relation to areas within
          neighbouring water companies. However, as identified in the baseline review, a number of the
          CAMS areas extend beyond the boundary of the Severn Trent region, and therefore there are
          instances where more than one water company abstract water from the same catchment eg
          Welsh Water and STWL abstract from the R Wye.
          Increased demand for water in neighbouring water companies could lead to increased pressure
          on water resources and the environment. Where a number of water companies share the same
          water resource these increased pressures could have significant adverse effects on the
          availability of water for other water companies that abstract from the same catchment.
          However, bulk transfers are undertaken under mutual agreement to avoid any adverse effects.
          Bulk transfers would enable STWL to regulate to some extent the pressure exerted on certain
          water resources by neighbouring water companies by providing water from areas where there is
          ‘water available’ and less demand for the resource. This would assist other water companies in
          alleviating pressure on resources and the environment e.g. biodiversity, fish and water quality.
          However, the agreements between water companies associated with the transfer of water need
          to take into account two key factors; population increase and housing growth and climate
          change. As discussed in relation to the other strategic options, there is already a need within
          the STWL region for the water resources to be managed to ensure that water can be supplied
          to areas where restrictions on abstractions are already in place and/or there is projected
          population and housing growth. Any bulk transfers therefore need to be managed to ensure that
          the transfer of water out of the region does not lead to increased pressure and environmental
          damage within the region.
7.3.4.3   Option D3: Leakage Management

          Overall, the most significant of the proposed options with regards to water conservation is
          Option D3: Management of leaks by mains replacement or renewal or pressure reduction
          (company and supply pipe). The reduction of leaks through the replacement and or renewal of
          pipes would have significant effects on water conservation by reducing the amount of water
          required from abstractions to meet customer needs.

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          Water lost through leakage goes into the ground and so is not lost to the environment as it will
          help to recharge groundwater and hence help baseflow. The main impact is the fact that the
          water lost has been treated and so has associated costs of treatment and energy. It wis worth
          noting that water leaking from sewers will also contribute to groundwater recharge,
          Reductions in the quantities of water required from abstractions would have two fold effects: It
          would improve river flows and levels (particularly during low flow) which would help to provide
          further and improve water flows associated with designated sites of nature conservation
          important e.g. SACs, SPAs, Ramsar Sites and SSSIs, therefore improving the conditions of
          these sites. It would also help to reduce issues associated with water quality and would sustain
          rivers helping them support diverse populations of fish, aquatic species and habitats. It would
          also help to sustain the navigability of rivers. In addition this option will have positive impacts on
          reducing energy consumption as less pumping would be required.
          Looking to the future, all WRZ are predicted to experience certain levels of population growth.
          This will inevitably lead to an increased demand in water supplies, placing increase pressure on
          water resources and the aquatic environment or water related habitats and species. By
          reducing the amount of water lost through thorough leaks in the network, less water will be
          required to be abstracted overall to support population growth and associated increased
          demand through greater efficiency in the distribution network and reduced water losses.
          As identified previously (section 7.3.1.2) there are areas across the STWL region where WRMU
          and GWMUs are already either ’over abstracted’ or ‘over licensed’ at low flows and therefore
          abstractions at low flows are already having adverse effects on the environment.
          It is therefore important to focus the improvements in areas where current abstractions are
          thought to be impacting the environment at low flow and there are restrictions on new licences,
          therefore risking security of supply in response to population growth. The WRMP has identified
          a number of schemes that would be implemented across all WRZs to address leakage.
7.3.4.4   Option D4: Resilience

          The main focus of this option is to improve the security if the existing network, by creating new
          links to protect against failures or breakdowns in the system caused by damage or disruption
          e.g. due to flooding etc. These ‘reinforcement’ links will help to safeguard against situations like
          the closure of the Mythe WTW near Tewksbury as a result of the flooding in July 2007.
          Resilience schemes do not necessarily impact on deployable output and so are dealt with in the
          STWL overall Business Plan rather than the WRMP.


7.4       Cumulative Effects Associated with Strategic Options

          Overall, the results from the assessment of the strategic options concludes that the successful
          implementation of the customer-side management options (improving water conservation and
          the efficiency of water use) and improved leakage management (Option D3) would have
          significant effects on reducing future pressures on water resources by increasing the amount of
          water available for customers from existing abstractions.
          The pressure on future water supplies would also be further reduced through improvements in
          the efficiency and effectiveness of the water treatment processes (production-side management
          options) which would enable a greater proportion of the volume of existing abstraction licences
          to be treated and made available for consumption, and improvements in the distribution network
          which would enable the additional water to be distributed more efficiently across WRZs and the
          STWL region.
          In terms of the supply side options, the assessment concludes that, with appropriate mitigation
          measures e.g. investigations into water availability and the adoption of HOF conditions; the use
          of augmentation flows; and site selection; the potential effects that future groundwater and river
          abstractions would have on the environment, in particular designated nature conservation sites
          (SACs, SPAs, SSSIs and Ramsar Sites) would be minimised.
          However, in terms of environmental protection abstractions from these water resources should
          only be considered in addition to other strategic options (customer, distribution and production).
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        They should also be developed in conjunction with each other and, where possible, supported
        by other supply options. For example the benefits of reservoirs in terms of water storage and
        security of supply may need to be considered as a longer term solution, particularly taking into
        account climate change, population growth and the implications of the Water Framework
        Directive which may lead to more stringent conditions being placed on river and groundwater
        abstractions to ensure catchments achieve good ecological status.




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Table 7.2 High level Assessment of the Strategic Options
                                                                                                                                                            SEA Topics
                                                                                                         Archaeological
                        Biodiversity Flora and Fauna                  Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                           Population                                      Material Assets         Noise       Air Quality   Landscape           Climate
                                                                                                            Heritage
     Options                                                                                                                                                                                        Water
                        Protected       Biodiversity                                                         Historic                                                                                                                                                Reducing     Adapting to
                                                           Soil and                            Water                                        Tourism and                           Housing         Resources         Material
                        Sites and           and                             Hydrology                    Environment and    Agriculture                      Transportation                                                    Noise          Dust       Landscape     CO2        a change in
                                                           Geology                             Quality                                       Recreation                           provision      (sustainable       Assets
                         Species        Ecosystems                                                         Archaeology                                                                                                                                               Emissions      Climate
                                                                                                                                                                                                 management)
S1 Reservoir                                                                                         ~                                                              ~                                                                  ~             ~
S2 River                                                                                                       ~                                                    ~                 ~                                         ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
S3 Groundwater                                                                                                 ~                                                    ~                 ~                                         ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
S4 Groundwater
                                                                                                 ~             ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                         ~              ~             ~
(ASR)
S5 Raw Water
                                                                                                               ~                                 ~                                    ~                                                                      ~                              ~
Transfer
S6 Desalination                                               ~                  ~               ~                               ~               ~                  ~
S7 Effluent Re-
                            ~                ~                ~                                                ~                                 ~                  ~
use
S8 Canal Transfer                                             ~                                                ~                                                    ~                 ~                                         ~              ~                        ~
S9          Licence
                            ~                ~                ~                  ~               ~             ~                 ~               ~                  ~                 ~                                  ~      ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
Trading
S10 Imports                                                                                                    ~                 ~               ~                                    ~
S 11 Conjunctive
                                                                                                               ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                         ~              ~                        ~
Use
S12             Intra
Company                                                                                                        ~                                 ~                                    ~                                                                      ~
Transfer
S14 Validation of
Environmental                                                                                                  ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                         ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
Targets
P1       Treatment
                                                                                                               ~                                                    ~
Improvements
P2        Reducing
WTW        progress                                                                                            ~                                                    ~
loss
P3             WTW
                                                                                                               ~                                                    ~
Maintenance
C1 Promote water
saving to existing
customers
                                                                                                               ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                         ~              ~             ~
(households,
chemical         and
industrial)
C2 Promote water
conservation
activity         with
stakeholders for                                                                                               ~                 ~               ~                  ~                                                           ~              ~             ~
new builds (code
for     sustainable
homes)
C3       Household
metering                    ~                ~                ~                  ~               ~             ~                 ~               ~                  ~                                                    ~      ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
penetration
C4             Tariff
                            ~                ~                ~                  ~               ~             ~                 ~               ~                  ~                 ~                                  ~      ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
Management
C5      Level      of
Service            to                                                                                          ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                  ~      ~              ~             ~          ~                   ~
customer
D1           Supply
integration       via
new distribution
links (to make                                                ~                  ~               ~                               ~               ~                  ~
best      use      of
existing sources
intra company)
D2 Bulk treated
                                                                                                               ~                                 ~                                    ~                                                                      ~          ~                   ~
transfers
D3          manage                                                                                             ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                                                      ~          ~                   ~

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                                                                                                                                                    SEA Topics
                                                                                                 Archaeological
                    Biodiversity Flora and Fauna              Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                           Population                                      Material Assets         Noise   Air Quality   Landscape           Climate
                                                                                                    Heritage
    Options                                                                                                                                                                                 Water
                    Protected       Biodiversity                                                     Historic                                                                                                                                            Reducing     Adapting to
                                                   Soil and                            Water                                        Tourism and                           Housing         Resources         Material
                    Sites and           and                         Hydrology                    Environment and    Agriculture                      Transportation                                                    Noise      Dust       Landscape     CO2        a change in
                                                   Geology                             Quality                                       Recreation                           provision      (sustainable       Assets
                     Species        Ecosystems                                                     Archaeology                                                                                                                                           Emissions      Climate
                                                                                                                                                                                         management)
leakage by mains
replacement    or
renewal        or
pressure
reduction
(company      and
supply pipe)
D4 Resilience                                                                                          ~                                 ~                  ~                 ~                                                                  ~          ~                   ~




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8       Assessment of the Constrained
        List of schemes

8.1     Introduction


        This chapter assesses the impact of the Constrained list of schemes that have been identified
        by STWL for consideration in their WRMP.
        The assessment of the strategic options in Chapter 7 considered the potential effects of these
        options on the environment prior to the implementation of appropriate mitigation measures as
        general mitigation will be considered during the assessment of the schemes within this chapter.
        The assessment of the strategic options also identified that the customer-side, distribution-side,
        and production side management options would in general all have significant positive effects
        on the environment. These effects mainly relate the promotion of water conservation measures
        and improved water efficiency (customer-side management), and leakage management.
        Reducing leakage would enable STWL to increase the amount of water available for customers
        without having to increase abstraction volumes. This would have a significant effect on the
        environment, and has been identified as a key activity for helping to maintain the supply/
        demand balance in the future, particularly taking into account increased pressures on resources
        due to climate change and population growth.
        There is potential that infrastructure works associated with the production and distribution side
        management options (e.g. pipeline construction, WTW improvements and developments) could
        have adverse effects on the environment. However, as with the supply-side management
        options, these effects would be avoided or minimised through the implementation of appropriate
        mitigation measures.


8.2     Assessment of the Constrained list of Schemes


        This section presents the results of the high level assessment pact of the constrained list of 52
        schemes identified by STWL. Tables A1 through to A11 in Appendix A provide a more detailed
        assessment of the results for each of the four groups: supply, production, customer and
        demand management. The high level assessment that is presented in Appendix A considers
        effects before and after generic mitigation measures are taken into account. The assessment
        has been based on the level of detail currently available about each of the schemes and only
        takes into account generic mitigation based on that level of detail. Therefore the level of
        significance that is presented is a reflection of this detail and the significance of effects could
        potentially be reduced when detailed scheme information is known and where necessary
        scheme specific mitigation is developed. In addition where more than one impact is shown for
        the same SEA topic this reflects potential impacts on the scheme in the short term as a result of
        construction and in the long term when the scheme is established and fully operational.
        The results of this assessment are presented in the following sections:
          Section 8.3: Supply side management schemes
          Section 8.4: Production side management schemes
          Section 8.5: Customer side management schemes
          Section 8.6: Distribution side management schemes

        Within each section a summary table is presented upfront which provides a summary of the
        assessment of each of the schemes. These tables are broken down into the WRZ in which the
        schemes are located and present the results of each of the schemes after the generic mitigation
        measures have been taken into account. The schemes that are being taken forward to the short

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        list have also been identified in bold within the summary tables and listed within each of the
        sections detailed above.

8.3     Supply-Side Management Schemes


        In total 32 supply side schemes have been identified by STWL. A summary of the results of the
        assessment of these 32 schemes, after mitigation, broken down into the strategic option under
        which they fall and the WRZ in which they are located in presented in Table 8.1 below.
        The schemes which have been selected for inclusion within the final WRMP have been
        highlighted in bold.




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Table 8.1:Summary matrix of Tables A1 to A8 in Appendix A of the Supply Side Option Schemes after generic mitigation measures have been taken into account.
                                                                                                          Archaeological                                                                                                    Air
                                    Biodiversity Flora and Fauna           Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                   Population                               Material Assets       Noise             Landscape         Climate
                                                                                                             Heritage                                                                                                      Quality
 Option                                                                                                       Historic                                                                      Water                                                            Adapting
                 Scheme              Protected       Biodiversity                                                                            Tourism                                                                                             Reducing
and WRZ                                                             Soil and                     Water     Environment                                                       Housing      Resources     Material                                                to a
                                     Sites and           and                      Hydrology                                  Agriculture        and         Transportation                                         Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                    Geology                     Quality         and                                                          provision   (sustainable   Assets                                               change in
                                      Species        Ecosystems                                                                             Recreation                                                                                           Emissions
                                                                                                           Archaeology                                                                   management)                                                          Climate
                                         3. Severn to Draycote
               S1 Reservoir




                                         (increased capacity of                                                                                  ~                ~
                                         existing reservoir)
                                         6.Lower Severn Res
                                         Plus Severn WTWs                                                                                        ~                ~
                                         extention (Trimpley)
                                         2. New WTW             At
                                                                                       ~                                        ~                     ~           ~
          River




                                         Hayden STW
           S2




                                         108. Omberseley to be
                                         reassessed
                                                                                       ~                                        ~                     ~           ~
                                         29. Mill End (WARA
                                         GAC)
                                                                                                                                ~                     ~           ~
                                         30.        Mill      End
                                                                                                                                ~                     ~           ~
               S3 Groundwater




                                         (alternative)
                                         126. Hencott        (new
                                         resource)
                                                                                                                                ~                     ~           ~             ~
                                         150.      Edgbaston,
                                         normal (development
                                         of new groundwater                                                                     ~                     ~           ~
                                         source          and
                                         treatment)
                                         76. Norton Artificial
                                                                                                                                ~                                 ~                                                                     ~
          S4 Groundwater




                                         recharge (Worcs)
              (ASR)




                                         148. Barston ASR                                                                       ~                                 ~                                                                     ~

                                         156.    New          ASR
                                         Warwickshire
                                                                                                                                ~                                 ~                                                                     ~
           S5 Raw Water Transfer (from
              outside operating area)




                                         158. Sudbrooke          to
                                         Whadden Pipe                                                                                                 ~           ~
                                         (The Great Spring)




                                         7.Minworth        Effluent
                                                                                                                                ~                                 ~
         Effluent
         Re-use




                                         300 Ml/d
            S7




                                         8a and b Minworth
                                         Effluent 30 Ml/d
                                                                                                                                ~                                 ~
         Conjunctiv
           e Use
            S11




                                                                                                                                ~                     ~           ~             ~                                   ~        ~
Severn




                                         107. Astley Borehole




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                                                                                                                                                  Archaeological                                                                                                Air
                                                                              Biodiversity Flora and Fauna         Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                Population                              Material Assets       Noise             Landscape          Climate
                                                                                                                                                     Heritage                                                                                                  Quality
 Option                                                                                                                                              Historic                                                                   Water                                                            Adapting
                                                         Scheme                Protected      Biodiversity                                                                          Tourism                                                                                          Reducing
and WRZ                                                                                                      Soil and                   Water      Environment                                                   Housing      Resources     Material                                                to a
                                                                               Sites and          and                     Hydrology                                  Agriculture      and       Transportation                                         Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                                                             Geology                    Quality        and                                                       provision   (sustainable   Assets                                               change in
                                                                                Species       Ecosystems                                                                           Recreation                                                                                        Emissions
                                                                                                                                                   Archaeology                                                               management)                                                          Climate
                    of Environment
                    S14 Validation

                        Targets




                                                   75. Prescribed flow
                                                   review (Leam)
                                                                                                                                                         ~                                            ~                                        ~        ~        ~          ~           ~             ~




                                                   6.Lower Severn Res
                        Reservoir




                                                   Plus Severn WTWs
                           S1




                                                   extention (Trimpley)
                                                                              See Severn WRZ
                        Groundwater




                                                   150.      Edgbaston,
                                                   normal (devlopment
                            S3




                                                   of new groundwater         See Severn WRZ
                                                   source          and
                                                   treatmnet)

                                                   151. Highters Heath
                                                   ASR
                                                                                                                                                         ~                                            ~                                                                     ~
                            S4 Groundwater (ASR)
Birmingham




                                                   154.ASR         scheme
                                                   Minworth
                                                                                                                                                         ~                                            ~                                                                     ~



                                                   157. Whitacre ASR                                                                                     ~                                            ~                                                                     ~


                                                   7.Minworth      Effluent
                                                                              See Severn WRZ
                            S7 Effluent Re-use




                                                   300 Ml/d
                                                   8.Minworth Effluent 30
                                                   Ml/d
                                                                              See Severn WRZ

                                                   8a and b Minworth
                                                   Effluent 30 Ml/d
                                                                              See Severn WRZ
                        Groundwater
                            S3




                                                   51. Buckshaft                                                                                         ~                                            ~                                                                     ~
Forest and Stroud

                    (from outside operating
                     S5 Raw Water Transfer

                             area)




                                                   158. Sudbrooke        to
                                                   Whadden Pipe
                                                                              See Severn WRZ




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                                                                                                                                     Archaeological                                                                                                Air
                                                               Biodiversity Flora and Fauna           Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                Population                              Material Assets       Noise             Landscape         Climate
                                                                                                                                        Heritage                                                                                                  Quality
   Option                                                                                                                               Historic                                                                   Water                                                            Adapting
                                         Scheme                 Protected      Biodiversity                                                                          Tourism                                                                                            Reducing
  and WRZ                                                                                     Soil and                     Water      Environment                                                   Housing      Resources     Material                                                to a
                                                                Sites and          and                      Hydrology                                 Agriculture      and         Transportation                                         Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                                              Geology                      Quality        and                                                       provision   (sustainable   Assets                                               change in
                                                                 Species       Ecosystems                                                                           Recreation                                                                                          Emissions
                                                                                                                                      Archaeology                                                               management)                                                          Climate
         S7 Effluent
           Re-use




                                  7.Minworth        Effluent
                                  300 Ml/d
                                                               See Severn WRZ


                                  12.New WTW           From
                                                                                                                                                                                         ~
             Reservoi
Midland




                                  River Idle
 East

  S1
   s

                r




                                  13.New     WTW          at
                                  Carsington
                                                                                                                 ~             ~           ~                                             ~
            S2 River




                                  15. New        WTW at
                                  Newark            (East                                         ~                                                                                      ~
                                  Midlands)


                                  86 a and b. Milton                                                                                       ~                            ~                ~
   o
   u
   n
   d
     S5 Raw Water Transfer

        operating area)
         (from outside




                                  11.DV To Yorkshire
                                  Bulk Export
        S7 Effluent
          Re-use




                                  7.Minworth        Effluent
                                  300 Ml/d
                                                               See Severn WRZ


                                  88. River Trent Church
                                                                                                                                           ~                            ~                ~
   Conjun




                                  Wilne extention
    ctive
    Use
    S11




                                  155. Stanton by Bridge
                                  compensation Trent
                                                                                                                                           ~                            ~                ~
                                  46. The Hollies                                                                                          ~                            ~                ~
            S3 Groundwater




                                  48. Stoke Meir                                                                                           ~                            ~                ~
                                  50. Elmhurst                                                                                             ~                            ~                ~
                                  152.    Hopton   new
                                  groundwater    source                                                                                                                 ~                ~
                                  and treatment
            S11 Conjunctive Use




                                  17. New WTW At Little
                                  Haywood
                                                                                                                                                                        ~                ~



                                  153. Milton Borehole
                                  Trent Compensation
                                                                                                                                           ~                            ~                ~




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                                                                                                                   Archaeological                                                                                                  Air
                                               Biodiversity Flora and Fauna         Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                  Population                              Material Assets       Noise             Landscape           Climate
                                                                                                                      Heritage                                                                                                    Quality
 Option                                                                                                               Historic                                                                     Water                                                             Adapting
                             Scheme             Protected      Biodiversity                                                                          Tourism                                                                                            Reducing
and WRZ                                                                       Soil and                   Water      Environment                                                     Housing      Resources     Material                                                 to a
                                                Sites and          and                     Hydrology                                  Agriculture      and         Transportation                                         Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                              Geology                    Quality        and                                                         provision   (sustainable   Assets                                                change in
                                                 Species       Ecosystems                                                                           Recreation                                                                                          Emissions
                                                                                                                    Archaeology                                                                 management)                                                           Climate
  S14 Validation of
    Environment
      Targets




                      69.        Tittesworth
                      compensation
                                                                                                                          ~                ~            ~                ~              ~                             ~     ~        ~          ~           ~             ~




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8.3.1     Option S1 Reservoirs

          Four schemes have been identified under this option and these are:

            6: Lower Severn Reservoirs plus Severn WTWs extension (Trimpley)
            12: New WTW from River Idle (Winter Reservoir Storage)
            13: New WTW at Carsington (increasing capacity of existing reservoir)
            3: Severn to Draycote (Severn) (increased capacity of existing reservoir)


          Scheme 6 would involve a new reservoir intake from the River Severn into a new raw water
          reservoir and then a transfer from the new raw water reservoir to Trimpley Reservoir within the
          Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 12 would involve a new river abstraction from the River Idle into a new storage
          reservoir and the construction of a new Water Treatment Works (WTW) in the East Midlands
          WRZ.
          Scheme 13 would involve the construction of a new WTW to abstract water from Carsington
          Reservoir to a new service reservoir in the East Midlands WRZ.
          Scheme 3 would involve a new direct river abstraction from the River Severn at Upton for
          storage in Draycote Reservoir near Leamington. This scheme would also increase the yield of
          Draycote Reservoir. Both Upton and Draycote reservoir are within the Severn WRZ.
          Table A1 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrix of the assessment of these four schemes.


8.3.1.1   Results of Option S1 Reservoirs


          There are four schemes which have been identified under this option. However only schemes 6
          and 12, Lower Severn Reservoir and the River Idle will involve the construction of new raw
          water reservoirs. The construction of a new raw water reservoir will have negative impacts on
          the environment, particularly with regards to biodiversity and the hydrology of connected
          watercourses. However once established a reservoir can create opportunities for habitat
          creation and a centre for recreation as well a providing benefits for water supply and security of
          supply.
          Scheme 3 will involve increasing the yield of Draycote Reservoir by storing additional raw water
          from a new abstraction from the seven. Finally scheme 13 which will involve the construction of
          a new service reservoir to store treated water abstracted from Carsington Reservoir.
          All four schemes will involve the construction of a large amount of infrastructure associated with
          pumping raw and treated water from new abstractions and associated water treatment works.
          Construction of this infrastructure will have negative impacts on the environment such as the
          loss of biodiversity associated with the direct loss of land; this will also have negative effects on
          landscape. There would also be impacts on noise and air quality during construction. These
          impacts however, would be reduced through the application of good practice and appropriate
          mitigation measures. There is also the opportunity for beneficial impacts in the long term on
          biodiversity through habitat creation as well as tourism and recreation as is the case with
          scheme 6 above. Schemes 12 and 13, however will not allow for habitat creation associated
          with the new reservoirs as these will be service reservoirs which would need to be kept covered
          to prevent the contamination of treated water.
          The largest impacts of these schemes will be from the impacts associated with the additional
          abstractions that are required. If these are not appropriately controlled this could have adverse
          impacts on hydrology and water quality of watercourses and any associated groundwaters. This
          in turn could have adverse impacts on any associated biodiversity and / or protected sites and
          species, and impact on other abstractions on connected watercourses.



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8.3.1.2   Cumulative Impacts of S1 Schemes


          Schemes 6 and 3 would both require new abstractions from the River Severn which are in close
          proximity of each other. If both of these schemes were to be taken forward this could result in
          detrimental impacts on the hydrology, water quality, any associated biodiversity and protected
          sites as well as other abstractions for both water resources and agriculture downstream of these
          abstractions along the River Severn and any connected watercourses.
          If all of the schemes were to be taken forward there would be increased security of supply within
          the Severn Trent region primarily in the Severn and East Midlands WRZs where these schemes
          are located. There could also be opportunities for future transfers to increase the DO within the
          other WRZs and decrease impacts on the environment and water resources at sites within
          theses WRZs which are currently under pressure.


8.3.1.3   Schemes to Taken Forward


          None of the schemes listed under Option S1 are being included as selected schemes in the
          FWRMP


8.3.2     S2 River Abstractions


          Three schemes have been identified under this option, these are listed below:

            15: New WTW at Newark (East Midlands)
            108: Omberseley (Severn)
            2: New WTW at Hayden STW (Severn)

          Scheme 15 would involve a new direct abstraction from the River Trent for treatment in a new
          WTW in the East Midlands.
          Scheme 108 would involve a new direct river abstraction at Omberseley from the River Severn
          and the construction of a new WTW in the Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 2 would involve a new direct river abstraction from the River Severn for a new WTW at
          Hayden near Cheltenham in the Severn WRZ.
          Table A2 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrixes of the assessment of theses three
          schemes.


8.3.2.1   Results of Option S2 River Abstractions

          These schemes involve the implementation of new river abstractions within the Severn Trent
          region. Schemes 2 and 108 would require new abstractions from the River Severn and scheme
          15 requires a new direct abstraction from the River Trent.
          As well as the abstractions, all of the schemes will require the construction of the associated
          necessary infrastructure. The three schemes which involve new abstractions will require the
          construction of WTWs, pumping stations and pipelines. Schemes 15 will also require the
          construction of a service reservoir. There will be negative impacts on biodiversity, protected
          sites and species, landscape, noise and air quality during the construction of this infrastructure;
          however through the application of good practice and appropriate mitigation measures these
          impacts would be reduced.
          There could be operational impacts of these schemes associated with the new/increased
          abstractions from the rivers Severn and Trent on the hydrology and water quality and any
          associated biodiversity and protected sites and species attributed to a reduction in flow. Both

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          schemes 2 and 108 are located adjacent to a number of SSSIs therefore there could be
          adverse impacts on these two sites if appropriate mitigation were not implemented.


8.3.2.2   Cumulative Impacts of the S2 Schemes


          Two of the four schemes will involve abstractions from the River Severn. Even though these
          sites are spread over a wide area, (scheme 2 to the north of Gloucester and scheme 108 to the
          north of Worcester) if they were both to be implemented it could have detrimental impact on the
          hydrology and quality of the River Severn and its associated environments and habitats. In
          addition to this if the new abstraction at scheme 108 is not managed appropriately this in turn
          could affect the water quality and availability of water for scheme 2 which is the furthest
          downstream as well as other downstream abstractions for water resources and agriculture.


8.3.2.3   S2 Schemes to be taken forward


          There are no S2 schemes which are being included as selected schemes in the FWRMP


8.3.3     Option S3 Groundwater


          Nine schemes have been identified under this option, theses are listed below:


            127B: Notts groundwater (Company, East Midlands and Severn)
            86 a and b: Milton (East Midlands)
            51: Buckshaft (F&S)
            29: Mill End (WARA GAC) (Severn)
            30: Mill End (alternative) (Severn)
            50: Elmhurst (S&T)
            150: Edgbaston Borehole
            153 Milton Borehole Trent Transfer
            152 Hopton new groundwater source and treatment (Staffs and East Shropshire)


          Scheme 127B would involve re-commissioning of a licensed source and the development of a
          new groundwater abstraction from Nottingham Groundwater in the East Midland WRZ.
          Scheme 86 would involve a new treatment plant at a currently unused licensed source at Milton
          in the East Midland WRZ.
          Scheme 51 would involve increasing the source output from Buckshaft, to the existing licensed
          quanity, in the Forest and Shroud WRZ.
          Scheme 29 would involve the re-establishment of an existing licensed source at Mill End, by
          installing new treatment, in the Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 30 would involve a new abstraction from a source close to the currently disused Mill
          End source in the Severn WRZ. The Mill End licence would transfer to a new licence at a
          proposed new abstraction location where new infrastructure, in the form of boreholes and
          treatment works, would be required.
          Scheme 50 would involve a new treatment plant at a currently licensed but disused source at
          Elmhurst within the Staffs and East Shropshire WRZ.
          Scheme 150 would involve a new groundwater abstraction and treatment works from
          Edgbaston Depot which includes the distribution service reservoir within the Birmingham WRZ.
          Scheme 153 would involve abstraction from Milton to transfer to the River Trent for re-
          abstraction at Shardlow during low flows within the East Midlands WRZ.
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          Scheme 152 would involve a new groundwater abstraction and treatment works at Hopton
          within the Staffs and East Shropshire WRZ.
          Table A3 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrixes of the assessment of these 9 schemes.


