Purposes of Visitation

Document Sample
Purposes of Visitation Powered By Docstoc
					Visitation – The Key to Children’s Safety, Permanency and Well-Being

Developed by:

Rose Marie Wentz (206) 323-4394 Rosewentz@comcast.net
Training Consultant for

Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

Visitation

1

Defining Visitation
Federal Laws:
o Adoption and Safe Family Act and o Federal Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 o Both of these laws require Reasonable Efforts – even for parents who have long term incarceration o Reasonable Efforts has been defined to include the right of children and parents to maintain connections and have visits. o The Children and Family Services Review, done by the Federal Government, has as one of its primary outcomes: The continuity of relationships and connections is preserved for children. ITEMS measured for this outcome are: o Proximity of foster care placement o Placement with siblings o Visiting with parents and siblings in foster care o Preserving connections o Relative placement o Relationship of child in care with parents

What does visitation or connections mean?
o Face to face contact is the preferred form of visitation. o Any other method that helps to maintain a child’s connection to family and his/her community should also be used to supplement face to face contact. o Telephone o Letters o Email o Video or auditory tapes o Pictures o Attending religious events o Participation in family or cultural activities o Any creative method of maintaining connections

Children are more resilient when they have multiple healthy connections. Resiliency is the key to surviving trauma.
Rose Wentz 206 323-4394 Visitation 2

Research on Visitation And How It Informs Best Practice
 More frequent parent-child visitation is associated with shorter placements in foster care.  Children who are visited frequently by their parents are more likely to be returned to their parents’ care.  Visits can cause a parent to feel pain, anger, and humiliation about the loss of their child.  Increased social worker contact with parents of children in care is associated with more frequent parental visitation and ultimately with shorter time in placement. Workers are responsible to initiate the contact with parents and encourage him/her to attend the visit.  When worker do not encourage parents to visit, or use the agency office for the visit, or do not engage in problem-solving with parents; children tended to remain in foster care 20 months or more.  It is normal for children to react to grief and loss they have experienced. These reactions are seen before, during and after the visits as visits remind the child of his/her loss. Children’s reactions to visits have been well documented in divorce research. More than half were openly tearful, moody, and pervasively sad. A third or more show signs of acute depression, sleeplessness, restlessness, difficulties concentrating, deep sighing, feelings of emptiness, inhibitions, compulsive overeating and other symptoms. Children are overwhelmed by their anxiety. Very young children return to the use of security blankets, using toys they have outgrown, regress in toilet training and increase masturbatory activities.  Parents who are given regularly scheduled visits have a better attendance rate than parents who are told to request visits and thereby visits are not regular.  Children are bonded to their parents and family members and desire to have visits with their parents, their siblings and other people important in their lives. The majority of young adults who grow up in foster care or who are adopted have contact with their biological family as young adults.  The psychological well-being and developmental progress of children in placement are enhanced by frequent contacts with their parents.

Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

Visitation

3

Four Step to Developing a Planned and Purposeful Visitation Plan
Step One: Child Development and Parenting Skills o Child Developmental Milestones o Safety Checklist o Impacts of Separation on the child o Developmental Assets of children o What Parents Can do to Support Development o Items for the visit Step Two: Time in Care o Initial Placement o Reasonable Efforts o Final Permanency Decision o Post Permanency Step Three: Type of Abuse o Neglect o Physical Abuse o Sex Abuse o Emotional Abuse o Level of supervision needed Step Four: Other Factors o Cultural background o Substance abuse o Domestic Violence o Child’s special needs o Parents’ special needs o Incarcerated parents o Mental illness o Relationship with caregiver

Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

Visitation

4

Effective Visitation is Progressive
PARTS OF VISITATION PLAN • Purpose • Frequency/Length • Location • Activities • Supervision • Who attends • Responsibilities • What to have at the visits • Documentation Process

How to make it progressive: 1. Change one item at a time. 2. Increase or decrease to determine what is working or not. 3. No child should be returned without overnight unsupervised visits to confirm parent’s skills

Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

Visitation

5

Best Practice Expectation for Visitations
 Law and best practice says we must develop a written visitation plan.  Plan development needs to include all the parties. All parties must know about the plan, even incarcerated parents.  Make visits a normal part of life. It should occur WHERE the child would normally be and WHAT the child would be doing; whenever possible.  Have the visits occur at a consistent date, time and place whenever possible.  It is recommended that this first visit occur within 48 hours of placement. The younger the child the more critical that the visit occur soon. Offering the child phone contact within 1 hour is law in California.  The location of the visit should be the least restrictive, most normal environment, in the community, that can assure the safety of the child. The jail and the agency are the least normal, most institutionalized settings in which visits can take place. The visit should be held in the agency only if it is the only way the protection of the child can be assured. When visits must occur in these locations, do not expect to see normal parent/child interaction in this setting. Visits should take place, in order of preference; 1) in the home of the parent; 2) in the home of a relative; 3) in the foster home; or 4) in a park or public location.  Visits should be scheduled at least weekly, and more often if at all possible.  The visit should be of adequate duration to maintain the parent/ child relationship. In general, one to four hours is an appropriate time range.  Overnight visits can be considered when it is assured that the child can be protected in the home. Theoretically, if the child is safe at home for lengthy visits, including frequent overnight visits, he probably should be moved home with close follow-up supervision and in-home supportive services.

Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

Visitation

6

Culturally Competent Work
Attachment and Bonding
Attachment develops when the child’s needs are met. This starts at birth when the child experiences hunger and is then fed. The meeting of needs over time provides consistency and predictability, and leads to trust. Parents who are not allowed to meet the child’s needs during a visit (see Parenting Skills to Support Development handouts for suggestions) will not be able to maintain or strengthen the attachment with their child. Having a crisis or problem such as a child acting out on a visit is not a sign of lack of attachment. In fact a visit should allow for the normal crisis/discomfort to occur so that the parent and child can develop or reinforce their attachment.

Child feels discomfort

Child feels comfortable

Child expresses discomfort

Parent comforts child (need is met)

From National Resource Center for Family-Centered Practice and Permanency Planning curriculum on Visitation: by Joan Morse, 2005.

A second method of developing attachment is for the parent to initiate a positive interaction with the child and the child then responds positively. This builds the self-worth and self-esteem. Example: A parent smiles and offers a child a favorite toy. The child laughs and takes the toy. Building a history of having positive interactions will strengthen attachment and help the relationship survive when a crisis occurs. The third method is when a parent “claims” a child. “She looks just like my mother.” “He acts like his father.” This includes the process of sharing family history to enable the child to understand the family he is a member of.

