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					                          Performance Measure Summary - San Jose CA

There are several inventory and performance measures listed in the pages of this Urban Area Report for the
years from 1982 to 2011. There is no single performance measure that experts agree “says it all.” A few key
points should be recognized by users of the Urban Mobility Report data.
  Use the Trends – The multi-year performance measures are better indicators, in most cases, than any
  single year. Examining a few measures over many years reduces the chance that data variations or the
  estimating procedures may have caused a "spike" in any single year. (5 years is 5 times better than 1
  year ).
  Use several measures – Each performance measure illustrates a different element of congestion. (The
  view is more interesting from atop several measures ).
  Compare to similar regions – Congestion analyses that compare areas with similar characteristics (for
  example population, growth rate, road and public transportation system design) are usually more insightful
  than comparisons of different regions. (Los Angeles is not Peoria ).

  Compare ranking changes and performance measure values – In some performance measures a small
  change in the value may cause a significant change in rank from one year to the next. This is the case
  when there are several regions with nearly the same value. (15 hours is only 1 hour more than 14 hours ).
  Consider the scope of improvement options – Any improvement project in a corridor within most of the
  regions will only have a modest effect on the regional congestion level. (To have an effect on areawide
  congestion, there must be significant change in the system or service ).

                         Performance Measures and Definition of Terms

Travel Time Index – A measure of congestion that focuses on each trip and each mile of travel. It is
calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel time in free-flow. A value of 1.30 indicates a
20-minute free-flow trip takes 26 minutes in the peak.
Planning Time Index - a travel time reliability measure that represents the total travel time that should be
planned for a trip. Computed with the 95th percentile travel time it represents the amount of time that
shouldbe planned for a trip to be late for only 1 day a month. Computed with the 80th percentile travel time it
represents the amount of time that should be planned for a trip to be late for only 1 day a week. A PTI of 3.00
means that for a 20-minute trip in light traffic, 60 minutes should be planned.

Peak Commuters – Number of travelers who begin a trip during the morning or evening peak travel periods (6
to 10 a.m. and 3 to 7 p.m.). "Commuters" are private vehicle users unless specifically noted.
Annual Delay per Commuter – A yearly sum of all the per-trip delays for those persons who travel in the
peak period (6 to 10 a.m. and 3 to 7 p.m.). This measure illustrates the effect of the per-mile congestion as
well as the length of each trip.
Total Delay – The overall size of the congestion problem. Measured by the total travel time above that
needed to complete a trip at free-flow speeds. The ranking of total delay usually follows the population
ranking (larger regions usually have more delay).
CO2 per Commuter - represents the pounds of additional CO2 emissions generated by a commuter during a
year due to traffic congestion.
Free-Flow Speeds -- These values are derived from overnight speeds in the INRIX speed database. They
are used as the national comparison thresholds. Other speed values may be appropriate for urban project
evaluations or sub-regions studies.
Excess Fuel Consumed – Increased fuel consumption due to travel in congested conditions rather than free-
flow conditions.
Public Transportation – Regular route service from all public transportation providers in an urban area.
Operations Treatments – Freeway incident management, freeway ramp metering, arterial street signal
coordination and arterial street access management.
Congestion Cost – Value of travel delay for 2011 (estimated at $16.79 per hour of person travel and $86.81
per hour of truck time) and excess gasoline consumption (passenger vehicles) and diesel (trucks) estimated
using state average cost per gallon.
Urban Area – The developed area (population density more than 1,000 persons per square mile) within a
metropolitan region. The urban area boundaries change frequently (every year for most growing areas). The
annual change in miles traveled and lane-miles, therefore, includes both new travel and roads due to growth
and travel and roads that were previously in areas designated as rural.
Number of Rush Hours – Time when the road system might have congestion.
