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                Class Announcements

 Reading for the first test

-- Gordon Wood’s book
-- Chapter 1 (pages 3-57)
                Class Announcements

 Exam Date

-- Wednesday 13th = Lecture
-- Friday 15th = Reading

 Reading Questions

-- Need them by Monday the 11th
-- Include book & page number

            True or False: John Locke invented the
            ideas of social contract and inalienable

              1.   True                           0
Only get      2.   False                          0
credit if
            The English revolution was:

              1.   A revolution by the peasants and serfs to     0
Only get           overthrow the King
credit if     2.   A middle class revolution that was meant to   0
correct!           make the Gentry most powerful
              3.   A period in American history in the 1960s     0
                   also known as “the British invasion”
              4.   The establishment of absolute monarchy        0
                   and divine right
Constitutional Monarchy
              The English Revolution

 William and Mary

   In 1688, The Parliament gets rid of James and names a
   new person to be King
-- William & Mary

Not in the line of succession!

   Parliament is simply naming
            the King

           Glorious Revolution
               The English Revolution

Constitutional monarchy

-- When William takes the throne, he concedes that Parliament
is permanent and writes the laws (the sovereign)

At the time William and Mary were presented with the Crown, they
were presented with a Declaration of Rights, which stated that no
king of England could tax without parliamentary permission, use
the suspending power or abuse the dispensing power, manipulate
the judiciary or continue a standing army without parliamentary
                  The English Revolution

  constitutional monarchy

-- it works like this
    (a) Parliament names the King (William and Mary)
    (b) the King is subject to “the law” (e.g., no dispensing
    (c) Parliament is permanent institution that passes the laws
    (d) The (English) people have some basic rights that
        cannot be infringed by the King
    (e) there are elections where middle-class people can
        meaningfully participate in the lower house of
               The English Revolution

 constitutional monarchy

   (f) parliament has the right to remove the monarch if
       he/she violates the liberty of the people (John Locke)
-- but the King retains certain powers, such as:
   (a) commander in chief
   (b) an absolute veto
   (c) power to “prorogue”
   (d) spoils and patronage
                              Compare: if we had an hereditary
   (e) life-tenured job       presidency with an absolute veto
                              (can’t override). Example: Kennedys
                 The English Revolution

English Bill of Rights

   • -- can’t tax the people without parliament’s approval
   • -- no detention of citizens without cause shown
   • -- no military in the private homes
   • -- limitations on when Martial law could be declared
   • -- King did not have the power to “suspend law”
   • -- No excessive bails, cruel-and-unusual punishments
   • -- jury trials in criminal cases (and other process)
              The English Revolution

Several Important things to keep in mind

  Constitutional Monarchy
  -- There is still a King, and a line of succession
  -- But the King is bound by statutory law, which is now the
  province of the Parliament
  -- The King has a veto, still has patronage, can still
  -- But cannot pass any laws without Parliament’s approval.
  Can’t go to war; can’t tax; can’t do this or that.
  (Note: William never admitted this, but he behaved)
              The English Revolution

Several Important things to keep in mind

 The Bill of Rights is Statutory
  -- There is no actual “Constitution”
  (Constitution means the “the power sharing relationship that
  the leaders understand exists, and which is written down in
  important statutes)
New English
                                        Share Governing Power

                  Monarchy                                         Royal
                                                           House of     House of
                                                            Lords       Commons

    Peasants, Serfs

                                                        Each Formalized Institution
City-dwelling drunks                                    Represents a class or
                                                        sector having power in the
          Where have we seen                            society?
              this plan of
          government before?
    1/18/2007                  (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.                       17
Where have we
 seen this?     0
    Note the similarity
    here with Rome


                                                       House of      House of
                                                        Lords        Commons

   Peasants, Serfs
City-dwelling drunks
    Note that “presidents” are
  going to be created out of                                        Assembly of the
  Consuls and Royal                                      SENATE        Plebeians
  Governors – these things
  are early precursors
   1/18/2007               (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.                       19
     Power Sharing




    Peasants, Serfs
                                                   “Virtual Representation”

City-dwelling drunks

    2/2/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                      20
Two Party System
The Two Party System
  -- One of the interesting things that happens during and
  after the English revolution is that political parties form
  -- This happens because of the social transformation
  Something fascinating occurs


                Nobility                                    Tory



City-dwelling drunks
                                                            Political Parties!

    2/2/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                         23
  The Whigs --                        The Tories --

  1. new financial institutions       1. liked the old world.
  2. letting the people participate   2. chains of being
  more in picking leaders
                                      3. land as power
  3. the sovereign was
  parliament because it was           4. were against modernity –
  elected.                            against the wrong believers;
                                      against the expanding the vote
  4. tolerant of religious
                                      5. they were against the new
                                      financial institutions