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

7

Research on Bonding/Attachment
 Children who enter foster care within the first six months of life may form primary attachment relationships with a foster parent rather than with the birth parents. This should not reflect negatively on a parent who has not had adequate opportunities to nurture the child.  Visits may cause the parent and child to re-experience difficult emotions associated with reunion and separation. Efforts must be made to support the parent and child before, during and after a visit to handle the emotions. Not having visits also causes the child stress.  Children of all ages are capable of forming multiple attachments.  Children must be able to resolve their relationship with their birth parents or they will likely feel abandoned, rejected, and guilty.  Children who do not learn to attach cannot learn to separate; as teens need to do. Children who have repeated separations usually have damaged capacity to form attachments.  Separation from biological parents is never complete. A biological parents provides; genetics, family history and memories. Even if the child has no memories he will develop “fantasies” about that parent and his biological family.

Child Development
• • • • The FIRST and PRIMARY purpose is to meet the child’s needs. If meeting the needs of the adults is in conflict always use the child’s need to determine your plan. The goal is to help a child move towards the next developmental milestones. Over 50% of children in care have developmental delays

Infancy
Trust vs. Mistrust Stage Do not understand change Attachment is critical Communication limited Interferes with development Adults must cope for child Separation is immediate and permanent Visitation planning: Before the visit the caregiver should:  Let the baby hear the parent’s voice on tape or see a picture  Use soaps and other products on baby that the parent used  Let the parent know the baby’s new skills and development  Dress baby in clothes bought by the parent

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

8

During the visit a parent can:  Hold the baby and have frequent eye contact  Allow the baby to touch the parent, especially the face  Play peek a boo, play naming games  Do baby talk, sing or tell stories to the baby  Meet baby’s feeding, diapering and other needs

Toddlers

Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt Stage □ Regression and Fear □ They control the world □ Forms attachments to others □ Adults must cope for the child □ May see foster care as punishment □ Must be helped to learn new home □ Days = permanency Visitation planning: Before the visit the caregiver should:  Encourage the toddler to play or run before the visit if the toddler will not be allowed to do this on the visit.  Meet the child’s need for food and sleep so this does not interfere with visit - if these cannot occur during the visit. It is best if parent can do this on the visit.  Do not give too many rules ahead of the visit  Show pictures of parent and talk about past times they were together to help the child remember parent  Have a plan on how to cut short a visit if the child (or parent) cannot manage During the visit a parent can:  Play with child – patty cake, peek a boo, stretching games, word games, silly noises, read books  Feed the child appropriate food  Teach the child a new skill – putting on coat, playing a game, eating with utensils, naming items of colors, etc.  Give the child choices – do you want to sit here or there, do you want one or two kisses, etc.  Draw together  Eat together, parent helps with toileting or other ways to meet child’s needs  Give clear and simple rules during the visit  Help the parent be ready to provide structure and discipline for the toddler  Give the child time to adjust, especially if the toddler is in a “stranger fear” stage  Prepare the child for when the visit will end so there is enough time to say good-bye – no leaving without saying goodbye

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

9

Pre-Schoolers

Identify versus Power Stage Magical thinking Does not understand cause and effect Forms attachments to adults and other children Needs help coping Self blame – Acting Out Fears Weeks = permanency Visitation planning: Before the visit the caregiver should:  Read letters the parent wrote, look at pictures or listen to parent’s voice  Give choices when possible and be clear when the child does not have a choice  Give the child choices like what to wear to the visit During the visit the parent can:  Play games, sing songs, read books  Accept emotions and acknowledge them – realize that the emotions may change rapidly  Set boundaries such as: no hitting, no yelling  The child will probably not be able to be quiet for an entire visit  Draw pictures  Give choices – What games to play, which book to read  Stay away from these types of questions. They imply the child has a choice: o Are you ready to go? Can you give dad a hug? Let’s go now, OK?  Answer the child’s questions; say “I don’t know” rather than making up answers or ignoring the question  Talk about when the next visit will occur (look at calendar or connect visit to something like a favorite TV show) or talk about other ways you will communicate – letters, phone calls, audio tapes

Grade School

Industry versus Inferiority Stage A concrete world Self esteem tied to family Foster child is “different” Compare parents Friends are important Perception may be distorted Needs to know “rules” Months = permanent

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

10

Visitation planning: Before the visit the caregiver should:  Prepare the child – rules, what to talk about, what to bring, what to ask, list of things to tell parent, pictures of child’s new life  Have a calendar for the child to mark the day of the visit.  Help the child plan things to do at the visit.  Encourage the child to write letters or to have phone calls on a regular basis. During the visit the parent can:  Play games, read together, help with homework  Ask about the child’s life – school, new place they live, sports, hobbies, etc.  Just listen to the child’s stories  Let the child know you are proud of him and his accomplishments  Accept the child’s emotions – no judgment, don’t try to talk them out of their emotion  Answer questions honestly  Tell the child developmentally appropriate things about his/her life in prison – what TV shows you watch, books you have read, classes you take, work you do  Plan for next visit or phone call

Adolescence

Identify versus Identify Diffusion Stage Adult understanding Decision making Adults as role models Emotional and body changes Moral development Future, emancipation Ambivalence about family Help with conflicts Visitation planning: Before the visit the caregivers should:  Similar as school age children.  Increase the amount of choices and role the youth has in planning the visit. During the visit the parent can;  Similar to school age children.  Be aware that the teen may feel awkward as teens usually do not spend concentrated time periods with parents.  Avoid letting the visit only focus on negatives or discipline issues.

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

11

Children’s Reactions to Loss: Common Behavior Patterns of the Grieving Process
 Separation is always traumatic for children  A child’s reaction to separation is partly dependent on the quality of attachments he has before the separation  Children’s responses to separation will vary according to their developmental level  Uncertainty hampers a child’s ability to cope  Trauma diverts children from developmental tasks  Children’s reaction will vary over time  Children resiliency is improved by many types of healthy relationships – our job is to decrease the number of relationships that are broken, lost or are unhealthy

The information below reviews how children react to Grief and Loss based on the five stages of Grief and Loss first developed by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross 1. Shock/Denial 2. Anger or Protest 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Resolution

Not everyone will experience all of these stages or experience them in this order. Also, it is possible to experience these reactions more than once or at the same time.