                                               The Mobility Data for San Jose CA
               Inventory Measures                         2011      2010      2009      2008      2007      2006
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        1,838    1,814     1,783     1,755     1,705     1,705
     Rank                                                      25       25        25        27        27        27
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                    1,048    1,030     1,009       990       955       948
  Commuters (1000s)                                           973      957       938       920       887       881
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   17,146   16,922    16,600    16,350    16,680    16,800
   Lane-Miles                                                 896      896       900       900       900       900
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   16,563   16,347    16,610    16,795    17,105    17,055
   Lane-Miles                                               2,425    2,425     2,410     2,410     2,420     2,420
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                    208.0    197.9     199.2     207.1     191.9     172.7
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                      43.2     42.9      43.2      44.9      43.4      40.9
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                    16.79    16.30     16.01     16.10     15.47     15.06
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  86.81    88.12     89.75     81.52     82.56     80.43
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        3.51     3.05      2.61      3.84      3.24      2.88
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          4.02     3.20      2.71      4.39      3.60      3.17
               System Performance                         2011      2010      2009      2008      2007      2006
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                               77       76        75        78        81        79
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                             63       62        61        63        68        63
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                      6.00     6.00      5.00      6.25      7.00         --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                20,028   19,766    19,603    20,784    28,846    29,887
    Rank                                                       28       28        28        26        19        19
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        17       17        15        17        25        26
    Rank                                                       40       40        52        42        19        20
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                      47,385   46,766    46,184    47,762    68,462    70,433
    Rank                                                       23       23        25        23        18        18
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      39       38        36        40        57        59
    Rank                                                       28       29        36        28         8         6
Travel Time Index                                            1.24     1.24      1.22      1.25      1.30      1.31
  Rank                                                         17       17        19        11        10        10
Commuter Stress Index                                        1.24     1.25      1.23      1.26      1.32         --
  Rank                                                         31       25        28        24        18         --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                    3.45        --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                         25        --        --        --        --        --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                    1.93        --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                         15        --        --        --        --        --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                              302      298       296       313       435       451
    Rank                                                       35       35        37        34        27        26
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         249      246       227       246       359       378
    Rank                                                       65       67        75        68        54        49
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                            153      151       158       149       215         --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                         52,751   52,079    51,374    50,679    49,993         --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                     971      958       934       977     1,342     1,332
    Rank                                                       26       26        27        23        18        18
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                             800      790       746       810     1,132     1,515
    Rank                                                       35       35        39        34         9        10
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                                The Mobility Data for San Jose CA
               Inventory Measures                          2005         2004         2003         2002         2001         2000
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                         1,675       1,675        1,675        1,675        1,675        1,675
     Rank                                                       27          27           25           25           24           24
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                       925         920          915          901          886          873
  Commuters (1000s)                                            859         854          850          837          823          811
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                    16,820      16,600       16,565       16,760       16,775       16,530
   Lane-Miles                                                  900         900          895          895          890          885
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                    16,400      16,800       17,950       17,575       17,455       16,775
   Lane-Miles                                                2,420       2,480        2,480        2,460        2,440        2,425
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                     166.7       169.5        188.8        222.3        235.6        235.0
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                       38.5        39.8         46.9         54.4         58.2         54.0
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                     14.58       14.10        13.73        13.43        13.22        12.85
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                   78.05       74.17        72.23        70.86        71.38        70.47
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                         2.62        2.28         1.78         1.66         1.93         1.72
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                           2.93        2.27         1.79         1.58         1.78         1.68
               System Performance                          2005         2004         2003         2002         2001         2000
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                  76           73           74           72           72           71
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                                63           61           61           60           58           58
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                            --           --           --           --           --           --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                 27,785      26,087       27,985       27,463       28,081       27,047
    Rank                                                        19          22           18           19           16           16
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                         25          23           25           25           25           23
    Rank                                                        19          25           16           13           12           14
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                       66,110      63,636       68,233       66,551       67,302       65,026
    Rank                                                        18          18           16           15           14           14
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                       56          54           58           56           57           55
    Rank                                                         8           7            5            5            5            5
Travel Time Index                                             1.29        1.27         1.28         1.28         1.29         1.28
  Rank                                                          17          20           13           11           12           13
Commuter Stress Index                                            --          --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                           --          --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                        --          --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                           --          --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                        --          --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                           --          --           --           --           --           --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                               419         393          422          414          423          408
    Rank                                                        29          30           29           27           24           22
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                          359         341          359          359          359          341
    Rank                                                        49          54           47           46           43           44
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                               --          --           --           --           --           --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                               --          --           --           --           --           --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                    1,198       1,097        1,123        1,072        1,089        1,015
    Rank                                                        19          18           17           17           16           16
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                            1,388       1,272        1,302        1,243        1,263        1,176
