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21世纪大学英语教程02doc - 21stsyyyycomcn -

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									Unit 2 Text A Pre-reading Activities 1. There are many traditional forms of courtesy toward women — gestures like lighting their cigarettes for them or standing up when they enter a room. What others can you think of? 2. As you listen to the passage the first time, see if it mentions any of the polite gestures that you thought of. Then listen again for the answers to the following questions: a) Where do you imagine the incident the woman describes took place? b) What courtesy did she expect? c) What, in the man's view, is the basis of a lot of common courtesy? 3. What do you think of the woman's argument about everyday reality? What about the man's view of common courtesy? The Titanic Puzzle Should a good feminist accept priority seating on a lifeboat? Charles Krauthammer You're on the Titanic II. It has just hit an iceberg and is sinking. And, as last time, there are not enough lifeboats. The captain shouts, "Women and children first!" But this time, another voice is heard: "Why women?" Why, indeed? Part of the charm of the successful movie Titanic are the period costumes, the period extravagance, and the period prejudices. An audience can enjoy these at a distance. Oddly, however, of all the period attitudes in the film, the old maritime tradition of "women and children first" enjoys total acceptance by modern audiences. Listen to the audience boo at the bad guys who try to sneak on the lifeboats with — or ahead of — the ladies. But is not grouping women with children a raging anachronism? Should not any self-respecting modern person, let alone feminist, object to it as insulting to women? Yet its usage is as common today as it was in 1912. Consider these examples taken almost at random from recent newspapers: "The invaders gunned down the Indians, most of them women and children..." "As many as 200 civilians, most of them women and children, were killed..." "At the massacre in Ahmici 103 Muslims, including 33 women and children, were killed..." At a time when women fly combat aircraft and run multi-national corporations, how can one not wince when adult women are routinely classed with children? In Ahmici,

it seems, 70 adult men were killed. And how many adult women? Not clear. When things get serious, when blood starts to flow or ships start to sink, you'll find them with the children. Children are entitled to special consideration for two reasons: helplessness and innocence. They have not yet acquired either the faculty of reason or the wisdom of experience. Consequently, they are defenseless (incapable of fending for themselves) and blameless (incapable of real sin). That's why we grant them special protection. In an emergency, it is our duty to save them first because they, helpless, have put their lives in our hands. And in wartime, they are supposed to be protected by special immunity because they can have threatened or offended no one. The phrase "women and children" attributes to women the same dependence and moral simplicity we find in five-year-olds. Such an attitude perhaps made sense in an era dominated by male privilege. Given the disabilities attached to womanhood in 1912, it was only fair that a new standard of gender equality not suddenly be proclaimed just as lifeboat seats were being handed out. That deference — a somewhat more urgent variation on giving up your seat on the bus to a woman — complemented and perhaps to some extent compensated for the legal and social constraints placed on women at the time. But in our era of extensive social restructuring to grant women equality in education, in employment, in government, in athletics, what entitles women to the privileges — and reduces them to the status — of children? Evolutionary psychologists might say that ladies-to-the-lifeboats is an instinct that developed to perpetuate the species: Women are indispensable child-bearers. You can repopulate a village if the women survive and only a few of the men, but not if the men survive and only a few of the women. Women being more precious, biologically speaking, than men, evolution has conditioned us to give them the kind of life-protecting deference we give to that other seed of the future: kids. The problem with this kind of logic, however, is its depressing reductionism. It's like a serious version of the geneticist's old joke that a chicken is just an egg's way of making another egg. But humans are more than just egg-layers. And traditional courtesies are more than just disguised survival strategies. So why do we say "women and children"? Perhaps it's really "women for children." The most basic parental bond is maternal. Equal parenting is great, but women, from breast to cradle to reassuring hug, can nurture in ways that men cannot. And thus, because we value children, women should go second. The children need them. But kiddie-centrism gets you only so far. What if there are no children on board? You are on the Titanic III, and this time it's a singles cruise. No kids, no parents. Now: Iceberg! Lifeboats! Action! Here's my scenario. The men, out of sheer irrational heroism, should let the women go first. And the women, out of sheer feminist self-respect, should refuse. Result? Stalemate. How does this movie end? How should it end? Hurry, the ship's going down. (759 words)

New Words feminist n. a person who believes that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men 女权主义者 * feminine a. of or having the qualities suitable for a woman 女性的;女子气的 charm n. a pleasing or attractive feature or quality 魅力 * costume n. clothes, esp. clothes from a particular place or during a particular historical period; clothes worn by actors during a film or play (一个地区、一个时期流行的)服装; 戏装 extravagance n. the use of more (of sth.) than is necessary 挥霍,奢侈 * extravagant a. 1. wasteful of money; too costly 奢侈的;浪费的 2. (of ideas, behaviour, etc.) uncontrolled; beyond what is reasonable 过度的;越轨 的 boo v. show disapproval or contempt for sb./sth. by shouting "boo" (对…)发出“呸”的 声音(表示嫌恶或强烈的不满) anachronism n. sth. outdated or obsolete; sth. from one historical period incorrectly associated with another 过时现象;时代错误 usage n. the way sth. is used; the way words are used in a language 用法;使用;(词的) 惯用法 * random a. done, chosen, etc. without conscious choice 胡乱的;任意的 * massacre n. the killing of a large number of people or animals 屠杀