8.3.3.1   Results of Option S3 Groundwater


          These 9 schemes involve a variety of new abstractions, re-establishments of existing licenses,
          increased output and licence transfers as well as the construction of the associated
          infrastructure such as WTW, pumping stations and pipelines.
          Out of the 9 schemes 4 are new abstractions, 5 are re-establishments of existing licences (2 of
          which are not currently used and increasing the output to licensed quantity).
          There will be short term temporary impacts on biodiversity, air quality and noise associated with
          the construction of the infrastructure. There could also be longer term impacts on landscape if
          appropriate mitigation measures are not implemented.
          Impacts associated with the implementation of the groundwater abstractions if appropriate
          mitigation measures are not applied will be on groundwater quality and the quality of connected
          watercourses, as well as the hydrology of connected watercourses. In some situations this
          could also have an impact on arable farming in the surrounding area through a decrease in the
          water table. Potentially there could be an impact on other abstractions from the same or
          connected groundwater as well as downstream on connected watercourses. If any of these
          impacts occur there could in turn be an impact on associated biodiversity including any
          protected sites and species.
          The establishment of some of these schemes will however have positive benefits on water
          resources and availability within the Severn Trent area which could in turn potentially reduce
          existing negative impacts on the environment elsewhere.


8.3.3.2   Cumulative Impacts of Option S3


          If all schemes under this option were to be implemented they could have negative impacts on
          long term supply and demand with the WRZ as well as on the associated environment. Three
          out of the nine schemes are within the Severn WRZ, two of which will involve a new abstraction.
          One scheme is proposed in the East Midlands which is full utilisation of an existing licensed
          source. Two schemes are in the Staffs and East Shropshire WRZ only one of which is a new
          abstraction. There is also a scheme in Forest and Stroud which would involve increasing the
          output of the existing site.
          Where there have been multiple options for a source, rules have been applied to ensure that
          only one option can be selected, avoiding the possibility if cumulative impacts.


8.3.3.3   Schemes to be taken forward from the S3 Option


          There are two schemes out of the nine which are being included as selected schemes in the
          FWRMP, these are:


                   150 Edgbaston Borehole in the Birmingham WRZ
                   153 Milton Borehole Trent Transfer within the East Midlands WRZ.

8.3.4     Option S4 ASR


          There are six schemes which have been identified under this option, these are listed below:
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            76: Norton Artificial Recharge (Worcs) (Severn)
            148 Barston ASR (Severn)
            151 Highters Heath ASR (Birmingham/Severn)
            154 Minworth ASR (Birmingham/Severn)
            156 New ASR Warwickshire (Severn)
            157 Whitacre ASR (Severn)

          Scheme 76 would involve the storage of surplus treated water from Frankley WTW (raw water
          from Elan Valley Reservoirs and River Severn at Trimpley) during high flows and/or storage and
          low demand periods and re abstracted during periods of high demand / drought. This scheme is
          located within the Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 148 would involve storing surplus treated water from Frankley or Whitacres WTW at
          Barston during low demand periods in the Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer beneath Barston
          Sewage Treatment works near Solihull within the Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 151 would involve the storage of surplus treated water, from Frankley WTW and or
          from the strategic grid, beneath Highters Heath distribution service reservoir in the Sherwood
          Sandstone within the Birmingham WRZ.
          Scheme 154 would involve taking surplus treated water, from Frankley WTWs and or the
          strategic grid, during low demand periods and storing it in the Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer
          beneath Minworth within the Birmingham WRZ.
          Scheme 156 would involve the construction of a new ASR and associated infrastructure in
          Warwickshire, within the Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 157 would involve the storage of surplus treated water, from Frankley or
          Strensham/Whitacre WTWs, during low demand periods in the Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer
          beneath Whitacre WTW in the Birmingham WRZ.
          Table A4 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrixes of the assessment of these six schemes.


8.3.4.1   Results of Option S4 ASR


          There are six schemes which have been identified under this option which involve the storage of
          surplus water for use in periods of high demand/drought. All of the schemes will involve the
          storage of treated water from an associated WTW.
          The storage of surplus water will have positive benefits for water resources within the Severn
          Trent Region as these resources can be used during periods of high demand or drought without
          the need to increase licensed abstraction from other sources at times of low flow. The ASR
          schemes are within the Birmingham and Severn WRZ.
          All of the schemes identified will be in confined aquifers therefore these schemes would not
          affect surrounding groundwater or water table levels.
          There could also be negative impacts associated with increased energy consumption due to the
          need to treat the water before it is stored and re-treat the water when it is abstracted. However it
          is understood that water from Frankley WTW via Trimpley will go through high quality GAC
          treatment.
8.3.4.2   Cumulative Impacts of the Implementation of the S4 Schemes


          There could be a number of cumulative impacts associated with the implementation of these
          schemes. Schemes 76, 151,154 and 157 all require the storage of surplus treated water from
          Frankley WTW and other sources supplying the strategic grid. There could therefore be
          requirements for new winter abstraction licences. There could also be impacts associated with
          the maintenance of the infrastructure at these WTW in order to cope with any increased
          treatment which may be required before storage. All of the schemes are within close proximity
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          of each other and three are within the Birmingham WRZ. The Birmingham schemes are located
          in confined aquifers and are unlikely to increase the localised flood risk within the area.
          The implementation of these schemes will however have positive benefits for water resources
          within the Birmingham area and potentially have positive impacts on water resources which are
          currently distributed to this area from other WRZs.


8.3.4.3   S4 Schemes to be Taken Forward


          There are 4 schemes under Option S4 which are being included as selected schemes in the
          FWRMP, theses are:
                   76 Norton Artificial Recharge, within the Severn WRZ
                   151 Highters Heath ASR, within the Birmingham WRZ
                   154 Minworth ASR, within the Birmingham WRZ
                   157 Whitacre ASR, within the Birmingham WRZ

8.3.5     Option S5 Raw Water Transfer from Outside the Operating Area


          There has been one scheme identified under this option, this ais listed below:


            158 Sudbrooke (Great Spring) to Whadden Pipe (Severn / Forest and Stroud)


          Scheme 158 would involve the transfer of raw water from Sudbrooke to Whadde. The raw water
          will come from the ‘Great Spring’ which drains the Severn Railway Tunnel.
          Table A5 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrixes of the assessment of this scheme.


8.3.5.1   Results of Option S5 Raw Water Transfer from Outside of the Operating Area


          There are two schemes listed under the S5 option and both involve the construction of pipelines
          in order to transfer water from outside of the Severn Trent area to areas within the Severn Trent
          region.
          These schemes will have positive benefits for the water resources within the Severn Trent
          region in particular the East Midlands and the Forest and Shroud WRZs where water will be
          transferred to. Conversely there could potentially be negative impacts on water resources,
          hydrology, water quality, and associated biodiversity in the areas which this water has
          originated.
          The main impacts on these schemes will be from the construction of the associated pipelines as
          this would have direct impacts on biodiversity and landscape. There will also be impacts on air
          quality and noise during the construction of the pipelines.


8.3.5.2   Cumulative Impacts of S5 Schemes.


          These schemes will have cumulative impacts in terms of increasing water resources within the
          Severn Trent region. There could also be cumulative impacts of these schemes with other
          schemes that are proposed in the Water Resources Plans in the adjacent operating areas.


8.3.5.3   S5 Schemes to be Taken Forward


          No schemes under this option are being included as selected schemes in the FWRMP.
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8.3.6     Option S7 Water Reuse


          There are two schemes which have been identified under this option, these are listed below:


            7: Minworth Effluent 300 Ml/d (company, Severn, Birmingham, F&S, East Midlands)
            8: Minworth Effluent 30 Ml/d (company, Severn and Birmingham)



          Scheme 7 would involve a new WTW to treat 300 Ml/d of effluent from Minworth STW within the
          Birmingham WRZ.
          Scheme 8 would involve a new WTW to treat 30Ml/d of effluent from Minworth STW within the
          Birmingham WRZ
          Table A6 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrixes of the assessment of these two
          schemes.


8.3.6.1   Results of Option S7 Water Reuse

          There are two schemes listed under this option and both will involve treating effluent to drinking
          water standards so that it can be made available for drinking water as supposed to being
          discharged into the River Tame.
          These schemes could have positive effects on water resources and the environment as they
          would not require any new or additional abstractions. However a number of watercourses
          within the Severn Trent Region are dependent on discharges from WTWs, especially at low
          flows. If this discharge was removed there could be negative impacts on the hydrology, water
          quality and associated biodiversity along that watercourse.
          There would also be negative impacts associated with increased energy consumption
          associated with treating the water to drinking water standards and the construction of the
          necessary infrastructure.


8.3.6.2   Cumulative Impact of S7 Schemes

          No cumulative impact is predicted as the implementation of these schemes would be an either
          or and therefore would not be implemented together.

8.3.6.3   S7 Schemes to be taken forward

          There are no schemes under this option which are being included as selected schemes in the
          FWRMP.
8.3.7     Option S11 Conjunctive Use

          There are four schemes which have been identified under this option, these are listed below;

            88: River Trent Church Wilne extension (East Midlands)
            107: Astley Borehole (Severn)
            155 Stanton by Bridge transfer to River Trent (East Midlands)

          Scheme 88 would involve increased treatment capacity at Church Wilne WTW to treat water
          from the River Derwent and River Trent within the East Midlands WRZ. No increase in the
          abstraction licence would be required.


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          Scheme 107 would involves adding to the additional process for an increased groundwater
          source output along with a rolling licence arrangement that would result in not net increase in
          the quantity abstracted in any 5 year period. Water from Astley is blended with River Severn
          water from Trimpley before going into supply. This is located within the Severn WRZ.
          Scheme 155 would be at Stanton by Bridge close to the River Trent in south Derbyshire within
          the East Midlands WRZ. The water would be re-abstracted at Shardlow to support the existing
          scheme during periods of low flow.
          Table A7 in Appendix A presents detailed matrixes of the assessment of these four schemes.


8.3.7.1   Results of Option S11 Conjunctive Use

          There are four schemes under this option which involve a combination of water resources in
          such a combination to get the maximum abstraction quantity.

          Scheme 88 involves an increased capacity at Church Wilne WTW, scheme 107 involves
          additional groundwater treatment and a rolling licence at Astley Borehole and scheme 155
          involves a transfer scheme on the River Trent at Stanton by Bridge.

          All of the schemes will have positive impacts on water resources within the Severn Trent region
          particularly within the Severn, Staffs and East Shropshire and East Midlands WRZs. However
          some of the schemes will require increased/new abstractions from the associated
          watercourses/groundwater which could have negative impacts on hydrology, water quality and
          associated biodiversity. Scheme 88 and 155 would involve the installation of pipelines which
          would have negative impacts on biodiversity and landscape through direct loss of land as well
          as on air quality and noise during their construction. Scheme 155 may have a reduced impact
          from the construction of the pipeline as an existing washout could be used.

8.3.7.2   Cumulative Impacts of S11 Schemes

          One of the schemes will involve increased / new abstraction from the River Trent. The River
          Trent has been identified as having water available by the Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS,
          however if all schemes were to be implemented this could impact on this status, as well as
          having detrimental impacts on the hydrology, water quality and associated biodiversity if water
          was taken during low flows. The River Trent has water available at high flows.
          .
8.3.7.3   S11 Schemes to be taken forward

          None of the S11 schemes are being included as selected schemes in the FWRMP.


8.3.8     Option S12 Intra Company Transfer.

          No schemes have been identified for the constrained list under this option.

8.3.9     Option S14 Validation of Environmental Targets

          There are two schemes which have been identified under this option, these are listed below:

            69: Tittesworth Compensation (Staffs and East Shropshire)
            75: Prescribed flow review (Leam) (Severn)

          Scheme 69 would involve a change in the compensation quantity from Tittesworth Reservoir
          into the River Churnet in order to increase the DO from Tittesworth WTW into the Staffs and
          East Shropshire WRZ.



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          Scheme 75 would involve a reduction in the prescribed flow at Princes Drive Weir which will
          allow more water to be abstracted from the River Leam at Eathorpe and Willes Meadow
          upstream of this point as well as increasing water availability in Draycote Reservoir for public
          supply. This scheme is located within the Severn WRZ.

          Table A8 in Appendix A presents the detailed matrixes of the assessment of these two
          schemes.

8.3.9.1   Results of Option S14 Validation of Environmental Targets

          There are two schemes identified under this option which both involve a reduction in the flow
          requirements set in the legislation many years ago in order to increase DO.

          Both of the schemes would have positive benefits for water resources within the Staffs and East
          Shropshire and the Severn WRZs. There could however be negative impacts on hydrology,
          water quality and associated species and habitats along the Rivers Churnet and Leam. This
          could be a particular problem for scheme 69 which would reduce the compensation flow into the
          River Churnet, as this river has been identified by the Dove CAMS as being over abstracted.
          There are also 7 water related SSSIs along this river.

8.3.9.2   Cumulative Impacts of S14 Schemes

          The implementation of both of the S14 schemes would have positive impacts on water
          resources within the Severn Trent region. The negative impacts identified for each scheme are
          unlikely to have any cumulative impacts as the schemes are located within separate River Basin
          Districts therefore their hydrology is are not connected.

8.3.9.3   S14 schemes to be taken forward

          One of the S14 schemes is being taken forward to the short list, this is listed below:

                   Scheme 75: Prescribed flow review (Leam), within the Severn WRZ.




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8.4     Production-Side Management Schemes

        Only one scheme has been identified under the production side management options. This is
        listed below:

        Option P1 Treatment Improvements

          149 Belper Meadows treatment

        Belper Meadows is a groundwater source which is currently out of supply under normal
        operational conditions. This scheme would involve adding additional water treatment and bring
        the source back into normal supply with a potential source deployable output of 4 Ml/d.
        Table 8.2 below provides a summary of the assessment of this scheme against the SEA topics
        after mitigation has been taken into account. Table A9 in Appendix A provides an assessment
        of this scheme before and after generic mitigation measures are included.




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Table 8.2: Summary Matrix of Table A9 in Appendix A for schemes under production side management
                                          Biodiversity Flora and                                        Archaeologica                                                                                                     Air
                                                                          Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                Population                                Material Assets        Noise             Landscape         Climate
                                                  Fauna                                                   l Heritage                                                                                                     Quality
                                                                                                           Historic                                                                     Water                                                              Adapting
WRZ                 Option       Scheme     Protected   Biodiversity                                                                     Tourism                                                                                               Reducing
                                                                       Soil and               Water      Environment                                                    Housing       Resources       Material                                                to a
                                            Sites and       and                   Hydrology                              Agriculture       and        Transportation                                             Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                       Geology                Quality        and                                                        provision    (sustainable     Assets                                               change in
                                             Species    Ecosystems                                                                      Recreation                                                                                             Emissions
                                                                                                         Archaeology                                                                 management)                                                            Climate
                                149.
 East Midlands




                                Belper
                                Meadows
                 P1 Treatment
                 Improvements
                                treatment                                                                    ~                              ~                ~                                              ~     ~        ~          ~
                                (existing
                                licence)




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8.4.1.1   Results of Production Side Management Option P1: Treatment Improvements


          Only one scheme was identified under this option which involves the treatment of groundwater
          at a site which is currently out of supply at Belper Meadows.
          This scheme if implemented would have positive benefits on water resources within the Severn
          Trent area. If appropriate mitigation is not implemented, there could be negative impacts on the
          hydrology of the groundwater at Belper Meadows and the hydrology, water quality and
          associated species and habitats of any connected watercourses.
          This scheme would result in positive benefits on the River Derwent though as the
          implementation of the scheme would reduce the supply needed from DVA/L Eaton to the area.


8.4.1.2   Production Side Management Options to be taken forward

          This scheme is not being included as a selected scheme in the FWRMP.




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8.5     Customer-Side Management Schemes

        Ten schemes have been indentified under this option. These are listed below:
        Option C: Water Saving

          DM1: Household Retrofit
          DM2: Free Options, Meter Maintenance
          DM3: Self Audits, household customers
          DM4: Industrial Audit and Retrofit
          DM5: Commercial Audit
          DM6: STW site audits
          DM7: Cistern Replacement Devices
          DM8: Product Subsides
          DM9: Partner Activity

        Option C3: Metering

          M1: Compulsory change of occupier metering

        Household Audit and retrofit would involve installing efficient devices in the Social Housing
        sector.
        Free meter options involves offering existing customers the choice of the installation of a water
        meter for free.
        Self Audits would involve encouraging all customers to undertake self audits of their water use
        and make information available to all consumers on how they can reduce wastage.
        Institutional and commercial audit and retrofit STWL have already started a programme that will
        deliver water efficient devices into 600 schools by the end of 09/10. This programme will be
        extended into AMP5 to deliver water efficiency savings in institutional and commercial premises,
        through the provision of advice, audits and where practicable water efficient devices.
        STW are constructing or refurbishing existing offices such as the new Severn Trent Centre
        which will demonstrate ‘best in class’ water usage equipment and behaviours.            The
        development includes water efficient fixtures, fittings and an educated workforce as well as
        rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse. STWL will also reduce the use of potable water on
        existing wastewater sites and Severn Trent office facilities.
        Provision of Cistern Displacement Devices (CDD) - STWL will continue to distribute the ‘Save-a-
        Flush’ device. STWL believe there is sufficient capacity to improve on their current penetration
        into 1 in 6 homes through active promotion to enable us to continue to deliver 1Mld per year
        usage reduction through AMP5.
        Product subsidies will involve providing access to water efficient products which will help
        consumers reduce waste. STWL have made some provision to allow for product promotion,
        subsidy and education that will be required to raise consumer awareness and encourage
        uptake.
        Partner Activity, STWL are partnering with a range of product manufacturers and suppliers to
        provide access to water efficiency products and services to our customers. They will also be
        making the optimum use of existing company visits and face to face contacts to promote water
        efficient practices and products and change consumer behaviour.




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Table 8.3: Summary matrix of Table A10 in Appendix A for the Customer Side Management Schemes
                                          Biodiversity Flora and                                                                          Archaeological                                                                                                  Air
                                                                           Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                                                  Population                              Material Assets       Noise             Landscape          Climate
                                                 Fauna                                                                                       Heritage                                                                                                    Quality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Adapting
WRZ                                            Option         Schemes         Protected   Biodiversity                                        Historic                      Tourism                                     Resources                                              Reducing
                                                                                                         Soil and               Water                                                                      Housing                    Material                                                to a
                                                                              Sites and       and                   Hydrology               Environment     Agriculture       and        Transportation                (sustainable              Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                                                         Geology                Quality                                                                    provision                  Assets                                               change in
                                                                               Species    Ecosystems                                      and Archaeology                  Recreation                                  management                                              Emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Climate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             )
                                                            DM1.
                                                            Household
                                                            audit    and
                                                                                                            ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            retrofit
                                                            DM2.    Free
                                                            Meter
                                                            Optians     /                                   ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            Meter
                                                            Maintenance
                                                            DM3.    Self
                                                            audits,
                                                            household
                                                                                                            ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            customers
                                                            DM4.
                                                            Institutional
East Midlands, Staffs and East Shropshire
 Severn, Birmingham, Forest and Stroud,




                                                            Audit       and
                                            C1 Promote      Retrofit                                        ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~
                                            water saving    including
                                            to   existing   educational
                                            customers       initiatives
                                            (households,
                                                            DM5.
                                            commercial
                                            and
                                                            Commercial                                      ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~              ~                    ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            Audit
                                            industrial)
                                                            DM6. Severn
                                                            Trent water                                     ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~              ~                    ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            site audits
                                                            DM7. Cistern
                                                            Displacemen
                                                            t      Devices                                  ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            (Save-a-
                                                            flush)
                                                            DM8.
                                                            Products                                        ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            subsidies
                                                            DM9. Partner
                                                            activity
                                                            including                                       ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                                            Educational
                                                            Initiatives
                                            C3              M1.
                                            Household       Compulsory
                                            metering        change    of                                    ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~             ~                                   ~        ~          ~           ~
                                            penetration     occupier
                                                            metering




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8.5.1.1   Results of the Customer-side Management Schemes


          All of the customer side management schemes will have a beneficial effect on water resources
          through reduced water use which in turn will have positive impacts on the wider environment. However
          those schemes where the onus is on the customer may be difficult to implement and may require
          additional marketing measures to ensure they are adopted as widely as possible.


8.5.1.2   Customer-side Management Schemes to be taken forward

          All of the customer-side management schemes have been selected for inclusion within the FWRMP.




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8.6     Distribution Side Management

        The main focus of the distribution-side options is on the distribution system and ensuring that it
        operates at maximum efficiency and effectiveness. This is achieved through the coverage of the
        network in terms of the distribution of pipelines across the STWL region, and the efficiency of
        the network in transferring water e.g. leakages and distances between sources and outputs.
        Four schemes have been identified under the distribution side management options, these are
        listed below:


          14: DVA Dup, Kings Corner to Hallgates
          26: Hampton Loade to Trimpley
          11: Yorkshire Bulk Export to Derwent Valley
          142, 143, 144, 145,146 and 147: Leakage control through combination of active leakage
          control, mains replacement and pressure control


        Scheme 14 would involve increasing the capacity of the Derwent Valley Aqueduct (DVA)
        between Kings Corner (near Derby) to Hallgates Service Reservoir near Leicester.
        Scheme 26 would involve a transfer of water resources from Hampton Loade to the service
        reservoir at Trimpley.
        Scheme 11 would involve the transfer of treated water from Yorkshire Water Rivelin WTW back
        to North Derbyshire.
        Schemes 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, and 147 would involve the installation of household meters
        at the point where customers supply pipes join with STWL’s pipes in order to enable leaks to
        customer’s supplies to be identified more quickly.
        Table 8.4 below presents a summary of the assessment of the schemes after mitigation has
        been taken into account. This table also breaks the schemes down by the WRZ in which they
        fall.
        Table A11 in Appendix A provides a more detailed assessment before and after mitigation of
        the four schemes that have been identified and includes potential mitigation measures as well
        as identifying those schemes that are being taken forward to the short list.




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Table 8.4: Summary matrix of Table A11 in Appendix A for the Distribution-Side Management Schemes
                                          Biodiversity Flora and                                                      Archaeological                                                                                                     Air
                                                                             Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                            Population                                Material Assets        Noise             Landscape          Climate
                                                 Fauna                                                                   Heritage                                                                                                       Quality
                                                                                                                         Historic                                                                      Water                                                              Adapting
WRZ                      Option           Scheme          Protected   Biodiversity                                                                      Tourism                                                                                               Reducing
                                                                                     Soil and               Water      Environment                                                     Housing       Resources       Material                                                to a
                                                          Sites and       and                   Hydrology                               Agriculture       and        Transportation                                             Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                                     Geology                Quality        and                                                         provision    (sustainable     Assets                                               change in
                                                           Species    Ecosystems                                                                       Recreation                                                                                             Emissions
                                                                                                                       Archaeology                                                                  management)                                                            Climate
                      D1     Supply
                      integration
                      via        new
                      distribution
                      links       (to   26. Hampton
                      make      best    Loade    to
                                                                                                                                             ~             ~                ~                                                    ~        ~
                      use          of   Trimpley
                      existing
                      sources intra
                      company)
  Severn




                                        143.
                      D3    Manage      Leakage
                      leakage    by     control
                      mains             through
                      replacement       combination
                      or renewal or     of       active
                      pressure          leakage                                         ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~              ~                                     ~        ~           ~          ~
                      reduction         control,
                      (company          mains
                      and    supply     replacement
                      pipe)             and pressure
                                        control

                      D1     Supply
                      integration
                      via        new
                      distribution      14.      DVA
                      links       (to   Dup. Kings
                      make      best    Corner     to     See East Midlands WRZ
                      use          of   Hallgates
                      existing
                      sources intra
                      company)
  Birmingham




                                        142.
                      D3    Manage      Leakage
                      leakage    by     control
                      mains             through
                      replacement       combination
                      or renewal or     of       active
                      pressure          leakage                                         ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~              ~                                     ~        ~           ~          ~
                      reduction         control,
                      (company          mains
                      and    supply     replacement
                      pipe)             and pressure
                                        control

                      D3    Manage      146.
                      leakage    by     Leakage
  Forest and Shroud




                      mains             control
                      replacement       through
                      or renewal or     combination
                      pressure          of       active                                 ~                                   ~                ~             ~                ~              ~                                     ~        ~           ~          ~
                      reduction         leakage
                      (company          control,
                      and    supply     mains
                      pipe)             replacement
                                        and pressure
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                                                                   Biodiversity Flora and                                         Archaeological                                                                                                     Air
                                                                                                    Water, Soil (Sediment)                                                 Population                                Material Assets        Noise             Landscape          Climate
                                                                          Fauna                                                      Heritage                                                                                                       Quality
                                                                                                                                     Historic                                                                      Water                                                              Adapting
WRZ                              Option           Scheme          Protected   Biodiversity                                                                          Tourism                                                                                               Reducing
                                                                                             Soil and                   Water      Environment                                                     Housing       Resources       Material                                                to a
                                                                  Sites and       and                    Hydrology                                  Agriculture       and        Transportation                                             Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                                                             Geology                    Quality        and                                                         provision    (sustainable     Assets                                               change in
                                                                   Species    Ecosystems                                                                           Recreation                                                                                             Emissions
                                                                                                                                   Archaeology                                                                  management)                                                            Climate
                                                control

                              D1     Supply
                              integration
                              via        new
                              distribution      14.      DVA
                              links       (to   Dup. Kings
                              make      best    Corner     to                                                 ~                                                        ~                ~
                              use          of   Hallgates
                              existing
                              sources intra
                              company)

                                                11. DV To
                                                Yorkshire
                                                Bulk Export
                              D2        Bulk
                                                (as orignially
                              treated
 East Midlands




                                                proposed, 11
                              transfers
                                                changed to a                                                                                                           ~                ~
                              (inter
                                                Bulk Treated
                              company)
                                                Transfer,
                                                inter
                                                company)

                                                145.
                              D3    Manage      Leakage
                              leakage    by     control
                              mains             through
                              replacement       combination
                              or renewal or     of       active
                              pressure          leakage                                         ~                                       ~                ~             ~                ~              ~                                     ~        ~           ~          ~
                              reduction         control,
                              (company          mains
                              and    supply     replacement
                              pipe)             and pressure
                                                control

                                                147.
                              D3    Manage      Leakage
 Staffs and East Shropshire




                              leakage    by     control
                              mains             through
                              replacement       combination
                              or renewal or     of       active
                              pressure          leakage                                         ~                                       ~                ~             ~                ~              ~                                     ~        ~           ~          ~
                              reduction         control,
                              (company          mains
                              and    supply     replacement
                              pipe)             and pressure
                                                control

                              D3    Manage      144.
                              leakage    by     Leakage
                              mains             control
 Oswestry




                              replacement       through
                              or renewal or     combination                                     ~                                       ~                ~             ~                ~              ~                                     ~        ~           ~          ~
                              pressure          of       active
                              reduction         leakage
                              (company          control,
                              and    supply     mains

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                                    Biodiversity Flora and                                        Archaeological                                                                                                   Air
                                                                    Water, Soil (Sediment)                                               Population                                Material Assets        Noise             Landscape         Climate
                                           Fauna                                                     Heritage                                                                                                     Quality
                                                                                                     Historic                                                                    Water                                                              Adapting
WRZ        Option     Scheme       Protected   Biodiversity                                                                       Tourism                                                                                               Reducing
                                                              Soil and                  Water      Environment                                                   Housing       Resources       Material                                                to a
                                   Sites and       and                   Hydrology                                 Agriculture      and        Transportation                                             Noise    Dust     Landscape     CO2
                                                              Geology                   Quality        and                                                       provision    (sustainable     Assets                                               change in
                                    Species    Ecosystems                                                                        Recreation                                                                                             Emissions
                                                                                                   Archaeology                                                                management)                                                            Climate
        pipe)       replacement
                    and pressure
                    control




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8.6.1     Option D1 Supply Integration

          Two schemes have been identified under this Option. Scheme 14 involves increasing the
          capacity of the Derwent Valley Aqueduct (DVA) and scheme 26 involves transferring water from
          Hampton Loade to a Service Reservoir at Trimpley.
          Neither of the schemes would require a new or increased abstraction instead they would allow
          water to be distributed more easily to areas where it is needed, which in turn will have positive
          impacts on water resources especially in the East Midlands and Severn WRZs where these
          schemes are located.
          The main impacts associated with these schemes would be during the construction of the
          pipelines through the direct loss of land. This would have negative impacts on biodiversity and
          landscape as well as air quality and noise during their construction. However with the
          application of good practice and appropriate mitigation these impacts would be reduced.