    Rank                                                        14          12            8            8            6            8
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                                 The Mobility Data for San Jose CA
               Inventory Measures                          1999         1998         1997         1996         1995         1994
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                         1,670        1,650        1,620        1,595        1,550        1,540
     Rank                                                       24           24           24           24           24           24
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                       855          832          804          778          744          728
  Commuters (1000s)                                            794          773          746          723          691          677
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                    18,635       17,650       17,170       17,050       17,000       16,660
   Lane-Miles                                                1,130        1,130        1,125        1,110        1,090        1,050
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                    16,710       16,630       16,600       16,510       16,165       14,870
   Lane-Miles                                                2,390        2,360        2,325        2,290        2,265        2,225
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                     217.4        238.5        210.0        196.7        184.8        190.5
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                       55.5         53.9         51.0         49.4         45.4         45.4
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                     12.43        12.17        11.98        11.71        11.37        11.06
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                   66.76        65.76        66.83        66.20        64.27        62.23
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                         1.59         1.27         1.40         1.21         1.27         1.16
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                           1.50         1.39         1.51         1.24         1.31         1.19
               System Performance                          1999         1998         1997         1996         1995         1994
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                  64           61           60           58           58           56
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                                52           48           48           45           45           40
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                            --           --           --           --           --           --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                 25,129       21,617       19,773       20,281       20,198       18,406
    Rank                                                        16           19           22           16           16           15
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                         22           19           18           18           19           18
    Rank                                                        14           21           23           21           17           15
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                       59,964       51,985       46,987       48,646       48,220       43,126
    Rank                                                        15           15           18           16           16           15
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                       51           45           42           44           45           40
    Rank                                                         8           11           15           11            7           10
Travel Time Index                                             1.25         1.22         1.20         1.21         1.21         1.20
  Rank                                                          18           25           30           23           18           15
Commuter Stress Index                                            --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                           --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                        --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                           --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                        --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                           --           --           --           --           --           --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                               379          326          298          306          305          278
    Rank                                                        25           26           28           26           24           22
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                          322          284          265          265          284          265
    Rank                                                        49           55           53           49           34           32
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                               --           --           --           --           --           --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                               --           --           --           --           --           --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                      900          756          681          687          665          575
    Rank                                                        15           16           19           16           16           15
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                            1,047          889          816          836          832          725
    Rank                                                         9           13           16           14            9           13
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                                   The Mobility Data for San Jose CA
               Inventory Measures                           1993         1992         1991         1990         1989         1988
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                           1,525       1,505        1,500        1,410        1,390        1,370
     Rank                                                         24          24           24           24           24           24
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                         709         689          675          625          612          597
  Commuters (1000s)                                              659         640          627          580          568          555
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                      16,555      16,575       16,520       15,780       15,540       14,980
   Lane-Miles                                                  1,015         990          950          920          900          875
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                      12,785      13,130       12,980       13,190       13,185       13,075
   Lane-Miles                                                  2,200       2,180        2,150        2,115        2,100        2,090
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                       221.6       218.0        206.7        188.2        158.2        144.9
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                         52.0        49.3         50.1         45.7         41.5         35.9
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                       10.78       10.47        10.17         9.75         9.25         8.83
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                     60.84       59.01        57.31        55.03        52.81        50.04
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                           1.23        1.28         1.11         1.14         1.14         1.05
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                             1.26        1.25         1.25         1.19         1.09         1.01
               System Performance                           1993         1992         1991         1990         1989         1988
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                   56           56           57           57           57           57
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                                 40           40           40           40           40           39
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                             --           --           --           --           --           --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                   17,158      18,144       19,539       19,175       19,624       18,405
    Rank                                                          15          14           14           13           12           12
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                           17          18           19           19           21           19
    Rank                                                          15           9            8            7            4            6
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                         39,668      43,129       47,040       46,843       48,288       45,315
    Rank                                                          15          14           13           12           12           12
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                         37          41           45           48           50           47
    Rank                                                          12           5            5            3            3            3
Travel Time Index                                               1.20        1.21         1.23         1.23         1.24         1.23
  Rank                                                            13           9            7            7            6            6
Commuter Stress Index                                              --          --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                             --          --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                          --          --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                             --          --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                          --          --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                             --          --           --           --           --           --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                                 259         274          295          289          296          278
    Rank                                                          21          19           17           16           14           15
