Breastfeeding Lactation by shitingting


									Lactation and

  Obstetrics and Gynecology
   Infant Health Benefits
       Small amount for the immature digestive system
       ‘paints’ the digestive tract
       Low fat for easy digestion
       Contains mothers antibodies which boost infants’
        immune system
       Acts as a laxative to ease passage of meconium
   Infant Health Benefits
   The milk comes in
       Transitional milk for up to 2 weeks
           May still have yellow appearance
           Amounts increase quickly as infant hungers and
            digestive system matures
       Mother's" milk making” changes from endocrine to
        autocrine system
       Mature milk
           Supply/demand system engorgement decreases
           Properties of fore milk and hind milk present
   Infant Health Benefits
   Lower risk of
       Diarrhea
       Constipation
       Infections
         Ear, respiratory, meningitis, urinary tract
       SIDS
       Allergic diseases
       Chronic digestive diseases
       Juvenile onset diabetes
       Acute leukemia
       Adult obesity
   Infant Health Benefits
   Provides immunologic protection while the
    infant’s immune system is maturing
       Antimicrobial agents
       Anti-inflammatory agents
       Immunomodulating agents
   Infant Health Benefits
   Preterm Infants
       Decreased necrotizing enterocolitis
       Decreased ROP
       Decreased infection rates
       Better able to tolerate feedings
       Increased IQ rates
   Contains long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that
    help the infant’s brain develop – these are normally
    provided by the mother in late pregnancy, therefore
    preterm infants miss this
   Mother Health Benefits
   Less postpartum bleeding
   More rapid uterine involution
   Weight loss
   Decreased premenopausal breast cancer
   Decreased ovarian cancer rates
   Lactational amenorrhea
       Should still use progesterone only contraceptives
       Combined contraceptives dry up milk
   Parent Benefits
   Saves money
   Saves time
   Babies love it
   Anatomy and Physiology
   Breast enlargement
       During pregnancy and lactation indicates the
        mammary glands are becoming functional
       Breast size before pregnancy does not determine
        the amount of milk a woman will produce
   Anatomy and Physiology
   Hormones during pregnancy
       Estrogen stimulates the ductile systems to grow,
        then estrogen levels drop after birth
       Progesterone increases the size of alveoli and
       Prolactin contributes to increasing the breast
        tissue during pregnancy
   Anatomy and Physiology
   Alveoli secrete milk and contract when
   Oxytocin stimulates milk secretion and is
    released during the ‘let down’ or milk ejection
   After let down, milk travels into the ductules,
    then to the larger – lactiferous or mammary
   Anatomy and Physiology
   Hormones during breastfeeding
       Prolactin levels rise with nipple stimulation
       Alveolar cells make milk in response to prolactin
        when the baby sucks
       Oxytocin causes the alveoli to squeeze the newly
        produced milk into the duct system
   Anatomy and Physiology
               Latch On and sucking

                  Oxytocin Release

                     Releases Milk

                Infant Empties Breast

                Production Increases

               Milk Production Occurs

   Interference with this cycle decreases the milk supply.
   Early breastfeeding failures deprive infants of
    the benefits, and leave many mothers
   It is a natural process, but many mothers
    need a lot of help
   Must educate mothers regarding:
     Positioning the baby
     Latching on
     Normal nipple soreness
     Cramping with breastfeeding
     How often to feed the baby
     Need to wake the baby
     Alerting techniques
     Rooting
     Sucking
     Listening for swallows
     Preventing engorgement
     Nutrition
     Supply and demand
     Infant cues
   Breast Pathology
       Flat/inverted nipples, breast reduction surgery that severed
        milk ducts, previous breast abscess, extremely sore
        nipples (cracked, bleeding, blisters, abrasions)
   Hormonal pathology
       Failure of lactogenesis, hypothyroidism
   Overall health
       Smoking, anemia, poor nutrition, depression
   Psychosocial
       Restrictive feeding schedules, mother without support
        system, not rooming in with baby, bottle supplementing
        when not medically required
   Other
       Previous breastfed infant who failed to gain weight well,
        perinatal complication (hemorrhage, htn, infection
   Teaching methods
   With infant in mother’s arms
   Consistent information
   Repeat information in a variety of ways
   Watch the mother feed the baby and help
   Let the mother know she may have difficulties at first
   Remind mom that baby is learning with her
   Praise the mother’s progress, help build confidence
   Provide discharge support
   The Results
   Baby gains weight
       No more than 7% weight loss
       Back to birth weight in 2 weeks
       1oz per day weight gain for the first three months
   Mother is comfortable and satisfied
   If baby is still loosing weight on the 4th day of life:
       Get feeding evaluation
       Remember to:
         1. fed the baby