New research shows that yearning is a more dominant characteristic after a loss than sadness. "Grief is really about yearning and not sadness. That sense of heartache. It's been called pangs of grief." Holly Prigerson
Rose Wentz 206 323-4394 12

When is it OK to have NO visits?
 Only when the parent has had consistent problems in his/her ability to follow visitation rules and acts in a manner that harms the child.  Reasonable Efforts requires us to help parent to change their behavior  In extreme cases where the child’s psychiatrist has determined that any contact would be emotionally damaging.  Use the continuum of types of visits – it is seldom Face-to-Face or nothing.

Time in Care – Concurrent Planning

Whenever a child is separated from his/her parent the child’s permanency/attachment becomes an issue that the case plan must address. When it is necessary to disrupt a child’s attachment, to gain safety and protect a child’s well-being, visitation is the primary method of maintaining the attachments. When a worker has had to remove a child from an unsafe situation it is normal to feel that it might be best for that child not have any contact with the home or family members who caused the abuse to occur and yet also feel that it is important for a child to visit with his/her family. Social workers, supervisors and the court must be able to balance the child’s needs for safety, permanency and well-being.

Guidelines to Visitation based on the child’s time in care and his/her permanent plan: Initial Placement Phase
From the time of placement through the first court hearing (no later than 1 month in care)  If possible allow the child and parent a phone call as soon as possible on the day of placement.  The first visit should occur no later than 48 hours after placement.  The primary purpose of these visits is to maintain the child’s emotional attachments. Children often perceive limitations on contacts as punishment for something the child did.  Parents should be encouraged to bring clothes, comfort items, school work, medicine, family pictures and other items, to the first visit.  Visits in the family home are encouraged as this will allow better assessment of the parent/child relationship, the home environment, and the gathering of items for the child to take back to the caregiver’s home.

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

13

   

Ongoing visitation plan should be developed early in the case and be a part of the court ordered services. Children can regress or stop in their development tasks after the trauma of separation. Sibling connections are some of most critical connections that children want us to help maintain. First visits are a good time to collect family history, medical records, contact information and other data.

Reasonable Efforts Phase
One month to 12 months in care (during the time that both family reunification and an alternative permanent plan are being worked on concurrently.)  In this phase a second purpose is added to visits. Parents are given the opportunity to learn new skills, practice those skills in a safe manner, be provided feedback on their skills.  The visits should occur in the family home whenever possible. If not, in a homelike environment or where the child is normally; school, sports, religious events, medical appointments.  After visits have occurred regularly and with a focus on the child’s needs, negative reactions usually decrease.  Visit should be progressive.  Whether there are problems or improvements during the visit only change ONE thing at a time.  Parents and children should be given feedback on the visit right after the visit. They should be asked how to improve the visits.

Final Permanency Decision Phase
As soon as the social worker, case planning team and/or the court are ready to make a final permanency decision. (The law states this should occur no later than 15 months in care.) This phase can begin as early as the first month for Fast Track to Permanency cases. When the permanent plan is reunification:  The primary purpose is to gradual reunify the child and parents so to minimize any new trauma a child may feel.  Visits would increase in length and frequency. Overnight visits that are unsupervised should occur before the child is return home on a permanent basis.  Family activities that reflect the normal range of parent/child interactions and parenting responsibilities would be returned to the parents in an incremental process.  Birth parents and caregivers need to develop a plan on how to maintain contact after the reunification is completed. When the permanent plan is adoption or guardianship:  The primary purpose is to help the child understand the changing legal relationships.  A child is likely to need ongoing contact with birth family members throughout the rest of her childhood and into adult life.  Research shows that most children who grow up in foster care or are adopted want contact with their birth family. Rose Wentz 206 323-4394 14

  

Ongoing birth family connections must include contact with siblings, extended family other “fictive” kin with whom the child has emotional attachments. Adoptive parents, birth family members and guardians must be provided with training and support so they are able to help the child/youth handle the ongoing issues related to termination of parental rights and the abuse that did occur. When adults say, “It would be better if the child never has contact with her family again” that is often a sign that the adults need help in resolving relationships.

When the permanent plan is not completed before a child becomes 18 years old: When a child/youth grows up in foster care without reunification, adoption or guardianship otherwise known as long term foster care.  Every person needs to be connected to at least one other person.  Many young adults talk about the power of emotional permanency that they have gained from these relationships even when the relationship does not become a legal one.  Children who have been in care for years may now be ready to reassume a relationship with a birth parent.  For all children who cannot return to their birth families it is a life long process to understand what impact that will have on their life.

Post Permanency Phase
After reunification, adoption or guardianship decisions are made. This phase can continue even after the agency has closed the case.  The child should continue to have contact with any caregiver (birth parents, kin, caregivers) or other people, whenever an emotional connection was made.  If any of the people, whom the child needs to have contact with, continues to have problems related to the abuse, drug addiction, mental illness or violence there should be strict guidelines and protections developed regarding the contacts.  Any contact or visits occur only if it is meets the needs of the child, not the needs of the adult.  Any child not living with a sibling should continue to have visits.  A casework process within concurrent planning is to develop a relationship between the birth parent and the caregivers during the Reasonable Efforts Phase so the families can negotiate and implement appropriate connections without the need for social work or court mediation.  If the child will have little or no contact with any person after the permanent plan is completed, there should be an opportunity for a visit (or series of visits) where the child and that person can say goodbye.  Information about all the important people in the child’s life should be in the case record.

Based on work from: Family Visiting In Out-of-Home Care: A Guide to Practice, Peg Hess

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

15

Types of Abuse
• The second purpose of visits is to provide the parents with an opportunity to learn new parenting skills or demonstrate safe parenting skills. • Skills can be taught during visits or be learned from service providers, family or community. • Visits are one of the few ways of assessing the parent’s FUTURE capabilities. • The case plan must provide clear standards of parenting skills • A Minimum Sufficient Level of Care must be understood by all parties. Neglect  Neglect due o Lack of knowledge or skill o Ambivalence o Living conditions o Rejection of child  Parent’s home – practice skills in REAL environment  Supervision depends on type of neglect  Learn to meet child’s needs  Long enough to “test” abilities Physical Abuse  Physical abuse due: o Lack of knowledge about child needs o Inability to manage anger o Religious or other belief about corporal punishment  Parent’s home  Activities that require discipline  Learn new discipline methods  Supervision until skills demonstrated  Extreme cases may need therapeutic visits  Address child’s safety needs and fears