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                            246         265          284          284          303          284
    Rank                                                          35          25           15           13           11           10
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                                 --          --           --           --           --           --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                                 --          --           --           --           --           --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                        519         550          576          553          541          484
    Rank                                                          15          14           14           13           12           13
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                                661         708          744          761          755          686
    Rank                                                          11           6            5            5            3            3
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                               The Mobility Data for San Jose CA
               Inventory Measures                         1987         1986      1985      1984      1983      1982
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        1,355       1,340     1,325     1,310     1,300     1,300
     Rank                                                      24          24        24        24        24        24
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                      587         575       564       554       546       540
  Commuters (1000s)                                           545         534       524       515       507       501
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   14,410      13,530    12,930    12,240    11,455    11,040
   Lane-Miles                                                 860         830       820       790       765       750
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   12,040      11,530    10,385     9,900     9,410     9,235
   Lane-Miles                                               2,070       2,055     2,030     2,005     1,975     1,950
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                    144.5       144.2     150.7     166.9     166.9     166.9
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                      36.3        38.1      34.6      38.6      38.6      38.6
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                     8.48        8.18      8.03      7.75      7.43      7.20
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  48.53       46.57     47.83     46.47     44.23     43.08
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        1.05        1.03      1.35      1.36      1.39      1.46
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          1.01        0.99      1.29      1.31      1.34      1.40
               System Performance                         1987         1986      1985      1984      1983      1982
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                 54        53        50        46        44        42
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                               38        38        38        36        33        33
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                           --        --        --        --        --        --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                16,601      13,605    12,080     9,697     8,600     7,028
    Rank                                                       13          14        11        15        14        14
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        18          14        13        10         9         8
    Rank                                                        5           6         7        13        11        13
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                      41,657      33,109    29,014    23,099    20,213    16,432
    Rank                                                       11          13        12        13        13        14
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      44          35        31        25        22        18
    Rank                                                        3           4         4         5         7        10
Travel Time Index                                            1.22        1.18      1.17      1.14      1.13      1.11
  Rank                                                          5           9         8        10         9        11
Commuter Stress Index                                           --          --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                          --          --        --        --        --        --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                       --          --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                          --          --        --        --        --        --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                       --          --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                          --          --        --        --        --        --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                              250         205       182       146       130       106
    Rank                                                       15          16        16        19        17        17
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         265         208       189       151       132       114
    Rank                                                        8          15        18        24        27        34
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                              --          --        --        --        --        --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                              --          --        --        --        --        --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                     430         331       296       230       195       156
    Rank                                                       13          13        12        15        14        14
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                             615         480       433       340       291       233
    Rank                                                        3           4         4         6         8        12
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                             Benefits from Public Transportation Service and Operations Strategies in
                                                          San Jose CA

                   Operations Strategies                        2011          2010            2009        2008        2007
Freeway Ramp Metering
  Percent of Roadway Miles                                           56            56             55          56          59
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                               364           359            355         357         607
Freeway Incident Management
  Cameras
    Percent of Roadway Miles                                             68              68          67          68          70
  Service Patrols
    Percent of Roadway Miles                                         101           99             99         100          95
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                              1,856        1,831          1,809       1,819       2,591
Arterial Signal Coordination
  Percent of Roadway Miles                                           96            94             94          95          96
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                               210           208            205         215         316
Arterial Access Management
  Percent of Roadway Miles                                            74           73             72          73          76
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                              1,442        1,423          1,405       1,476       2,301
HOV Lanes
  Daily Passenger-miles of travel (1000s)                            -               -           -           -           -
   HOV User Delay Savings                                            -               -           -           -           -
Added Congestion if Operations Treatments were
Discontinued
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                              3,872        3,822          3,774       3,868       5,815
  Annual Delay Saved per Peak Auto Commuter (hrs)                      4            4              4           4           7
  Annual Congestion Cost Savings ($million)                           79           78             87          93         132
             Public Transportation Service                      2011          2010            2009        2008        2007
Existing Service
  Annual Passenger-miles of travel (million)                        208           198            199         207         192
  Unlinked Passenger Trips (million)                                 43            43             43          45          43
Added Congestion if Public Transportation Service
were Discontinued
  Annual Increase
    Delay (1000 hours)                                             2,097        2,069          2,044       2,252       3,149
    Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (hours)                               2            2              2           2           4
    Congestion Cost ($million)                                        43           42             47          54          71
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                Performance Measure Summary - San Francisco-Oakland CA

There are several inventory and performance measures listed in the pages of this Urban Area Report for the
years from 1982 to 2011. There is no single performance measure that experts agree “says it all.” A few key
points should be recognized by users of the Urban Mobility Report data.
  Use the Trends – The multi-year performance measures are better indicators, in most cases, than any
  single year. Examining a few measures over many years reduces the chance that data variations or the
  estimating procedures may have caused a "spike" in any single year. (5 years is 5 times better than 1
  year ).
  Use several measures – Each performance measure illustrates a different element of congestion. (The
  view is more interesting from atop several measures ).
  Compare to similar regions – Congestion analyses that compare areas with similar characteristics (for
  example population, growth rate, road and public transportation system design) are usually more insightful
  than comparisons of different regions. (Los Angeles is not Peoria ).

  Compare ranking changes and performance measure values – In some performance measures a small
  change in the value may cause a significant change in rank from one year to the next. This is the case
  when there are several regions with nearly the same value. (15 hours is only 1 hour more than 14 hours ).
