What is a sentence?
A sentence has two basic parts a___1___
and a _____2____.
1. The ____is the key word or words.
2. The ____is the verb or verb phrase that tells
something about 1.
Types of Sentences
Declarative- states a fact and ends with a period
Exclamatory- show emotion. Ends with an
exclamation point (!)
Interrogative- a question.
Imperative- a command.
Huge cresting waves pound the sailboat.
When a subject or predicate is missing, the group of
words is a sentence fragment.
Huge cresting waves
The violent storm battered the sailboat.
Simple subject: Ask who or what is or does
What battered the sailboat? storm
Simple predicate: ask what the subject is or does or
what happened to it.
What did the storm do? battered
Write the simple subject and predicate.
1. Hurricane Andrew struck southern Florida in August 1992.
2. This ferocious storm destroyed several communities.
3. The high winds also tore a county zoo apart.
4. Many animals, afraid of the wind, cowered in their cages.
5. Over 150,000 people lost their homes, or businesses.
Complete Subject and Predicate
Complete subject: includes the simple subject and all
the words that modify it.
Complete predicate: includes the verb and all the
words that modify, or tell about It.
Disaster movies fascinate nearly
Complete Subject: Ask who or what is or does
What fascinates? Disaster movies.
Complete predicate: Ask what the subject is or does or
what happens to it.
What do disaster movies do? Fascinate nearly everyone.
1. James Cameron had been fascinated by the Titanic for years.
2. The filmmaker interviewed several survivors of the tragedy.
3. The special-effects crew created tiny models of the ship.
4. The art director copied the Titanic’s original furnishings.
5. The real challenge was the re-creation of the death of the
Compound Subjects and verbs
Divers and climbers share a love of adventure.
Compound subject: divers and climbers
The exhausted diver ached and moaned.
Compound verb: ached and moaned.
Write the compound subject or predicate in each sentence.
Underline the subject once and verbs twice
1. Children and adults can survive frigid water for a long time.
2. Cold water signals the brain and triggers a “diving reflex.”
3. The brain slows and needs only half the normal level of
4. Electrical activity and chemical actions in the brain keep the
5. The heart and brain can survive 40 or 50 minutes in this
Compound vs. Complex Sentences
Compound- two independent clauses.
I like chocolate. I’m not hungry= I like chocolate, but
I’m not hungry.
Complex- one independent and one dependent
He runs fast. Even though he is short.
Even though he is short, he runs fast.
Subjects in Unusual Positions
The savage storm came down on the Spanish galleon.
Down came the savage storm on the Spanish galleon.
Though here or there may begin a sentence, these
words are rarely subjects.
Here is the massive anchor of the galleon.
There lies the great ship, far beneath the ocean.
Was the cargo of the galleon valuable?
Did the great ship survive the storm?
The cargo of the galleon was valuable.
What was? cargo= subject.
1. Who was aboard the galleon?
2. What happened to the people?
In some questions, words such as who or what are
the subjects and come before the verbs.
You is usually the subject. In most cases, you is not
stated; it is understood.
Request: (You) Please read the ancient tale of the
Command: (You) Beware the wild sea.
Example: Have you ever heard of the destruction of the
Answer: you; have heard
1. There were 28 Spanish ships, including the Atocha, on the
voyage to Spain.
2. Out of nowhere sprang a fierce storm.
3. From every ship in the fleet came pitiful cries for help.
4. Would the sailors survive this powerful storm?
5. Never doubt the men’s skill and bravery.
6. Into the Gulf of Mexico sailed the Spanish vessels.
7. Yet upon a reef crashed the treasure galleon.
8. Who witnessed its destruction and the loss of 260 lives?
9. Here is an important lesson about the power of nature.
10. Remember the misfortune of the great ship and its crew.