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

16

Emotional Abuse  Emotional Abuse due: o Lack of knowledge or preparation o Inability to manage anger o Rejection of child  Parent home  Understand child’s emotions and needs  High supervision until skills demonstrated  May need therapeutic visits  Enough time to show ability for long periods of time and in everyday situations Sex Abuse  Sex Abuse due: o Lack of knowledge about child needs o Sex dysfunction and/or the adult was abused o Belief about parent/child relationship  Both parents have the right to have visits. High level of supervision until they meet standards  Non-Offending parent o Must have empathy and belief abuse occurred before supervision is lowered o Able to protect child from abusive parent

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

17

Supervision of Visits
Always supervise a visit when:
     Threat of abduction or abuse Threat of forcing a child to recant Mentally ill parents with unpredictable behaviors Substance abusing parents who are not in treatment Assessing or teaching parents skills and parent/child interactions

LEVELS OF SUPERVISION
A continuum to ensure safety while allowing the most normal family interactions possible
Therapeutic: Highest level of supervision Definition: A visit that requires a professional who has clinical or therapeutic skills to supervise the visit. The visit usually has a clinical purpose such as play therapy, parent/child counseling sessions, monitoring a parent with severe mental illness. Supervised: Second highest level of supervision Definition: Parent and child are in sight and sound distance of an objective person who can ensure the safety of the child and that the visitation plan is followed. The family is not allowed alone time unless specifically approved. Observed/Monitored: Lowest level of supervision Definition: An objective party is involved with by having some level of contact during the visit to ensure visitation plan is followed. This level of observation will vary depending on the plan. The higher level of observed visit is done by having a relative or caregiver lose by the parent and child, during the visit. In the lowest level of this type of visit can occur in a public setting without a designated observer: school events, child’s sports or other activities, medical appointments, parks, restaurants, pro sport games, etc. Unsupervised: No supervision is provided Definition: Parent and child are allowed time alone from one hour to overnight. Child and family have resources available during visit to call for help. There is a safety plan that is known by all the parties. Rose Wentz 206 323-4394 18

Substance Abuse
General rules for visits with parents who are addicted:
 Substance abuse, by itself, is not child abuse or neglect. It is the impact the substance abuse has on the parent’s abilities that may result in abuse or neglect. KNOW and clearly name the behaviors that were abusive or neglectful.  Many parents need to be in treatment in order to be able to be safe parents – but not all. The measurement is improved parenting not completion of treatment.  The primary purpose of visits is to meet the child’s developmental needs. Most children want and need to have contact with their family. Denial of any type of visit or contact should only occur in extreme situations.  It is highly recommended that the substance abuse treatment professional be a part of the case planning team to ensure case and visitation plans are based on accurate knowledge related to parent’s specific form of addiction(s).  The vast majority of children removed from substance abusing parents are removed for neglect. These parents are not likely to physically or sexually abuse their child during a visit.  Visits are NOT to be used as a reward or punishment for either the parent or child.  Generally, the parent should be in substance abuse treatment before the level of supervision is lowered from supervised to observed or unsupervised.  There should be a safety plan for the child and a relapse plan for the parent, shared with all parties, which will ensure that child will be safe even after a parent appears to be maintaining sobriety.  Most of these children will be reunited with their parents. There is never a guarantee that an addicted person will never relapse. Progressive visitation planning allows us to assess if the safety and relapse plan will work.

Urine Analysis
What UAs do NOT tell us: 1. The level of intoxication – some drugs will test positive days and weeks after the last use. 2. The ability of the parent to behave in a safe manner during the visit. 3. Whether a parent with a clean UA is able to be safe or appropriate during a visit. o Dual diagnosised patients may be more unsafe when not self-medicating. 4. Whether the person is actually drug free – o There are many ways to cheat the test. o Even medical doctors often fail at performing the test correctly. o Whether the person took the drug after the test but before or during the visit. o The person may have taken a drug not covered by that test, i.e. legal drugs.

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

19

Meth Use and Abuse – How it impacts child safety
The continuum of risk for children of meth using adults is:
      Parent uses or abuses methamphetamine Parent is dependent on methamphetamine Mother uses meth while pregnant Parent “cooks” small quantities of meth in the home Parent is involved in trafficking Parent is involved in super lab and the child is allowed in the area

Risks to safety and well-being of children are different based on parent’s level of use. Risks most commonly related to meth use are:
 Parental behavior under the influence: poor judgment, confusion, irritability, paranoia, violence  Chronic neglect – supervision, food, lack of medical care, lack of utilities  Inconsistent parenting - lack of attachment activities and setting of appropriate boundaries  Chaotic home life – moving, changing schools, no safety system  Exposure to meth, chemicals, needles and second-hand smoke  Higher possibility of physical and sexual abuse by parents and others  Parent is incarcerated - trauma of arrest and separation  Pre-natal exposure may lead to hypersensitivity, difficulty sucking and other problems that will need special care and addicted parent is less likely to be able to provide this care  It is common for meth users to be using multiple drugs. Pre-natal exposure to alcohol can cause birth defects, i.e. fetal alcohol syndrome  Contact with other adults who may be abusive to the child
Source: Methamphetamine Use and the Impact on Child Welfare, Nancy K. Young, Ph.D., Director, National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare, 2005

How To Have A Safe Visit With Addicted Parents
1. Have a visitation plan that specifically addresses what is allowed and not allowed during the visit. a. List behaviors that are unsafe or not allowed – be specific i. Just saying “do not be drunk or high” is NOT clear or specific. ii. List indicators that parent is high during the visit – get expert opinion. b. State the process of what will occur if parent violates visitation rules i. Usually first violation leads to discussion between worker and parent outside the room – teaching what to do. ii. Multiple violations can lead to premature end of the visit. Parent is asked to go back to child to explain why the visit must stop and to say goodbye.