  Consider the scope of improvement options – Any improvement project in a corridor within most of the
  regions will only have a modest effect on the regional congestion level. (To have an effect on areawide
  congestion, there must be significant change in the system or service ).

                         Performance Measures and Definition of Terms

Travel Time Index – A measure of congestion that focuses on each trip and each mile of travel. It is
calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel time in free-flow. A value of 1.30 indicates a
20-minute free-flow trip takes 26 minutes in the peak.
Planning Time Index - a travel time reliability measure that represents the total travel time that should be
planned for a trip. Computed with the 95th percentile travel time it represents the amount of time that
shouldbe planned for a trip to be late for only 1 day a month. Computed with the 80th percentile travel time it
represents the amount of time that should be planned for a trip to be late for only 1 day a week. A PTI of 3.00
means that for a 20-minute trip in light traffic, 60 minutes should be planned.

Peak Commuters – Number of travelers who begin a trip during the morning or evening peak travel periods (6
to 10 a.m. and 3 to 7 p.m.). "Commuters" are private vehicle users unless specifically noted.
Annual Delay per Commuter – A yearly sum of all the per-trip delays for those persons who travel in the
peak period (6 to 10 a.m. and 3 to 7 p.m.). This measure illustrates the effect of the per-mile congestion as
well as the length of each trip.
Total Delay – The overall size of the congestion problem. Measured by the total travel time above that
needed to complete a trip at free-flow speeds. The ranking of total delay usually follows the population
ranking (larger regions usually have more delay).
CO2 per Commuter - represents the pounds of additional CO2 emissions generated by a commuter during a
year due to traffic congestion.
Free-Flow Speeds -- These values are derived from overnight speeds in the INRIX speed database. They
are used as the national comparison thresholds. Other speed values may be appropriate for urban project
evaluations or sub-regions studies.
Excess Fuel Consumed – Increased fuel consumption due to travel in congested conditions rather than free-
flow conditions.
Public Transportation – Regular route service from all public transportation providers in an urban area.
Operations Treatments – Freeway incident management, freeway ramp metering, arterial street signal
coordination and arterial street access management.
Congestion Cost – Value of travel delay for 2011 (estimated at $16.79 per hour of person travel and $86.81
per hour of truck time) and excess gasoline consumption (passenger vehicles) and diesel (trucks) estimated
using state average cost per gallon.
Urban Area – The developed area (population density more than 1,000 persons per square mile) within a
metropolitan region. The urban area boundaries change frequently (every year for most growing areas). The
annual change in miles traveled and lane-miles, therefore, includes both new travel and roads due to growth
and travel and roads that were previously in areas designated as rural.
Number of Rush Hours – Time when the road system might have congestion.
                                   The Mobility Data for San Francisco-Oakland CA
               Inventory Measures                         2011      2010       2009       2008       2007       2006
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        4,101     4,058      4,000      3,960      3,900      3,860
     Rank                                                      11        10         10         10         11         11
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                    2,165     2,135      2,100      2,071      2,036      2,011
  Commuters (1000s)                                         1,931     1,904      1,873      1,847      1,816      1,794
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   51,843    51,299     49,000     48,500     49,850     50,155
   Lane-Miles                                               2,533     2,533      2,510      2,510      2,485      2,475
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   30,467    30,148     30,461     30,800     30,725     31,060
   Lane-Miles                                               5,208     5,230      5,230      5,230      5,240      5,240
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                  2,568.5   2,430.1    2,446.5    2,543.4    2,459.8    2,377.1
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                     427.2     422.5      425.3      442.2      422.8      420.2
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                    16.79     16.30      16.01      16.10      15.47      15.06
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  86.81     88.12      89.75      81.52      82.56      80.43
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        3.51      3.05       2.61       3.84       3.24       2.88
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          4.02      3.20       2.71       4.39       3.60       3.17
               System Performance                         2011      2010       2009       2008       2007       2006
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                               79        79         79         78         82         82
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                             59        58         59         58         60         60
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                      6.00      6.00       6.00       6.25       7.75          --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                64,509    63,833     62,224     62,665     90,313     94,190
    Rank                                                       10        10          9         10          6          5
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        25        25         25         25         36         38
    Rank                                                        6         6          9          7          3          1
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                     155,157   153,530    154,767    152,404    215,978    224,152
    Rank                                                        8         8          8          6          4          4
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      61        60         60         60         86         89
    Rank                                                        2         3          2          2          1          1
Travel Time Index                                            1.22      1.22       1.21       1.22       1.30       1.32
  Rank                                                         23        23         22         20         10          8
Commuter Stress Index                                        1.22      1.28       1.27       1.28       1.39          --
  Rank                                                         37        20         18         18          9          --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                    3.74         --         --         --         --         --
  Rank                                                         17         --         --         --         --         --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                    2.00         --         --         --         --         --
  Rank                                                         12         --         --         --         --         --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                            1,298     1,284      1,252      1,261      1,817      1,895
    Rank                                                       10        10          9         10          6          5
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         503       498        498        498        724        769
    Rank                                                        5         5          8          7          3          1
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                            643       636        666        607        895          --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                        132,539   130,852    129,081    127,333    125,610          --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                   3,279     3,245      3,220      3,209      4,396      4,392
    Rank                                                        8         8          8          6          4          4