8.6.1.1   Cumulative Impacts of D1 Schemes

          If both of these schemes were to be implemented there would be a cumulative benefit for the
          water resources within the Severn Trent Region. There could be a net negative impact with the
          Severn Trent region through the increased energy consumption required to treat and distribute
          the resources.

8.6.1.2   D1 schemes to be taken forward

          One of the two schemes is being included as selected scheme in the FWRMP, this is listed
          below:

                    Scheme 14: DVA Dup, Kings Corner to Hallgates, within the East Midlands WRZ

8.6.2     Option D2 Bulk Treated Transfers

          One scheme has been identified under this option which involves the transfer of treated water
          from Yorkshire Waters Rivelin WTW back to north Derbyshire.
          This scheme will have positive benefits for the water resources within the Severn Trent region in
          particular the East Midlands WRZ where the water will be transferred to. On the reverse there
          could potentially be negative impacts on water resources, hydrology, water quality, and
          associated biodiversity in the areas which this water has originated.
          The main impact on this scheme will be from the construction of the associated pipeline as this
          would have direct impacts on biodiversity and landscape. There will also be impacts on air
          quality and noise during the construction of the pipelines.
          This scheme will also have impacts on energy consumption through the treatment of water,
          however unlike the S5 scheme this puts the onus on Yorkshire Water.


8.6.2.1   Cumulative Impacts of D2 Schemes

          Only one scheme has been identified under this option, therefore there will not be any
          cumulative impacts with other D2 schemes.


8.6.2.2   D2 Schemes to be taken forward

          There are no D2 schemes being included as selected schemes in the FWRMP.


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8.6.3     Option D3 Leakage Reduction

          Seven schemes have been identified under this option one in each of the WRZs except
          Birmingham where two schemes have been identified. These schemes involve the installation
          of household meters at the point where customers supply pipes join with STWL’s pipes in order
          to enable leaks to customers supplies to be identified more quickly.
          These schemes will have positive benefits for water resources as it will reduce water wastage.
          There may be minor negative impacts on air quality and noise during the installation of the
          meters and any main replacements, however these will be short term and temporary.


8.6.3.1   Cumulative Impacts of D3 Schemes


          The implementation of the D3 schemes will have positive impacts on water resources
          throughout the whole of the Severn Trent region.


8.6.3.2   D3 schemes to be taken forward

          All of the schemes identified are being included as selected schemes in the FWRMP, these are
          listed below:

                 Scheme 142, leakage control within the Birmingham WRZ
                 Scheme 143, leakage control within the Severn WRZ
                 Scheme 144 leakage control within Oswestry WRZ
                 Scheme 145, leakage control within the East Midlands WRZ
                 Scheme 146, leakage control with the Forest and Shroud WRZ
                 Scheme 147, leakage control in the Staff and east Shropshire WRZ




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9       Assessment of Final Schemes
        included in the FWRMP
9.1     Introduction


        This chapter comprises of a more detailed assessment of the schemes which have been
        selected for inclusion in the FWRMP from the final constrained list of schemes presented in
        Chapter 8.
        The main focus of the FWRMP is to improve water efficiency and reduce leakages to maintain
        supply/demand balance in WRZs. This will be achieved through the implementation of the
        schemes which promote water conservation and water efficiency and aim to improve leakage
        control.
        However, it is also recognised by the FWRMP that, primarily due to predications of the effects
        that climate change will have on future water resources, there are certain WRZs where
        schemes to enhance the deployable output will be needed to maintain the supply / demand
        balance. Where these gaps have been identified there was a need to identify specific schemes
        that will help to secure additional supply for the future.
        In addition to securing water supplies, one of the main considerations of the FWRMP is
        sustainability. STWL has sought to minimise the economic, social and environmental costs of
        the strategy. This is of particular importance with regard to the future availability of water taking
        into account the potential implications of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) which requires
        all inland and coastal waters to achieve good chemical and ecological status by 2015. The
        direct impacts of the WFD have been excluded from the FWRMP as the EA guidance explicitly
        instructs water not to include this at this time. However, STWL has screened out any potential
        new water resource options that would be likely to have an adverse impact on the known
        environmentally sensitive sites listed in the EA’s National Environment Programme. WFD
        baseline information has been included within this SEA for the FWRMP schemes. This will
        provide a baseline from which to build upon if this is required in the future.
        The identification of schemes for securing water supplies is based on a set of guiding principles
        and the relative cost of the options available:
          Priority should be given to improving the efficiency of existing abstractions and associated
          infrastructure before identifying alternative new abstraction locations;
          Reducing demand; and
          Policies and programmes for new river abstractions should be considered supplementary to
          other supply sources and water conservation measures (Customer-side management and
          management of leakages).
        In total approximately 141 options/schemes were initially identified for consideration in the
        WRMP (unconstrained list). Some of these options included schemes focused on water
        efficiency and the control of leakage and schemes to enhance future water supply.
        The first stage filter removed a number of the original potential schemes and resulted in a
        constrained list of 52 schemes (32 of which were supply side options) which were assessed in
        Chapter 8 (further details of these schemes have also been presented in Appendix A, Tables
        A1 to A11). The process of identifying the schemes involved the progressive filtering of sites
        subject to specific criteria. The process of constraining the list of schemes from the original 141
        involved criteria covering a range of technical, financial and time, planning and environmental
        issues. However, this initial filter of sites was based primarily on analysis of technical and
        financial issues and did not involve any input from the SEA.
        The constrained list of potential schemes were then subject to more detailed analysis, including
        some input from the results of the assessment of the strategic options carried out as part of the
        SEA. These results are discussed in the sections in Chapter 9.

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        From the constrained list of potential schemes 7 schemes have been selected and promoted as
        preferred options in the FWRMP from the Supply Side Strategic Option. Eight schemes have
        been selected and promoted as preferred options from the Distribution Side Strategic Options.
        A further ten schemes have been promoted from the Customer Side Strategic Option. There
        were no schemes taken forward from the Production Side Strategic Option These options are
        proposed to be implemented of 25 years from 2010. Table 9.1 below provides a summary of the
        schemes that are promoted in the FWRMP broken down into WRZ and strategic options.
        Table 9.1: Summary of the schemes promoted in the Final WRMP within each WRZ
        WRZ            Scheme
                                                   Strategic Options (Supply Side Management Options Only)
                No     Description
                                         S1   S2   S3    S4    S5   S6    S7    S8    S9   S10    S11    S12    S13      S14
        WRZ1: Oswestry
                       Additional
                M1     household              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                       metering
                DM1    Water
                                              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                -9     Efficiency
                       Leakage
        AMP5
                       control
        to
                       through
        AMP
                       combination
        9
                       of active
                144                           This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       leakage
                       control, mains
                       replacement
                       and pressure
                       control
        WRZ2: Staffordshire and east Shropshire
                       Additional
                M1     household              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                       metering
                DM1    Water
                                              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                -9     Efficiency
                       Leakage
        AMP5
                       control
        to
                       through
        AMP
                       combination
        9
                       of active
                147                           This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       leakage
                       control, mains
                       replacement
                       and pressure
                       control
        WRZ3: Severn
                       Additional
                M1     household              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                       metering
                DM1    Water
                                              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                -9     Efficiency
        AMP5
                       Leakage
        to
                       control
        AMP
                       through
        9
                       combination
                143                           This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       of       active
                       leakage
                       control, mains
                       replacement
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        WRZ           Scheme
                                                   Strategic Options (Supply Side Management Options Only)
                No     Description
                                         S1   S2   S3    S4    S5   S6    S7    S8    S9   S10    S11    S12    S13      S14
                       and pressure
                       control
                       DVA
                       duplication –
                       Kings Corner
        AMP
                14     to Hallgates.          This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
        5
                       Additional
                       support to the
                       east/west link.
                       Prescribed
        AMP
                75     flow    review
        8
                       Leam
        AMP            Norton ASR
                76
        8
        AMP            Edgbaston
                150
        6              Borehole
        AMP            Highters
                151
        6              Heath ASR
        AMP            Minworth
                154
        6              ASR
        AMP            Whitacre ASR
                157
        6
        WRZ4: Birmingham
                       Additional
                M1     household              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                       metering
                DM1    Water
                                              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                -9     Efficiency
                       Leakage
        AMP5
                       control
        to
                       through
        AMP
                       combination
        9
                       of       active
                142                           This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       leakage
                       control, mains
                       replacement
                       and pressure
                       control
                       Highters
        AMP6    151
                       Heath ASR
                       Minworth
        AMP6    154
                       ASR
        WRZ5: Forest and Stroud
                       Additional
                M1     household              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                       metering
                DM1    Water
                                              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
        AMP5    -9     Efficiency
        to             Leakage
        AMP            control
        9              through
                144    combination            This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       of active
                       leakage
                       control, mains
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        WRZ           Scheme
                                                   Strategic Options (Supply Side Management Options Only)
                No     Description
                                         S1   S2   S3    S4    S5   S6    S7    S8    S9   S10    S11    S12    S13      S14
                       replacement
                       and pressure
                       control
        WRZ6: East Midlands
                       Additional
                M1     household              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                       metering
                DM1    Water
                                              This scheme relates specifically to Customer-side Management Options
                -9     Efficiency
                       Leakage
        AMP5
                       control
        to
                       through
        AMP
                       combination
        9
                       of active
                145                           This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       leakage
                       control, mains
                       replacement
                       and pressure
                       control
                       DVA
                       duplication –
                       Kings Corner
        AMP5    14     to Hallgates.          This scheme relates specifically to Distribution-side Management Options
                       Additional
                       support to the
                       east/west link.
                       Milton
        AMP            Borehole
                153
        9              Trent
                       Transfer




9.2     Supply Side Management Schemes Final Assessment Results

        The following sections present the assessment of the supply side management schemes
        contained within the FWRMP on the environment.


9.2.1   Schemes identified for inclusion in the Final WRMP and assessed in this Final SEA ER


        The supply schemes selected for inclusion in the Final WRMP have been listed below in
        relation to the WRZ within which they are located. They are also illustrated on Figures 1.1, 1.2
        and 1.3 in Appendix D.

        WRZ3: Severn

          150: Edgbaston Borehole
          75: Prescribed Flow Review (River Leam)
          76 Norton ASR
          157 Whitacre ASR

        WRZ4: Birmingham

          151: Highters Heath ASR (will also benefit the Severn WRZ)

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             154: Minworth ASR (will also benefit the Severn WRZ)

          WRZ6: East Midlands

             153 Milton Borehole Trent Transfer


9.2.2     Assessment of the Final Supply-side Schemes

          The assessment of the short listed schemes identified have been assessed set out using the
          criteria set out in Table 9.2 below.
          Table 9.2: Key to illustrate Significance in the detailed assessments


                                 Symbol                                           Level of Significance

                                                                                     Minor Adverse
                                                                                   Moderate Adverse
                                                                                     Major Adverse
                                      -                                                  Neutral
                                                                                    Minor Beneficial
                                                                                   Moderate Beneficial
                                                                                    Major Beneficial


9.2.2.1   Scheme 75 Prescribed Flow Review (River Leam)


          The EA have identified that additional resources may be available from the River Leam above
          Leamington, subject to a review of the prescribed flow conditions (EA Southern Strategy March
          2001). This scheme proposes a permanent reduction in the prescribed flow at Princes Drive
          Weir in Leamington, from 18.2 MI/d to 12.2 MI/d. This is consistent with the reduction STWL
          would seek during a drought using Drought Permit Powers, as described in STWL Drought
          Plan. This means that the current prescribed flow of 18.2 MI/d at Princes Drive Weir in
          Leamington will be reduced by 6 Ml/d, resulting in a potential source deployable output gain of
          up to 6 MI/d.
          Currently, when the river flow drops below 18.2 MI/d at Princes Drive Weir, Leamington,
          abstraction must cease at the Company’s intakes at Eathorpe, which provides refill water for
          Draycote Reservoir, and Willes Meadow Reservoir which provides water for Draycote water
          treatment works and Campion Hills treatment works respectively. To allow Campion Hills works
          to maintain continuous production, either (i) releases must be made from Draycote Reservoir to
          the river at Eathorpe for subsequent re-abstraction or (ii) raw water must be transferred from
          Draycote Reservoir to Willes Meadow Reservoir via a dedicated pipeline.
          A reduction in the prescribed flow to 12.2 MI/d will increase water availability upstream of the
          Princes Drive Weir, allowing us greater flexibility in meeting treated water demand in this area.
          In addition, a reduction in the prescribed flow to 12.2 MI/d at Princes Drive Weir will increase
          the water availability in Draycote Reservoir for public supply. Draycote reservoir lies within the
          Leam catchment and the major abstraction for refill is from the River Leam at Eathorpe, with
          additional abstractions from the River Avon at Rugby and upstream from Stanford Reservoir.
          Peak week output will not be affected by this scheme, and all infrastructure already exists for
          delivery of this scheme. This scheme will not introduce new raw water into the area, merely
          utilise more of what is currently available.
          The scheme design will be refined at detailed feasibility stage.

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        Table 9.3 below presents the results of the assessment of the construction and operation of this
        scheme on the environment.


        Table 9.3: Scheme 75 – Prescribed Flow Review (River Leam)

        75 – Prescribed Flow Review (River Leam)
                                                                                                             Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                Significance     Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                           Significance
                         This scheme does not
                         involve the construction of
        Construction     any infrastructure, resulting        -         None necessary                          -
                         in no negative effects
                         during a construction phase
                         A reduction in river water
                                                                        Control of prescribed flow in
                         levels due to decrease in
                                                                        River Leam, release water
                         prescribed flows (reduction
                                                                        from Draycote Reservoir if           Neutral
                         on wetted area /
                                                                        water levels drops below
                         vulnerability to desiccation
                                                                        12.2Ml/d
                         etc)
                                                                        Protected species surveys
                                                                        Biological surveys in the
                                                                        headwaters of the River
                         Ecological sensitivity /
                                                                        Leam.
                         species disturbance for the
                                                                        Do not allow the new
                         in-stream plant, fish and
                                                                        prescribed flow to drop below        Neutral
                         animal communities within
                                                                        12.2Ml/d
                         the River Leam due to
                                                                        Undertake early engagement
                         abstraction of water.
                                                                        with stakeholders such as
                                                                        CCW, NE and EA during the
                                                                        detailed feasibility stage.
                                                                        None suggested as it is likely
        Negative                                                        that the controlling factor in
        Effects                                                         invertebrate abundance is
        (Operation)                                                     water quality rather than water
                                                                        quantity. If prescribed flows
                                                                        are not allowed to drop below
                                                                        12.2Ml/d, this will have a
                                                                        limited effect on flow
                         Effect of potential changes                    conditions and therefore is not
                         in flow on invertebrate              -         likely to significantly affect       Neutral
                         communities                                    invertebrate communities.
                                                                        However the prescribed flow
                                                                        should not be allowed to drop
                                                                        below 12.2 Ml/d as this could
                                                                        impact on the quality of the
                                                                        River Leam, therefore
                                                                        potentially having an impact
                                                                        on the invertebrate
                                                                        communities.
                                                                        None suggested as it is
                                                                        suggested that reduced flows
                                                                        would have would have little
                                                                        effect on present fish
                         Fish community’s sensitivity                   populations and the cleansing
                         to adverse / reduced flow            -         of the sensitive spawning            Neutral
                         conditions                                     gravels would not be effected
                                                                        as the abstractions should not
                                                                        alter the number of
                                                                        occurrences that the river is in
                                                                        ‘spate’.
                                                                        Control of prescribed flow in
                         Quantity of water available                    River Leam
                         to dilute discharges /                         Review of River Quality
                                                                                                             Neutral
                         pollutants downstream of                       Objectives (RQO) and
                         the abstraction points.                        consent discharges for the
                                                                        catchment.
                                                                        Improvements in STWs (With
                         Effects on abstractions (for
                                                                        improvements in the
                         agricultural, recreational
                                                                        discharge quality and
                         and industrial users),                                                              Neutral
                                                                        therefore downstream river
                         discharges and water
                                                                        water quality, mitigation
                         quality
                                                                        measures should be
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        75 – Prescribed Flow Review (River Leam)
                                                                                                                Residual
        Effect Type        Potential Effect                  Significance     Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                              Significance
                                                                            unnecessary).
                                                                            A review of the quality of the
                                                                            sewage discharges may be
                                                                            necessary if monitoring finds
                                                                            that low flows do not provide
                                                                            sufficient dilution of treated
                                                                            sewage discharges. This will
                                                                            decrease the need for dilution
                                                                            on the river is the quality of
                                                                            sewage discharges is
                                                                            increased.
                                                                            Monitoring of BOD (ammonia,
                                                                            nitrate and phosphate loading
                                                                            at low flow levels).
                                                                            Monitoring of WFD
                                                                            compliance
                                                                            Monitoring and compliance of
                                                                            the RBMP objectives for the
                                                                            River Leam
                           Potential influence of
                           abstraction on designated                        Appropriate management of
                           riparian wetland,                                existing wetlands will prevent
        Negative           recreational and                                 their drying out.                   Neutral
        Effects            navigational assets and on                       Implementation of carbon
        (Operation)        historic sites within the river                  offsetting schemes
                           corridor
                           Energy consumption and
                           CO2 emissions associated                         Monitor water pressure levels
                           with piping water and                            Consideration of Carbon
                           treating increased volumes                       offsetting measures
                           of water
                           Potential effects on nearby
                           designated sites if there is
                                                                            The HRA has concluded that
                           a hydrological connection.
                                                                            providing the prescribed flow
                           The nearest SSSIs to this
                                                                            does not drop below 12.2 Ml/d
                           scheme include;
                                                                            this would translate in a
                               Stockton Railway
                                                                            reduction of less than 1% of
                               cutting and quarry,
                                                                            the wetted perimeter and
                               Draycote Meadows,                                                                Neutral
                                                                            therefore no significant effect
                               Ryton Wood and
                                                                            is predicted on this site.
                               Long Itchington & Ufton
                                                                            Further consultation with NE,
                               Woods etc.
                                                                            CCW and the EA should be
                           The scheme is also
                                                                            undertaken at the detailed
                           hydrologically connected to
                                                                            feasibility study stage.
                           the Severn Estuary SAC,
                           SPA and Ramsar Site.
                                                                            Improved catchment
                                                                            management, implementation
                                                                            of support measures to
                           Effects on WFD compliance                        improve catchment wide              Neutral
                                                                            diffuse pollution.
                                                                            Regular monitoring of targets
                                                                            and compliance
                           Effects on recreational
                                                                            No mitigation identified as
                           users / navigation on the           Neutral                                          Neutral
                                                                            necessary
                           River Leam
                                                                            No mitigation identified as
                           Effects on historical sites         Neutral                                          Neutral
                                                                            necessary
                           This scheme will see an
                           increase in the volume of
                           water available for                              Monitor water levels and
                           abstraction upstream of the                      prescribed flow on the River
                           Princes Drive Weir on the                        Leam to ensure it does not
                           River Leam. This may                             drop below required levels
        Positive Effects
                           mean that abstractions                           and negatively affect
                           from other sources, where                        associated ecology
                           surface water sources are                        No other mitigation measures
                           more stressed, will be                           identified
                           reduced. e.g. where current
                           abstractions at low flows

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            75 – Prescribed Flow Review (River Leam)
                                                                                                    Residual
            Effect Type    Potential Effect             Significance     Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                  Significance
                           are having unacceptable
                           effects on the environment
                           (over abstracted)
                           Security of supply for the                  No mitigation measures
                           public in the Severn WRZ                    identified



        This specific scheme proposes a permanent reduction in the prescribed flow on the River Leam
        from 18.2 MI/d to 12.2 MI/d. This will result in more deployable water and a greater security of
        supply for the public in the Severn WRZ in particular Rugby, south Warwickshire and parts of
        Coventry. This will result in positive effects, particularly in areas which have been identified as
        future growth points such as Coventry. These additional resources to the Severn WRZ may
        reduce environmental pressures that other abstraction sources are experiencing.
        Any surface water abstraction measures, however, will have some effects on riverine
        environments. Water quality may be affected by diffuse agricultural discharges, discharges from
        Sewage Treatment Works (STWs) and insufficient flows in rivers to facilitate dilution of
        discharges. Results from an assessment conducted by Hyder Consulting in 2007 for the River
                                                                      9
        Leam and Upper Avon Drought Permit Impact Assessment suggests that a reduction in the
        prescribed flow in the River Leam from 18.18Ml/d to 12Ml/d represents a reduction in water
        levels of between 3cm and 5cm. The report provides an extensive review of the effects on
        invertebrates, fisheries, macrophytes, water quality etc. It concludes that the reduction in the
        prescribed flow is unlikely to have detrimental effects on marginal plants and/or the visual
        aesthetic value of this area, as the decrease in wetted perimeter translates into a reduction of
        less than 1%. In addition, recent data shows that water quality in the River Leam has improved,
        possibly attributable to alterations in STWs. With improved quality discharges, river water is
        less likely to degrade in low flows. It is thus possible that this scheme could result in some
        adverse effects during operation, however, as indicated in Table 9.3 above, through the
        implementation of appropriate environmental mitigation measures any potential environmental
        effects could be avoided or minimised.
        Although it is possible that this scheme may affect the SSSIs listed in the above table, Hyder
        Consulting (2007) determined in their Drought Permit Impact Assessment that none of the
        SSSIs listed are water related. Only four sites (out of 26 designated sites) in this report were
        identified as possibly being at risk of detrimental impacts from the Drought permit and should be
        investigated further. The four sites included Leam Valley (LNR), Welches Meadow (LNR),
        Eathorpe Marsh (Reserve) and Brandon Marsh (SSSI). It cannot be concluded during this
        strategic level of assessment if this scheme will have an effect on these sites.
        Thus, this scheme will use the available capacity in the River Leam and will enable the
        resources in the Severn WRZ to be utilised more effectively.
        Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive
        River Leam flows within the Warwickshire Avon river catchment which is within the Severn
        RBD. The stretch of River Leam between its confluence with Rains Brook and its confluence
        with River Itchen has been designated as a Heavily Modified Water Body (HMWB) due to water
        storage. Therefore, its objective is to achieve good ecological potential (GEP) rather than good
        ecological status (GES). River Leam has currently been classified as being at moderate
        potential. This classification has been attributed to mitigation measures being at moderate
        potential and phosphates at poor status, but chemical status assessment is not required for this
        stretch of the River. It is predicted that this watercourse will not achieve GEP until 2027, as it is
        considered disproportionately expensive and technically unfeasible to achieve GEP by 2015.




        9
          Hyder Consulting (2007) River Leam and Upper Avon Drought Permit Impact Assessment, Birmingham, United
        Kingdom
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9.2.2.2   Scheme 76 – Norton ASR


          An Artificial Recharge scheme is one where water is injected into a receiving aquifer during
          times when surplus water resource is available. The equivalent volume of water can then re-
          abstracted during periods of high demand or low water resource availability. It is distinct from
          Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR), in that the body of water abstracted is not necessarily the
          same as the body of water injected.
          Severn Trent Water Authority constructed an artificial recharge scheme at Norton near
          Stourbridge in Worcestershire In the mid-1980s. This was designed to take water from
          Trimpley water treatment works during wet periods, inject it into the ground and then re-abstract
          the same volume during dry weather periods. The site was never fully commissioned or put into
          service, although many of the assets are still present on the site, including 5 boreholes, 2 of
          which are currently used as normal supply boreholes. The site still holds a licence for re-
          abstraction of 10Ml/d of injected water from any of these holes.
          This scheme is to undertake the necessary works to enable Artificial Recharge at the Norton
          site, with a view to deliver a dry year deployable output benefit of 6 Ml/d. The source of
          recharge for the proposed scheme will be Frankley water treatment works, which receives its
          raw water mainly from the Elan Valley Reservoirs, but also with smaller quantities from the
          River Severn at Trimpley.
          Re-abstracted water from this scheme will most likely be deployed into the EVA or Norton DSR,
          with potential to benefit the Severn and/or Birmingham zones by reducing demand on the Elan
          Reservoirs or Frankley WTW respectively.
          It is envisaged that the works required to complete the scheme will be undertaken over an AMP
          and would comprise:
            Undertake Injection/Abstraction tests on the Boreholes to confirm quality and yield
            Lay short pipelines to and from the DSR
            Install any pre and post-treatment (e.g. pH correction/marginal chlorination)
            Install/re-furbish pumps and control systems as required.

          The scheme currently assumes that there are no changes to the existing abstraction licence
          arrangements at Elan Valley and the River Severn, at Trimpley. It is possible that an additional
          winter abstraction licence may be required at the River Severn at Trimpley to deliver the full
          deployable output gain for this scheme. This will be considered further at detailed feasibility
          stage, as will the operational rules required to deliver the deployable output gain of the scheme.
          Prior to the construction of the scheme, it is envisaged that environmental investigations,
          including preparation of supporting statements for any Section 32 consent application and water
          features survey for the testing phase, will be completed.
          The scheme currently assumes that there are no changes to the existing abstraction licence
          arrangements at Elan Valley and the River Severn, at Trimpley. It is possible that an additional
          winter abstraction licence may be required at the River Severn at Trimpley to deliver the full
          deployable output gain for this scheme, this will be considered further at detailed feasibility
          stage.
          Table 9.4 below presents the results of the assessment of the construction and operation of this
          scheme on the environment.
          Table 9.4: Scheme 76 – Norton ASR

          76: Norton ASR
                                                                                                       Residual
          Effect Type      Potential Effect                    Significance    Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                     Significance
                                                                                 Phase I habitat
          Negative         Habitat loss and species                              surveys
          Effects          disturbance along pipeline routes                     Protected species     Neutral
          (Construction)   (short distances).                                    surveys
                                                                                 Site

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        76: Norton ASR
                                                                                                            Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                          Significance
                                                                                  selection/routeing
                                                                                  studies (avoidance
                                                                                  of designated sites
                                                                                  and BAP habitats)
                                                                                  Habitat
                                                                                  reinstatement and
                                                                                  translocation where
                                                                                  necessary
                                                                                  Undertake early
                                                                                  engagement with
                                                                                  stakeholders such
                                                                                  as CCW, NE and
                                                                                  EA.
                                                                                  Site selection
                         Temporary landscape and visual
                                                                                  Routing studies
                         impacts during construction of                                                     Neutral
                                                                                  Sympathetic
                         pipeline.
                                                                                  Reinstatement
                         Loss or disturbance of                                   Archaeological
                         archaeological features on the sites                     surveys
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         of the pipelines (boreholes already                      Geo-physical
                         exist).                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Temporary site
                                                                                  drainage
                                                                                  Control of sediment
                         Possible temporary reductions in                         discharge
                         water quality may occur due to                           EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         increased sediment and pollutants                        (Contractors
                         in runoff                                                Environmental
                                                                                  Management Plan)
                                                                                  Control of works
                                                                                  near watercourses
                         Temporary air quality impacts                            Wheel washing
                         associated with dust generated                           Ground dampening          Neutral
                         during construction                                      during dry periods
                                                                                  Control of working
                                                                                  hours
                         Noise generated from construction                        EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         activities                                               Control of noise from
                                                                                  construction plant
                                                                                  and machinery
                                                                                  Control of working
                         Community disturbance during                             hours
                         construction of pipelines e.g. traffic                   EMP and CEMP              Neutral
                         and footpath diversions                                  Minimise road
                                                                                  diversions
                         Land sterilisation along pipeline
                                                                                  Route selection           Neutral
                         easement
                         Energy consumption and CO2
                         emissions associated with ‘double –
                         handling’ of water i.e. piping treated                   Monitor water
                         water from Frankley to Norton,                           pressure levels
                         injecting this water into the aquifer,                   Implementation of
                         re-abstracting, re-treating /                            carbon offsetting
                         chlorinating water and then                              schemes
                         distributing it into the Severn and
                         Birmingham WRZs.
        Negative                                                                  This scheme would
        Effects                                                                   not require an
        (Operation)                                                               increase in
                                                                                  abstraction from
                         Potential impact on protected sites
                                                                                  either of these
                         including the Elan Valley SAC,
                                                                                  sources therefore
                         SPA, River Wye SAC and the
                                                                                  this scheme would
                         Severn Estuary SAC, SPA and                                                        Neutral
                                                                                  not result in a
                         Ramsar as raw water for this
                                                                                  significant effect on
                         scheme would originate from the
                                                                                  these protected
                         Elan Valley and the River Severn.
                                                                                  sites.
                                                                                  If an additional
                                                                                  winter abstraction is
                                                                                  required from the
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        76: Norton ASR
                                                                                                             Residual
        Effect Type        Potential Effect                        Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                           Significance
                                                                                   River Severn at
                                                                                   Trimpley to reach
                                                                                   the full deployable
                                                                                   output this should be
                                                                                   in accordance with
                                                                                   the requirements of
                                                                                   the CAMS and any
                                                                                   revised measures
                                                                                   that are include in
                                                                                   the next CAMS
                                                                                   cycle.
                           This scheme does not lead to a net
                           gain or loss of water in the aquifer,
                           as the aquifer functions as a water
                           bank. The subsequent / indirect /
                                                                                   Monitor water levels
                           knock-on effects of this scheme on
                                                                                   and potential effects
                           hydrologically linked designated
                                                                                   on ecology
                           sites and their associated ecology
                                                                                   Undertake a HRA to
                           cannot be assessed in detail at this         -          determine potential
                                                                                                             Neutral
                           stage although it is predicted that
                                                                                   effects on
                           there will be no effect on
                                                                                   designated sites and
                           designated sites as a result of this
                                                                                   on related ecology
                           scheme as the water is stored in an
                           aquifer, thus unlikely to be
                           hydrologically linked to designated
                           sites.
                                                                                   Monitor quality of
                           Water quality changes in aquifer                        water being re-
                                                                                                             Neutral
                           during storage and movement.                            abstracted from
                                                                                   aquifer
                                                                                   Hydrological
                                                                                   investigations should
                                                                                   be carried out to
                           Impacts on the quality of the
                                                                                   determine the
                           existing groundwater through the                                                  Neutral
                                                                                   impacts
                           storage of treated water.
                                                                                   Monitoring of
                                                                                   neighbouring
                                                                                   groundwaters
                                                                                   Flood Risk
                           Potential for an increased in
                                                                                   Assessment should
                           localised flooding in the                                                         Neutral
                                                                                   be carried out at the
                           surrounding area
                                                                                   project stage.
                           This scheme would enable water
                           resources to be distributed when
                           necessary, and to be stored when
                           there is excess supply. It would
                           make use of water when in surplus
                                                                                   No mitigation
                           (winter/high flows/high storage) for
                                                                                   measures identified
                           use in dry conditions preventing the
                           need for new abstractions during
                           periods of lower flows which would
        Positive Effects   result in increased environmental
                           pressure.
                           Security of supply for the Severn
                                                                                   No mitigation
                           and Birmingham WRZs, and their
                                                                                   measures identified
                           identified growth points.
                           Limited ecological effects due to
                           storage of water in semi confined                       No mitigation
                           aquifer below ground. Testing has                       measures identified
                           already been undertaken.