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

20

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

iii. When there are behaviors that place anyone in danger, the visit stops immediately and the child may not have a chance to say goodbye. The child should be told why the visit had to be terminated. c. Safety plan - Have a method for the parent to ask for help or ask questions that does not embarrass the parent in front of their child. This plan would include:  resources for the addicted parent to call for help at any time,  resources for an older child to call for help if the parent is not providing safe care, and  family and community members who regularly check on the well-being of the parent and child. Work with the substance abuse specialist a. Get a copy of the client’s relapse plan. This should include: i. Identification of: 1. Triggers – internal or external events (not always observable to others) 2. Warning signs – Observable: thoughts, speeches and behaviors 3. Who is in position to notice these signs (family, therapist, social worker, co-workers) All of these people should be a part of the relapse plan ii. Aftercare Services iii. Communications plan for the child welfare and drug treatment professionals to give parents clear consistent messages iv. A support network to include self-help sponsors and peer counseling v. A personal recovery plan including coping skills for those situations which are problematic, e.g. holidays. b. Coordination of dependency plan and substance abuse treatment plan. Meet with parent before the visit starts to assess and prepare parent During Visits: a. Supervisor/observer must be able and willing to ensure safety. b. Everyone involved in the visit must know the rules – including foster parents and others whose involvement may be limited to driving the child. c. Supervisor of visit must have clear guidelines and document the visit so that the case worker can adequately assess the parent’s progress. d. Caseworker should observe a visit at least once a month. Debrief After Visits: a. Meet with the parent and provide strengths-based feedback. b. Address any problems NOW while they are small. c. Caseworker talks to person who supervised the visit. Location of the visit: a. Have the visit in a safe environment that is the most homelike as possible. b. It is best to have the visits where the child is comfortable: foster home, school, home of a relative, parent’s home. The child is more likely to notice unusual behaviors in these locations. It is difficult for everyone to act normally when visits occur at the child welfare office or other institutional settings. c. Before the visit, check the location for safety and drugs, if needed. d. Eventually most children of addicted parents do go home to the parent. Having supervised visits in the parent’s home is ESSENTIAL before unsupervised visits can occur.

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

21

7. Visits are a progressive process: a. Visits usually start as supervised visits with many restrictions on location, activities, etc. b. When the parent and child are successfully interacting during visits, the plan should allow for ONE item (see items of a visitation plan above) to be changed at a time. Example: Lengthen the visit or change the location of the visit. Do not change both at the same time. c. The goal is to slowly increase the parent’s responsibility and move towards unsupervised visits in the parent’s home and test the parent’s ability. d. One change allows for accurate assessment of success or failure. Everyone involved will have more assurance that unsafe behaviors will not occur. e. The level of supervision is related to safety and NOT to the progress of drug treatment!! Parents who are sober and have completed drug treatment but who cannot maintain safe parenting during visits should NOT be allowed to have their visits progress towards reunification. 8. Maintain highly supervised visits until: a. The Substance Abuse therapist states that a parent is maintaining sobriety and is in real recovery, and b. On supervised visits the parent demonstrates safe parenting and good interactions with the child, and c. On supervised visits “normal” daily stresses have occurred, especially ones that may be triggers, and the parent has reacted appropriately.

 Indicators of Significant Recovery:
             Participate in visits and other services related to their children Has a relapse plan and uses it Building a sober support system; family is involved in treatment Taking responsibility: acknowledging how addiction has hurt their lives and their children’s Participation in the treatment is the key-- not what is the motivating reason for being there. Court ordered treatment or attending treatment to get one’s child back do work as long as the parent actively participates. Parents and children learning to relate without substances Maintaining relationships with treatment providers despite frustrations, anger, disagreements Using new healthy coping mechanisms to deal with life stresses Reporting a dramatic change in the way they feel and see things Responding cautiously to questions about the future, i.e. is not overly optimistic about having no problems in the future Being able to relate to their own life concepts learned in treatment and 12-step groups Creating and using a safety plan for the child, in case relapse should occur Staying in and/or completing treatment Re-entering treatment quickly if there is a relapse Clean Urinalysis Assessment (UA’s)




By Wentz and Sumner-Mayer

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

22

Other Factors
Cultural Connections
 We must assess family strengths and safety based on the family’s culture  “40 assets” has been researched with many ethnic groups in the US – Search Institute  Children should maintain connections with their family culture even if the child will be adopted  Visits activities should include educating the child to family culture

Mental Illness of Parent
 Work with parent and therapist to determine how the parent’s illness might impact visits:  Indicators of problems  Medication – how it may affect parent  Treatment plan  Safety plan for parent and child  Older child should be informed of illness

Special Needs of Child
     Obtain full evaluation of children Work with treatment provider to determine the child’s developmental age Develop a plan to help the caregivers help the child achieve developmental milestones Have the parent involved in treatment and decisions Use the child’s true developmental age when developing the visitation plan

Special Needs of Parent
 Work with parent and treatment provider to learn about the parent’s ability  Develop a visitation plan that allows the parent to truly be involved  Ensure that services to the parent will enable him to develop new skills (parenting classes in correct language)  Older children should be informed of their parent’s special need  Help parent develop a support system that will ensure safe parenting if the child is returned

Incarcerated/Hospitalized Parents
    Work with parent and facility to develop a visitation plan Prepare the child for any special requirements Provide reasonable effort services to the parent Assess the quality of the parent/child attachment BEFORE the incarceration

Domestic Violence
 Abusive Parent must begin treatment and progress made before visits are not supervised  Non-abusive parent must demonstrate ability to protect the child before unsupervised visits are allowed  Involve parents and treatment providers in developing the visitation plan  Have a safety plan for any type of visit  Address child fears, No blaming the child  Parent develops understanding how DV harms the child

Rose Wentz

206 323-4394

23

Developing a Visitation Plan
Child Development/ Parenting skills Purpose Type of Abuse Time in Care Other Factors

Other Factor

Frequency Length Location

Activities

Supervision level

Who attends

Responsibilities What to have at visit Documentation

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

24

Child Development/ Parenting skills

Child Development/ Parenting skills

Child Development/ Parenting skills

Child Development/ Parenting skills

Child Development/ Parenting skills

INFANTS Meet child’s developmental needs and maintain connections
2 to 5 per week Long enough for parent to feed, change diapers, play – 60 minutes minimum Meets child schedule Home or homelike environment Allows for caring of baby Have items that calms baby; blanket, pacifier, toy Community, doctor appts. Parent meets child’s needs; crying, eating, sleeping Play on floor or eye level Music, read book, talk to baby Bonding activities Lack of communication and self protection means that supervision level should be higher than same situation with older children. Birth parents & siblings together or separate, Other key people with emotional attachment Bring food, toys, diapers and comfort items. Have adult who child feels safe with (could be foster parent) help with all transitions. Normal documentation Do not allow parents to talk to supervisor of visit during the visit – focus on the baby

TODDLERS Meet child’s developmental needs and maintain connections
2 to 4 per week 60 to 90 minutes Meets child’s schedule

PRESCHOOL Meet child’s developmental needs and maintain connections
2 to 4 per week 60 to 90 minutes Meets child’s schedule

ELEMENTARY Meet child’s developmental needs and maintain connections
1 to 2 per week 1 to 3 hours Meets child’s schedule

TEENS Meet child’s developmental needs and maintain connections
At least once a week 1 to 3 hours Meets child’s schedule