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                           1,266     1,253      1,221      1,254      1,716      2,280
    Rank                                                        4         4          4          2          1          1
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                    The Mobility Data for San Francisco-Oakland CA
               Inventory Measures                         2005         2004         2003         2002         2001         2000
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        3,870        3,880        3,900        3,920        3,930        3,900
     Rank                                                      11           11           11           10           10            8
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                    2,012        2,010        2,012        1,995        1,969        1,923
  Commuters (1000s)                                         1,795        1,793        1,795        1,780        1,756        1,715
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   49,900       49,300       48,985       48,585       47,000       46,500
   Lane-Miles                                               2,470        2,450        2,420        2,415        2,400        2,335
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   31,130       30,900       30,420       30,245       28,690       29,855
   Lane-Miles                                               5,240        5,205        5,165        5,115        5,050        5,005
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                  2,282.7      2,233.4      2,169.8      2,279.2      2,493.7      2,363.9
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                     418.4        415.1        417.4        443.5        464.8        436.6
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                    14.58        14.10        13.73        13.43        13.22        12.85
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  78.05        74.17        72.23        70.86        71.38        70.47
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        2.62         2.28         1.78         1.66         1.93         1.72
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          2.93         2.27         1.79         1.58         1.78         1.68
               System Performance                         2005         2004         2003         2002         2001         2000
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                 81           81           79           77           76           77
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                               58           58           58           58           58           58
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                           --           --           --           --           --           --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                92,596       86,258       82,761       80,702       75,448       76,950
    Rank                                                        5            6            6            6            6            4
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        37           35           34           33           30           30
    Rank                                                        1            2            3            1            5            4
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                     224,164      206,989      198,837      192,628      180,722      183,831
    Rank                                                        4            4            4            4            4            4
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      89           82           78           76           71           72
    Rank                                                        1            1            1            1            2            1
Travel Time Index                                            1.31         1.29         1.27         1.27         1.26         1.26
  Rank                                                          8           11           17           17           18           16
Commuter Stress Index                                           --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                       --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                       --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                            1,863        1,736        1,665        1,624        1,518        1,548
    Rank                                                        5            6            6            6            6            4
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         746          701          679          656          611          611
    Rank                                                        2            2            3            1            4            2
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                              --           --           --           --           --           --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                              --           --           --           --           --           --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                   4,203        3,675        3,355        3,166        2,965        2,933
    Rank                                                        4            4            4            4            4            4
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                           2,176        1,898        1,724        1,618        1,512        1,506
    Rank                                                        1            1            2            2            2            2
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                      The Mobility Data for San Francisco-Oakland CA
               Inventory Measures                         1999         1998         1997         1996         1995         1994
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        3,890        3,870        3,850        3,840        3,830        3,820
     Rank                                                       8            8            7            7            7            7
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                    1,891        1,854        1,817        1,782        1,750        1,723
  Commuters (1000s)                                         1,686        1,654        1,621        1,589        1,561        1,537
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   45,710       45,145       43,800       42,795       42,330       40,550
   Lane-Miles                                               2,335        2,335        2,280        2,270        2,250        2,210
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   29,125       28,260       28,000       28,685       28,295       28,445
   Lane-Miles                                               4,980        4,940        4,850        4,810        4,770        4,720
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                  2,204.5      2,140.4      2,081.6      2,060.5      1,990.5      2,034.9
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                     420.3        413.8        412.0        404.2        400.8        407.1
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                    12.43        12.17        11.98        11.71        11.37        11.06
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  66.76        65.76        66.83        66.20        64.27        62.23
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        1.59         1.27         1.40         1.21         1.27         1.16
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          1.50         1.39         1.51         1.24         1.31         1.19
               System Performance                         1999         1998         1997         1996         1995         1994
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                 76           78           77           79           77           76
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                               58           58           58           58           56           53
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                           --           --           --           --           --           --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                70,290       69,045       64,273       68,536       66,383       61,125
