A REVIEW OF PFC BOOST CONVERTERS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CHARGERS

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A REVIEW OF PFC BOOST CONVERTERS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CHARGERS Powered By Docstoc
					   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 85-91
                                                                               IJECET
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI)                    ©IAEME
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      A REVIEW OF PFC BOOST CONVERTERS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC
                    VEHICLE BATTERY CHARGERS

                              1
                                M. Daniel Pradeep, 2S.Jebarani Evangeline
       1,2
             School of Electrical Sciences, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
                           Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.


   ABSTRACT

           Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an
   emerging trend in the field of automotive engineering. At the same time, consumer’s interest
   is growing rapidly. With the fluctuations in the universal supply, it is mandatory to maintain
   unity power factor. Power factor correction is essential to meet the efficiency and regulatory
   standards for the AC supply mains. Four types of PFC converters have been investigated and
   the results have been discussed. Out of which bridgeless interleaved PFC converter is suited
   for power levels up to 5kW.

   Keywords: AC-DC Converter, Boost Converter, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery
   Charger (PHEV), Power Factor.

 I.           INTRODUCTION

            A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle which uses
   rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device that can be restored to full charge by
   connecting a plug to an external electric power source such as electric wall socket. A PHEV
   has the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle which is having an
   electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE) and of an electric vehicle.Today most
   of the PHEVs on the road are passenger cars. With the advancements in the technologies,
   PHEV vehicles also exist in the form of commercial vehicles such as vans, trucks, buses,
   motorcycles, scooters, and military vehicles. The block diagram of charger which is used to
   charge PHEV contains the following blocks in common. It includes an AC-DC converter
   with power factor correction (PFC), an isolated DC-DC converter, input and output EMI
   filters, as shown in Fig. 1 [1]. The whole arrangement is integrated together, called as battery
   charger and attached inside the PHEV.



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  International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
  0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME




             Fig.1 Simplified System Block Diagram of a Universal Battery Charger.

          In the following sections, four common types of PHEV battery chargers are
  investigated and their output power, efficiencies are compared.

II.      CONVENTIONAL PFC BOOST CONVERTER

          In common, the conventional boost topology is popularly used for PFC applications.
  It uses a dedicated diode bridge which is used to convert the AC voltage to DC voltage,
  which is then followed by the boost Converter, as shown in Fig 2.




            Fig. 2 Conventional PFC Boost Converterand Its Input Voltage &Current.



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   International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
   0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME




              Fig. 3 Bridgeless PFC Boost Converterand Its Input Voltage &Current.

           In this topology, the output capacitor ripple current isvery high [4] and is the
   difference between diode current andthe dc output current. Furthermore, as the power
   levelincreases, the diode bridge losses significantly reduce theefficiency, so the heat
   dissipation in a limitedarea becomes challenging.

          Anotherchallenge is the power rating limitation for current senseresistors at high
   power. Due to these constraints, thistopology is good for the low to medium power range, up
   to approximately 1 kW. For power levels greater than 1 kW, the inductor volume becomes a
   problematic design issue at high power because of the limited core size available for the
   power level and the heavy wire gauge required for winding [3].

III.      BRIDGELESS PFC BOOST CONVERTER

           With little improvement to the conventional boost converter, a bridgeless boost
   converter is developed. The bridgeless configuration topology avoids the need for the
   rectifier input bridge yet maintains the classic boost topology, as shown in Fig. 3. It is an
   attractive solution for applications greater than 1kW. The bridgeless boost converter solves
   the problem of heat management in the input bridge rectifier, but it introduces increased EMI.

           Another disadvantage of this topology is the floating input line with respect to the
   PFC stage ground, which makes it impossible to sense the input voltage without a low
   frequency transformer or an optical coupler. Complex circuitry is needed in order to sense the
   input current in the MOSFET and diode paths separately, since the current path does not
   share the same ground during each half-line cycle [4].

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  International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
  0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME

IV.      INTERLEAVED PFC BOOST CONVERTER

          Fig. 4 shows the interleaved boost converter, it operates depending upon the
  Interleaving property. The circuit contains two boost converters in parallel operating 180° out
  of phase. The inductor’s ripple currents are out of phase, so they tend to cancel each other
  and reduce the input ripple current caused by the boost switching action. The input current is
  the sum of the two inductor currents ILB1 and ILB2.

         Moreover, the effective switching frequency is increased by switching 180° out of
  phase and introduces smaller input current ripples. So the EMI filters in the input side will be
  smaller. At the same time, the problem of heat management in the input bridge rectifier is still
  present. This configuration is well suited for power levels up to 3 kW [6].