        The main focus of this ASR scheme is the storage of surplus water from Frankley WTWs (raw
        water from Elan Valley and the River Severn) during high flows/ storage and low demand
        periods. During periods of high demand / dry / drought conditions this water would be re-
        abstracted, chlorinated and deployed for public water supply. This will result in more deployable
        water into the Severn WRZ, with potential to benefit the Birmingham WRZ by offsetting demand

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          on Frankley, depending on how it is operated. This scheme aims to effectively use water that
          would otherwise be lost in winter either to the River Severn or the River Wye.
          There may be some adverse effects of this scheme associated with construction of the short
          lengths of pipeline. However, as indicated in Table 9.4 above, through the implementation of
          appropriate environmental mitigation measures e.g. route selection studies and environmental
          surveys required under UK legislation e.g. Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations
          2010 and Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (amended by the Countryside and Rights of Way
          Act 2000), these potential environmental effects could be avoided or minimised.
          During operation, this scheme may have multiple environmental benefits, as the aquifer
          functions as a water bank with multi year storage. The net groundwater recharge/abstraction
          will be zero over the course of the license period, i.e. the same volume that is injected will be
          abstracted. In times of water surplus, substantial water deposits will be stored deep
          underground. This may reduce the need to construct large and expensive surface reservoirs as
          withdrawals can occur when demand exceeds available water. ASR systems may be more
          beneficial to the environment than surface reservoirs as they minimise loss of water due to
          evaporation and also offer more protection from tampering. ASR may restore and expand the
          function of an aquifer that has experienced long-term declines in water levels due to heavy
          pumping necessary to meet growing urban and agricultural water needs.
          This scheme will store water in the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer. Although hydrogeological
          investigations have already been undertaken to verify the hydraulic parameters and the
          geochemical compatibility of the recharge water and the native water of the aquifer, it is
          anticipated that there will be minimal negative environmental effects. This scheme already has
          an abstraction licence from the EA.
          Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive
          The Elan Valley Reservoirs are monitored under the WFD. Caban-coch Reservoir has been
          classified as currently being at moderate ecological potential and Craig Goch and Claerwen
          Reservoirs classified as currently being at good ecological potential.
          Trimpley Reservoir has been classified under the WFD as an artificial waterbody due to drinking
          water use. Trimpley Reservoir is currently classified as being at good ecological potential. This
          classification is based on expert judgement (i.e. no biological data was available) and the
          chemical status assessment is not required.
          The scheme itself is located within the Worcestershire Middle Severn and the PT Sandstone
          groundwater body, which is currently at poor quantitative status. It is predicted that this
          groundwater body will not achieve its good quantitative status and good chemical status until
          2027. It is considered to be technically unfeasible and disproportionately expensive to achieve
          its good status by 2015. This waterbody is related to a drinking water protected area and it is
          protected under the Nitrates Directive.
          This option should be implemented in conjunction with other supply sources and water
          conservation measures (i.e. customer-side management and management of leakages).


9.2.2.3   Scheme 150 Edgbaston Borehole


          This scheme is to develop a new groundwater source in Birmingham that would deliver a dry-
          period average deployable output benefit of 10Ml/d.
          The proposed location of this will be on our Edgbaston DSR site: alternative locations in the
          local area may also be considered at feasibility stage. This output from this scheme would
          offset the demand normally on Frankley water treatment works, resulting in more water
          available to be deployed to the Birmingham or Severn zones.
          A pilot borehole was constructed in 1995 at the Edgbaston DSR site, but is no longer thought to
          be serviceable due to infill. New pilot and production boreholes would need to be constructed,
          with sand production controlled by appropriate construction of boreholes into a deeper
          competent sandstone formation, screening and/or pump controls.
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        It is assumed that new plant would be required for cryptosporidium, bacteria and
        iron/manganese removal: nitrates and hardness would be treated by controlled blending in the
        DSR. It is assumed that the dry season production from this specific scheme would need to be
        10Ml/d to deliver the deployable output. benefit, which is slightly higher than the CAMS annual
        licensable resource for the groundwater management unit. Further resource modelling will be
        undertaken at feasibility stage to define how the licence should be structured in order to both
        maintain CAMS compliance and deliver the D.O benefit, for example. by using a 5-year rolling
        average licence total with additional conjunctive use.
        The assumed components relevant to the detailed assessment include:

               The construction of a new pilot borehole to approximately 300m;
               Construction of a nominal 2 production boreholes to approximately 200m with 50m of
               casing and slotted casing (including filter pack) to the base of the hole;
               New treatment facilities and blend controls;
               Installation of Pipelines and Pumping Equipment

        Prior to the construction and deployment of a new source at Edgbaston, it is envisaged that
        environmental investigations, including preparation of supporting statements for Section 32
        consent application and water features survey, will be required.

        Table 9.5 below presents the results of the assessment of the construction and operation of this
        scheme on the environment.

        Table 9.5: Scheme 150 – Edgbaston Boreholes

        150 – Edgbaston Boreholes
                                                                                                         Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                        Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                       Significance
                                                                                 Phase I habitat
                                                                                 surveys
                                                                                 Protected species
                                                                                 surveys
                                                                                 Site
                                                                                 selection/routeing
                                                                                 studies (avoidance
                         Habitat loss and species                                of designated sites
                         disturbance along pipeline route                        and BAP habitats)
                                                                                                         Neutral
                         (likely to be short distances) and on                   Habitat
                         site of treatment works                                 reinstatement and
                                                                                 translocation where
                                                                                 necessary
                                                                                 Undertake early
                                                                                 engagement with
                                                                                 stakeholders such
                                                                                 as CCW, NE and
                                                                                 EA.
        Negative                                                                 Site selection
        Effects          Temporary landscape and visual
                                                                                 Routing studies
        (Construction)   impacts during construction of                                                  Neutral
                                                                                 Sympathetic
                         pipeline and treatment works.
                                                                                 Reinstatement
                         Loss or disturbance of                                  Archaeological
                         archaeological features on the sites                    surveys
                                                                                                         Neutral
                         of the boreholes, pipelines and                         Geo-physical
                         treatment works.                                        surveys
                                                                                 Temporary site
                                                                                 drainage
                         Although unlikely as no water                           Control of sediment
                         courses are situated near the site of                   discharge
                         this scheme, temporary reductions                       EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                         Neutral
                         in water quality may occur due to                       (Contractors
                         increased sediment and pollutants                       Environmental
                         in runoff                                               Management Plan)
                                                                                 Control of works
                                                                                 near watercourses
                         Temporary air quality impacts                           Wheel washing
                                                                                                         Neutral
                         associated with dust generated                          Ground dampening

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        150 – Edgbaston Boreholes
                                                                                                           Residual
        Effect Type     Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                         Significance
                        during construction                                      during dry periods

                                                                                 Control of working
                                                                                 hours
                        Noise generated from construction                        EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        activities                                               Control of noise from
                                                                                 construction plant
                                                                                 and machinery
                                                                                 Control of working
                        Community disturbance during                             hours
                        construction e.g. traffic and footpath                   EMP and CEMP              Neutral
                        diversions                                               Minimise road
                                                                                 diversions
                        Land sterilisation to some uses
                        along pipeline easement (likely to                       Route selection           Neutral
                        be short in length)
                                                                                 Monitor water
                                                                                 pressure levels
                        Energy consumption and CO2
                                                                                 Potential for the
                        emissions associated with piping
                                                                                 implementation of
                        water and treating increased
                                                                                 carbon offsetting
                        volumes of water
                                                                                 schemes should be
                                                                                 investigated
                        This scheme will contribute to an
                        increase in abstraction of
                        groundwater in the Birmingham
                        region in an area highlighted as
                        having potential problems with                           Monitor water levels
                        rising groundwater due to the                            (particularly during
                        cessation of industrial abstractions.                    test pumps) and
                        The subsequent / indirect / knock-                       potential effects on
                        on effects of this abstraction on                        ecology
                        hydrologically linked designated                         The HRA has
                        sites and their associated ecology                       concluded that these
                        cannot be assessed in detail at this                     is no mechanism to
                        stage. A very brief analysis shows                       effect any Natura
                        that there are several designated                        2000 or Ramsar            Neutral
                        Parks and Gardens near the                               sites during the
                        proposed scheme (unlikely to be                          operation of this
                        hydrologically linked). Edgbaston                        scheme
        Negative        Pool (SSSI) lies approximately                           Appropriate
        Effects         2.13km from the proposed scheme                          regulation of the
        (Operation)     site. This is a water related SSSI as                    abstraction in line
                        the main habitat includes standing                       with the CAMS and
                        open water and canals, which may                         any updates to the
                        have a hydrological connection                           CAMS
                        (Pool supports a range of
                        macrophytes and has a fringe of
                        swamp consisting of several co-
                        dominant species).
                                                                                 Monitor ground
                                                                                 water levels
                                                                                 Appropriate
                        Reduction in soil moisture
                                                                                 regulation of the
                        availability for crop growth and                                                   Neutral
                                                                                 abstraction in line
                        yields.
                                                                                 with the CAMS and
                                                                                 any updates to the
                                                                                 CAMS
                                                                                 Monitor ground
                                                                                 water levels
                                                                                 Prevent high levels
                                                                                 of abstraction
                                                                                 Achieve a balance
                        Low base flows in rivers caused by                       between the uses of
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        abstraction of groundwater                               water resources for
                                                                                 PWS and to support
                                                                                 the environment.
                                                                                 Appropriate
                                                                                 regulation of the
                                                                                 abstraction in line

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        150 – Edgbaston Boreholes
                                                                                                            Residual
        Effect Type        Potential Effect                        Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                          Significance
                                                                                   with the CAMS and
                                                                                   any updates to the
                                                                                   CAMS
                                                                                   Implementation of
                                                                                   UK groundwater
                                                                                   protection policies
                           Risk of pollution of groundwater
                                                                                   Monitor ground
                           from point and diffuse sources due                                               Neutral
                                                                                   water levels
                           to changes in groundwater levels.
                                                                                   Land use control by
                                                                                   limiting potentially
                                                                                   polluting activities
                           Following the cessation or
                                                                                   Monitor ground
                           reduction of pumping, it is possible
                                                                                   water levels             Neutral
                           that there may be effects of rising
                           water tables in urban areas.
                           This scheme would reduce the
                           demand required from Frankley,
                           resulting in more water available to
                           be deployed into the Severn WRZ
                           from Frankley WTW (e.g. up the
                           Meriden – Highters Heath link and
                           subsequently benefiting the Severn
                                                                                   No mitigation
                           WRZ.
                                                                                   measures identified
                           It would make use of water when in
                           surplus (winter/high flows/high
                           storage) for use in dry conditions
                           preventing the need for new
                           abstractions during periods of lower
                           flows which would result in
        Positive Effects   increased environmental pressure.
                           Security of supply for the Severn
                           WRZ, and areas such as Coventry
                           and Worcester which are identified
                           as growth points in the Severn                          No mitigation
                           WRZ. Also ensures water available                       measures identified
                           for the Birmingham WRZ
                           (Birmingham also identified as a
                           growth point)
                           Implementation of this type of
                           scheme may reduce effects of
                           rising water tables in the                              Monitor groundwater
                                                                                                                l
                           Birmingham area caused by a                             levels
                           reduction in the number of industrial
                           abstractions.



        The main focus of this specific scheme is to increase the volume of water available to the
        Severn WRZ by reducing the Birmingham demand on Frankley WTW so it can deploy more
        water to the Severn WRZ.
        It is possible that this scheme could result in some adverse effects during construction of the
        short length of pipeline between the boreholes and the Edgbaston DSR. However, as indicated
        in Table 9.5 above, through the implementation of appropriate environmental mitigation
        measures e.g. route selection studies and environmental surveys required under UK legislation
        e.g. Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 and Wildlife and Countryside Act
        1981 (as amended), these potential environmental effects could be avoided or minimised.
        During operation, although the lack of control of groundwater abstraction can potentially have
        severe environmental effects such as subsidence or the decrease in groundwater quality, this
        proposed scheme would be strictly controlled to prevent adverse environmental effects. In
        addition, the borehole will abstract from the Birmingham GWMU where water is available for
        abstraction and where there are concerns about rising groundwater levels. The EA (2008)




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          Tame, Anker and Mease Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy 10, suggests that ‘active
          encouragement is given to new licence applications from the Birmingham unit where
          groundwater levels are rising slowly. Yields are invariably good but groundwater quality is
          extremely variable with some contamination resulting from industrial processes’. The rising
          groundwater levels are presently important issues in the Birmingham conurbation where
          groundwater levels have risen due to the reduction in abstraction of water for industrial
          processes, causing local flooding in basements. This problem is also an issue in Coventry and
          Nottingham.
          Thus, this scheme will use the available capacity in the Birmingham GWMU for the Birmingham
          area (a recognised growth point) and will enable the resources in the Severn WRZ to be utilised
          more effectively. This will provide more water to meet the demand for supply in the Severn
          WRZ, in particular the identified growth points of Coventry and Worcester.
          Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive
          The scheme lies within the Tame, Anker and Mease river catchment, and the Humber RBD
          This scheme is located in the border of two groundwater bodies. Firstly, Tame Anker Mease -
          PT Sandstone Birmingham Lichfield groundwater body is currently classified at poor status. It is
          envisaged that this waterbody will not achieve its good quantitative and good chemical status
          until 2027, as it is considered disproportionately expensive to achieve its good status by 2015.
          This groundwater body has an upward trend in pollutant concentration. Secondly, Tame Anker
          Mease - Secondary Combined groundwater body is also classified as being at poor status. It is
          predicted that it will achieve its good quantitative status by 2015 and its good chemical status
          by 2027. This groundwater body does not have an upward trend in pollutant concentration
          Both groundwater bodies are within Drinking Water Protected Areas, as well as being protected
          under the Nitrates Directive


9.2.2.4   Scheme 151 Highters Heath ASR

          An Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme is one where treated water is pumped into a
          receiving aquifer during times when surplus water resource is available and then re-abstracted
          during droughts or high demand periods.
          A screening exercise has identified that a suitable location for such a scheme would be at our
          Highters Heath Service Reservoir site in South Birmingham. This is part of the Birmingham mid-
          level distribution system, and Frankley water treatment works would likely act as the principal
          source of recharge water. The scheme output could also be fed to STWL strategic grid via
          existing trunk mains, resulting in potential deployable output gain within both the Severn and
          Birmingham water resource zones.
          The aquifer used for the ASR will be the Sherwood Sandstone, which is at a depth of around
          200m and is hydraulically sealed from the surface in south-east Birmingham by the overlying
          Mercia Mudstone. Due to the presence of faults, it is also expected that the aquifer beneath the
          site will have only a very limited (if any) connection to groundwater in the unconfined section of
          the aquifer to the west.
          This scheme will be completed in stages over two AMPs, i.e.:

                 Construction of a pilot borehole and abstraction testing
                 Construction of two production boreholes with ASR cycle testing
                 Construction of approx. three further production boreholes with ASR cycle testing
                 Installation of permanent treatment, pumps and distribution connections
                 Commissioning of the scheme at a 15Ml/d peak output

          The deployable output benefit is based on injection at a rate of 15Ml/d over an average of 4
          months every year (or equivalent), with re-abstraction at the same rate for a total of 16 months

          10
             Environment Agency (2008), The Tame, Anker and Mease Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy, United
          Kingdom
                                                                                                               113
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        every 5 years. It is possible that additional winter abstraction licence volume may be required at
        STWL Trimpley works on the River Severn to deliver the full deployable output gain for this
        scheme. This will be considered further at detailed feasibility stage, as will the required
        structure of the abstraction licence for the ASR site itself.
        Prior to the construction and deployment of new ASR borehole(s), it is envisaged that
        environmental investigations, including preparation of supporting statements for Section 32
        consent application and water features survey, will be required.
        Table 9.6 below details the assessment of the construction and operation of this scheme on the
        environment.
        Table 9.6: Scheme 151: Highters Heath ASR

        151: Highters Heath ASR
                                                                                                            Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                          Significance
                                                                                  Phase I habitat
                                                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Protected species
                                                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Site
                                                                                  selection/routeing
                                                                                  studies (avoidance
                         Habitat loss and species
                                                                                  of designated sites
                         disturbance along pipeline route
                                                                                  and BAP habitats)
                         (likely to be short distances) and on                                              Neutral
                                                                                  Habitat
                         site of treatment works and ASR
                                                                                  reinstatement and
                         site.
                                                                                  translocation where
                                                                                  necessary
                                                                                  Undertake early
                                                                                  engagement with
                                                                                  stakeholders such
                                                                                  as CCW, NE and
                                                                                  EA.
                                                                                  Site selection
                         Temporary landscape and visual
                                                                                  Routing studies
                         impacts during construction of                                                     Neutral
                                                                                  Sympathetic
                         pipeline and treatment works.
                                                                                  Reinstatement
                         Loss or disturbance of                                   Archaeological
                         archaeological features on the sites                     surveys
        Negative                                                                                            Neutral
                         of the boreholes, pipelines and                          Geo-physical
        Effects          treatment works.                                         surveys
        (Construction)
                                                                                  Temporary site
                                                                                  drainage
                                                                                  Control of sediment
                         Possible temporary reductions in                         discharge
                         water quality may occur due to                           EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         increased sediment and pollutants                        (Contractors
                         in runoff                                                Environmental
                                                                                  Management Plan)
                                                                                  Control of works
                                                                                  near watercourses
                         Temporary air quality impacts                            Wheel washing
                         associated with dust generated                           Ground dampening          Neutral
                         during construction                                      during dry periods
                                                                                  Control of working
                                                                                  hours
                         Noise generated from construction                        EMP and EMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         activities                                               Control of noise from
                                                                                  construction plant
                                                                                  and machinery
                                                                                  Control of working
                         Community disturbance during                             hours
                         construction e.g. traffic and footpath                   EMP and CEMP              Neutral
                         diversions                                               Minimise road
                                                                                  diversions
                         Land sterilisation along pipeline
        Negative                                                                  Route selection           Neutral
                         easement
        Effects
        (Operation)      Energy consumption and CO2                               Monitor water
                         emissions associated with ‘double –                      pressure levels

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        151: Highters Heath ASR
                                                                                                           Residual
        Effect Type     Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                         Significance
                        handling’ of water i.e. piping treated                   Potential to
                        water from Frankley to Highters                          implement carbon
                        Heath DSR, injecting this water into                     offsetting measures
                        the aquifer, re-abstracting, re-                         should be
                        treating / chlorinating water and                        investigated.
                        then distributing it into the
                        Birmingham and / or Severn WRZs
                                                                                 This scheme would
                                                                                 not require an
                                                                                 increase in
                                                                                 abstraction from
                                                                                 either of these
                                                                                 sources therefore
                                                                                 this scheme would
                                                                                 not result in a
                                                                                 significant effect on
                        Potential impact on protected sites                      these protected
                        including the Elan Valley SAC,                           sites.
                        SPA, River Wye SAC and the                               If an additional
                        Severn Estuary SAC, SPA and                              winter abstraction is     Neutral
                        Ramsar as raw water for this                             required from the
                        scheme would originate from the                          River Severn at
                        Elan Valley and the River Severn.                        Trimpley to reach
                                                                                 the full deployable
                                                                                 output this should be
                                                                                 in accordance with
                                                                                 the requirements of
                                                                                 the CAMS and any
                                                                                 revised measures
                                                                                 that are include in
                                                                                 the next CAMS
                                                                                 cycle.
                        This scheme does not lead to a net
                        gain or loss of water resources, as
                        the aquifer functions as a water
                                                                                 Monitor water levels
                        bank. The subsequent / indirect /
                                                                                 and potential effects
                        knock-on effects of this scheme on
                                                                                 on ecology
                        hydrologically linked designated
                                                                                 Appropriate
                        sites and their associated ecology
                        cannot be assessed in detail at this          -          regulation of the         Neutral
                                                                                 abstractions in line
                        stage. It is assumed that there will
                                                                                 with the CAMS and
                        be no effect on designated sites as
                                                                                 any updates to the
                        a result of this scheme as the water
                                                                                 CAMS
                        is stored in an aquifer 200m deep,
                        thus unlikely to be hydrologically
                        linked to designated sites.
                                                                                 Monitor quality of
                        Water quality changes in aquifer                         water being re-
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        during storage and movement.                             abstracted from
                                                                                 aquifer
                                                                                 Hydrological
                                                                                 investigations should
                                                                                 be carried out to
                        Impacts on the quality if the existing
                                                                                 determine the
                        groundwater through the storage of                                                 Neutral
                                                                                 impacts
                        treated water.
                                                                                 Monitoring of
                                                                                 neighbouring
                                                                                 groundwaters
                        Potential for an increased in
                                                                                 Flood Risk
                        localised flooding in the
                                                                                 Assessment should
                        surrounding area, however, the                                                     Neutral
                                                                                 be carried out at the
                        aquifer is deeply confined 200m
                                                                                 project stage.
                        below ground level.
                        This scheme would enable water
                        resources to be distributed when
                        necessary, and to be stored when
        Positive                                                                 No mitigation
                        there is excess supply. It would
        Effects                                                                  measures identified
                        make use of water when in surplus
                        (winter/high flows/high storage) for
                        use in dry conditions preventing the

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        151: Highters Heath ASR
                                                                                                       Residual
        Effect Type     Potential Effect                      Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                     Significance
                        need for new abstractions during
                        periods of lower flows which would
                        result in increased environmental
                        pressure.
                        Security of supply for the
                                                                               No mitigation
                        Birmingham and Severn WRZs,
                                                                               measures identified
                        and their identified growth points.
                        Limited ecological effects due to
                                                                               No mitigation
                        storage of water 200m below
                                                                               measures identified
                        ground.



        Similar in nature to the ASR schemes detailed previously, the aim of this specific scheme is the
        storage of surplus water from Frankley WTWs, during surplus resource and low demand
        periods, in the deep Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer beneath Highters Heath DSR. This will result
        in more water being available from Frankley into the Severn WRZ as during high
        demand/drought periods the ASR water would be re-abstracted, chlorinated and deployed into
        the Birmingham WRZs.
        It is possible that this scheme could result in some short term adverse effects during
        construction of pipelines, boreholes and disinfection units associated with this scheme.
        However, as indicated in Table 9.6, through the implementation of appropriate environmental
        mitigation measures e.g. route selection studies and environmental surveys required under UK
        legislation e.g. Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 and Wildlife and
        Countryside Act 1981 (as amended), these potential environmental effects could be avoided or
        minimised. Prior to the construction and deployment of new ASR borehole(s) at Highters Heath,
        it is envisaged that environmental investigations, including preparation of supporting statements
        for Section 32 consent application and water features survey, will be required.
        During operation, there may also be some adverse environmental effects, particularly due to
        energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with ‘double – handling’ of water i.e. piping
        treated water from Frankley to Highters Heath DSR, injecting this water into the aquifer, re-
        abstracting, re-treating / chlorinating water and then distributing it into the Severn / Birmingham
        WRZs. There may also be some water quality changes in the aquifer during storage and
        movement.
        This scheme, however, may have multiple environmental benefits, as the aquifer functions as
        water bank with multi-year storage (does not lead to a net loss of water resources). In times of
        water surplus (especially during wetter periods) substantial water deposits can be stored deep
        underground. This may reduce the need to construct large and expensive surface reservoirs as
        withdrawals can occur when demand exceeds available water. ASR systems may be more
        beneficial to the environment than surface reservoirs as they minimise loss of water due to
        evaporation and also offer more protection from tampering.
        The aquifer beneath Highters Heath is part of the Birmingham GWMU (Water Available).
        However it is not likely to have any substantial connection to surface water features and there
        are no known groundwater abstractors in the immediate vicinity of the site (the nearest that has
        been identified to date are 3km away). Given the nature of the scheme, it is not anticipated
        there would be any substantial derogation issues, in fact there would probably be a slight net
        contribution to the aquifer as more water would be recharged than abstracted overall. It is
        therefore unlikely that there will be an effect on designated habitats or species as a result of this
        scheme. This will contribute to a security of supply for the Severn WRZ, and areas such as
        Coventry and Worcester which are identified as growth points in the Severn WRZ. This scheme
        may also contribute to water available for the Birmingham WRZ (Birmingham also identified as
        a growth point).
        A slight net contribution to the aquifer has been identified by this scheme, this in combination
        with rising groundwaters in the Birmingham area due to a reduction in industrial abstractions


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          could have an impact on localised flooding, therefore a FRA should be conducted at the project
          stage in order to identify and if necessary mitigate this risk.
          Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive
          The Elan Valley Reservoirs are monitored under the WFD. Caban-coch Reservoir has been
          classified as currently being at moderate ecological potential and Craig Goch and Claerwen
          Reservoirs classified as currently being at good ecological potential.
          Trimpley Reservoir has been classified under the WFD is currently classified as being at good
          ecological potential. This classification is based on expert judgement (i.e. no biological data was
          available) and the chemical status assessment is not required.
          The ASR scheme itself lies within the Tame, Anker and Mease river catchment, the Humber
          RBD and the Secondary Combined groundwater body which is classified as being at poor
          status. It is predicted that this waterbody will achieve its good quantitative status by 2015 and
          its good chemical status by 2027. This groundwater body does not have an upward trend in
          pollutant concentration and is within a Drinking Water Protected Area, as well as being
          protected under the Nitrates Directive.


