Appeasement by dfhdhdhdhjr


►   Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
►   Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
►   Japanese occupied Chinese town of Mukden and
    waged war against China
►   Condemned by League of Nations who ordered the
    withdrawal of Japanese Troops.
►   However – Sympathy in GB for Japanese
►   Sir John Simon put forward both sides of case –
    Japan had been involved in province since 1890’s &
    gained privileged position following Russo Japanese
    war .
►   Japanese had invested millions and feared
    exclusion by China’s ruler Chiang Kai-Shek & was
    not prepared to lose a valuable province of 30m at
    time of economic hardship.
►   GB Govt hoped Japanese would attack Soviet Union,
    and preferred Japanese to Russian influence in Asia
►   At Simon’s suggestion an investigating commission
    was appointed ( ignoring the fact that Japanese &
    Chinese were fighting )
►   The Commission found that there were faults on
    both sides and ordered that Manchuria be governed
    by the League.
►   The question of economic sanctions was not raised,
    as GB & France felt that a trade boycott would lead
    to a war with Japan that (Without US help) they
    could not win.
►   World Disarmament Conference 1832-34
►   Arthur Henderson Chairman until 1931
►   Conference foundered due to complete unwillingness of many
    govt.’s to agree to restrictions on their national sovereignty.
►   Treaty of Versailles had imposed a permanent system of
    control on Germany – including entry to factories without
    notice. German arms manufacture was limited to specially
    licensed factories
►   French refused to agree that the Germans should be allowed
    equality of armaments with France.
►   With GB refusing France an automatic guarantee of armed
    help in the event of an attack by Germany the French were
    determined to deny Germany as it became more and more
    afraid of German rearmament
►   Hitler took the opportunity to walk out & take Germany out of
    The League of Nations, marking the end of collective security.
►   March 1935 Govt. White Paper “Statement Relating to
►   End of collective security meant that GB must build up her
    own military strength
►   Gradual rearmament started.
►   Hitler now had excuse that he needed to reintroduce
    conscription & build up German Army to 600,000 men.
►   Both were breaches of Treaty of Versailles
►   Macdonald meets Mussolini & French Foreign Minister LAVAL
    at Stresa
►   They promise to resist any breaches of treaties which may
    endanger peace Stresa Front
►   Abyssinia was not discussed – Mussolini took from this that
    GB would turn a blind eye – colonial expansion only.
► With the collapse of the World Disarmament Conference in
  My 1934 GB Govt. had to face the fact that British
  disarmament had gone too far, and the national forces
  were dangerously weak.
► During a difficult Commons’ Debate Nov 1934 Baldwin &
  Chamberlain mismanaged it & gave the impression, eagerly
  taken up by Hitler that they wanted to legalize German
► Knowledge of German rearmament was seen as approval.
► Hitler believed that the Commons debate had given him
  the green light to go ahead with rearming. A mild note
  from Britain to Germany did nothing to undo the effect of
  the Debate, while the French were appalled.
► Hitler now no longer cared whether his rearmament was
  legal or not. Indecisive British action was seen as proof
  that GB would not support the French.
      Anglo-German Naval Agreement June 1935
Simon said the GB Govt. “earnestly desired” an agreement
  with Germany on naval power.
16th March Hitler told Sir Eric Phipps he would be content
  to have 35% of the strength of the British fleet.
Meanwhile Hitler told Simon that Germany had reached air
  parity with Britain.
Gross breach of Treaty of Versailles.
BG accepted this, and even allowed Germany to build 45%
  of total of GB submarines
GB fleet was already overstretched – patrolling far East,
  Mediterranean & German coastal waters.
Limiting German ships would lead to the stationing of
  fewer ships on German coast – easier to fulfil
  commitments in Far East & defence of India
Mussolini convinced of Britain’s cynicism and self interest
  & disgusted Laval who decided there was more to be
  gained from cooperating with Mussolini
               Italian invasion of Abyssinia
►   Like all dictators Mussolini felt he needed a military triumph to seal
    his popularity - & Italians wanted a dividend from the economic
    sacrifices they had made to pay for rearmament.
►   Mussolini felt confident that GB would not risk going to war with
►   Fascist propaganda had convinced a large proportion of the Italian
    nation that Britain with her rich colonies was trying to deny Italy her
    right to a similar African empire.
►   Germany was now seen as the main threat to peace in Europe, and
    wanted to uses Italy as an ally.
►   Sir Anthony Eden was sent to Rome to make an offer to Mussolini -
    he could take part of Abyssinia( who was a member of the League of
    Nations & GB would give Italy part of British Somaliland as
►   Mussolini refused
►   Hoare spoke at League (Sept 1935). GB would support the League
    against acts of unprovoked agression
►   Mussolini ignored and went ahead with the invasion
                Italian invasion of Abyssinia
►   Haile Selassie appealed to the League, and economic sanctions
    were applied to Italy
►   Baldwin fights the 1935 General Election “I give you my word
    of honour that there will be no great rearmaments”
►   National Govt won convincing victory
►   Post election – clear sanctions were not working. Including oil
    & coal in sanctions would have brought Italy to its knees.
►   Cabinet rejected this idea fearing it would provoke Italy to
    declare war for which GB was unprepared.
►   News of Hoare Laval pact caused public outrage
►   No further action was taken & by April 1936 the Italian
    conquest of Abyssinia was complete
►   June 1936 ineffective economic sanctions were discontinued
►   Results League & collective security finally discredited.
►   Mussolini drew closer to Hitler as result of sanctions
►   In return Mussolini withdrew objections to Anschluss
►   Hitler uses events to send troops into Rhineland . Baldwin’s
    popularity slumped dramatically

        German troops occupy the Rhineland
Hitler gave his troops orders to withdraw at the first sign of
   French opposition
None was offered
Hitler offered a peace treaty for 25 years
Baldwin & Eden judged that public opinion would not have
   supported military action since the Rhineland was part of
Lord Lothian remarked that the German troops had merely
   entered their own back garden
Spanish Civil War 1936 - 39
               Spanish Civil War 1936 - 39
June 1936 General Franco’s army revolted against the left – wing
   republican govt.
Quick victory was expected, however republicans controlled the
   South including Madrid & a bitter struggle developed
GB, France, Germany & Italy agreed not to interfere
Mussolini & Hitler sent troops (50,000 Italian Troops)
Labour under Clement Atlee shrank away from involvement with
Conservatives disapproved of republican govt. so would not aid
Volunteers were allowed to go - International Brigae
April 1938 Attempts to resurrect Stresa- Recognition of Italian
   possession of Abyssinia in return for the withdrawal of Italian
   troops from Spain
Mussolini ignored his side of the bargain, and GB was made to look
   weak and indecisive
Italian & German help was decisive in securing victory for Franco
              German Occupation of Austria
Further breach of Versailles the Anschluss
Austrian Nazis staged huge demonstrations in Vienna, Graqz
   & Linz which Austrian chancellor could not control
Realising impending German invasion he announced a
   referendum about whether Austria should remain
Hitler decided to act before the vote in case it went against
German troops moved in and made Austria part pf the Third
GB & France did no more than protest and again were made
   to look weak
New understanding with Italy underlined
New threat to Czechoslovakia – could now be attacked from
   south, west & north - Sudetenland next

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