combat n. a fight or fighting between two armies, etc. 战斗 aircraft n. (pl. unchanged) a plane or other vehicle that can fly in the air 航空器,飞机 wince vi. suddenly and briefly show pain in one's facial expression 脸部肌肉抽搐,皱眉蹙 眼 entitle vt. 1. (to) give (sb.) a right (to have or do sth.) 给…权利;给…资格 2. give a title (to a book, etc.) 给(书等)题名 consideration n. 1. careful thought and attention 考虑 2. (for) thoughtful attention to the wishes and feelings of others 体贴;关心 faculty n. 1. any of the powers of the body or mind; a particular ability for doing sth. 才能; 能力;天赋 2. all the teachers and workers of a university or college (高等院校的)全体教师及 职工 fend v. (for) look after 照料 protection n. the action of protecting or the condition of being protected 保护,防护 protective a. 1. that protects sb. or sth. from harm 保护的,防护的 2. (towards) having or showing a strong desire to protect (对人)关切保护的 helpless a. unable to act without help; needing the help of others; unable to defend oneself 无 助的;无依无靠的;不能自立的 immunity n. 1. protection or freedom (from sth.) 受保护;豁免(权) 2. ability to resist infection, disease, etc. 免疫力 threaten vt. 1. make a threat against (sb.) 威胁,恐吓

2. give a warning (of sth. bad) 预示 male a. & n.男子(的);雄性(的) privilege n. a special right or advantage available only to a particular person or group of people 特权;优惠 given prep.考虑到 a. 1. 规定的;特定的 2. 假设的;已知的 * attach vt. (to) 1. consider that sb. has (a certain quality) 认为有;使与…相关联 2. fasten or join 系;贴;连接 womanhood n. women in general; the state of being a woman (总称)妇女;女子的身份或状态 * gender n. 1. (生理上的)性 2. (名词、代词等的)性 equality n. the state of being equal, esp. in status, rights, etc. 平等 deference n. respect 尊敬,敬重 urgent a. requiring immediate attention or action 紧迫的,紧要的 * complement vt. add new or contrasting features which show the best qualities of (sth.) or which improve (it) 补充,补足 * constraint n. limitation or restriction 约束,限制 * constrain vt. 1. force (sb.) to act in a particular way 强迫 2. prevent (sth.) from developing freely 限制,束缚

restructure vt. arrange (a system or organisation) in a new way to make it work more effectively 重建;改组;调整 evolutionary a. of or resulting from evolution; developing gradually 进化论的;演变的 instinct n. behavior or knowledge that one has without being taught 本能 perpetuate a. make (sth.) continue for a long time; carry (sth.) on 使永久;保持 * perpetual a. lasting forever or for a long time 永久性的;长期的 indispensable a. essential 必不可少的 repopulate vt. 重新构成…的人口;重新居住于 biologically ad. 从生物学的角度 logic n. a way of reasoning 推理(法) depress vt. 1. sadden and discourage 使抑郁,使沮丧 2. cause to sink to a lower level of position 使不景气,使萧条 reductionism n. the practice of showing prejudice because of the tendency to reduce women to a lower status 视妇女低人一等的歧视性做法 reduction n. making or becoming smaller; the amount taken off in making sth. smaller 减少 (量);削减(数) version n. 1. one person's account of an event, as compared with that of another person 描述, 说法

2. 版本;改写本 geneticist n. 遗传学家 egg-layer n. 生育机器 * courtesy n. 1. polite behavior; good manners 谦恭有礼;有礼的举止 2. a polite or kind action or expression 好意;恩惠 survival n. continuing to live or exist, often in spite of difficulty or danger 生存;幸存 strategy n. a plan, often for business or military aims 策略,计谋 strategic a. 战略(上)的;战略上重要的 parental a. 父母(似)的 maternal a. of or like a mother 母亲(般)的 breast n. 乳房;胸部;胸膛 * cradle n. a small bed for a baby, usu. shaped like an open box, that rocks from side to side 摇篮 v. 轻轻地抱,拥抱 kiddie-centrism n. the notion that children are most important 小孩中心论 cruise n. a sea voyage for pleasure 海上航游 vt. sail or move at a constant speed that is unhurried and comfortable 航游; 巡航; 缓 慢巡行 scenario

n. a written outline of a film, play, etc. 电影剧本;剧本提纲 * sheer a. 1. pure; nothing other than (often used in descriptions of sth. surprising, outrageous, inexplicable, etc.) 完全的,十足的 2. (of fabric) very thin, light and almost transparent (织物)极簿的;透明的 3. very steep 陡峭的;垂直的 stalemate n. a stage of a dispute, contest, etc. at which further progress is impossible for both sides 僵局;僵持阶段 Phrases and Expressions priority seating (the practice of) certain people being given a place to sit before other people 优先安 排座位 at/from a distance from a place that is not very close; a long time after sth. happened 隔开一段距离 (或 时间);从远处 object to oppose; be against 反对,不赞成 at random without conscious choice 胡乱地,随便地,任意地 gun down shoot, causing to fall to the ground dead or wounded 枪杀;开枪打伤 be entitled to be given the right to have or do (sth.) 有权,有资格 fend for oneself look after oneself 照料自己 attach sth. to sth. connect sth. to/with sth. else; associate sth. with sth. else; fasten sth. to sth. else 使相 关联;使连接在一起 hand out distribute 分发,散发

go down sink (船等)下沉 Proper Names Titanic “泰坦尼克”号(英国豪华游轮) Charles Krauthammer 查尔斯·克劳瑟莫(男子名) Ahmici 阿米奇(克罗地亚地名) Muslim 穆斯林;伊斯兰教徒 想学好英语口语,就得这样逼出来! 想学好英

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