    Rank                                                        4            4            5            4            4            4
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        28           28           26           28           27           26
    Rank                                                        6            4            6            4            4            3
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                     163,226      159,254      148,832      161,515      155,797      142,509
    Rank                                                        4            4            4            4            4            3
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      65           64           60           65           63           58
    Rank                                                        2            2            3            2            2            3
Travel Time Index                                            1.23         1.23         1.23         1.24         1.23         1.22
  Rank                                                         24           22           19           12           11           10
Commuter Stress Index                                           --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                       --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                       --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                            1,414        1,389        1,293        1,379        1,336        1,230
    Rank                                                        4            4            5            4            4            3
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         566          566          520          566          543          520
    Rank                                                        5            3            7            3            3            2
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                              --           --           --           --           --           --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                              --           --           --           --           --           --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                   2,491        2,353        2,195        2,315        2,174        1,928
    Rank                                                        4            4            4            4            4            4
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                           1,283        1,219        1,142        1,208        1,137        1,011
    Rank                                                        2            2            5            3            3            4
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                       The Mobility Data for San Francisco-Oakland CA
               Inventory Measures                         1993         1992         1991         1990         1989         1988
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        3,810        3,805        3,725        3,675        3,620        3,610
     Rank                                                       7            7            7            7            7            7
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                    1,692        1,663        1,602        1,558        1,520        1,502
  Commuters (1000s)                                         1,509        1,483        1,429        1,390        1,356        1,340
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   41,500       40,695       40,600       40,600       41,015       40,460
   Lane-Miles                                               2,230        2,220        2,190        2,180        2,180        2,175
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   27,775       27,955       27,400       27,310       26,910       26,400
   Lane-Miles                                               4,660        4,595        4,535        4,490        4,410        4,375
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                  2,087.3      2,079.6      2,108.2      2,049.2      1,914.2      1,863.5
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                     415.7        432.4        426.6        410.0        403.2        401.3
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                    10.78        10.47        10.17         9.75         9.25         8.83
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  60.84        59.01        57.31        55.03        52.81        50.04
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        1.23         1.28         1.11         1.14         1.14         1.05
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          1.26         1.25         1.25         1.19         1.09         1.01
               System Performance                         1993         1992         1991         1990         1989         1988
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                 76           76           76           77           75           73
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                               53           57           57           57           57           57
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                           --           --           --           --           --           --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                64,931       63,508       62,576       66,952       70,039       67,218
    Rank                                                        3            3            3            3            3            3
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        27           26           26           29           30           29
    Rank                                                        3            3            2            2            2            1
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                     151,676      150,816      147,963      161,356      164,991      157,792
    Rank                                                        3            3            3            3            3            3
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      62           62           62           68           70           68
    Rank                                                        2            2            2            2            2            2
Travel Time Index                                            1.23         1.23         1.23         1.25         1.26         1.26
  Rank                                                          7            7            7            6            4            4
Commuter Stress Index                                           --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                       --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                       --           --           --           --           --           --
  Rank                                                          --           --           --           --           --           --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                            1,306        1,278        1,259        1,347        1,409        1,352
    Rank                                                        3            3            3            3            3            3
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         543          520          520          588          611          588
    Rank                                                        2            2            1            1            1            1
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                              --           --           --           --           --           --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                              --           --           --           --           --           --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                   2,006        1,941        1,831        1,923        1,877        1,716
    Rank                                                        3            3            3            3            3            3
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                           1,055        1,022          985        1,049        1,039          952
    Rank                                                        3            2            2            2            2            2
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                                    The Mobility Data for San Francisco-Oakland CA