         2. maintain the milk supply

         3. continue breastfeeding
   Infants at risk for poor weight gain
       Premature (less than 38 weeks)
       Difficulty latching on
       Ineffective or unsustained sucking
       Oral anatomic abnormalities (cleft lip/palate, short frenulum, receding chin)
       Multiples
       Jaundice
       Cystic fibrosis
       Infection
       Cardiac disorders
       Neurologic problems – downs, hypo or hypertonia
       Poor apgars
       Long labor
       Sleepy, nondemanding, passive temperament
       Separation from mother early after delivery
       Infants less than 5 lbs
    Hospital Discharge Support
   Mother breastfeed longer if they:
       Are confident at hospital discharge
       Have a good support system after discharge
       Receive follow up after discharge
   Upon discharge
       Give written information
       Recommend mom to keep breastfeeding record
       Give mom phone number for a telephone helpline
       Lactation consultant follow-up
   Hospital discharge support
   Support the mothers breastfeeding efforts
   Provide accurate current breastfeeding
   Resources for Mothers
   Books:
       The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding – LeLeche League
       So that’s what they’re for! Breastfeeding Basic by Janet Tamaro
       The Breastfeeding Book by Martha and William Sears
       Nursing Mother Companion - Huggins Howard Common Press
       The Breastfeeding Answer Book – LeLeche Legue
       Medication and Mothers Milk – Thomas Gele PhD., a manual of lactational
        pharmacology 9th Ed.
       Breastfeeding and Human Lacation – 2nd Ed. Jan Rioden and Kathleen G. Auerbach
       Breastfeeding Triage Tool - Sanie Jollay and Ellen Phillips-Angeles, M.S. Ches 4th Ed.
   Websites
   Groups
       LeLeche League
       WIC – Public Health Department
       Carle’s Breast Feeding Clinic
       Twin clubs
   Slusser Wndelin, Ms, MD and Powers Nancy G MD;
    Breastfeeding Update 1: Immunology, Nutrition and
    Advocacy; Pediatrics Review Vol 18 No. 4
   Neifert, Marianne M.D., Early Assessment of
    Breastfeeding Infant, Contemporary Pediatrics Oct.
   The Breastfeeding Answer Book, LeLeche League
   AWHONN – Association of Women’s Health,
    Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses Independent Study
    Module for the Clinical Management of
    Breastfeeding for Health Professionals 1999
Clinical Case

   You are seeing a 22 yo G1 P0 woman in your
    office for her first prenatal visit at 12 weeks
    gestation. When you ask her if she intends to
    breastfeed her baby, she replies that she is
    concerned that she will not be able to due to
    the fact she is a chronic Hepatitis B carrier.
    She is also concerned about the fact that her
    friend told her that, if she breastfeeds, she
    will need to do so every hour and thus will be
    unable to do anything else.
Clinical Case
   Prenatal Labs
       Hct 33%
       WBC 5600/cmm (normal differential)
       Plt 224,000/cmm
       Blood type A +
       Antibody screen: negative
       Rubella titer: immune
       UA and Cx – negative
       Varicella-zoster titer: immune
       VDRL test: negative
       HBsAg: positive
Clinical Case
   How would you counsel this patient?