9.2.2.5   Scheme 154 Minworth ASR


          A screening exercise has identified that another suitable location for an aquifer storage and
          recovery (ASR) scheme would be at STWL Minworth landholding in east Birmingham. This is
          within the Birmingham low-level distribution zone and Frankley water treatment works would act
          as the principal source of recharge water. The scheme would offset demand on Frankley,
          resulting in deployable output gains within either the Severn and/or Birmingham water resource
          zones.
          The aquifer used for the ASR will be the Sherwood Sandstone, which is at a depth of around
          200m and is hydraulically sealed from the surface in east Birmingham by the overlying Mercia
          Mudstone. Due to the presence of faults, it is also expected that the aquifer beneath the site will
          have only a very limited (if any) connection to groundwater in the unconfined section of the
          aquifer to the west.
          This scheme will be completed in stages over two AMPs, i.e.:


                 Construction of a pilot borehole and abstraction testing
                 Construction of two production boreholes with ASR cycle testing
                 Construction of approx. four further production boreholes with ASR cycle testing
                 Installation of permanent treatment, pumps and distribution connections
                 Commissioning of the scheme at a 15Ml/d peak output

          The deployable output benefit is based on injection at a rate of 15Ml/d over an average of 4
          months every year (or equivalent), with re-abstraction at the same rate for a total of 16 months
          every 5 years. It is possible that additional winter abstraction licence volume may be required at
          STWL Trimpley works on the River Severn to deliver the full deployable output gain for this
          scheme: this will be considered further at detailed feasibility stage, as will the required structure
          of the abstraction licence for the ASR site itself.
          Prior to the construction and deployment of new ASR borehole(s) at Minworth, it is envisaged
          that environmental investigations, including preparation of supporting statements for Section 32
          consent application and water features survey, will be required.
          Table 9.7 below details the assessment of the construction and operation of this scheme on the
          environment.


          Table 9.7: Scheme 154: Minworth ASR


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        154: Minworth ASR
                                                                                                            Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                          Significance
                                                                                  Phase I habitat
                                                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Protected species
                                                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Site
                                                                                  selection/routeing
                                                                                  studies (avoidance
                         Habitat loss and species
                                                                                  of designated sites
                         disturbance along pipeline route
                                                                                  and BAP habitats)
                         (likely to be short distances) and on                                              Neutral
                                                                                  Habitat
                         site of treatment works and ASR
                                                                                  reinstatement and
                         site.
                                                                                  translocation where
                                                                                  necessary
                                                                                  Undertake early
                                                                                  engagement with
                                                                                  stakeholders such
                                                                                  as CCW, NE and
                                                                                  EA.
                                                                                  Site selection
                         Temporary landscape and visual
                                                                                  Routing studies
                         impacts during construction of                                                     Neutral
                                                                                  Sympathetic
                         pipeline and treatment works.
                                                                                  Reinstatement
                         Loss or disturbance of                                   Archaeological
                         archaeological features on the sites                     surveys
        Negative                                                                                            Neutral
                         of the boreholes, pipelines and                          Geo-physical
        Effects          treatment works.                                         surveys
        (Construction)
                                                                                  Temporary site
                                                                                  drainage
                                                                                  Control of sediment
                         Possible temporary reductions in                         discharge
                         water quality may occur due to                           EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         increased sediment and pollutants                        (Contractors
                         in runoff                                                Environmental
                                                                                  Management Plan)
                                                                                  Control of works
                                                                                  near watercourses
                         Temporary air quality impacts                            Wheel washing
                         associated with dust generated                           Ground dampening          Neutral
                         during construction                                      during dry periods
                                                                                  Control of working
                                                                                  hours
                         Noise generated from construction                        EMP and EMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         activities                                               Control of noise from
                                                                                  construction plant
                                                                                  and machinery
                                                                                  Control of working
                         Community disturbance during                             hours
                         construction e.g. traffic and footpath                   EMP and CEMP              Neutral
                         diversions                                               Minimise road
                                                                                  diversions
                         Land sterilisation along pipeline
                                                                                  Route selection           Neutral
                         easement
                         Energy consumption and CO2
                         emissions associated with ‘double –
                                                                                  Monitor water
                         handling’ of water i.e. piping treated
                                                                                  pressure levels
                         water from Frankley to Highters
                                                                                  Potential for carbon
                         Heath DSR, injecting this water into
                                                                                  offsetting schemes
                         the aquifer, re-abstracting, re-
                                                                                  should be
                         treating / chlorinating water and
        Negative                                                                  investigated
                         then distributing it into the
        Effects
                         Birmingham and / or Severn WRZs
        (Operation)
                                                                                  This scheme would
                         Potential impact on protected sites                      not require an
                         including the Elan Valley SAC,                           increase in
                         SPA, River Wye SAC and the                               abstraction from
                         Severn Estuary SAC, SPA and                              either of these           Neutral
                         Ramsar as raw water for this                             sources therefore
                         scheme would originate from the                          this scheme would
                         Elan Valley and the River Severn.                        not result in a
                                                                                  significant effect on
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        154: Minworth ASR
                                                                                                           Residual
        Effect Type     Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                         Significance
                                                                                 these protected
                                                                                 sites.
                                                                                 If an additional
                                                                                 winter abstraction is
                                                                                 required from the
                                                                                 River Severn at
                                                                                 Trimpley to reach
                                                                                 the full deployable
                                                                                 output this should be
                                                                                 in accordance with
                                                                                 the requirements of
                                                                                 the CAMS and any
                                                                                 revised measures
                                                                                 that are include in
                                                                                 the next CAMS
                                                                                 cycle.
                        This scheme does not lead to a net
                        gain or loss of water resources, as
                        the aquifer functions as a water
                                                                                 Monitor water levels
                        bank. The subsequent / indirect /
                                                                                 and potential effects
                        knock-on effects of this scheme on
                                                                                 on ecology
                        hydrologically linked designated
                                                                                 Appropriate
                        sites and their associated ecology
                        cannot be assessed in detail at this          -          regulation of the         Neutral
                                                                                 abstractions in line
                        stage. It is assumed that there will
                                                                                 with the CAMS and
                        be no effect on designated sites as
                                                                                 any updates to the
                        a result of this scheme as the water
                                                                                 CAMS
                        is stored in a confined aquifer, thus
                        unlikely to be hydrologically linked
                        to designated sites.
                                                                                 Monitor quality of
                        Water quality changes in aquifer                         water being re-
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        during storage and movement.                             abstracted from
                                                                                 aquifer
                                                                                 Hydrological
                                                                                 investigations should
                                                                                 be carried out to
                        Impacts on the quality if the existing
                                                                                 determine the
                        groundwater through the storage of                                                 Neutral
                                                                                 impacts
                        treated water.
                                                                                 Monitoring of
                                                                                 neighbouring
                                                                                 groundwaters
                                                                                 Flood Risk
                        Potential for an increased in
                                                                                 Assessment should
                        localised flooding in the                                                          Neutral
                                                                                 be carried out at the
                        surrounding area
                                                                                 project stage.
                        This scheme would enable water
                        resources to be distributed when
                        necessary, and to be stored when
                        there is excess supply. It would
                        make use of water when in surplus
                                                                                 No mitigation
                        (winter/high flows/high storage) for
                                                                                 measures identified
                        use in dry conditions preventing the
                        need for new abstractions during
        Positive        periods of lower flows which would
        Effects         result in increased environmental
                        pressure.
                        Security of supply for the
                                                                                 No mitigation
                        Birmingham and Severn WRZs,
                                                                                 measures identified
                        and their identified growth points.
                        Limited ecological effects due to
                                                                                 No mitigation
                        storage of water 200m below
                                                                                 measures identified
                        ground.


        Similar in nature to the previously discussed ASR schemes, the main focus of this ASR scheme
        is the storage of surplus water from Frankley WTWs, during high flow/storage conditions and
        low demand periods, in the deep Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer beneath Minworth WTW. This
        will result in more deployable water from Frankley into the Severn and / or Birmingham WRZs
                                                                                                                     119
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          as during high demands/droughts this water would be re-abstracted, chlorinated and deployed
          into the Birmingham low level control system.
          It is possible that this scheme could result in some short term adverse effects during
          construction of pipelines, boreholes and disinfection units. These effects, and mitigation
          measures, will be the same as those discussed for Scheme 151: Highters Heath ASR. Please
          refer to Table 9.7 above for the potential environmental effects of this scheme during
          construction and also operation.
          Ultimately this scheme will contribute to a security of supply for the Severn WRZ, and areas
          such as Coventry and Worcester which are identified as growth points in the Severn WRZ. This
          scheme also ensures water available for the Birmingham WRZ (Birmingham also identified as a
          growth point) as once the water has been re-abstracted and chlorinated, water would be
          deployed into the Birmingham low level control system.
          A slight net contribution to the aquifer has been identified by this scheme, this in combination
          with rising groundwaters in the Birmingham area due to a reduction in industrial abstractions
          could have an impact on localised flooding, therefore a FRA should be conducted at the project
          stage in order to identify and if necessary mitigate this risk.
          Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive
          The Elan Valley Reservoirs are monitored under the WFD. Caban-coch Reservoir has been
          classified as currently being at moderate ecological potential and Craig Goch and Claerwen
          Reservoirs classified as currently being at good ecological potential.
          Trimpley Reservoir has been classified under the WFD and is currently classified as being at
          good ecological potential. This classification is based on expert judgement (i.e. no biological
          data was available) and the chemical status assessment is not required.
          The scheme itself lies within the Tame, Anker and Mease river catchment, the Humber RBD
          and the Secondary Combined groundwater body which is classified as being at poor status. It is
          predicted that this waterbody will achieve its good quantitative status by 2015 and its good
          chemical status by 2027. This groundwater body does not have an upward trend in pollutant
          concentration and is within a Drinking Water Protected Area, as well as being protected under
          the Nitrates Directive.


9.2.2.6   Scheme 157 Whitacre ASR


          A screening exercise has identified that a suitable location for a further ASR scheme would be
          alongside STWL Whitacre water treatment works, to the north east of Birmingham.
          It is envisaged that the either the Whitacre works itself and/or the Frankley feed would act as
          the source(s) of recharge water. During re-abstraction phases, the site would deploy water into
          the strategic grid, resulting in a deployable output gain within the Severn water resource zone,
          although other water resource zones could also benefit, depending on how the scheme
          operated in conjunction with other major sources.
          The aquifer used for the ASR will be the Sherwood Sandstone, which is at a depth of around
          300m and is hydraulically sealed from the surface in the local area by the overlying Mercia
          Mudstone. Due to the presence of faults, it is also expected that the aquifer beneath the site will
          have only a very limited (if any) natural hydraulic connection to the surface.
          This scheme will be completed in stages over two AMPs, i.e.:

                 Construction of a pilot borehole and abstraction testing
                 Construction of 1 no. production boreholes with ASR cycle testing
                 Construction of 1 no. further production borehole with ASR cycle testing
                 Installation of permanent treatment, pumps and distribution connections
                 Commissioning of the scheme at a 10Ml/d peak output



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        The deployable output benefit is based on injection at a rate of 10Ml/d over an average of 4
        months every year (or equivalent), with re-abstraction at the same rate for a total of 10 months
        every 5 years. It is possible that additional winter surface water abstraction licence volume may
        be required to deliver the full deployable output gain for this scheme. This will be considered
        further at detailed feasibility stage, as will the required structure of the abstraction licence for
        the ASR site itself.
        Prior to the construction and deployment of new ASR borehole(s) at Whitacre, it is envisaged
        that environmental investigations, including preparation of supporting statements for Section 32
        consent application and water features survey, will be required.
        Table 9.8 below details the assessment of the construction and operation of this scheme on the
        environment.


        Table 9.8: Scheme 157: Whitarce ASR

        157: Whitarce ASR

                                                                                                            Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                          Significance
                                                                                  Phase I habitat
                                                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Protected species
                                                                                  surveys
                                                                                  Site
                                                                                  selection/routeing
                                                                                  studies (avoidance
                         Habitat loss and species
                                                                                  of designated sites
                         disturbance along pipeline route
                                                                                  and BAP habitats)
                         (likely to be short distances) and on                                              Neutral
                                                                                  Habitat
                         site of treatment works and ASR
                                                                                  reinstatement and
                         site.
                                                                                  translocation where
                                                                                  necessary
                                                                                  Undertake early
                                                                                  engagement with
                                                                                  stakeholders such
                                                                                  as CCW, NE and
                                                                                  EA.
                                                                                  Site selection
                         Temporary landscape and visual
                                                                                  Routing studies
                         impacts during construction of                                                     Neutral
                                                                                  Sympathetic
                         pipeline and treatment works.
                                                                                  Reinstatement
                         Loss or disturbance of                                   Archaeological
                         archaeological features on the sites                     surveys
        Negative                                                                                            Neutral
                         of the boreholes, pipelines and                          Geo-physical
        Effects          treatment works.                                         surveys
        (Construction)
                                                                                  Temporary site
                                                                                  drainage
                                                                                  Control of sediment
                         Possible temporary reductions in                         discharge
                         water quality may occur due to                           EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         increased sediment and pollutants                        (Contractors
                         in runoff                                                Environmental
                                                                                  Management Plan)
                                                                                  Control of works
                                                                                  near watercourses
                         Temporary air quality impacts                            Wheel washing
                         associated with dust generated                           Ground dampening          Neutral
                         during construction                                      during dry periods
                                                                                  Control of working
                                                                                  hours
                         Noise generated from construction                        EMP and EMP
                                                                                                            Neutral
                         activities                                               Control of noise from
                                                                                  construction plant
                                                                                  and machinery
                                                                                  Control of working
                         Community disturbance during                             hours
                         construction e.g. traffic and footpath                   EMP and CEMP              Neutral
                         diversions                                               Minimise road
                                                                                  diversions

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        157: Whitarce ASR

                                                                                                           Residual
        Effect Type     Potential Effect                         Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                         Significance
                        Land sterilisation along pipeline
                                                                                 Route selection           Neutral
                        easement
                        Energy consumption and CO2
                        emissions associated with ‘double –
                                                                                 Monitor water
                        handling’ of water i.e. piping treated
                                                                                 pressure levels
                        water from Frankley to Highters
                                                                                 Consider
                        Heath DSR, injecting this water into
                                                                                 implementation of
                        the aquifer, re-abstracting, re-
                                                                                 carbon offsetting
                        treating / chlorinating water and
                                                                                 measures
                        then distributing it into the
                        Birmingham and / or Severn WRZs
                                                                                 This scheme would
                                                                                 not require an
                                                                                 increase in
                                                                                 abstraction from
                                                                                 either of these
                                                                                 sources therefore
                                                                                 this scheme would
                                                                                 not result in a
                                                                                 significant effect on
                        Potential impact on protected sites                      these protected
                        including the Elan Valley SAC,                           sites.
                        SPA, River Wye SAC and the                               If an additional
                        Severn Estuary SAC, SPA and                              winter abstraction is     Neutral
                        Ramsar as raw water for this                             required from the
                        scheme would originate from the                          River Severn at
                        Elan Valley and the River Severn.                        Trimpley to reach
                                                                                 the full deployable
                                                                                 output this should be
                                                                                 in accordance with
                                                                                 the requirements of
                                                                                 the CAMS and any
        Negative                                                                 revised measures
        Effects                                                                  that are include in
        (Operation)                                                              the next CAMS
                                                                                 cycle.
                        This scheme does not lead to a net
                        gain or loss of water resources, as
                        the aquifer functions as a water
                                                                                 Monitor water levels
                        bank. The subsequent / indirect /
                                                                                 and potential effects
                        knock-on effects of this scheme on
                                                                                 on ecology
                        hydrologically linked designated
                                                                                 Appropriate
                        sites and their associated ecology
                        cannot be assessed in detail at this          -          regulation of the         Neutral
                                                                                 abstractions in line
                        stage. It is assumed that there will
                                                                                 with the CAMS and
                        be no effect on designated sites as
                                                                                 any updates to the
                        a result of this scheme as the water
                                                                                 CAMS
                        is stored in an aquifer 300m deep,
                        thus unlikely to be hydrologically
                        linked to designated sites.
                                                                                 Monitor quality of
                        Water quality changes in aquifer                         water being re-
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        during storage and movement.                             abstracted from
                                                                                 aquifer
                                                                                 Hydrological
                                                                                 investigations should
                                                                                 be carried out to
                        Impacts on the quality if the existing
                                                                                 determine the
                        groundwater through the storage of                                                 Neutral
                                                                                 impacts
                        treated water.
                                                                                 Monitoring of
                                                                                 neighbouring
                                                                                 groundwaters
                                                                                 Flood Risk
                        Potential for an increased in
                                                                                 Assessment should
                        localised flooding in the                                                          Neutral
                                                                                 be carried out at the
                        surrounding area
                                                                                 project stage.
                        This scheme would enable water
        Positive        resources to be distributed when                         No mitigation
        Effects         necessary, and to be stored when                         measures identified
                        there is excess supply. It would
                                                                                                                     122
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          157: Whitarce ASR

                                                                                                         Residual
          Effect Type     Potential Effect                       Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                       Significance
                          make use of water when in surplus
                          (winter/high flows/high storage) for
                          use in dry conditions preventing the
                          need for new abstractions during
                          periods of lower flows which would
                          result in increased environmental
                          pressure.
                          Security of supply for the
                                                                                 No mitigation
                          Birmingham and Severn WRZs,
                                                                                 measures identified
                          and their identified growth points.
                          Limited ecological effects due to
                                                                                 No mitigation
                          storage of water 300m below
                                                                                 measures identified
                          ground.


          The potential effects from this scheme would be similar in nature to those described above for
          the other ASR schemes. The aquifer beneath Whitacre is also part of the Sherwood Sandstone
          aquifer and could technically be considered part of the Sutton GWMU (Water Available). Due to
          its depth, it is not likely to have any significant connection to surface water features or effect any
          other abstractors. Given the nature of the scheme, it is not anticipated there would be any
          resource issues, in fact there would probably be a slight net contribution to the aquifer as more
          water would be recharged than abstracted overall.
          The aquifer has not been developed for supply, so there is negligible information on water
          levels, water chemistry and aquifer properties. However the confined Birmingham aquifer has
          been exploited to the West and South-west and it is likely that the aquifer beneath Whitacre will
          have similar characteristics. A production borehole and observation well will be constructed and
          then an additional production well, with disinfection units and connections to the distribution
          mains on the Whitacre site, will be constructed. The process will take 2 AMPs and will have
          similar construction effects to those discussed in Table 9.8.
          A new abstraction licence will be needed for this scheme which currently assumes that there
          are no changes to the existing abstraction licence arrangements at to the sources listed above.
          It is possible that an additional winter abstraction licence may be required to deliver the full
          deployable output gain for this scheme, this will be considered further at detailed feasibility
          stage. The required duration of injection and abstraction will also be considered further at
          detailed feasibility stage.


          Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive Classification
          The Elan Valley Reservoirs are monitored under the WFD. Caban-coch Reservoir has been
          classified as currently being at moderate ecological potential and Craig Goch and Claerwen
          Reservoirs classified as currently being at good ecological potential.
          Trimpley Reservoir has been classified under the WFD and is currently classified as being at
          good ecological potential. This classification is based on expert judgement (i.e. no biological
          data was available) and the chemical status assessment is not required.
          The scheme itself lies within the Tame, Anker and Mease river catchment, Humber RBD and
          Secondary Combined groundwater body which is classified as being at poor status. It is
          predicted that this waterbody will achieve its good quantitative status by 2015 and its good
          chemical status by 2027. This groundwater body does not have an upward trend in pollutant
          concentration. This groundwater body is within a Drinking Water Protected Area, as well as
          being protected under the Nitrates Directive.


9.2.2.7   Scheme 153 Milton Borehole to Trent Transfer



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        This scheme would enable discharge of water from a disused borehole source into the River
        Trent for abstraction downstream at Witches Oak Water near Shardlow during dry-weather
        conditions, thus delivering a 4Ml/d deployable output benefit in the East Midlands zone.
        The Milton source is located around 1.5km south of the River Trent. It has been disused for
        several years due to nitrate and microbiological quality issues, although it is still licensed for 4.1
        Ml/d annual average, 4.5Ml/d peak.
        It is located in the Burton groundwater management unit (GWMU) of the Tame, Anker and
        Mease CAMS area. This GWMU is currently classified as being over-licensed, although recent
        actual abstraction is currently significantly less than the licensable resource.
        This scheme proposes to use Milton for the transfer of water into the River Trent for re-
        abstraction at our river abstraction at Shardlow during low flows where it would be treated at
        Church Wilne water treatment works. The scheme would form an addition to the existing river
        support given to Chruch Wilne from Birmingham Groundwater. The potential deployable output
        for this specific scheme is estimated at 4 Ml/d.
        The scheme would use the full annual licence quantity in dry years but not be needed in normal
        or wet years. The total quantity of water abstracted on average over a number of years will
        therefore be less than that shown in the existing abstraction licence and should therefore be in
        line with the CAMS objectives for the GWMU.
        It is envisaged that the following components will be required as part of the scheme:
               New borehole at Sandilands
               New borehole pumps at Sandilands, Gravel Pits and Headings
               Refurbishment of existing M&E/Civils assets
               Construction of a compensation pipeline into the local surface water network
        The Milton license would need to be varied to add the river compensation end-use and the
        existing Shardlow Section 20 modified to permit re-abstraction of the equivalent volume. Any
        new boreholes outside the existing licence conditions would require Section 32 test pump
        consents and associated environmental assessments to confirm the scheme will have no
        adverse environmental impact. Key features of the scheme are shown in the Figure below.
        Table 9.9 below details the assessment of the construction and operation of this scheme on the
        environment.
        Table 9.9: Scheme 153 – Milton Borehole Trent Transfer

        153: Milton Borehole Trent Transfer
                                                                                                         Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect                       Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                       Significance
                                                                                Phase I habitat
                                                                                surveys
                                                                                Protected species
                                                                                surveys
                                                                                Site selection/
                                                                                (avoidance of
                         Localised habitat loss and species                     designated sites and
                         disturbance on site of treatment                       BAP habitats)
                         works (boreholes already exist and                     Habitat                  Neutral
                         additional distribution facilities                     reinstatement and
                         needed).                                               translocation where
        Negative                                                                necessary
        Effects                                                                 Undertake early
        (Construction)                                                          engagement with
                                                                                stakeholders such
                                                                                as CCW, NE and
                                                                                EA.
                         Temporary landscape and visual
                         impacts during construction of                         Site selection           Neutral
                         treatment works.
                                                                                Archaeological
                         Loss or disturbance of
                                                                                surveys
                         archaeological features on the sites                                            Neutral
                                                                                Geo-physical
                         of the treatment works.
                                                                                surveys

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        153: Milton Borehole Trent Transfer
                                                                                                           Residual
        Effect Type     Potential Effect                       Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                         Significance
                                                                               Temporary site
                                                                               drainage
                                                                               Control of sediment
                        Temporary reductions in water                          discharge
                        quality may occur due to increased                     EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        sediment and pollutants in runoff                      (Contractors
                        during construction.                                   Environmental
                                                                               Management Plan)
                                                                               Control of works
                                                                               near watercourses
                        Temporary air quality impacts                          Wheel washing
                        associated with dust generated                         Ground dampening            Neutral
                        during construction                                    during dry periods
                                                                               Control of working
                                                                               hours
                        Noise generated from construction                      EMP and EMP
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        activities                                             Control of noise from
                                                                               construction plant
                                                                               and machinery
                                                                               Monitor water
                        Energy consumption and CO2                             pressure levels
                        emissions associated with piping                       Consideration of the
                        water and treating increased                           implementation of
                        volumes of water                                       carbon offsetting
                                                                               schemes
                                                                               Monitor water levels
                                                                               and potential effects
                                                                               on ecology
                        This scheme is intended to abstract                    Ensure the water
                        groundwater from the Burton                            transferred into the
                        GWMU of the Tame, Anker and                            Trent is of the
                        Mease CAMS area. The                                   appropriate quality
                        subsequent / indirect / knock-on                       and meets the
                                                                                                           Neutral
                        effects of this abstraction on                         required standards.
                        hydrologically linked designated                       The HRA has
                        sites and their associated ecology                     concluded that the
                        cannot be assessed in detail at this                   implementation of
                        stage.                                                 this scheme would
                                                                               not result in an effect
                                                                               in a Natura 2000 or
                                                                               Ramsar site.
                                                                               Monitor ground
                                                                               water levels
        Negative                                                               Appropriate
                        Reduction in soil moisture
        Effects                                                                regulation of the
                        availability for crop growth and                                                   Neutral
        (Operation)                                                            abstractions in line
                        yields.
                                                                               with the CAMS and
                                                                               any updates to the
                                                                               CAMS
                                                                               Monitor ground
                                                                               water levels
                                                                               Appropriate
                                                                               regulation of the
                                                                               abstractions in line
                        Low base flows in local rivers                         with the CAMS and
                        caused by abstraction of                               any updates to the          Neutral
                        groundwater via boreholes                              CAMS
                                                                               Achieve a balance
                                                                               between the uses of
                                                                               water resources for
                                                                               PWS and to support
                                                                               the environment.
                                                                               Implementation of
                                                                               UK groundwater
                                                                               protection policies
                        Risk of pollution of groundwater
                                                                               Monitor ground
                        from point and diffuse sources due                                                 Neutral
                                                                               water levels
                        to changes in groundwater levels.
                                                                               Land use control by
                                                                               limiting potentially
                                                                               polluting activities

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          153: Milton Borehole Trent Transfer
                                                                                                            Residual
          Effect Type        Potential Effect                       Significance   Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                          Significance
                             Following the cessation or
                                                                                    Monitor ground
                             reduction of pumping, it is possible
                                                                                    water levels            Neutral
                             that there may be effects of rising
                             water tables in urban areas.
                             This scheme would result in more
                             water available to be deployed into
                             the East Midlands WRZ, benefiting
                             the East Midlands WRZ by closing                       No mitigation
                             gaps in demand/supply without                          measures identified
                             requiring any additional abstraction
                             licences.
          Positive Effects
                             Security of supply for the East
                             Midlands WRZ, and areas such as                        No mitigation
                             Derby which are identified as                          measures identified
                             growth points in this zone.
                             This scheme would put more water
                                                                                    No mitigation
                             into the River Trent and tributaries
                                                                                    measures identified
                             during dry conditions.


          It is unlikely that this scheme would have any significant adverse effects on the environment.
          The proposed construction phase of this scheme may have some localised effects, however, it
          is expected that through the implementation of appropriate mitigation measures and
          environmental management procedures e.g. EMP, these effects will be minimal.
          This scheme is likely to increase the amount of DO to the East Midlands WRZ. As this scheme
          is based on enabling the utilisation of an existing license, this will have a positive effect on
          helping to close gaps in demand/supply in the East Midlands without requiring any additional
          abstraction licences (although the licence will have to be varied for the new use which will see a
          time limit imposed and possibly a reduction). This is of particular importance in this part of the
          Severn WRZ where a number of the WRMUs and GWMUs in the Tame, Anker and Mease
          CAMS have been identified as already being over abstracted or over-licensed.
          Based on the Tame, Anker and Mease CAMS, the Burton GWMU currently is ‘over licensed’.
          However, the calculations of water availability carried out as part of the CAMS takes into
          account all existing abstraction licences, whether or not they are active or being utilised to their
          full capacity. Therefore the proposed abstraction of water from the groundwater source to the
          volumes specified by the existing licence, should not affect the status of this resource and if
          licence reductions occur this will bring an improvement to the CAMS accounting.
          Future considerations of this scheme on the Water Framework Directive Classification
          This scheme lies within the Humber RBD and the Lower Trent and Erewash river catchment.
          The scheme is within the Tame Anker Mease - PT Sandstone Burton groundwater body which
          is currently classified as being at poor status. It is predicted that this groundwater body will not
          achieve its good quantitative and good chemical status until 2027, as achieving these by 2015
          is considered to be technically unfeasible. In addition, it does not have an upward trend in
          pollutant concentrations.


9.2.2.8   Business Plan Resilience Schemes

          The schemes put forward to the draft Business Plan under the resilience driver were compiled
          after the Draft WRMP had been completed. Therefore these schemes were not assessed as
          part of the Draft SEA Environmental Report but have been included as part of the Final SEA
          Environmental Report. The main focus of these schemes within the Business Plan are to
          improve the security of the existing network by creating new links to protect against failures or
          breakdowns in the system caused by damage or disruption e.g. due to flooding etc. These
          schemes are designed to offer a combined resilience and water resources benefit.


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          The schemes listed below have been identified as the Business Plan Resilience Schemes, and
          have a potential benefit to the WRMP as they will provide additional deployable output at water
          resource zone level:


            Edgbaston Borehole
            Highters Heath Aquifer Storage and Recovery
            Minworth Aquifer Storage and Recovery


          The selected Resilience Schemes are identical to WRMP Schemes 150 (Edgbaston BH), 151
          (Highters Health ASR) and 154 (Minworth ASR) and have been assessed above in Section 9.8
          ‘Supply’ schemes. Please refer to the assessment results in sections 9.2.2.4 to 9.2.2.6 for the
          potential environmental effects of these schemes.