Home or homelike environment Community setting: parks, playgrounds, childcare, doctor appts. Parent meets child’s needs; learning to do it herself – eating, dressing, toileting Play games, read, talk, sing Provide safety & supervision Lack of communication and self protection means that supervision level should be higher than same situation with older children. Birth parents & siblings together or separate, Other key people with emotional attachment Listen for who child asks to see Bring toys, diapers, food, and comfort items. Have adult who child feels safe with (could be foster parent) help with all transitions. Normal documentation Do not allow parents to talk to supervisor of visit during the visit – focus on the child

Home or homelike environment Community setting: parks, playgrounds, childcare, doctor appts. Child chooses what to do during visit; which book to read, what toy to play with, what game Ask child about their life. Provide discipline. Communication and self-care skills assessed to determine supervision level

Child helps to choose Home or homelike environment Where child already is; school, sports, park, restaurant, therapist, doctor Child helps to choose: What child likes to do; sports, games. What child must do; homework, chores. Ask child about his life. Provide discipline. Communication and self-care skills assessed to determine supervision level

Teen helps to choose Where teen already is: school, sports, park, restaurant, mall, therapist, home of parent or caregiver, doctor Teen helps to choose: What child likes to do; sports, games, shopping. What child must do; homework, chores. Ask child about her life. Discipline. Communication and self-care skills high enough for the teen to give input to level that is needed, i.e. youth is able to self-protect Ask teen who he wants to visit Birth parents & siblings together or separate, Other key people with emotional attachment Bring toys, food, homework, and other items for session. Allow child time to adjust to transitions. Normal documentation Do not allow parents to talk to supervisor of visit during the visit – focus on the teen Ask child for comments.

Ask child who he wants to visit Birth parents & siblings together or separate, Other key people with emotional attachment Bring toys, diapers, food, and comfort items. Have adult who child feels safe with (could be foster parent) help with all transitions. Normal documentation Do not allow parents to talk to supervisor of visit during the visit – focus on the child

Ask child who he wants to visit Birth parents & siblings together or separate, Other key people with emotional attachment Bring toys, food, homework, and other items for session. Allow child time to adjust to transitions. Normal documentation Do not allow parents to talk to supervisor of visit during the visit – focus on the child Ask child for comments.

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

25

Type of Abuse NEGLECT Assess, observe and teach safe parenting skills
Long enough to practice parenting skills, usually this will take more than 1 hour Increase time with increased skills of parents Optimal: In parent’s home unless the location is unsafe. Home like environment; foster or relative home, home-center Practice the skills that lead to neglect; feeding, supervision, preparing for school, Learn to understand child’s needs and feelings Depends on level of neglect. Severe neglect requires high level of supervision until parent demonstrates improved skills Usually monitoring is enough Birth parent(s) or others in caregiver role, siblings Later include entire family doing normal family activities Bring items to practice parenting skills; cooking, homework, toys, bathing, napping

Type of Abuse SEX ABUSE Assess, observe and teach safe parenting skills
To meet the child’s needs of safety, emotional and developmental needs

Type of Abuse PHYSICAL ABUSE Assess, observe and teach safe parenting skills
Long enough to have normal parent/child interactions that require parent to practice family rules and discipline. In family or home setting. May need to initially avoid sight of abuse until counselor approves. Learn to understand child’s needs and feelings Practice parenting skills and providing structure for child without use of physical discipline High level of supervision until parent has demonstrated the ability to provide care without physical abuse Child has safety plan

Type of Abuse EMOTIONAL ABUSE Assess, observe and teach safe parenting skills
Long enough to have normal parent/child interactions that require parent to practice family rules and discipline.

May occur in clinical setting Location that makes the child feel safe

In family or home setting. Location that makes the child feel safe.
Learn to understand child’s needs and feelings Practice parenting skills and providing structure for child without use of emotion abuse High level of supervision until parent has demonstrated the ability to provide care without emotional abuse Child has safety plan

No whispers, alone time, passing notes not reviewed Learn to understand child’s needs and feelings; for offending and non-offending parent High supervision needed; vigilance of verbal, non-verbal, body language, pressure to recant Child has signal to stop visit Non-offending parent and siblings – same as other types of abuse Visits begin w/ offending parent with child therapist approval Clear rules and safety plan is known by all parties Child may need cell phone or other method to call for help Normal documentation

Clinical approval when child has a stated fear of abusive parent.
Clear rules and safety plan is known by all parties Child may need cell phone or other method to call for help Normal documentation

Clinical approval when child has a stated fear of abusive parent.
Clear rules and safety plan is known by all parties Child may need cell phone or other method to call for help Normal documentation

Normal documentation

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

26

Time in Care INITIAL PLACEMENT 0 TO 1 MONTH* Maintain connections, assess family
First visit within 48 hours of placement – at least a phone call 20 minutes to 1 hour After that follow child dev. guideline Location that allows high level of supervision for first visit, neutral location In family home to allow for more assessment of family Activities that maintain relationships, Parents to talk to child to overcome fear of abandonment. Assessment of family. Expect reactions to visit Full supervision for first visits until parenting skills fully assessed and/or improvement. Prevent pressure on child to recant. Allow some time alone unless there are safety concerns. Birth parent(s), siblings, other caregivers – first visits Do not forget fathers and paternal family members Extended family later Bring child’s clothing, toys, school items – anything left behind Bring family pictures to give child or other items to remind child of parents. Prepare parties for visit Normal documentation Worker make copies of pictures and other items brought to visit Ask for family information

Time in Care REASONABLE EFFORTS 1 TO 12 MONTHS* Teach parenting skills and observe improved parenting
At least once a week At least one hour Increasing in length and frequency as family gets closer to reunification Birth family home whenever possible or home of relative and foster parents Community locations Agency office least desirable Modeling/teaching of parenting skills Reactions to visits should be decreasing Decreasing level of supervision as parenting skills increase, level may vary depending on who attends All the people the child would live with if reunification occurs. Sibling even if the child will not live with him/her, extended family Non-custodial parents Social worker should observe visit at least once every 2 months Clear case plan connection with visit activities, Family involved in planning visit Be very specific as to parents progress; strengths and problems Teach observers how to document visit

Time in Care FINAL PERMANENCY DECISION 12 – 15 MONTHS* Prepare child for transition (return home, adoption or guardianship)
Overnight for reunification Do not stop visits even if adoption is the final PP Child’s needs guide frequency of visit for non-reunification In homes whenever possible Clinical setting if needed to help child or parent

Time in Care POST PERMANENCY 15 MONTHS TO ONGOING* Maintain connections with people whom the child has emotional ties
Yearly letter to regular contact; will vary with developmental needs. Needs to flex over time. Weekly with siblings not placed together Child who will “age out of system” Birth family home as he will probably visit after out of care. Saying “good-bye” to people child will not see frequently Discussing past and future relationships, rules for future contacts, reactions may occur Child develop skills to recognize threat and have safety plan Support person there for “goodbye” visits Birth parents, siblings, extended family, people child has emotional connection - adoption Foster parents – if child is moving to another home Pictures, family history, contact information, other material for Life Book of child Families involved in planning ongoing visit process Normal documentation Ensure case record has complete contact information so all parties can reach each other in future

* - The time frames listed on this page are based on the Adoption and Safe Families Act legal timelines to permanency. Time frames will vary with each case.