   What infant and maternal benefits are there
    to breastfeeding.
Clinical Case
   Counseling the patient:
       Prevalence of HBV infection in pregnancy
           Symptomatic – 1 to 1:1000
           Asymptomatic – 5 to 15:1000
       Perinatal transmission of HBV without intervention
           Seropositive for HBsAg only – 15-20% risk
           Seropositive for HBsAg and HBeAg – 85-90% risk
Clinical Case
   Counseling the patient:
       Immunoprophylaxis for prevention of perinatal
        transmission of HBV
           Treat neonates immediately after birth with HBIG and
            HBV vaccine (must give HBIG within 12 hrs of birth)
           Reduces the risk of transmission to <5%
           First dose of HBV vaccine prior to hospital discharge,
            2nd and 3rd doses administered at 1 and 6 months of
           CDC recommends universal vaccination of all infants
Clinical Case
   Counseling the patient:
       Breastfeeding is not contraindicated in chronic
        Hep-B carriers if the infant receives the HBIG and
        is vaccinated
Clinical Case
   Based on your advice, the pt decides to
    breastfeed. She and her infant have now
    been successfully nursing for over 3 weeks.
    One morning she wakes to discover a red,
    wedge-shaped area in her right breast. She
    also has a fever to 101 degrees.
       What is the most likely diagnoses?
       How would you treat her?
Clinical Case
   Treating the patient:
       Most likely diagnosis = Mastitis
       Give antibiotics that cover S. aureus –
        antistaphylococcal penicillin or first-generation
        cephalosporin, continue treatment for 10 days
       Patient should continue breastfeeding
Review Question #1
   1. How many calories should a lactating
    woman increase above her non-pregnant
    baseline calorie consumption?
Answer #1
   400 calories
Review Question #2
   Match the following response associated with the
    following conditions
       i. May breast feed
       ii. Breastfeeding not encouraged
       iii. Breastfeeding contraindicated
         A. Acute mastitis
         B. HSV infection
         C. CMV infection
         D. two alcoholic beverages consumed per day
         E. Tetracycline
         F. Clindamycin
         G. Smoking two packs of cigarettes per day
         H. Use of sub 50mg oral contraceptives
         i. HTLV 1 infection
         J. HBeAg + hepatitis
Answer #2
   A–i
   B–i
   C–i
   D–i
   E – iii
   F–i
   G–i
   H–i
   I – iii
   J - ii
Answer #2
   Breastfeeding is contraindicated in very few
    situations. Most viral infections are not considered
    contraindications. CMV has been transmitted in
    breast milk, but the effect on the healthy term
    neonate is relatively minor if breastfeeding is
    allowed to continue. Active acute hepatitis B
    (particularly if the E antigen is present), HIV, HTLV
    1, cyclophosphamide, tetracycline, oral
    metronidizole, lithium carbonate, and radioactive
    agents are considered to be contraindicated during
    pregnancy. Puerperal mastitis is not a
    contraindication to breastfeeding.
Review Question #3
   Select the 3 correct statements comparing
    human mature breast milk to cow’s milk
       i. Calories are increased
       ii. Proteins are decreased
       iii. Fat is increased
       iv. Carbohydrate is increased
       v. Iron is increased
Answer #3
   i, iii, iv
       Human milk is significantly different from both
        cow’s milk and formula with iron. Human milk has
        75 calories per 100ml as compared to 69 calories
        for cow’s milk. The protein content is
        approximately one third more than cow’s milk.
        The fat is increased by one third in human milk.
        Carbohydrate levels 100% increased. Although
        the concentration of iron I slow in human’s milk, it
        is more efficiently absorbed.
Review Question #4
   The principle function of prolactin is?
       A. Ensure lactation
       B. Sensitize the pituitary to LRH
       C. Increase the number of estrogen and prolactin
        receptors in alveolar cells
Answer #4
   A.
        LRH causes an increase in the serum prolactin level
         greater in pregnancy than in nonpregnancy. Prolactin
         insures lactation by promoting DNA synthesis in the
         glandular epithelial cells of the breast. It also increases the
         number of estrogen prolactin receptors in those cells.
         Prolactin promotes galactopoiesis and the production of
         casein and other breast products. The concentration of
         prolactin is approximately 10 times greater in pregnancy
         than it is in nonpregnancy. High concentrations of prolactin
         in the fetus and in amniotic fluid may have a role in
         preserving fetal fluid balance, preventing fetal dehydration.

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