9.3       Production-side Management Schemes Final Assessment Results


          There are no schemes being taken forward under this option.


9.4       Customer-Side Management Schemes Final Assessment Results
9.4.1     Results from the Assessment of the Schemes (DM1 to 9 and M1)


          The following schemes have been included in the WRMP to improve water efficiency:
          Table 9.10: Customer Side Management Schemes

          Scheme                 Scheme Details
                                 STWL draft WRMP focused on domestic water audits and limited household measures as
                                 the method to deliver water efficiency savings, and projected savings of around 2Ml/d by
                                 2014-15. The revised proposals in STWL final WRMP will deliver minimum water savings of
                                 16.35Ml/d over the same time period.

                                 The activities to maximise efficiency include:
          DM1 to 9 etc                 Provision of Cistern Displacement Devices (CDD)
                                       Partner Activity
                                       Self Audit
                                       Severn Trent Water sites
                                       Institutional and commercial audit and retrofit
                                       Household Audit and retrofit
                                       Product subsidies
                                 Within the Draft SEA, the following was presented: the Aim of the water metering option and
                                 the proposed schemes is to increase the rates of meter penetration in AMP5 and over the
                                 longer term within those zones where water resources are most stressed. Cost and demand
                                 benefits have been analysed for 2 alternative scenarios:
          M1: Compulsory
                                      An additional 10,000 household meters per annum (an increase of 33% over AMP4
          Change of Occupier
                                      levels)
          Metering
                                      An additional 20,000 household meters per annum (an increase of 66% over AMP4
                                      levels)
                                 During formal consultation however, respondents commented that the metering strategy set
                                 out in the Draft WRMP was not ambitious enough and did not achieve required levels of
                                 meter penetration. This has been revised and details may be found below in section 6.5.5.2.




9.4.1.1   Schemes DM1 to DM9: Water Efficiency Options


          Schemes DM1 to 9 focus on promoting water conservation and water efficiency at a
          companywide level (across all WRZs). This will not only be achieved through continuing with
          the AMP4 activities of distributing save-a-flush devices, water butts and education programmes;
          but includes a number of other options, developed as a result of the comments received during
          consultation on the Draft WRMP. Comments on the proposed water efficiency strategy
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        presented in the Draft WRMP suggested that STWL should do even more to promote efficiency
        with household and non-household customers. STWL were also asked to ensure that they
        included the impacts of likely changes to building regulations and Government’s aspirations for
        reducing future water consumption.
        In November 2008 Ofwat set us a new water efficiency target for AMP5 which requires us to
        reduce customer consumption by on average 1 litre / property / day over the next five years,
        equating to 3.27 Ml/d annually or 16.35 Ml/d by 2015. STWL supply / demand strategy includes
        activities to deliver these demand savings in AMP5, and to increase those savings in the long
        term.
        Work completed since the draft WRMP has significantly improved STWL understanding of the
        relative effectiveness of the available water efficiency options. This work has included the
        completion of two large scale pilot programmes investigating efficiency opportunities in both
        domestic and institutional properties. STWL have also made use of the Ofwat Water Efficiency
        Initiatives – Good Practice Register and the interim Waterwise Evidence Base for Large-Scale
        Water Efficiency when developing STWL options.
        STWL draft WRMP focused on domestic water audits and limited household measures as the
        method to deliver water efficiency savings, and projected savings of around 2Ml/d by 2014-15.
        STWL revised proposals will deliver minimum water savings of 16.35Ml/d over the same time
        period.
        The annual will be delivered through the following activities:
          Provision of Cistern Displacement Devices (CDD) - STWL will continue to distribute the
          ‘Save-a-Flush’ device. STWL believe there is sufficient capacity to improve on STWL current
          penetration into 1 in 6 homes through active promotion to enable us to continue to deliver
          1Mld per year usage reduction through AMP5.
          Partner Activity - STWL are partnering with a range of product manufacturers and suppliers
          to provide access to water efficiency products and services to STWL customers. STWL will
          also be making the optimum use of existing company visits and face to face contacts to
          promote water efficient practices and products and change consumer behaviour.
          Self Audit - In addition the information STWL currently provide STWL will be encouraging all
          customers to undertake self audits of their water use and make information available to all
          consumers on how they can reduce wastage.
          STW sites - Where STWL are constructing or refurbishing existing offices such as STWL
          new Severn Trent Centre will demonstrate ‘best in class’ water usage equipment and
          behaviours. This includes water efficient fixtures, fittings and an educated workforce as well
          as rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse. STWL will also reduce the use of potable
          water on existing wastewater sites and Severn Trent office facilities.
          Institutional and commercial audit and retrofit - STWL have already started a programme
          that will deliver water efficient devices into 600 schools by the end of 09/10. This programme
          will be extended into AMP5 to deliver water efficiency savings in institutional and commercial
          premises, through the provision of advice, audits and where practicable water efficient
          devices
          Household Audit and retrofit - As was highlighted in STWL draft WRMP delivery of water
          savings in the household sector is considered a viable option. For STWL final plan the aim is
          to install efficient devices in the Social Housing sector.
          Product subsidies - Providing access to water efficient products will help consumers reduce
          waste. STWL have made some provision to allow for product promotion, subsidy and
          education that will be required to raise consumer awareness and encourage uptake.


        In terms of the effects of these schemes on the environment, it is highly likely that these
        measures would help to either maintain or reduce any gaps in the supply/demand balance.
        However, for the full benefits of these effects to be realised, implementation should focus on the
        zones where gaps in the supply/demand balance are greatest (due to population increase and
        longer term climate change impacts) and where there are already significant pressures on the
        environment from current abstractions (where water resources are over licensed or over
        abstracted at low flow).

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          Further detail on the specific WRZs, where there are predicted shortfalls in the long term
          demand/supply balance due to population growth and climate change, are discussed below in
          relation to the metering penetration schemes.


9.4.1.2   Scheme M1 Compulsory Change of Occupier Metering


          During AMP4 STWL implemented a free meter optant strategy. Since the draft WRMP there
          has been a significant increase in the uptake of the free meter option, with the 2008/09 total
          number of optants being around 34% higher than in 2007/08. The reasons for the increase in
          uptake are not clear at present, but it is suspected that in the current economic climate, even
          more customers are looking for opportunities to reduce their water bills by switching to a meter.
          In light of this most recent evidence, baseline projections for uptake of the free meter option
          during AMP5 have increased from 29,327 per annum in the draft plan to an average of 40,256
          per annum in the final plan.
          Within the Draft WRMP and Draft SEA, 2 alternative scenarios were proposed and assessed
          (M1: an additional 10,000 household meters per annum (an increase of 33% over AMP4 levels)
          and M2: an additional 20,000 household meters per annum (an increase of 66% over AMP4
          levels)). During formal consultation however, respondents commented that the metering
          strategy set out in the Draft WRMP was not ambitious enough and did not achieve required
          levels of meter penetration. Other respondents commented that any strategy based around
          increasing meter penetration needs to be justified on cost / benefit grounds, and others
          expressed concern over the potential impacts of increased metering on vulnerable customers’
          water bills and the need for STWL to clearly communicate any policy change with STWL
          customers.
          The metering strategy set out in the Draft WRMP was based on an economic appraisal of
          increasing the proportion of household customers who are metered. Since the Draft WRMP the
          assessment of costs and benefits of metering has been updated using up-to-date company
          data. Projections of the uptake of the existing free meter option have also been updated based
          on the most recent evidence. For the Final WRMP the metering strategy continues to be based
          on an economic appraisal.
          The Draft WRMP showed that there was an economic justification for further increasing the
          amount of households that are metered in certain water resource zones. As part of the strategy
          for achieving this, STWL proposed to trial a “change of occupier” metering policy in the Staffs
          and East Shropshire WRZ. For the Final WRMP it there is still an economic justification for
          increasing meter penetration, but as a result of the revised supply / demand projections this
          strategy will no longer be targeted on the Staffs and East Shropshire WRZ. Instead the plan is
          to target a change of occupier metering trial in the East Mildands zone during AMP4, and to roll
          that policy out company wide in the longer term.
          At this stage STWL do not have company-specific data on the costs of implementing such a
          policy, and the principal focus of the trial will be to provide real data. Once the trial has
          produced tangible evidence from 2010 to 2015, the cost / benefit appraisal of this policy option
          will be updated and decisions made whether to roll it out company wide.
          In the Draft WRMP, it was projected that the proposed metering strategy would lead to around
          70% of billed households being metered by 2035. Using the latest assessment of the economic
          case for additional metering, the revised strategy would result in 72% of billed households being
          metered by 2035. STWL believe their metering strategy is in line with Government’s
          expectations as set out in its 2008 Future Water policy document, in which it states that
          companies should follow a twin-track approach and adopt the most sustainable and cost
          effective balance of supply / demand balance measures. STWL note that in its 23 September
          2008 comments to Defra on draft WRMPs, Ofwat confirmed that it expects companies to
          present a metering strategy that is justified on cost / benefit grounds.




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9.4.1.3   Scheme M1: Compulsory Change of Occupier Metering - Introduction to Results


          Through a least cost planning approach STWL have demonstrated that there is an economic
          justification for increasing meter uptake in three water resource zones during the planning
          period. The numbers of additional meters included in the long term strategy are set out in table
          9.11 below.


          Table 9.11: Number of additional household meters included in STWL strategy

                                       AMP5          AMP6            AMP7
                                                                                      AMP8     AMP9

            Birmingham                   0             0               0                  0      0

            East Midlands              10,000        40,000          70,000          100,000   130,000

            Forest and Stroud            0           2,500           3,000            4,500     8,000

            Oswestry                     0           1,000           1,750            3,250     4,750

            Severn                       0             0               0                  0      0

            Stafford and East
            Shropshire                   0           5,000           5,000           20,000    65,000

            Birmingham                   0             0               0                  0      0


          For the AMP5 period the strategy will accelerate meter penetration over and above the baseline
          uptake of the free meter option. STWL will increase promotion of the free meter option to
          encourage uptake. STWL will also trial a compulsory “change of occupier” metering policy in
          the East Midlands zone in AMP5 which it will aim to roll out to a company wide policy in the
          longer term.
          STWL will also change STWL meter location policy. Historically, there has been a policy of
          installing household meters inside the property where possible. For AMP5 and the longer term
          a new policy will be adopted of maximising the amount of meters installed external to the
          property. The benefit of this change will be to reduce the amount of leakage on customers’
          supply pipes.
          The costs of metering used in the economic assessment are based on the preferred meter
          location policy. For the benefits of metering, STWL have used a standard assumption of a 10%
          saving in household consumption, as derived through the 2003 UKWIR study “The impact of
          household metering on consumption”. In its recent policy statement on metering, the EA state
          that “Research shows that households that are charged by volume (metered) use, on average,
          10-15 per cent less water than households whose water is not metered.” This will in turn have
          beneficial impacts on mental wellbeing of homeowners associated with a reduction in water
          bills.
          During AMP5 STWL plans to carry out detailed studies to gather company specific evidence of
          the demand effects of metering in different customer groups. The aim is to use this to inform the
          longer term strategy around the costs and benefits of metering.
          Alongside the demand effects of metering, STWL has also factored into the economic appraisal
          the benefits of STWL new meter location policy on reducing supply pipe leakage. In the
          modelling, a reduction in supply pipe leakage of 10 litres / property / day for each meter fitted
          externally has been factored into the appraisal. These supply pipe leakage savings make a
          contribution to the overall benefits of additional household metering.
          Finally, the economic appraisal includes the benefits of reducing abstraction, production and
          distribution of water as a result of reducing demand and leakage through metering. The
          assessment includes both the operating cost reduction resulting from less output, plus the
          reduced environmental and social cost impacts. This approach is consistent with the leakage
          cost benefit appraisal that has been carried out and is line with the Sustainable Economic Level
          of Leakage methodology.
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          STWL’s metering strategy follows a twin track approach and adopts the most sustainable and
          cost effective balance of supply / demand balance measures and is in line with Government’s
          expectations as set out in its 2008 Future Water policy document.


9.4.1.4   Growth Points


          The East Midlands WRZ is one of the zones identified as having a shortfall in the
          demand/supply balance, taking population growth and climate change into account. There are a
          number of key growth areas within the East Midlands WRZ. For some of these areas (in
          particular around Derby) water metering will help to reduce gaps in the demand/supply balance.
          For other growth areas within this zone, there may be water resources available for further
          abstraction. The penetration of water meters in these areas would help to maintain existing
          supply/demand balance, should further abstractions be required to bridge supply/demand gaps
          in other WRZs.


          WRZ6: East Midlands: Derby
          Derby has been identified as a Growth Point. Derby is located within the East Midlands WRZ
          and covered by the Derbyshire Derwent CAMS. The main supply of water to Derby is sources
          from the River Derwent, including the Derwent Valley Reservoirs which is identified as ‘Over
          Licensed’.
          However, the EA has indicated that new licences would be issued for abstractions from the
          River Derwent but that these would be subject to appropriate HOF conditions.
          Given that future abstractions from existing sources of water are subject to restrictions it is
          important to identify opportunities to minimise any future pressure on these resources and the
          environment due to an increase demand for water associated with the projected increase in
          population. Initiatives to promote water conservation and efficiencies in water should be
          prioritised for this area.


          WRZ6: East Midlands: Nottingham
          Nottingham is located in East Midlands WRZ and is covered by the Lower Trent and Erewash
          CAMS area. Nottingham is supplied from the River Derwent and local groundwater. The main
          rivers associated with Nottingham include the River Trent, River Erewash, River Greet and
          River Devon. These rivers have all been assessed as having ‘water available’. In addition the
          River Leen and Hucknall Lower Magnesian Limestone GWMU are also potential sources of
          water for Nottingham. These have been classified as having ‘no water available’.
          Ultimately all rivers associated with Nottingham form part of the wider River Trent catchment.
          The River Trent drains into the Humber Estuary SAC, SPA, Ramsar site and SSSI, and there
          are also a further 50 water related SSSIs in the Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS. The rivers
          within this CAMS area also support diverse populations of coarse fish and have recovering
          salmon populations.
          Although the EA assessment of water availability in the Lower Trent and Erewash CAMS has
          identified that there is ‘water available’ it is important to recognise that over the wider STWL
          region there are areas where key WRMUs and GWMUs are over abstracted or over licensed
          and are either closed to further abstractions or new (and some existing) licences are subject to
          HOF conditions preventing abstraction at low flow. Some new and existing licenses will also be
          subject to time limits.
          It is predicated that populations will increase across all WRZs within the STWL region, not just
          in specified ‘Growth Points’. It is also expected that in addition to the ‘Growth Points’, local
          authorities, as part of their emerging Local Development Frameworks (LDF), are expected to
          identify additional areas for housing growth. On the basis that there are restrictions on water
          supply in some of the WRZs, there will be a need to investigate options for obtaining water for

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        these areas from other WRZs within the region where there is water available. The Lower Trent
        and Erewash catchment could help to bridge the gaps between supply and demand in the
        areas where there are shortages.
        Implementing water conservation and water efficiency measures across the East Midlands
        WRZ will help to minimise the effects that direct abstractions, to meet demand in Nottingham
        and surrounding areas, would have on water resources and the environment. This would give
        STWL greater flexibility to use these resources, if necessary, for transfers to meet the shortfalls
        in supply elsewhere.


        WRZ6: East Midlands: Leicester
        Leicester is also located within the East Midlands WRZ but covered by the Soar CAMS from
        which a small proportion of water is supplied from reservoirs in Charnwood Forest. The bulk of
        water supplied to Leicester is from the River Dove with some also from the Derwent.
        The Soar CAMS identifies that the River Soar and its tributaries have ‘water available’. Water
        resources in this area, may therefore also be considered for the purposes of bulk transfers to
        bridge gaps between supply and demand in other parts of the STWL region. Again the
        promotion of water conservation in this area would help to minimise the pressures that may be
        placed on the River Soar and tributaries should these sources be used for direct abstraction
        and the purposes of bulk transfers.
        The major supply for Leicester comes from the River Dove at Eggington. The status of WRMU
        1. River Dove within the Dove CAMS, is over-abstracted, with a target of ‘no water available’
        status.


        WRZ2 Staffs and East Shropshire Growth Point: Telford
        In terms of future demand, the main growth point within the Staffs and East Shropshire WRZ is
        Telford, which is located in the Shropshire Middle Severn and Worcestershire Middle Severn
        CAMS areas. Telford is supplied by groundwater and not surface water. The two main rivers
        near Telford are the River Worfe and River Tern, both of which are designated as being ‘over
        abstracted’ at times of low flow which indicates that existing abstractions are causing
        unacceptable damage to the environment at low flow.
        Other water sources within the Worcestershire Middle Severn CAMS include the River Stour,
        River Salwarpe and the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer all of which have been identified
        as being ‘over abstracted’. To improve the status of these water sources the EA has identified
        that no new licences will be granted for abstraction at times of low flow and any new licences
        will be subject to restrictive (HOF) conditions during dry periods.
        In the Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS, the key WRMUs include Rea Brook, Cound Brook,
        River Perry and River Tern and associated groundwater units and Coley Brook and the
        Aqualate GWMU. Of these units, the Coley Brook and Aqualate GWMU are over abstracted.
        Consequently the Aqualate GWMU is now closed to abstractions. Only short term abstraction
        licences will be granted for the River Perry and River Tern catchments which are over licensed.
        All rivers in the Worcestershire Middle Severn CAMS and the Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS
        drain into the River Severn which has been identified as having ‘no water available’ at low flow.
        There are a number of water related designated sites of nature conservation importance within
        both the Worcestershire Middle Severn CAMS and the Shropshire Middle Severn CAMS and
        along the Severn Corridors.
        On the basis that Telford, which has been identified as a ‘growth point’ is located within an area
        where key water resources are already subject to over abstraction and over licensing during low
        flows it is highly likely that the proposals to increase water metering penetration in this WRZ
        would help to reduce the gap in the supply/demand balance in this area. This would have
        significant positive effects on the environment by reducing the demand for further abstractions
        in this zone.

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        This is particularly important in terms of minimising the effects that population growth in this
        zone, combined with uncertainties in future water supplies due to climate change, could have in
        terms of increased pressured on the River Severn which feeds into the Severn Estuary SAC,
        SPA and Ramsar site.


        WRZ4 Birmingham: Birmingham
        Birmingham is the largest of the urban areas within the STWL region and forms the Birmingham
        WRZ and is covered by the Tame, Anker and Mease CAMS area. Virtually all of Birmingham’s
        water comes from the Elan Valley. The main rivers associated directly with Birmingham are the
        Rivers Tame, Cole and Rea.
        The Tame, Anker and Mease CAMS suggest that there is ‘water available’ in Water Resource
        Management Unit 1 (Tame, Anker, Cole and Trent). The status of the water resources in the
        other WRMUs and GWMUs is either ‘over-licensed’ (WRMU 2 Blythe and WRMU5 Burton
        Groundwater), ‘no water available’ (WRMU 5 Mease) or ‘over abstracted’ (WRMU 3 Bourne /
        Black Brook). It has also been identified that, due to changes in land uses within Birmingham
        and surrounding areas from manufacturing industries to services and retail there has been a
        reduction in the overall demand on water resources in this area. In some parts of the Sherwood
        Sandstone aquifer this has led to an increase in groundwater levels.
        It is important to recognise that this area has been identified as a growth point and therefore will
        experience population and housing growth in the future, which will lead to an increase in
        demand on water resources for consumption. The promotion of water conservation and water
        efficiency in these areas is important from two perspectives:
          Should there be water available this may be required to support other areas in the STWL
          Region in the future and therefore promoting water saving would help to conserve this
          available resource for future uses
          Should there be no water available or water sources being over licensed or over abstracted,
          water conservation measures will be required to ensure that increased demand arising from
          population growth will not have detrimental effects on the environment.
        The Tame, Anker and Mease all form part of the wider River Trent catchment area. The River
        Trent ultimately drains into the Humber Estuary which is a designated SAC, SPA, Ramsar and
        SSSIs. Therefore any abstractions that could affect the integrity of this site, either direct river
        abstractions or abstractions from groundwater that could affect the baseflow of rivers need to
        be assessed.


        WRZ3 Severn: Coventry
        Coventry is located in the Warwickshire Avon CAMS area. Coventry is supplied from the River
        Severn south of Worcester. The main river in Coventry is the River Sowe which has been
        identified as being ‘over abstracted’. Consequently the EA (EA) has set targets for this WRMU
        to achieve the status of ‘No Water Available’ by 2013. To meet this target the EA will not grant
        any new consumptive licences at low flows. Any new surface water abstractions will be subject
                                                            st
        to restrictive HOF conditions and a time limit of 31 March 2013.
        The River Sowe is a tributary of the Warwickshire River Avon which flows through Warwickshire
        and Gloucestershire, to join with the River Severn at Tewkesbury. As with the River Severn, the
        flow levels and quality of water in the River Avon is of significant importance in terms of
        maintaining the integrity and condition of the Severn Estuary SAC, SPA and Ramsar site.
        Additionally there are also a number of water related SSSIs located within the River Avon
        catchment. The River Avon and tributaries are also important high quality fishing rivers
        supporting a huge diversity of coarse fish species.
        As with Telford, Coventry has been identified as a ‘growth point’. Although a proportion of public
        water supplies currently come from the Sherwood Sandstone major aquifer and the
        Carboniferous sandstone, siltstone and mudstone strata minor aquifer around Coventry and
        Kenilworth, the implications of future growth in term of water resources need to be taken into
        account. This is of particular importance in terms of abstractions from surface water due to the
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        limits on new abstractions for consumptive purposes already in place on the River Sowe and
        the importance of Warwickshire Avon catchments as a whole in terms of nature conservation
        (Severn Estuary), biodiversity, fishing and navigation (River Avon).
        Therefore options to minimise the effects that increased demand for abstractions in this area
        associated with population growth need to be considered, particularly in regard to improving the
        efficiency of water use and promoting water conservation.
        WRZ3 Severn: Worcester and Shrewsbury
        Both Worcester and Shrewsbury are located on the River Severn and water is supplied from the
        River Severn at Trimpley and Shelton. Based on the requirements to protect the nature
        conservation value of the Severn Estuary (SAC, SPA and Ramsar) the status of this river in
        terms of water availability has been classed over ‘No Water Available’. Whilst there is a
        presumption that new abstraction licences will be granted for the River Severn, these licences
        will be assessed on an individual basis in terms of the effect on the Severn Estuary and may be
        subject to HOF conditions limiting abstraction at low flow.
        As growth points, focusing the implementation of water saving initiatives and promotion of water
        efficient practices in these towns and the Severn WRZ as a whole would help to minimise the
        effects that housing and population growth in these areas would have on the River Severn
        corridor and the Severn Estuary.
        Burton on Trent (Outside STWL Supply Area)
        Burton on Trent lies within the supply area of South Staffs Water, but is covered by the Tame,
        Anker and Mease CAMS area and Lower Trent and Erewash. It is not possible to directly
        promote water conservation and the use of water efficient measures in this area. However it is
        important to recognise that, being identified as a ‘growth point’ population growth in this area
        could place increased demand and associated pressure on water resources within the Tame,
        Anker and Mease catchment and surrounding catchments. Increased demand for water in
        Burton on Trent could affect the availability of water for customers within the STWL region.




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9.5     Distribution-Side Management Assessment Results


        Two of the proposed four distribution-side schemes have been put forward for inclusion in the
        WRMP. These include:
          14: DVA Duplication, Kings Corner to Hallgates (illustrated in Figure 3 in Appendix B)
          142, 143, 144, 145,146 and 147: Leakage control through combination of active leakage
          control, mains replacement and pressure control
        Reasons for the exclusion of the other two potential distribution side schemes (contained in the
        long listed schemes) are summarised below in Table 9.12:




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          Table 9.12: Scheme Exclusions

          Scheme                                                 Reason Excluded
                                                                    Insufficient gap in supply/demand balance to justify
               26: Hampton Loade to Trimpley
                                                                    scheme
               11: DV to Yorkshire Bulk Export (East Midlands)      Available DO required within STWL Region

          The following provides a more detailed assessment of the individual schemes identified under
          each of the strategic options (distribution side management).


9.5.1.1   Scheme 14: DVA Duplication – Kings Corner to Hallgates


          The main objective of this scheme is to increase the capacity of the Derwent Valley Aqueduct
          (DVA) between Kings Corner (near Derby) to Hallgates Service Reservoir near Leicester. This
          will allow STWL to maximise the production capacity of WTWs located within the Derwent
          Valley to the north of the River Trent (Bamford, Homesford, Ogston, Little Eaton and Church
          Wilne) and will enable a release of additional deployable output (DO).
          In total the scheme could enable a DO gain of 60Ml/d annual average quantity and 60Ml/d for
          peak week quantity. In addition to increasing water availability within WRZ6 East Midlands this
          scheme would also make available 20Ml/d for distribution within WRZ3: Severn via increased
          use of the east/west strategic link.
          At present, all STWL water treatment works in the Derwent catchment are connected with the
          southern half of the East Midlands water resource zone via the Derwent Valley Aqueduct
          (DVA). However, the DVA is only a single pipeline for treated water between Kings Corner and
          Sawley where it crosses the River Trent. This limits its capacity along this stretch to 60Ml/d.
          From Sawley to Hallgates the DVA becomes a twin pipeline, with an increased capacity of
          85Ml/d. Water flows under gravity along the full length of the DVA although water is also
          pumped into it from Little Eaton, Homesford and Church Wilne water treatment works.
          To increase the capacity of the DVA, STWL are proposing to lay a 33km main which would run
          from Kings Corner to Hallgates, and would be capable of transferring an extra 60Ml/d. In
          addition STWL are looking at opening a connection in the DVA at the point at which it is
          crossed by the delivery main that takes water to the Ragdale Service Reservoir in Leicester
          from Melbourne treatment works. This would enable some of the spare production capacity at
          Melbourne works, which is currently restricted by the DVA capacity, to also be maximised.
          The proposed scheme has been based on findings from investigation that indicate the following
          water resources are available in the Dove-Derwent-Trent System:


            Carsington Reservoir – water is available here to support production at Little Eaton and
            Church Wilne treatment works when flows in the River Derwent have fallen below the
            prescribed value.
            Approximately 30Ml/d of water is available in the River Trent via the Witches Oak Water
            Scheme into Church Wilne treatment works. This is supported by groundwater from the
            Birmingham Groundwater Scheme.
            Water is available in the Melbourne Dove system (based on what is available to abstract
            rather than what is in the river)


          In terms of the potential environmental effects associated with this scheme, based on a review
          of the information from the EA CAMS (summarised in baseline report) it would appear that there
          is currently water available in the River Trent, particularly the Lower Trent in and around Church
          Wilne. However the Derbyshire Derwent CAMS indicates ‘over-licensed’ status at low flows for
          the main river whilst the Dove CAMS indicates ‘over-abstracted’ status at low flows.
          The main focus of this scheme is to maximise the production capacity of existing treatment
          works in the East Midlands zone, by increasing the capacity of main distribution network in this
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        area (DVA). This will enable us to fully utilise STWL existing abstraction licences rather than
        creating new abstractions. Therefore, although the Dove CAMS has, for example, identified that
        the River Dove has ‘over-abstracted’ status at low flows, this assessment of water availability
        already takes into account existing abstraction licences.
        Based on successful implementation of this scheme, the distribution of an additional 40Ml/d of
        deployable output into the Severn WRZ would have positive effects on the environment, by
        reducing pressure on water resources in this area. A large proportion of the water resources in
        the Warwickshire Avon CAMS (in the Severn WRZ) are classed as ‘over-abstracted’ or ‘over-
        licensed’ status and a number of the WRMU in other CAMS area within the Severn WRZ are
        classed as having ‘no water available’ status to the need to protect the integrity of the Severn
        Estuary SAC, SPA and Ramsar site.
        The scheme will also provide additional deployable output to the East Midlands zone and
        greater operational flexibility through a more integrated strategic grid. The duplication of a key
        section of the DVA will also increase the resilience of STWL water supplies to Birmingham and
        Severn zones.
        Table 9.13: Environmental Effects Associated with Scheme 14: DVA Duplication

        14: DVA Duplication Kings Corner to Hallgates
                                                                                                         Residual
        Effect Type      Potential Effect            Significance        Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                       Significance
                                                                        Extended Phase I habitat
                                                                        surveys
                                                                        Protected species surveys
                                                                        Site selection/routeing
                                                                        studies (avoidance of
                                                                        designated sites and BAP
                                                                        habitats)
                         Habitat loss and species                       Undertake early
                         disturbance along                              engagement with                  Neutral
                         pipeline                                       stakeholders such as CCW,
                                                                        NE and EA. Early
                                                                        consultation and improved
                                                                        relationships between
                                                                        companies and
                                                                        stakeholders can prevent
                                                                        unnecessary effects on
                                                                        sites, or protected species.
                         Temporary landscape
                                                                        Site selection
        Negative         and visual impacts during                                                       Neutral
                                                                        Routing studies
        Effects          construction of pipeline
        (Construction)   Loss or disturbance of                         Archaeological surveys
                                                                                                         Neutral
                         archaeological features                        Geo-physical surveys
                                                                        Temporary site drainage
                                                                        Control of sediment
                         Temporary reductions in                        discharge
                         water quality due to                           EMP and CEMP
                                                                                                         Neutral
                         increased sediment and                         (Contractors Environmental
                         pollutants in runoff                           Management Plan)
                                                                        Control of works in
                                                                        watercourses
                         Temporary air quality
                                                                        Wheel washing
                         impacts associated with
                                                                        Ground dampening during          Neutral
                         dust generated during
                                                                        dry periods
                         construction
                                                                        Control of working hours
                                                                        EMP and EMP
                         Noise generated from
                                                                        Control of noise from            Neutral
                         construction activities
                                                                        construction plant and
                                                                        machinery
                         Land sterilisation along
                         pipeline easement
                                                                        Route selection                     -
        Negative         Energy consumption and
                                                                        Monitor water pressure
        Effects          CO2 emissions
                                                                        levels
        (operation)      associated with piping
                                                                        Potential for carbon
                         water and treating
                                                                        offsetting schemes should
                         increased volumes of
                                                                        be identified.
                         water
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          14: DVA Duplication Kings Corner to Hallgates
                                                                                                              Residual
          Effect Type     Potential Effect             Significance        Mitigation Measure
                                                                                                            Significance
                                                                          This scheme will fully utilise
                                                                          the existing abstraction
                                                                          licences which STWL
                                                                          currently hold for these
                                                                          Rivers
                                                                          The full utilisation values for
                                                                          these licences were used
                                                                          within the production of the
                                                                          Lower Trent and Erewash
                                                                          (previously Trent Corridor)
                          Potential for impacts on
                                                                          CAMS. Whilst the scheme
                          the Humber Estuary
                                                                          involves the utilisation of
                          SAC, SPA and Ramsar
                                                                          these abstractions the
                          sites as the scheme will
                                                                          scheme itself does not              Neutral
                          utilise raw water from the
                                                                          constitute a new or an
                          Trent and Dove systems
                                                                          increase in licence
                          which are hydrologically
                                                                          abstractions from either of
                          connected to this site
                                                                          these water bodies.
                                                                          Therefore utilisation of these
                                                                          licences does will not alter
                                                                          the HOF of 265Ml/d at North
                                                                          Muskham gauging station
                                                                          which is the level of flow
                                                                          identified as providing
                                                                          sufficient protection to the
                                                                          Humber Estuary SAC, SPA
                                                                          and Ramsar Site.
                          Main aim of scheme is to
                          increase the capacity of
                          the DVA to allow the
                          maximisation of the
                          production capacity of the
                          WTWs to the north of the
                          River Trent. This would
                          have positive effects on
                                                                          No mitigation measures
                          maintaining
                                                                          identified
                          demand/supply balance
          Positive        in the East Midlands
          Effects         WRZ and would help to
                          reduce gaps in demand
                          /supply balance in
                          Severn WRZ and reduce
                          pressure on resources in
                          this area
                          Security of supply for
                          Derby, Nottingham and                           No mitigation measures
                          Leicester (identified as a                      identified
                          growth point)


          The laying of 33km of main between Kings Corner and Hallgates could have adverse effects on
          the environment as identified in Table 9.13 above. However, through the implementation of
          appropriate environmental measures e.g. route selection studies and environmental surveys
          required under UK legislation e.g. Conservation (of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 and
          Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended), these potential environmental effects would
          be avoided or minimised. Measures should also be implemented to ensure there are no impacts
          on Beacon Hill, Harigingstone and Outwoods, Newhurst Quarry and Oakley Wood SSSIs which
          are located in between the two locations and potentially along the pipeline route. Screening
          exercises would also be required to determine whether the pipeline development would be
          subject to an Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA), further reducing the potential for any
          significant adverse effects on the environment.