JOHN LOCKE: Whig revolutionary political writings
2/2/2013         Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                     24
The First Modern
The First Modern Country?
Triennial act passed in 1694: requires an election every three years at
least. (But elections were had occurred 12 times from 1689-1715). There
are more elections in this period than any other period in British history.
Also, there are more contested elections than ever before. Thanks to
inflation, more ordinary Farmers qualified for a vote under the “40 shilling
franchise.” In the local towns, each party tried to increase its memberships
voting roles by manipulating the local charter. So what would happen is
that one party would win and it would go through the borough charters and
add its people. The net result is that you are starting to see the expansion
of the franchise. By 1722, some 330,000 males had the franchise, which is
5.8 percent of the population, which is maybe a 1/5th or a quarter of the
adult male population. This is by far the largest electorate in Europe. The
English were the first to extend the right to Vote and the right to say things
in print to the citizenry. The right to sack a ruler who didn’t rule them
properly. The rest of Europe thought they were nuts. Hence the phrase, the
rights of Englishmen. You couldn’t say that same phrase about the rights of
a Frenchman or a Russian. England was first.
Source – Robert Bucholz (paraphrased)
England in early 1700:
   (1). Permanent Parliament
   (2). Central role for the House of Commons
   (3). Party press (Whigs and Tories)
   (4). “The Rights of an Englishman”
   (5). Significant amount of voting:
                           Voting –
                                  1. 40 Shilling Franchise
                                  2. 1722 – 330,000 males
                                  (1/5th of adult males)
                                  (5.8% of the population)
Caveat: --
It doesn’t mean it is completely free and open: if one family is
dominant in the locality and wanted a certain candidate, you wouldn’t
be free to vote for the other guy. Also, remember that if you did have
a choice, there was no secret ballot (Indirect Pressure). So if you
were a tenant or an employee, people knew how you voted. Voters
could also be bribed with free meals, beer or even money. Patronage
and birth still played a significant role in social status. The aristocracy
and Lords still remained. Also, not every trade or occupation was
represented in the House of Commons because property
qualifications still kept some from voting

The Defeat of the Spanish Armada Beheading of Charles
           Settling America   The        The First Modern Country?
                                      The Glorious Revolution

   1588           1600
                                        1649           1688        1722
                                         and the
                               CromwellParliament installs
                               Protectorate; Outbreak
                                         William and Mary as
                               of Religious Radicalism
                                         King and Queen;
                                         Constitutional Monarchy

   2/2/2013              Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007               29
The Financial Revolution
Finance Capitalism

 -- The English invented a new economic model that makes
 the country incredibly resourceful

      Capital                       Corporations


Other Benefits of Finance Capitalism

       -- is starting to happen in Britain:

         Manufacturing and the industrial revolution had
         started in England in the late 1600s and early 1700s:
             (clothing mills with 1,300 people employed)
             (invention of interchangeable parts)
             (gives Britain an advantage)

 3/12/2007                   (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.    32
                          Extended Benefits

Other Benefits of Finance Capitalism

      England is a Major Commercial Hub

       -- if you want any sort of consumer goods in the 1700s,
       England is the major player
       -- the trading and financial networks she built were
       (Ships, colonies, markets, urbanization, rich culture,
       industry, crafts, artisans, products sailing from here to there
       –- England is at the center of it all).

 3/12/2007                  (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.       33
The Investor Class –

Investors became wealthy very fast … There was a new investor class. It
made a new class of men – moneyed men. They were not land owners.
They made money out of money. These people were overwhelmingly Whig
and were often dissenters. The Tories saw them as parasites. They were
making money from the land tax which was going to fund the national debt.
And worse, they were making money just from money. They owned no
land yet they were taken into the government’s counsels.

source – Robert Bucholz (paraphrased)
 Farmers don’t like Bankers

The Bankers are Subjugating the Farmers –

Jonathan Swift, the famous writer, notes that “the country gentlemen are
now at the mercy of the scrivener, who is a lawyer that receives half of the
rents as interest and a mortgage on the whole.” These new practices seem
shady and even conspiratorial. Swift writes, “Through the connivance and
cunning of stockjobbers [brokers], there has been brought in such a
complication of navary and cousinage, such a mystery of iniquity, and such
an unintelligible jargon of terms to involve it in as were never known in any
other age or country of the world.”

source – Robert Bucholz (paraphrased)

  1. The profits of the land pay
  the interest                                 “New Jargon” – farmers
                                               learning the language of
  2. But the loan looms large over             “points” and interest
  the entire land if you cannot pay
Deficits, War & Power
           The Financial Revolution

England’s Need for Money
 -- Recurring warfare (Scotland, Ireland, France – and
 sometimes Spain)
            The Financial Revolution

The old way of financing war
  -- simply confiscate what you need from whatever gold or
  resources your subjects possess
  -- England invents a new way …
The English National Bank

  -- instead of confiscating the money, they decide to borrow
  -- Created a Bank of England (national banking system)
National Debt –

England invented the idea of creating English-funded national debt. If
you look at government records, England’s national debt actually
begins in the 1690s.
National Bank –
England created the Bank of England. It acted as a private bank. It made
loans and received deposits. It was an investment opportunity for
subscribers. It loaned money to the government and in fact would become
the government’s principal lender, and acted as something of a federal
reserve. It could print notes, and that helped to regulate the money supply.
This system allowed England to have 4 million pounds a year in
spending available to them. The British army grew to 76,000 by 1697,
more than double that of James the 2nd. The central administration of the
army would triple in size from about 4,000 to about 12,000 officers
between 1688-1725. The financial revolution has changed England. It is
becoming a wealthy empire with the strongest fighting force. It’s
bureaucracy is starting to become more professionalized. In order to
secure approval for the financial revolution, William had to make
parliamentary concessions. National debt was now permanent and news
was of raising money (budgeting) had to constantly be looked at,
Parliament is now a permanent part of govt.
                                                      The English Empire

Note: Some                  Copyright, Sean Wlson. the
             of these possessions arrive later in2007 1800s and early 1900s.   42
                                                   The English Empire

 • strongest empire on the
 • holdings match that of
 • Think of all the places
 that speak English today

2/2/2013             Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                   43

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