Talk about final permanent plans with child Reactions may occur due to upcoming changes; grief and loss about relationship changes Unsupervised for reunification Monitored or supervised visits for adoption/guardianship

Sibling and extended family visits occur for any PP Birth parents unless judge orders no contact Develop relationships between families, help child with emotions related to potential moves Change visit to meet final PP Family involved in planning visit Normal documentation

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

27

Other Factors DRUG ADDICATION Protect child from inappropriate or unsafe parenting
See child development guideline

Other Factors MENTAL ILLNESS Protect child from inappropriate or unsafe parenting
Get professional advice

Other Factors SPECIAL NEEDS OF CHILD Meet child’s special needs during the visit
Get professional advice from the therapist, doctor and birth parent about the special needs and what limitations may need to be considered Therapist or doctor office School or tutor

Other Factors SPECIAL NEEDS OF PARENT Protect child from inappropriate or unsafe parenting
Get professional advice from the therapist, doctor and birth parent about the special needs and what limitations may need to be considered May need to have visits where the parent is located: residential treatment, hospital, etc. See other guidelines

Other Factors INCARCERATED/ HOSPITALIZED PARENT Ensure connections are maintained in difficult situations
See child development guidelines – limitations due to prison/jail rules not due incarnation In prison. A few prisons have special locations for visits and even overnight opportunities Phone, email, letters, video See other guidelines Creativity may be needed to accomplish many activities Prepare child for environment of prison Level of supervision based on other guidelines Limits especially if incarceration due to harming the child See other guidelines Prison may have rules

Neutral location where drugs would not be available – as homelike as possible

Get professional advice

See other guidelines

See other guidelines

See other guidelines

Therapeutic or supervision until treatment counselor approves UA does NOT indicate the level of safety or whether a visit should occur Non-addicted parent can be observer of visit if he/she shows ability to make safe decisions No drugs at session or ANY indication that parent is intoxicated

Therapeutic or supervision until treatment counselor approves

Get professional advice

Get professional advice

See other guidelines

See other guidelines

See other guidelines

Everyone knows indicators of parent having a mental health crisis. No visits when parent is in “crisis” Normal

Get professional advice

Get professional advice

May need to work with prison officials

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

28

Other Factors FAMILY CULTURE

Other Factors DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Protect child from inappropriate or unsafe parenting
Parents cannot visit together until DV treatment professional approves

Other Factors NON-OFFENDING PARENT Protect child from inappropriate or unsafe parenting
See child development guidelines

Maintain and strengthen child’s connection with culture, tradition and religion
If child does not have contact with cultural community through parent visits or caregiver this type of “visit” should be added to case plan In family or relative home In community locations with cultural significance In language of the family Sharing family history, stories Teaching family traditions; holidays, cooking, games, hobbies Religious events and learning Use family and people the family knows whenever possible to supervise visits and teach parenting skills, that person can speak the family’s language Parents, siblings, extended family, fictive kin, anyone the family identifies as important in the child’s life Bring information, pictures, reading materials, and other items to teach family culture

Place where child feels safe, may need to avoid location of DV incidents if this upsets the child Family activities that represent normal family life – without any violence

Location where no uninvited people can arrive without a method to protect the child or stop the visit until parent shows ability to protect Activities to focus on the child and not adult relationships

High level of supervision until abusive parent begins DV treatment, decrease level only with counselor approval and demonstration of improve skills All family members May need separate visits if there is a No Contact order between the parents Ensure safety between ALL parties

High level of supervision until parent demonstrates ability and empathy to always put child’s safety first

Offending/abusive parent not included until therapist approves No others attend No discussion that would imply child is responsible for getting the abusive parent in trouble or the family harmed because that parent has left family Normal documentation

Normal documentation

Normal documentation

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

29

Visitation: ROLES AND RESPONSBILITIES
BEFORE (Orientation & Planning) BIRTH PARENT
 Ask about any rules/expectations she does not understand. Follow all the rules.  Find items to bring.  Arrange transportation.  Call if visit must be cancelled.

DURING (The Visit)
 Follow the rules. Come prepared. Come on time. Bring required items for visit and nothing else. Do not bring other people without permission.  Give child 100% of your attention.  No drugs or alcohol use at visit or coming to visit intoxicated  If you are having a mental health crisis ask for visit to be postponed

AFTER (Debrief)
 Listen for feedback and ask questions about how to improve  State concerns to SW  Provide suggestions for next visit  Take care of yourself – visits are hard emotionally  Talk to friend, SW or therapist to debrief visit  Apply sanctions to parents who break rules. Do not use visits as rewards or punishment. Only reason to decrease or eliminate a visit is to meet a child’s needs.  Give birth parents feedback on their interactions, behaviors, parenting skills or other issues. Communicate in a strength-based manner.  Revise visitation plan if visits are not meeting child’s needs  Call and check with child and/or caregiver to see how the child is reacting to visits  Ask everyone about how to improve the visits

SOCIAL WORKER

 Provide everyone with written visitation plan.  See Supervisor of visit responsibilities if you are also doing that task  Tell parent of expectations, rules  Help parent prepare what to say to child, what to  Make visits high on your caseload priority list so that they occur. bring, what activities are allowed/expected. Do not expect that parent knows how to perform parenting tasks and assume parents will feel “unnatural” during visit – PREPARE the parent to succeed.  Explain to child; purpose of visit, safety rules, how long it will last, practice what he may want to say to parent, about returning to caregiver.  Arrange transportation and location.  Do not use visits as rewards or punishment.  Placement of child in a home that is close and will support visits and family connections  Place sibling together or support visits  Prepare child for visit given the type of visit; talk about visit and emotions  Pack clothes, food, medicine, comfort item or other items needed for visit  Say positive things to the child about visit and her birth parents  Transport child to visit  Give information to SW and birth parent about child: anything that might affect the visit (school, illness, behaviors)  Support contact with siblings and others  Do not threaten a child into good behavior by saying a visit will be cancelled  Believe that family connections are essential for a child’s health development  Have the visit in caregiver (your) home.  Model parenting skills.  Supervise or monitor visits – see supervisor of visits for more details  Help with transitions at beginning and the end of visits; especially if the child is emotionally attached to you or the child does not remember the family members who will be at the visit