9.5.1.2   Schemes 142, 143, 144, 145,146 and 147: Leakage Control



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          In setting STWL long term supply / demand balance strategy, STWL have considered leakage
          options alongside water resources, treatment and distribution enhancement options to derive
          the overall least cost mix of investment schemes. To close the AMP5 target headroom shortfall
          significant leakage reductions will be required, in particular within the Severn zone. The result
          of STWL least cost analysis sets a new sustainable economic level of leakage target of 453
          Ml/d by the end of AMP5, to be delivered through more active leakage control and pressure
          management.
          In the longer term will not allow leakage targets to rise over the 25 year planning period. STWL
          have adopted this policy because:
              Through the draft WRMP consultation it is clear that proposals to allow leakage targets to
              rise over time are unacceptable to STWL customers and other stakeholders.
              The policy is in line with the aspirations set out in STWL Strategic Direction Statement.
              Government has made clear that it expects companies to continue to drive leakage down.
              STWL sensitivity analysis shows that over the 25 years, the difference in whole life cost
              between allowing leakage targets to fluctuate and never allowing leakage targets to rise
              would be less than 3%.
          To achieve this long term policy aim, STWL need to renew mains at a rate greater that would
          be needed simply to maintain serviceability. STWL asset modelling has demonstrated that the
          lowest cost approach to reducing leakage in later AMP periods includes additional mains
          renewal expenditure in AMP5 and AMP6. This early mains renewal is needed to prevent
          leakage increases in later AMP periods resulting from supply pipe deterioration.
          STWL least-cost modelling approach models the interactions and inter-dependencies between
          leakage control interventions. For example, increasing levels of mains renewal will reduce the
          age of the network and counteract the rise in leakage that results from deterioration of the aging
          distribution system and therefore reduces the need for future active leakage control. Replacing
          mains will also affect serviceability, which is measured by mains burst frequency and supply
          interruptions of greater than 12 hours experienced by customers. Different combinations of
          each possible leakage control intervention have been calculated and STWL have derived the
          minimum whole life cost solution to achieving headroom and serviceability targets.
          In its 2009 Final Determination, Ofwat made no allowance in price limits for the additional mains
          renewal needed during AMP5 to prevent future leakage deterioration. In the short term STWL
          believe STWL can offset the impacts of less mains renewal by making more effective use of
          pressure management. But longer term, STWL analysis shows that STWL will need to
          significantly increase mains renewal activity in AMP6 in order to achieve STWL long term
          leakage targets.
9.5.1.3   Leakage control strategy by water resource zone


          Economic leakage targets for each resource zone, derived through least-cost modelling, are
          shown in table 9.14 below.
          The majority of the AMP5 leakage savings are delivered by active leakage control (ALC) and
          pressure management. Further leakage savings of around 3 Ml/d are delivered by supply pipe
          leakage savings arising from STWL new policy of locating free optional meters at the property
          boundary.
          Table 9.14: Target levels of leakage from 2010 to 2035 (Ml/d)
                            AMP4                     AMP5                      AMP6       AMP7   AMP8   AMP9
                WRZ
                             2010    2011    2012     2013    2014    2015      2020      2025   2030   2035
           Birmingham         76       73      71      70      68      67        63        63     63     63
           East Midlands     181      181     180     178      176     175      164       155    151    151
           Forest &
                              12       12      12      12      12      12        11        11     11     11
           Stroud
           Oswestry           9        9       9       9        9       9        9         9      9      9
           Severn            162      152     148     145      136     136      133       129    124    123
           Staffs & E         56       55      55      55      55      55        54        54     53     53

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           Shropshire

           Company               496   483    474       468        456   453    436       421   411   410



9.5.1.4   Active Leakage Control
          STWL analysis shows that STWL need to find and fix around 400 Ml/d of leakage every year,
          just to avoid leakage increasing due to network deterioration. STWL have used this analysis to
          understand how many leaks STWL need to repair each year, which in turn gives us confidence
          in the numbers of detection and repair staff required to hit leakage targets. The derivation of
          how leakage will rise as mains and supply pipes deteriorate forms a key element of STWL
          economic levels of leakage analysis.
          Table 9.15 below shows the optimised level of active leakage control to achieve headroom
          targets in AMP5 .
          Table 9.15: AMP5 ALC leakage reductions
                                                    Total ALC Leakage
                           WRZ
                                                    Reductions (Ml/d)

           Birmingham                                         10

           East Midlands                                      4

           Forest & Stroud                                    1

           Oswestry                                           0

           Severn                                             21

           Staffs & E Shropshire                              2

           Company                                            38




9.5.1.5   Mains Renewal
          STWL integrated approach to supply demand and serviceability is outlined in chapter 14 of the
          WRMP. STWL overall mains renewal investment programme is driven by the need to maintain
          serviceability and the long term benefits of reducing future leakage increases due to network
          deterioration.
          STWL water infrastructure and supply demand model produces the least cost plan to meet all
          serviceability and supply demand constraints and drivers. The model outputs produce mains
          renewal expenditure forecasts that deliver benefits in two key areas;
              Maintenance: Expenditure needed to maintain the fabric of STWL trunk main and
              distribution systems, maintain serviceability, and off-set the natural rate of rise of leakage
              attributable to deterioration of STWL water mains and communication pipes.
              Supply Demand: Expenditure needed to generate a reduction in leakage in order to
              address a deficit in STWL supply demand balance. Mains renewal is one of a number of
              leakage control measures available to reduce leakage and off-set the impact of rising
              leakage from customer supply pipes.
          STWL AMP4 mains renewal programme was driven by the need to reduce deterioration of the
          network in order to maintain serviceability. Analysis of all DMAs renewed during AMP4 has
          shown that, on average, STWL see an immediate leakage reduction of 17% following mains
          renewal. Through better targeting of DMAs, STWL have shown that STWL can improve this
          immediate leakage saving to over 40%.
          Figure D below shows reductions in burst frequency on all asset types, pre- and post- mains
          renewals.




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        Figure D: Asset repairs pre and post mains renewal

                                                            1.20




            Weighted average repair rate (Number/km/year)
                                                            1.00


                                                            0.80


                                                            0.60


                                                            0.40


                                                            0.20


                                                            0.00
                                                                                Mains               Mains ancillaries         Communication pipes             Stop taps /                    Supply pipes
                                                                                                                                                              Boundary Boxes
                                                                                                                                  Repair Category

                                                                                                                 2 Years Pre          1 Year Pre          1 Year Post




        This reduction in burst frequency implies that in the long-term there will be a significant and
        ongoing leakage saving arising from mains renewal. STWL have refined STWL mains renewal
        selection process, to target groups of pipes with a potential high rate of rise in leakage (or burst
        frequency) rather than current high levels of leakage. These areas can usually be effectively
        managed using traditional leak detection and repair processes. However, the long term costs of
        maintaining leakage at target levels could make them suitable renewal candidates; this is taken
        into account through STWL current selection processes.
        STWL have also observed an increase in customer supply pipe leaks arising following
        replacement of mains and communications pipes which is a consequence of disrupting the
        network (re-valving, recharging etc.). Figure E below shows the observed increase in supply
        pipe leakage immediately following mains and communications pipe replacement in a number
        of STWL DMAs.
        Figure E: Increase in rates of supply pipe leakage following mains replacement

                                                                                                                         Post - m ains renew al


                                                            90


                                                            80


                                                            70
          leakage (litres/prop/hour)




                                                            60


                                                            50


                                                            40


                                                            30


                                                            20


                                                            10


                                                             0
                                                                 10302   4701    9102    10636   13541   4177    12336     6588   10234   13407    6393    9102   4801   13541   13407    10636    14224   12705
                                                                                                                                  DM A Reference

                                                                                        Com p any side leakage               Custom er sid e leakag e             Pre-renew als To tal L eakag e




        It is likely that leakage is increasing on localised, non-replaced assets and that achieving “zero”
        leakage through asset renewal cannot be realistically achieved unless the whole network,
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          including supply pipes, is renewed. However, increasing mains renewal can deliver significant
          leakage savings over the long-term through reducing the rate of network deterioration. STWL
          estimate the total leakage saving arising that would result from the renewal programme STWL
          have proposed to Ofwat to be over 145 Ml/d by 2035.
          In its 2009 final determination, Ofwat made no allowance in price limits for that element of the
          AMP5 mains renewal investment that STWL proposed would deliver AMP6 and AMP7 leakage
          benefits. In the short term STWL believe STWL can compensate for this by even further use of
          pressure management in AMP5 to prevent leakage deterioration. But longer term, STWL will
          require an increase in mains renewal investment in AMP6 if STWL are to achieve STWL 25
          year leakage target profile.
          Figure F: Cumulative leakage savings delivered through mains replacement


                                                Mains renewals impact on leakage

                                         200
               Leakage change




                                           0
                                                  Base   AMP5     AMP6     AMP7           AMP8   AMP9
                                         -200
                                (Ml/d)




                                         -400
                                         -600

                                         -800
                                                                    Period

                                    Leakage benefit through MR           Leakage increase due to NRR
                                    Net impact of MR on leakage


          In the long term the transfer of ownership of customer supply pipes to water companies is
          essential for the cost effective control of leakage. STWL Strategic Direction Statement sets out
          STWL support for this strategy and STWL intention to actively lobby for a change in legislation
          to make this happen.


9.5.1.6   Pressure Management
          Options to reduce leakage through implementation of further pressure management have been
          considered within STWL investment optimization modelling. Pressure management is selected
          in AMP5 as part of the least cost solution to offset increases in leakage due to network
          deterioration. Where economic, pressure management options have been brought forward to
          AMP5, reducing by 150km the amount of mains renewal required in AMP5 to offset future ALC
          costs.
          An additional 270 pressure reducing valves (PRVs) will be pressure managed or further
          optimised using advanced pressure control techniques delivering a total leakage saving of 28
          Ml/d by 2014/15. Figure F below shows cumulative long-term pressure management benefits
          achieved by preventing leakage deterioration that results from aging mains and customer
          supply pipes.




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        Figure F: Leakage Savings Delivered by Pressure Management

                                                    Pressure Management Reductions

                                       160




                                l/d)
                                       140


            Leakage Reduction (M
                                       120
                                       100
                                       80
                                       60
                                       40
                                       20
                                        0
                                             Base     AMP5        AMP6       AMP7         AMP8      AMP9
                                                                       Period

                                               PM NRR reduction    One-off PM reduction    Total PM reduction




        Reducing system pressures is one of the quickest methods of reducing leakage across a wide
        area. Additional factors that must be taken into account when implementing pressure
        management include burst frequency benefit, maintenance, risk of poor pressure problems and
        the reduction in the noise signature of leaks (making them more difficult to locate). The Fire
        Service also perceives a reduction in available fire-flows following pressure reduction.
        STWL currently actively manage around 2600 PRVs of which 80 are flow-modulated.
        Approximately 3100 are installed. Around 60% of properties are subject to some form of
        pressure management.
        Further DMA level pressure management opportunities require detailed investigation. A number
        of schemes have been identified through focused assessments of leakage, network and
        pressure information. These studies have also identified sub DMA pressure management
        opportunities. In addition to the assessment of new schemes STWL are currently reviewing
        further opportunities to deploy advanced PRV controllers, such as flow and closed loop
        pressure modulation. STWL will seek to establish robust cost benefit understandings for these
        technologies prior to their wider deployment.




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10      Cumulative Effects

10.1    Introduction

        This section looks at the cumulative impacts of the implementation of the final short listed
        schemes.


10.2    Cumulative Effects of WRMP Schemes


        Table 10.1 represents the 7 ‘supply-side’ management schemes identified as preferred options
        for inclusion in the Final WRMP, and identifies the WRZ within which the scheme falls. The
        table also includes the customer-side and distribution-side management schemes included in
        the WRMP.
        Table 10.1: Proposed WRMP Schemes included in the Final SEA Environmental Report

        Scheme


        No.         Description                                 Main Strategic Option   Relevant WRZ


        DM1 –       Promotion of household retrofit and other
                                                                Customer                All
        DM9         appropriate water efficiency options


                    Leakage control through combination of
        141 - 147   active leakage control, mains replacement   Distribution            All
                    and pressure control

                    Annual 10,000 per annum household
        M1                                                      Customer                WRZ6: East Midlands
                    metering
                    DVA duplication – Kings Corner to
                                                                                        WRZ3: Severn
        14          Hallgates. Additional support to the        Distribution
                                                                                        WRZ6: East Midlands
                    east/west link

        75          Prescribed flow review River Leam           Supply                  WRZ3: Severn


        76          Norton ASR]                                 Supply                  WRZ3: Severn


        150         Edgbaston BH                                Supply                  WRZ3: Severn


        151         Highters Heath ASR                          Supply                  WRZ3: Severn


        154         Minworth ASR                                Supply                  WRZ3: Severn

        153         Milton Borehole Trent Transfer                                      WRZ6: East Midlands

        157         Whitacre ASR                                                        WRZ3: Severn




        Overall it can be concluded from the results of the assessments of the final schemes detailed in
        Chapter 9, that cumulatively, the implementation of the proposed WRMP schemes will have
        minimal effects on the environment.
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        Several of the schemes focus specifically on water conservation and improving the efficiency of
        water use. Of those schemes, DM1-DM9 and leakage control measures (schemes 141-147)will
        be implemented across the STWL region. DM1-DM9 promotes household retrofit and other
        appropriate water efficiency options. These types of schemes will have a positive effect in terms
        of encouraging customers to use water more efficiently and increasing the amount of water
        available from existing abstractions. Successful implementation of these schemes has been
        identified as being sufficient to maintain the demand/supply balance for the next 25 years in
        WRZ1: Oswestry and WRZ5: Forest and Stroud.
        However, investigations into the remaining WRZs (WRZ2: Staffordshire and East Shropshire,
        WRZ3: Severn, WRZ4: Birmingham and WRZ6: East Midlands) as part of the preparation of the
        WRMP, have found gaps in the supply/demand balance in these zones. Consequently it was
        determined that DM1 and leakage control alone would not be sufficient to fill these gaps and
        therefore other schemes would be required. The third scheme that focuses on water efficiency
        is metering penetration. It is proposed that efforts to increase metering penetration will be
        focused in the East Midlands WRZ and the Staffordshire and East Shropshire WRZ, but will be
        applied to the whole of the STWL region. This will help to encourage further water conservation
        and efficiency in the main zones where the current high demand for water looks set to continue
        in the future.
        Two new groundwater schemes, four ASR schemes, and a scheme which will review
        prescribed flow requirements have been included in the Final WRMP. These ‘supply’ side
        schemes have been assessed as part of this Final SEA Environmental Report and will mostly
        benefit the Birmingham and Severn WRZs.
        Edgbaston Boreholes (150) will use the available capacity in the Birmingham GWMU for the
        Birmingham area (a recognised growth point) and will enable more water to be deployed to the
        Severn WRZ. This will provide more water to meet the demand for supply in the Severn WRZ,
        in particular the identified growth points of Coventry and Worcester
        The ASR schemes (Highters Heath (151), Minworth (154), Norton (76) and Whitacre (157)) are
        designed to store surplus treated water within deep aquifers. Highters Heath ASR will store
        excess water from Frankley during surplus resource and low demand periods in the deep
        Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer beneath Highters Heath DSR. The aim of this scheme is to
        enable supply during high demand periods, droughts or outages, by re-abstracting treated
        water and deploying it into the Birmingham and Severn WRZs, subject to marginal chlorination.
        Minworth ASR will also store surplus water from Frankley during low demand periods in the
        deep Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer beneath Minworth WTW. During high demands/droughts
        this water will be re-abstracted and deployed into the Birmingham low level control system,
        allowing an equivalent amount of water to be deployed into the Severn Zone from Frankley, via
        existing links. Norton ASR scheme will store excess water from Frankley during low demand
        periods in the deep Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer. Whitacre ASR scheme will store excess
        water from Whitacre or other strategic grid treatment works during surpluss resource / during
        low demand periods in the deep Sherwood Sandstone Aquifer. All of these schemes will
        deploy water, thus securing supply, in the Birmingham and Severn WRZs.
        Three of the ASR schemes involve the storage of surplus water from Frankley WTW. Therefore
        there could be impacts associated with the maintenance of the infrastructure at this WTW due
        to the cumulative treatment and distribution of all four schemes. These ASR schemes will use
        surplus raw water from the Elan Valley (River Wye) and Trimpley (River Severn). Therefore
        measures should be implemented to ensure that only surplus water is used from these
        locations, to prevent adverse impacts on the protected sites and species such as the River Wye
        SAC from the impacts of the cumulative abstraction of all four schemes.
        All four of the ASR schemes are within different aquifer groundwater management units in or
        close to Birmingham. The effects of injection are unlikely to have a cumulative impact on any
        one area. Although the aquifers to be utilised are for the most part confined beneath low
        permeability materal consideration should be given to the potential to increase the risk (if any)
        of localised flooding within the Birmingham area. The groundwater levels in some areas of
        Birmingham are currently rising due to a reduction in the number of industrial abstractions from


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        this groundwater, therefore measures should be taken to ensure the addition of all four
        schemes does not exacerbate this further.
        The Milton Borehole to Trent Transfer scheme is likely to increase the amount of deployable
        output to the East Midlands WRZ. As this scheme is based on enabling the utilisation of an
        existing license, this will have a positive effect on helping to close gaps in demand/supply in the
        East Midlands without requiring any additional abstraction licences (although the licence will
        have to be varied for the new use which will see a time limit imposed and possibly a reduction).
        In addition to these groundwater / ASR schemes, scheme 75; Prescribed Flow Review (River
        Leam) proposes a permanent reduction in the prescribed flow on the River Leam, resulting in a
        potential source deployable output gain of 5 MI/d. This scheme will increase water availability
        upstream of the Princes Drive Weir, allowing STWL several alternatives to increase the volume
        and flexibility for public water supply in the Severn WRZ.
        Although not classified as a ‘supply’ scheme but instead a ‘distribution-side’ management
        scheme, the DVA Duplication (Kings Corner to Hallgates) will also have a positive effect in the
        East Midlands and the Severn WRZ in terms of securing additional water supply. The main aim
        of the DVA Duplication is to construct a 33km pipeline to increase the capacity of the DVA to
        allow the maximisation of the production capacity of the WTWs to the north of the River Trent.
        This would enable more water to be directed from the Derwent Valley to Hallgates reservoir,
        from where water would be fed into the strategic grid for distribution across the East Midlands
        zone. The scheme would also make available an additional 40Ml/d to the East Midlands WRZ
        and 20Ml/d for distribution into the Severn zone via the east/west strategic link and no changes
        to the current abstraction licences are required. However there will be an increase in the actual
        abstraction from the River Derwent.
        Cumulatively in terms of the effects on the environment, most adverse effects are related to the
        infrastructure works associated with the schemes. Whilst some of the schemes are very large
        and would involve significant development e.g. installation of 33km of pipelines and
        construction of new disinfection units for the ASR schemes, it is expected that the majority of
        effects will be fairly localised and short term. Therefore cumulative effects on the environment
        associated with infrastructure or the construction phase of these schemes are not expected to
        be significant.
        The effects of the increased abstraction on groundwater and river levels are also not expected
        to be significant. All schemes that have been proposed have been investigated in detail with
        regard to the capacity of the identified resources to accommodate an increase in abstraction.
        The customer side management and leakage reduction schemes are evenly distributed across
        the STWL region, and where possible schemes have been identified that aim to improve and
        maximise the productivity of existing abstractions and WTWs, rather than create new
        abstractions. Where a groundwater scheme has been proposed, it has been located where
        additional resources are available or where net environmental or social benefit is acceptable,
        i.e. there is evidence of excess water in the Birmingham GWMU. The ASR schemes are one of
        the most environmentally friendly schemes that could be applied as ‘supply’ options. There will
        be minimal infrastructure necessary for these schemes and will largely involve the movement of
        water between seasons and as water availability and demand dictates.
        In terms of increased or new abstractions from rivers, the Prescribed Flow Review of the River
        Leam will allow more water to be taken from the River Leam. Although this specific scheme
        proposes a permanent reduction in the prescribed flow on the River Leam, research suggests
        that the reduction in flow is unlikely to have detrimental environmental effects. The decrease in
        wetted perimeter translates into a reduction of less than 1%. This scheme will result in more
        deployable water and a greater security of supply for the public in the Severn WRZ.


10.3    Cumulative effects of the WRMP with other plans and programmes


        This section considers that the effects of an individual plan may be insignificant when viewed in
        isolation, but may be significant when viewed in combination with the effects of other plans, and
        the effects of probable future plans. By themselves, the proposed schemes within the STWL
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        WRMP do not represent significant environmental effects; however, when combined with the
        proposed schemes in WRMPs for other water companies, some cumulative impacts may occur.
        This is likely to occur where different water companies are planning to utilise the same
        resource, for example surface water abstraction from the River Severn. In isolation, additional
        abstraction from this water resource may not lead to low flows, but if water companies are
        unaware of what the other is planning, if several companies abstract from the River Severn this
        could lead to harmful environmental effects with very negative consequences for associated
        habitats and species. Although detail is not presented at this stage, this section aims to briefly
        discuss schemes that water companies are proposing that cumulatively may have negative
        environmental effects on receptors such as water resources. It is possible that the schemes
        presented in Table 10.2 may have cumulative effects with each other or with schemes
        presented in this report:
        Table 10.2: Water companies proposed schemes with the potential for cumulative environmental
        effects.

         Welsh Water

         A brief analysis of Welsh Water’s WRMP notes several schemes, including: Upgrade of Mynydd Llandegai water
         treatment works with increased abstraction from Marchlyn Bach reservoir (North Eryri/Ynys Mon), New
         groundwater abstraction to feed Penybont water treatment works (Tywyn Aberdyfi) and a New trunk main
         transfer from Hereford WRZ (Vowchurch). Although cumulative effects as a result of implementation of these
         schemes alongside STWLs schemes cannot be identified at this stage, it is unlikely that there will be significant
         cumulative effects. Only abstractions from the R Wye catchment may have a cumulative effect

         South Staffs Water

         Proposed schemes identified as part of South Staffs Waters WRMP are particularly important as this region falls
         within STWLs supply boundary. Although a detailed assessment has not been conducted as part of this SEA, the
         following scheme has been flagged as having potential cumulative effects:

         Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater

         The scheme involves using more River Severn water when it is available during winter and spring, cutting back on
         groundwater. In summer and Autumn using additional groundwater to support Hampton Loade Treatment Works
         when it is restricted by licence conditions.

         Bristol Water

         Although a detailed assessment has not been conducted as part of this SEA, the following schemes detailed in
         Bristol Waters dWRMP have been flagged as having potential cumulative effects:

         Preferred Option - S001 Cheddar Reservoir: A significant impact through its three year construction period, the
         site is currently open land on the edge of the Mendip Hills AONB.

         S002 Severn Spring and Transfer (not a preferred option but one which could have negative cumulative
         effects if implemented in the future): There is an indirect increase in efficiency, and reduction on use of resources,
         though the development of a source of water that can be used for non potable purposes thereby displacing 15Ml/d of
         raw water taken from the River Severn via the Sharpness canal allowing the better quality water to be used for
         potable supply. There would be a significant charge for both the raw water to be purchased from Railtrack and the
         operating charges for a main attached to the Second Severn Crossing (SSC). If it is not possible to use the SSC to
         carry the pipeline, the main would need to be laid in the bed of the Severn estuary. Bristol Water has not discussed
         the use of this water with the Welsh Assembly Government at this early stage. STWL understand that Welsh Water
         have also considered use of the Severn spring as one of their supply options as have Severn Trent (identified as
         scheme 158 Sudbrooke to Whaddon).

         Preferred Option - S017 Southern Sources Upgrade (unconsolidated)

         Preferred Option - S012 Docks - Barrow Transfer Scheme

         Thames Water

         A brief analysis of Thames Waters WRMP suggests several groundwater and surface water schemes including:
         ELRED groundwater, Kidbrooke artificial recharge of groundwater, Northern New River 1 groundwater, Goring Gap 1
         groundwater, Lambourn Down groundwater, Goring Gap 3 groundwater, Goring Gap 2 groundwater and Culham
         surface water. It also details potential Reservoirs - Abingdon 150Mm3 (London) / Abingdon 150Mm3 (SWOX).
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         Although uncertain at this stage, it is unlikely that there will be significant cumulative effects as a result of
         implementation of these schemes alongside STWLs schemes.