               Inventory Measures                         1987         1986       1985      1984      1983      1982
Urban Area Information
  Population (1000s)                                        3,520        3,435     3,350     3,330     3,310     3,290
     Rank                                                       8            8         8         8         8         8
  Peak Travelers (1000s)                                    1,454        1,405     1,357     1,339     1,317     1,296
  Commuters (1000s)                                         1,297        1,253     1,210     1,194     1,175     1,156
Freeway
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   38,675       36,905    34,575    32,215    30,500    29,790
   Lane-Miles                                               2,150        2,140     2,125     2,105     2,080     2,055
Arterial Streets
   Daily Vehicle-Miles of Travel (1000s)                   24,620       22,765    20,460    19,225    19,065    18,895
   Lane-Miles                                               4,315        4,285     4,230     4,210     4,150     4,120
Public Transportation
  Annual Psgr-Miles of Travel (millions)                  1,700.0      1,620.9    1,650.0   1,671.4   1,671.4   1,671.4
  Annual Unlinked Psgr Trips (millions)                     411.8        420.0      434.8     491.0     491.0     491.0
Cost Components
  Value of Time ($/hour)                                     8.48         8.18      8.03      7.75      7.43      7.20
  Commercial Cost ($/hour)                                  48.53        46.57     47.83     46.47     44.23     43.08
  Gasoline ($/gallon)                                        1.05         1.03      1.35      1.36      1.39      1.46
  Diesel ($/gallon)                                          1.01         0.99      1.29      1.31      1.34      1.40
               System Performance                         1987         1986       1985      1984      1983      1982
Congested Travel (% of peak VMT)                                 67         63        59        51        45        43
Congested System (% of lane-miles)                               52         50        45        40        35        35
Congested Time (number of "Rush Hours")                           --         --        --        --        --        --
Annual Excess Fuel Consumed
  Total Fuel (1000 gallons)                                57,449       48,398    40,857    30,990    24,607    21,579
    Rank                                                        3            3         3         3         3         4
  Fuel per Peak Auto Commuter (gallons)                        26           21        19        15        11        10
    Rank                                                        1            1         1         2         6         7
Annual Delay
  Total Delay (1000s of person-hours)                     136,015      116,122    98,765    74,349    60,596    51,936
    Rank                                                        3            3         3         3         3         4
  Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (pers-hrs)                      60           52        46        35        28        24
    Rank                                                        2            1         1         2         2         2
Travel Time Index                                            1.23         1.20      1.18      1.15      1.12      1.10
  Rank                                                          4            6         6         8        11        16
Commuter Stress Index                                           --           --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                          --           --        --        --        --        --
Freeway Planning Time Index (95th Pctile)                       --           --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                          --           --        --        --        --        --
Freeway Planning Time Index (80th Pctile)                       --           --        --        --        --        --
  Rank                                                          --           --        --        --        --        --
Excess CO2 Due to Congestion
  Congested CO2 (million pounds)                            1,156          974       822       624       495       434
    Rank                                                        3            3         3         3         3         3
  CO2 Per Peak Auto Commuter (pounds)                         520          430       385       294       226       204
    Rank                                                        1            1         1         1         4         6
Truck Congestion Cost ($ millions)                              --           --        --        --        --        --
Truck Commodity Value ($ millions)                              --           --        --        --        --        --
Congestion Cost
  Total Cost ($ millions)                                   1,434        1,182     1,022       750       590       499
    Rank                                                        3            3         3         3         3         4
  Cost per Peak Auto Commuter ($)                             817          690       611       451       358       303
    Rank                                                        2            2         1         2         2         4
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.
                             Benefits from Public Transportation Service and Operations Strategies in
                                                    San Francisco-Oakland CA

                   Operations Strategies                        2011         2010         2009          2008        2007
Freeway Ramp Metering
  Percent of Roadway Miles                                            50           50          49           50          52
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                              2,258        2,234       2,252        2,272       3,907
Freeway Incident Management
  Cameras
    Percent of Roadway Miles                                           68           68           67            68          69
  Service Patrols
    Percent of Roadway Miles                                         100           99          99          100         100
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                              7,375        7,297       7,356        7,423      10,178
Arterial Signal Coordination
  Percent of Roadway Miles                                           80            80          79           80          86
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                               959           949         956          920       1,471
Arterial Access Management
  Percent of Roadway Miles                                            49           49          48           49          50
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                              2,797        2,767       2,790        2,683       3,056
HOV Lanes
  Daily Passenger-miles of travel (1000s)                          2,461        2,435       2,423        2,450       2,375
   HOV User Delay Savings                                          5,569        5,510       5,555        5,605       7,710
Added Congestion if Operations Treatments were
Discontinued
  Annual Delay Reduction (1000 hours)                             18,956       18,758      18,909       18,904      26,322
  Annual Delay Saved per Peak Auto Commuter (hrs)                     10           10          10           10          14
  Annual Congestion Cost Savings ($million)                          401          396         446          463         613
             Public Transportation Service                      2011         2010         2009          2008        2007
Existing Service
  Annual Passenger-miles of travel (million)                       2,569        2,430       2,447        2,543       2,460
  Unlinked Passenger Trips (million)                                 427          423         425          442         423
Added Congestion if Public Transportation Service
were Discontinued
  Annual Increase
    Delay (1000 hours)                                            36,714       36,330      36,622       38,429      53,130
    Delay per Peak Auto Commuter (hours)                              19           19          20           21          29
    Congestion Cost ($million)                                       776          768         864          941       1,237
Note: Zeroes in the table reflect values less than 0.5.

				
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