CAREGIVER OF CHILD

 Transport child back to your home  Have routine that will comfort child, allow for emotions to be safely expressed  Report “abnormal” reactions the child has to visits  Document visits if you supervised visit or it occurred in your home  Take care of yourself and your family given your emotions

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

30

BEFORE (Orientation & Planning) CHILD
 Tell adults what you want regarding visits; location, frequency, who attends, activities, safety  Tell adults if you are having feelings you cannot handle, are afraid or need information  Must be willing and able to put child’s best interest first.  Given visitation plan and has the skills needed by the plan; to supervise, model parenting skills or observe

DURING (The Visit)
 Use your safety plan, ask for help  Have fun  Be on time  Follow the rules  Stop visit if parent violates rules or if child indicates his/her safety is at risk  Enforce all the rules of the visit (location, activities, people attending)  Stop visit if parent shows any signs of intoxication, mental illness or abusive behaviors  Supervised/Observation supervisor; do not talk to others during the visit, do not get involved in activities even if asked, only intervene if safety issues occur  Modeling/teaching supervisor: provide direct modeling or teaching of parenting skills as determined by the case plan can give advice to parent during the visit.  Therapeutic supervisor: therapy, teaching parenting skills, family counseling, play therapy  Take notes of visit. Send to SW ASAP. May be required to testify in court  Watch the clock and be sure all 3 phases of a visit occur (saying hello, the activities, saying goodbye)  See Supervisor of visit responsibilities if you are also doing that task

AFTER (Debrief)
 Tell adults if you have any feelings, reactions or concerns about the visit  Tell adults what you think would make the visits better  If social worker has approved provide immediate feedback to parent – do this out of hearing of the child  Document visit and send to appropriate people  Call social worker or caregiver if there is a special need of the child that should be addressed immediately  If approved, check with older children, out of hearing from the birth parent, as to the child’s reactions or assessment of the visit

SUPERVISOR OF VISIT

TRANSPORTER

 Safe driving and car seats  Listen to child during the ride  Provide reassurance  Report any concerns immediately to social worker  May be asked to provide information from caregiver to SW or birth parent

 Safe driving and car seats  Listen to child during the ride  Provide reassurance  Report any concerns immediately to social worker  May be asked to provide information to caregiver

LEVELS OF SUPERVISION – A continuum to ensure safety while allowing the most normal family interactions possible Therapeutic: Role modeling, therapy and teaching occur to improve the parenting skills or parent/child relationships Supervised: Parent & child are in sight and sound distance of an objective person who can ensure the safety of the child and that the visitation plan is followed. The family is not allowed “alone” time unless specifically approved. Observed/Monitored: Objective party who maintains some level of contact during the visit to ensure visitation plan is followed. This level of observation will vary depending on the plan. In the lowest level the visit can occur in a public setting without a designated observer: school events, child’s sports or other activities, medical appointments, parks, restaurants, pro sport games, etc. Unsupervised: Parent and child allowed time alone from one hour to overnight. Child and family have resources available during visit to call for help. A clear safety plan has been developed and is known by all parties.

Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009

31

References and Resources on Visitation
Beyer, Marty, “Parent-Child Visits as an Opportunity for Change,” Prevention Report 1999 #1, National Resource Center for Family Centered Practicepp.1-12 Fahlberg, Vera I., M.D., A Child’s Journey Through Placement, Prospective Press, Indianapolis, IN, 1991 Edwards, Leonard P., Judge, “Judicial Oversight of Parental Visitation in Family Reunification Cases”. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, Summer 2003, pp. 1 Hess, Peg McCartt and Kathleen Ohman Proch, Family Visiting in Out-Of-Home Care: A Guide to Practice, Washington, DC, Child Welfare League of America, 1988 Haight, W., Mangelsdorf, S., Tata, L., Szewczyk, M., Black, J., Giorgio, G., Schoppe, S. (July 2001).

Making Visits Better: The Perspectives of Parents, Foster Parents, and Child Welfare Workers.
Urbana, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Available: http://cfrcwww.social.uiuc.edu/pubs/Pdf.files/visitperspectives.pdf Morse, Joan, Promoting Placement Stability and Permanency through Caseworker/Child Visits, New York, New York, National Resource Center for Family-Centered Practice and Permanency Planning, 2004 Palmer, Sally E., Maintaining Family Ties, Washington DC, Child Welfare League of America, 1995 Proch, Kathleen, “Parental Visiting of Children in Foster Care,” Social Work, May-June, 1986, pp. 178181 Visitation and Family Access Guide, Olmsted County Child and Family Services Division – Rochester, MN 2005 White, Mary Ell, Eric Albers, and Christine Bitoni, “Factors in Length of Foster Care: Worker Activities and Parent-Child Visitation,” Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 1996, 75-84 Wright, Lois E. Toolbox No. 1 Using Visitation to Support Permanency, Washington DC, Child Welfare League of America, 2001 Young, Nancy K, PhD Methamphetamine: The Child Welfare Impact and Response Overview of the Issues, National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare, May 8, 2006.
http://www.ncsacw.samhsa.gov/Meth%20and%20Child%20Safety.pdf

Internet resources on visitation:
       American Bar Association: Center on Children and the Law (information on current court ruling concerning child dependency cases) http://www.abanet.org/child/home2.html Administration for Children and Family (Federal Government site) http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/ (Children’s Bureau: AFSA, laws, state reviews and Title IV information) Child Welfare League (resources and publications) http://www.cwla.org/ California Department of Corrections (information on rules, visitation programs and parenting resources offered at different facilities) www.cdc.state.ca.us/visitors/index.html Child Welfare Information Gateway (comprehensive child welfare website for all issues) www.childwelfare.gov National Resource Center on Family-Centered Practice and Permanency Planning (current best practices, hot topics, federal laws and more) http://guthrie.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp/ National Resource Center of Children and Families of the Incarcerated – www.fcnetwork.org National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare (specific to drug addiction issues) http://www.ncsacw.samhsa.gov/



Copyright Rose Wentz 206 323-4394

10/31/2009 32


				
DOCUMENT INFO