             Fig. 4 Interleaved PFC Boost Converterand Its Input Voltage & Current

V.       BRIDGELESS INTERLEAVED PFC BOOST CONVERTER

          The bridgeless interleaved topology, shown in Fig.5,was proposed as a solution to
  operate at power levels at andabove 5kW. In comparison to the interleaved boost PFC,
  itintroduces two MOSFETs and also replaces four slow diodeswith two fast diodes. The
  gating signals are 180 ° out ofphase, similar to the interleaved boost. This converter topology
  shows a high input powerfactor, high efficiency over the entire load range and lowinput
  current harmonics.Since the proposed topology shows high input powerfactor, high efficiency
  over the entire load range, and lowinput current harmonics, it is a potential option for
  singlephase PFC in high power level II battery chargingapplications.


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  0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME

VI.        RESULT ANALYSIS

         The various topologies are simulated and their test results are compared in this
                                                   unity,
  section. The power factor is corrected nearly to unity, i.e. 0.998 for all the types of
  topologies. The conventional boost converter is applied an input voltage of 230V AC
  and it is converted to DC voltage and boosted to 400V. It has an input power of
  1.7kW and its output power is 1. 1.6kW. On the other hand, the bridgeless PFC boost
                                                 3kW
  converter is able to supply an output power of 3kW.

        Whereas the interleaved PFC boost converter is used to convert AC to DC with
  an output power of 4kW. And the Bridgeless interleaved PFC boost converter is used
  to convert the AC voltage to DC voltage with the output power of 5.2kW.




      Fig. 5 Bridgeless Interleaved PFC Boost Converter and Its Input Voltage & Current




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   International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
   0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME




                                                Fig. 6a




                                                Fig. 6b
                                    Fig. 6 Output Voltage &Current

VII.      CONCLUSION

           The various types of PHEV battery chargers were reviewed in this paper. The
   conventional boost converter is well suited for low power applications and it has a poor
   efficiency. The bridgeless PFC boost converter is suited for power levels greater than 1kW
   and its efficiency is fair. Whereas the interleaved PFC boost converter has high efficiency but
   the problem of heat dissipation in the rectifier bridge is still present. The Bridgeless
   Interleaved PFC boost converter is suited for power levels of 5kW and above. It eliminates
   the diode rectifier bridge and therefore the heat losses are reduced. Further research in the
   field of PFC boost converters may result in higher efficiency and unity power factor.


   REFERENCES

   [1]    K. Morrow, D. Karner, and J. Francfort, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging
          infrastructure review, U.S. Dept. Energy Vehicle Technologies Program, Washington,
          DC, INL-EXT-08-15058, 2008.
   [2]    B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey, and D. P. Kothari, A
          review of single-phase improved power quality AC–DC converters, IEEE Trans. Ind.
          Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962–981, Oct. 2003.



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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME

[3]    Chan, CH; Pong, MH., Fast response Full Bridge Power Factor Corrector, Pesc
       Record - IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1998, v. 2, p. 1436-
       1442.
[4]    Bing Lu, Ron Brown, Marco Soldano, Bridgeless PFC Implementation Using One
       Cycle Control Technique, International Rectifier, 2005.
[5]    Yungtaek Jang, Milan M. Jovanovic, Interleaved Boost Converter with Intrinsic
       Voltage-Doubler Characteristic for Universal-Line PFC Front End, IEEE transactions
       on power electronics, vol. 22, no. 4, July 2007.
[6]    R. Brown, M. Soldano, PFC Converter Design with IR1150 One Cycle Control IC,
       International Rectifier, June 2005.
[7]    Anuradha Tomar and Dr. Yog Raj Sood, “A New Approach For Power Factor
       Improvement In Cable Industry” International Journal of Electrical Engineering &
       Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 242 - 249, Published by IAEME.
[8]    P.Vishnu, R.Ajaykrishna and Dr.S.Thirumalini, “Recent Advancements and
       Challenges in Plug-In Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology” International
       Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012,
       pp. 316 - 325, Published by IAEME.
[9]    M.Gopinath, “Hardware Implementation Of Bridgeless Pfc Boost Converter Fed Dc
       Drive” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET),
       Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 131 - 137, Published by IAEME.
[10]   M.Gopinath, “Hardware Implementation Of Bridgeless Pfc Boost Converter Fed Dc
       Drive” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET),
       Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 131 - 137, Published by IAEME.


M. Daniel Pradeepwas pursuing his M.Tech degree in Power Electronics and Drives from
Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. He has completed his B.E in Electrical
and Electronics Engineering in Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology,
Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. His research area includes Power Electronics, Energy
Generation and Renewable Energy.
S. Jebarani Evangeline was pursuing her Ph.D., from Anna University. She has completed
her M.Tech degree from Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. She has a
working experience of 9 years.Her research area includes Power Electronics & Drives and
Automotive Electronics




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