         Wessex Water

         East resource zone - Option 102. The development of a new groundwater source in the Downton area of the
         Hampshire Avon catchment to cover the surface water sustainability reductions in the Salisbury area and meet the
         supply demand deficit in the east resource zone. In addition, an existing water treatment works near Ringwood will
         be reconstructed.

         North resource zone - Option 11.2c. The development of a new 20 Ml/d surface water source on the Bristol Avon
         river to cover the sustainability reductions in the Wylye valley and meet the supply demand deficit in the north
         resource zone.

         Anglian Water

         Over 50 individual schemes were assessed in the first stage and feedback on the potential environmental effects
         provided to the WRMP team. Many of these are customer-side management schemes, and although there is not
         sufficient detail on the remaining schemes to assesses whether there will be cumulative effects, it is unlikely that
         there will be effects with these schemes situated in the east of England.

         Yorkshire Water

         Like the other water companies, Yorkshire Water list many customer-side and distribution management options that
         are feasible (including leakage control, mains replacement, and pressure control and water conservation). Feasible
         resource options include; reservoir dam height raising, new resources (e.g. Tees transfer) and new or refurbished
         water treatment works. The major component of the solution is the development of the existing treatment works on
         the River Ouse. This expansion will provide increased resilience and flexibility of the grid supply system and it is not
         expected that utilising the full licence on the River Ouse will have unfavourable cumulative effects. If however, other
         options become necessary in the future, for example, e.g. River Trent Abstraction, then possible cumulative effects of
         these options should be investigated further.

         United Utilities

         United Utilities presents a long list of feasible options, many of which are customer-side and distribution management
         options. A brief review of the options suggests that there are unlikely to be negative cumulative environmental effects
         even though there are some options, for example, that involve abstraction from the River Derwent.




        Many of the proposed schemes detailed in water companies WRMPs will have negative short
        term construction effects, particularly as a result of the construction or replacement of pipelines
        and WTWs. Cumulatively these effects are not likely to be significant, particularly if sufficient
        mitigation measures are put in place. In fact, the schemes involving mains replacement and
        leakage control will have significant positive effects on human health and reduce the future
        pressure on water resources.
        The ‘supply’ schemes, however, may have negative cumulative environmental effects if water
        from the same resource is abstracted at the same time for different areas. For example, Bristol
        Water’s scheme S002 Severn Spring and Transfer proposes to use the same source as
        scheme 158 (in STWL’s constrained list within the Final WRMP). Scheme 158 has not,
        however, been selected as one of the preferred schemes and so this is will not have cumulative
        effects.
        It is difficult at this stage to provide a more comprehensive, detailed assessment, but a brief
        study of the preferred options of surrounding Water Companies WRMPs concludes that it is
        unlikely that a combination of options will cause significant cumulative negative effects. The
        majority of schemes are located on different resources, the United Kingdom experiences
        relatively ample rainfall, and abstracted volumes are largely controlled by statutory bodies such
        as the EA.
        It is possible that the most likely effects may be experienced by the larger rivers such as the
        River Severn or River Trent. These are large water resources and are accessible to several
        different water companies. If water companies propose similar schemes, abstracting from the

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        same resources, this may result in potential cumulative effects. Thus, during the operation of
        such schemes, all participants should be aware of potential cumulative environmental effects.
        During dry periods additional flow augmentation to the affected rivers may be necessary to
        minimise and or avoid adverse effects on the environment. Avoidance of these negative
        cumulative effects is particularly important where there are downstream designated sites such
        as the Severn Estuary SPA, SAC and Ramsar Site. However it is expected that such schemes
        would require agreement with the EA, who regulates flow in many rivers including the River
        Severn and are involved in the modelling of the River Severn. In addition to regulation by the
        EA, many of these schemes will require Environmental Impact Assessments or will be subject
        to other methods of environment control. Further investigation into schemes may be required
        prior to implementation, particularly in regard to specific UK legislation e.g. Conservation of
        Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 and Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended),
        due to the potential effects that the additional abstraction from the River Severn would have on
        the Severn Estuary.




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11      Monitoring


11.1    Introduction


        As part of the SEA process (Stage E), a monitoring framework should be established to assess
        potential effects due to implementation of a plan. As the STWL WRMP contains a number of
        proposals for water supply schemes which involve development over the period to 2035, it is
        important to monitor the effects of this Plan, particularly in relation to the key environmental
        objectives of the Plan. Monitoring of each 8 schemes will allow the Plan to be reviewed as
        necessary to ensure that it remains up to date and relevant to the needs of the people and the
        environment within the STWL region.


11.2    Importance of Monitoring


        Monitoring is important for identifying whether the WRMP is having an adverse effect on the
        environment. In the event that adverse effects are identified then these need to be addressed. It
        is also important to monitor the predicted positive effects to check whether the predicted effect
        is actually occurring. Future reviews of the WRMP and other related plans will also need to take
        into account any adverse effects or trends identified during monitoring so that future policies,
        proposals or strategies can either be rejected or modified accordingly.
        In addition to the identification of any adverse effects of the WRMP following its implementation,
        monitoring is also important for obtaining information to fill any gaps in the baseline; reducing
        uncertainties; and testing the accuracy of the predictions. Information on positive effects can
        also be used to enhance the performance of future plans, policies and strategies.


11.3    How to Monitor


        Monitoring is an ongoing process, undertaken continuously for the duration of the
        implementation of the WRMP and usually involves the use of indicators or targets. An ‘indicator’
        is a measure of how the ‘baseline’ has changed and is a means of checking whether the
        WRMP is performing as predicted. Given that indicators are used to monitor whether the
        WRMP plan is performing as predicted they are usually based upon information that will be
        directly affected by the implementation of the WRMP.
        The methods used for monitoring vary according to the type of indicators that are being used.
        Indicators may comprise both quantitative (facts and figures) and qualitative (descriptive)
        information. Changes in quantitative information (facts and figures) can be measured through
        the use of data capture, interrogation and management systems. However, it is important that
        the interpretation of the quantitative ‘data’ accurately represents what is happening on the
        ground, as ‘numbers’ can sometimes be misleading.
        The indicators developed during Scoping Process, Stage A, have been reviewed for the
        purpose of this monitoring framework. Certain elements of the Plan will be easier to monitor
        than others. It is assumed that a number of these indicators will be collated on a year by year
        basis, for example, the population numbers within each Water Resource Zone or the Per Capita
        domestic water consumption (litres / head / day). Other aspects may only be assessed against
        trend data collected over a period of time and may be less frequent. To achieve this, a limited
        number of indicators to monitor each of the SEA objectives have been identified.


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11.4     Indicators and Targets


         An initial set of indicators and targets (where possible) have been identified for each of the SEA
         objectives and criteria. The indicators and targets will be used to indicate adverse and/or
         beneficial change using quantified measures of performance.
         The indicators and targets relate, where possible, to the baseline information collected so
         comparisons between the present situation within STWL’s region, and that predicted for the
         future can be made. This has not been possible in every case. However, this approach does
         ensure that the indicators and targets are relevant to STWL’s region and the SEA objectives.
         They should be measurable over the time period for which the WRMP is to be adopted and
         should relate to the significant effects that have been identified as part of the assessment.
         It is important that indicators and targets are SMART:
           Specific
           Measurable
           Achievable
           Relevant
           Time bound
         In addition, STWL have Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are used to monitor
         performance and to evaluate investment options against the PR09 Business Plan. The relevant
         KPIs have been considered within the SEA and incorporated where appropriate.
         Where possible, ‘output indicators’ have been identified and presented. However, some
         ‘process indicators’ have been incorporated to take account of on-going initiatives being
         undertaken by STWL. Further development of indicators and targets is likely to be necessary
         during the appraisal process
         It is acknowledged that a robust monitoring process will be needed to meet the requirements of
         the implementation of the WRMP. The indicators deemed relevant to the WRMP and through
         which each of the main objectives will be monitored against have been listed below in Table
         11.1. The table also outlines the monitoring technique and the sources of the data.


11.5     Discussion and Recommendations


         Indicators have been identified for all SEA Topics and are discussed below.


11.5.1   Biodiversity


         ‘Maintaining, restoring and enhancing biodiversity as a component of healthy ecosystems’ will
         most likely be more difficult to monitor than other objectives under biodiversity due to its broad
         nature. No indicators have been identified under this objective that are easily available from
         bodies such as Natural England or the EA. In order to be able to monitor this objective, a very
         broad spectrum of baseline surveys would initially be recommended, to ascertain the current
         level of biodiversity at key identified sites within the STWL region. In the future, sites that are
         recognised to be of importance for their biodiversity, and those sites which are identified to have
         excellent opportunities to enhance biodiversity within the locality could be targeted for
         monitoring to achieve this objective.
         A cost effective approach to such ecological monitoring surveys is to set up a rolling bi-annual
         survey schedule, whereby specific species surveys (usually those which are good indicators of
         biodiversity) are chosen, and then a proportion of those surveys undertaken every other year.
         The advantage of utilising this ‘rolling’ method is the creation of comparable data sets for
         specific sites, allowing a number of years for the enhancement methods to take effect. The

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         results would, should there be no adverse effects on the environment, be shown as an increase
         in the number of species which have been targeted.
         An example of possible surveys includes:
         Key species surveys identified: Breeding birds, reptiles, odonata (dragonflies & damselflies),
         invertebrates.
         Survey schedule: 2009 – birds and reptiles
                        2010 – odonata and invertebrates
                        2011 – birds and reptiles
         Any other specific surveys can be undertaken as and when required for individual sites (e.g.
         great crested newt or bat surveys).


11.5.2   Human Beings


         The Human Beings objective may be addressed using the current set of STW KPIs. These KPIs
         address the requirements of monitoring for the SEA process and therefore no additional
         indicators have been identified.


11.5.3   Land use and Land Management


         Maintain, restore and enhance the physical environment. No indicators have been identified for
         this objective due to its very broad nature. Possible indicators may be out of STWL’s remit and
         be more manageable at a local level. In addition, several factors interact to cause changes to
         the physical environment and therefore it is difficult to measure the impact of STWL’s activity
         alone. For example, farming methods, STWL’s water abstraction, non-STWL water abstraction
         and natural events (such as floods) will interact to alter the physical environment (particularly
         rivers).


11.5.4   Water


         In terms of monitoring water quality, the EA monitors the identified indicators, for example
         nitrate and phosphate levels, % of rivers at risk of not meeting ‘good ecological status’ and
         nitrate vulnerable zones.
         It may be more difficult to ensure water resources are managed and utilised sustainably due to
         the complexities of determining sustainable water use. It is suggested that the CAMS
         documents should be used as a reference as most issues surrounding water resource use are
         monitored via CAMS. As determining sustainable use is complex, it is possible that to monitor
         this objective, the use of a combination of objectives and indicators across the board (i.e. within
         water, human beings etc) may be used.


11.5.5   Air and Climate


         In terms of air and climate, the identified indicators may be measured by STWL on an annual
         basis as part of their KPIs. Although some of the indicators are for STWL as a whole, it would
         be more beneficial, within this objective as part of this SEA, to monitor aspects to do with water
         supply only. Although this may not be possible at this stage, this may be thought about for
         future monitoring purposes.




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11.5.6   Archaeology and Cultural Heritage


         Indicators under Archaeology and Cultural Heritage are more difficult for STWL to monitor and
         therefore need to be kept applicable. Information provided by English Heritage on an annual
         basis that would reflect the effects of implementation of the WRMP on the STWL region would
         be welcomed and would assist in future monitoring frameworks. STWL should strive for
         adherence to objectives associated with World Heritage Site Management Plans. In addition, as
         a number of proposals for water supply schemes involve development, the number of schemes
         requiring archaeological investigations or archaeological mitigation strategies (preservation by
         design and/or archaeological recording) prior to approval could be considered. Many aspects
         relating to archaeology and cultural heritage may be monitored within this indicator, possibly at
         a more local / EIA level.


11.5.7   Landscape, Townscape and Visual Amenity


         As with archaeology and cultural heritage above, changes to landscape, townscape and visual
         amenity is more difficult to monitor due to the abstract nature and complexities of these
         features. The indicators suggested may be the best way to measure the quality and
         distinctiveness of the regions landscapes and townscapes.


11.5.8   Conclusions


         It is important that STWL strives to integrate monitoring the implementation of the WRMP to
         assess significant effects (beneficial or negative). This approach provides a defined process
         and timeframe, and also establishes responsibilities for monitoring in the future. It may be built
         on and reviewed as an iterative process with the progression of AMP periods, the development
         of Water Resources Management Plans and the development of water supply alternatives in
         the future.


11.6     Proposed Monitoring Report


         STWL will be expected to produce a monitoring report to assess effects of implementation of
         the WRMP. The monitoring report should, in particular, focus on detailing effects relevant to the
         implementation of specific schemes. As detailed within this chapter, sources of data may be
         from key national, regional and local datasets held by statutory bodies, internet searches or
         baseline surveys. Where possible data should be taken from an existing source.




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Table 11.1: Monitoring Framework

                                                                                           Type of                                  Monitoring
SEA Objectives                    SEA Indicator                                                           Format of Data                                     Source of Data         Review Timescale
                                                                                           Data                                     Techniques
Biodiversity
                                  % of water related sites meeting favourable
                                  conservation status relative to the condition of
                                                                                                                                    Review information       Environment
                                  species and habitat features.                                                                                                                     Should be reviewed
                                                                                           Quantitative   Statistics                collected for baseline   Agency / Natural
                                  % of water related SSSIs within the STWL region                                                                                                   every AMP period (5
                                                                                                                                    summary                  England/ CCW
                                  meeting PSA target (England)                                                                                                                      years). Also as, and
                                  % of Welsh SSSIs in favourable condition (Wales)                                                                                                  when, new data
                                                                                                                                    Review information       Local Wildlife         becomes available.
                                  Area of land designated as Sites of Special Scientific
                                                                                           Quantitative   Statistics                collected for baseline   Trusts / Natural
                                  Interest in favourable condition.
                                                                                                                                    summary                  England
      Maintain, restore and
      enhance designated          Changes in the types and areas of conservation
                                                                                                                                    Review information                              Should be reviewed
1                                 designations covering the STWL area.                                                                                       Natural
      sites and protected                                                                  Qualitative    Description               collected for baseline                          every AMP period (5
                                                                                                                                                             England/CCW
      species                     Changes to condition of National Nature Reserves.                                                 summary                                         years).
                                                                                                                                                                                    Based upon surveys
                                                                                                                                                                                    conducted within the
                                                                                                          Description/ Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                    area by local
                                                                                                          or individual surveys     Review information       Environment
                                  Condition of protected species populations and their     Qualitative/                                                                             authorities /
                                                                                                          conducted by              collected for baseline   Agency / Natural
                                  habitats.                                                Quantitative                                                                             consultants /
                                                                                                          consultants /             summary                  England/ CCW
                                                                                                                                                                                    developers not within
                                                                                                          developers
                                                                                                                                                                                    a specific timescale or
                                                                                                                                                                                    related to the WRMP
                                  Changes in area and / or quality of BAP habitats as a
      Maintain, restore and
                                  result of water resource schemes (including                                                                                Internet searches
      enhance nationally                                                                                                            Review information                              Should be reviewed
                                  contribution to UK BAP targets).                         Qualitative/                                                      for LBAP updates /
2     threatened UK                                                                                       Description/ Statistics   collected for baseline                          every AMP period (5
                                  Changes in numbers / populations of BAP species as       Quantitative                                                      Natural
      Biodiversity Action Plan                                                                                                      summary                                         years).
                                  a result of water resource schemes (including                                                                              England/CCW
      (BAP) Assets
                                  contribution to UK BAP targets).
      Maintain, restore and
      enhance biodiversity as                                                              Needs to be                                                       Needs to be
3                                 None noted (See previous discussion for more detail)                    N/A                       Needs to be identified                          Needs to be identified
      a component of healthy                                                               identified                                                        identified
      ecosystems
Human Beings

      To provide and maintain     Population number within each WRZ.                                                                                         Census data 2001
                                                                                                                                    Review information
      sustainable water                                                                                                                                      /STWL/ Office for      May be reviewed
4                                 Number of new houses built within the region.            Quantitative   Statistics                collected for baseline
      supplies for all end                                                                                                                                   National Statistics/   annually.
                                                                                                                                    summary
      users                       Type / No. of people occupancy new homes built.                                                                            County Councils


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                                                                                               Type of                         Monitoring
SEA Objectives                       SEA Indicator                                                            Format of Data                            Source of Data   Review Timescale
                                                                                               Data                            Techniques
                                     Per capita domestic water consumption litres/ head/
                                     day.
                                     Household water use.
                                     No indicators found for ‘ensuring that interruptions to                                                            Needs to be
                                                                                               Statistics     N/A              Needs to be identified                    Needs to be identified
                                     supply are minimised’?                                                                                             identified
        To reduce demand for         Average household usage.                                                                  Review information                        Should be reviewed
        water by encouraging
5                                                                                              Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline   STWL             every AMP period (5
        wide ranging water
                                     No. of households with metered water supply.                                              summary                                   years).
        conservation measures
                                     No. of Salmonid fisheries within each WRZ or CAMS
                                     area.
        Maintain and improve                                                                                                   Review information
                                     No. of important fisheries utilised for angling within                                                             Environment      Every AMP period (5
6       sites utilised for                                                                     Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline
                                     each WRZ or CAMS area.                                                                                             Agency           years).
        recreation and amenity                                                                                                 summary
                                     No. of navigable rivers within each WRZ or CAMS
                                     area.
Land use and Land Management
        Maintain, restore and
                                                                                               Needs to be                                              Needs to be
7       enhance the physical         None Noted (See text above for more detail)                              N/A              Needs to be identified                    Needs to be identified
                                                                                               identified                                               identified
        environment
Water
                                     % of rivers classed as A or B i.e. very good or good
                                     water quality.
                                     % of rivers meeting their RQO.
                                                                                                                               Review information
                                                                                                                                                        Environment
                                     % of rivers classified as grade 1 or 2 i.e. very low      Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline                    Annual
                                                                                                                                                        Agency
        Protect and enhance          nitrate / phosphate levels or low nitrate / phosphate                                     summary
8                                    levels.
        water quality
                                     Number of raw water supply sources within areas
                                     designated as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones.
                                                                                                                               Review information
                                     % of water bodies at risk of not meeting ‘good                                                                     Environment
                                                                                               Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline                    Annual
                                     ecological status’ by 2015.                                                                                        Agency
                                                                                                                               summary
                                                                                               Needs to be                                              Needs to be
                                     None Noted                                                               N/A              Needs to be identified                    Needs to be identified
                                                                                               identified                                               identified
        Ensure water resources       No of rivers at risk of low flows                                                         Review information
                                                                                                                                                        Environment
        are managed and                                                                        Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline                    Annual
9                                    No of rivers at risk of failing to meet WFD objectives                                                             Agency
        utilised in a sustainable                                                                                              summary
                                     because of low flows
        way
                                                                                                                               Review information       Environment      Should be reviewed
                                     Water availability for water dependant habitats,
                                                                                               Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline   Agency/Natural   every AMP period (5
                                     especially designated sites.
                                                                                                                               summary                  England/ CCW     years).


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                                                                                            Type of                         Monitoring
SEA Objectives                     SEA Indicator                                                           Format of Data                            Source of Data       Review Timescale
                                                                                            Data                            Techniques
                                                                                                                            Review information
                                   Volume / duration / level of leakage.                    Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline   STWL                 Annual
                                                                                                                            summary
                                                                                                                            Review information
                                   Number of new STWL water supply assets at risk                                                                    Environment
                                                                                            Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline                        Annual
      Plan for and                 from flooding.                                                                                                    Agency/ STWL
                                                                                                                            summary
10    appropriately mitigate
                                                                                                                            Review information
      the effects of floods                                                                                                                          Environment
                                   Groundwater levels.                                      Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline
                                                                                                                                                     Agency
                                                                                                                            summary
                                                                                                                            Review information
                                   No. of drought permit sites (surface water and
      Plan for and                                                                          Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline   STWL                 Annual
                                   groundwater).
      appropriately mitigate                                                                                                summary
11
      the effects of drought                                                                                                Review information
                                   No. of days in an average year that ’hands off’ flows                                                             Environment
                                                                                            Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline                        Annual
                                   are in operation (for surface water).                                                                             Agency
                                                                                                                            summary
Air and Climate

                                   Total net electricity, gas and energy use.
                                   Electricity generated from renewable energy sources
                                   and CHP located in the area.
                                   Embodied energy in new buildings
      Increase the proportion
      of energy generated          Average energy efficiency of new buildings.                                              Review information
                                                                                                                                                     STWL /
12    from renewable and low                                                                Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline                        Annual
                                   % of new homes conforming to recognised codes for                                                                 NAEI website
      carbon sources                                                                                                        summary
                                   sustainable buildings.
                                   Net Energy Use per Ml water / waste water treated.

                                   CO2 emissions by sector / per capita.

                                   Energy consumption per building per occupant.
      Minimise greenhouse          Carbon emissions for STWL                                                                Review information
      gas emissions and
13                                                                                          Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline   STWL                 Annual
      reduce the carbon
                                   Carbon emissions for supplying water                                                     summary
      footprint of water supply
Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
                                                                                                                            Review information
                                   Adherence to objectives associated with World                                                                     English Heritage/    Reviewed every AMP
                                                                                            Qualitative    Description      collected for baseline
                                   Heritage Site Management Plans                                                                                    Cadw                 period (5 years).
      Protect, manage and                                                                                                   summary
14    enhance the historic         Number of schemes requiring archaeological
                                                                                                                            Review information
      environment                  investigations or archaeological mitigation strategies                                                            English Heritage /   Reviewed every AMP
                                                                                            Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline
                                   (preservation by design and/or archaeological                                                                     Cadw                 period (5 years).
                                                                                                                            summary
                                   recording) prior to approval.
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                                                                                        Type of                         Monitoring
SEA Objectives                   SEA Indicator                                                         Format of Data                            Source of Data       Review Timescale
                                                                                        Data                            Techniques
Landscape, Townscape and Visual Amenity
                                 Number of new schemes within or visually adjacent to
      Protect and enhance the                                                                                           Review information
                                 nationally protected designated landscapes.                                                                     English Heritage /   Reviewed every AMP
      quality and                                                                       Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline
                                                                                                                                                 Cadw                 period (5 years).
      distinctiveness of the     Number and area of designated landscape areas.                                         summary
15a
      regions landscapes and
                                                                                                                        Review information
      townscapes                                                                                                                                 English Heritage /   Reviewed every AMP
                                 Adhering to objectives of AONB Management Plans.       Quantitative   Statistics       collected for baseline
                                                                                                                                                 Cadw                 period (5 years).
                                                                                                                        summary




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12      Conclusion


        The conclusion from the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is that the STWL Final
        WRMP 2010 overall will be able to secure future water supplies across the region with minimal
        effects on the environment.
        The options/alternative and schemes put forward within the Final WRMP aim to maintain the
        existing supply demand balances in certain WRZs through promoting water conservation and
        efficiency measures and improving leakages.
        In some WRZs where gaps in the supply demand balance have been identified, additional
        water metering schemes have been introduced to try and encourage further water efficiency
        amongst customers by raising awareness of the costs (financial) associated with water use.
        Where water efficiency measures, improvement to leakages and metering are insufficient to fill
        projected future gaps in the supply demand balance, STWL have had to identify a number of
        distribution and supply schemes.
        The distribution scheme (14: DVA Dup, Kings Corner to Hallgates) seeks to improve the
        efficiency with which water is distributed within the WRZs and across the region as a whole.
        Ultimately this will enable STWL to redistribute water abstracted from existing sources and
        under existing licences from areas where there is surplus water supply to the areas where gaps
        in the supply demand balance are greatest.
        The supply side schemes focus on improving the efficiency of existing abstractions and
        identifies new groundwater abstractions that are required to increase supply to areas where the
        gaps in the supply demand balance are greatest.
        Ultimately, all of the schemes identified will have positive effects on the environment. However,
        some of the schemes will also have short term negative effects on the environment, the majority
        of which will be associated with the laying of new pipelines, creation of new boreholes and
        construction of associated infrastructure e.g. new or modified water treatment works.
        The majority of potential negative effects will be short term and temporary associated with and
        construction of the schemes where additional infrastructure is required and include:
          Temporary habitat loss and species disturbance along pipeline routes and areas associated
          with new infrastructure developments
          Temporary landscape and visual impacts associated with ground disturbance, construction
          activities and machinery/plant associated with laying of pipelines and construction of
          infrastructure e.g. WTW
          Permanent landscape and visual impacts due to presence of new WTWs however with
          appropriate design and screening where necessary this impact could be minimised.
          Potential loss or disturbance of archaeological features along pipeline routes and in areas
          associated with new infrastructure developments; however this impact can be avoided
          through appropriate routing studies.
          Temporary air quality impacts associated with dust generated during construction
          Temporary impacts from noise and vibration generated from construction activities (pipeline
          laying and borehole drilling)
          Temporary community disturbance during construction e.g. traffic and footpath diversions
          Land sterilisation along pipeline easement
          Energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with piping water and treating increased
          volumes of water




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AECOM   STWL WRMP Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Final Environmental Report                159




        However, through the implementation of appropriate environmental mitigation measures e.g.
        route selection studies and environmental surveys required under UK legislation e.g.
        Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 and Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
        (as amended), these potential environmental effects could be avoided or minimised. Screening
        exercises would also be required to determine whether the pipeline development would be
        subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), further reducing the potential for any
        significant adverse effects on the environment. Prior to the construction and deployment of new
        groundwater sources, it is envisaged that environmental investigations, including preparation of
        supporting statements for Section 32 consent application and water features survey, will be
        required.




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        References



        Legislation
        - European Directive 2001/42/EC (2001) The Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and
        Programmes on the Environment
        - The Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes (England) Regulations (2004)
        (HMSO)
        - Water Act (2003), The Stationary Office Limited
        - Water Resources Management Plan Regulations (2007) (SI2007,No272 (HMSO 2007)
        - EC Directive 79/409/EC (1979) on The Conservation of Wild Birds
        - EC Directive 92/43/EEC (1992) on The Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and
        flora (The Habitats Directive)
        - Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act
        2000).
        - Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010


        Guidance Documents
        - A Practical Guide to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2005), Department of
        Communities and Local Government (DCLG)
        - Strategic Environmental Assessment – Guidance for Water Resources Management Plans
        and Drought Plans (07/WR/02/5) (2007) UK WIR


        Supporting Documents
        - Severn Trent Monitoring Plan for 2005 - 2010 (2005) Protecting the health and well-being of
        our communities
        - Severn Trent Water (2007) Annual Reports and Accounts
        - Severn Trent Water (December 2007), Focus on the Water Strategic Direction Statement
        2010 to 2035
        - Welsh Assembly Government (2008) People, Places, Futures, The Wales Spatial Plan 2008
        Update.
        - Environment Agency (December 2009) Humber River Basin Management Plan
        - Environment Agency (December 2009) Severn River Basin Management Plan
        - Environment Agency (December 2009) Western Wales River Basin Management Plan
        - Environment Agency (December 2009) Anglian River Basin Management Plan
        - Ramsar Convention
        - Water for Life and Livelihoods (2007), Severn River Basin District Significant Water
        Management Issues, Environment Agency


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AECOM   STWL WRMP Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Final Environmental Report          161




        - Water for Life and Livelihoods (2007), Humber River Basin District Significant Water
        Management Issues, Environment Agency
        - Hyder Consulting (2007) River Leam and Upper Avon Drought Permit Impact Assessment
        - Environment Agency (2008), The Tame, Anker and Mease Catchment Abstraction
        Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2006) The Derbyshire Derwent Catchment Abstraction Management
        Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2006) The Dove Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2007), The Idle and Torne Catchment Abstraction Management
        Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2008) The Lower Trent and Erewash Catchment Abstraction
        Management Strategy
        Environment Agency (2008) The Severn Vale Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2005) The Shropshire Middle Severn Catchment Abstraction
        Management Strategy and surrounding area
        - Environment Agency (2006) The Soar Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2003) The Trent Corridor Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2006) The Warwickshire Avon Catchment Abstraction Management
        Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2005) the Teme Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2003) The Severn Corridor Catchment Abstraction Management
        Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2005) The Severn Uplands Catchment Abstraction Management
        Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2007) The Staffordshire Trent Valley Catchment Abstraction
        Management Strategy
        - Environment Agency (2006) The Worcestershire Middle Severn Catchment Abstraction
        Management Strategy


        Internet Sources
        http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=6
        http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1352
        http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1768
        http://www.communities.gov.uk/housing/housingsupply/growthareas/newgrowthpoints/
        http://publicatins.environment–agency.gov.uk




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                                                                               Appendices
                                                                                        162

				
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