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                Class Announcements

 Reading for the first test

-- Gordon Wood’s book
-- Chapter 1 (pages 3-57)
               Class Announcements

 Exam Date

-- Wednesday 13th = Lecture
-- Friday 15th = Reading

 Reading Questions

-- Need them by Monday the 11th
-- Include book & page number
                 Class Announcements


-- Made the lecture system more simple
-- No one is putting their notes in.

            The Gentry are:

              1.   First born male children                           0
Only get      2.   Highest aristocrats, like Duke’s and Baron’s       0
credit if     3.   A type of monarchy                                 0
correct!      4.   2nd and 3rd sons, having lower titles, but still   0
                   in the upper middle class                          0
              5.   A religious sect

             1.   First born children are superior to later born    0
Only get     2.   A term that means you are rich enough never       0
credit if         to have your hands dirty in the land
correct!     3.   A royal family who dominated England during
                  the dark ages                                     0
             4.   An experience, like nirvana, that is felt among   0
                  strong people when they dominate weaker
             5.   A religious sect
  Old World                                            Monarchy


     Divine Right                                Gentry

   Great Chain of Being

     Primogeniture                  Peasants, Serfs
                        City-dwellers, drunks
  Government as a personification
    Subjects, not citizens                No branches of government

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Domination of Landed
Domination of the Landed Elites

-- Let’s examine how aristocratic Lords dominated
Agrarian and Feudal Economics

-- People lived off and worked the land. Whoever controlled
land, controlled the power

  Feudalism:     -- servants were bound to work the land
                 of the Lord (“Landlord”)

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      The Domination of Landed Elites

      • Shires
      • Manor Estate
      • Duties of the Landlord
                                  Hypothetical Territory
      • Duties of the Tenant
      • Feudalism (hard and soft)
      • Affinities!                                Lord’s
          “Muster the Rohirrim!”  A
                               Hampshire             B
                                              Manor Estate
      Y                                  h
      Y                                   C                D
                                                     High Ground
                       c                               Husbandmen
           c       c           c             h        Cottagers
                                                     Quarters, a Mill
                                                      The Church
  c                                                  or Oven.
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           Film Clip: Lady Catherine DeBerg’s Estate

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           Mr. Collins is given “the living” of being the
                preacher and also a “parsonage”

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            Mr. Collins seeks a wife because Lady
           Catherine wants it that way and because
           he is now a “good prospect” because of
                           her grace

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Religion and Society
                  Religion and Society

-- Bibles are not in English
-- Literacy rates are low
-- The Church is a center for learning and social gathering
-- The Church is a creature of the state at two different levels:
   Local level
       -- local creature of the Baron or Lord
       (Rectory or “Living”)
               Religion and Society


 National Level
 -- creature of the monarchy
 -- established Church of England
     (briefly mention Henry VIII and Catholic Church)
     (Church of England retained Catholic rituals and
     orderly hierarchy)
 -- the King appoints the Bishops and church hierarchy
 -- Church teaches and reinforces Divine Right and Chain
 of Being     Important symbiotic relationship
      Next Topic:

The Awakening & the Seeds of
Who Should Rule?
                              13th Century

                            A tyrannical law … is not a
                            law, absolutely speaking,
                            but rather a perversion of
 St. Thomas                 law ..
                            “that which is not just
                            seems to be no law at all”

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                                                  The leader must be
                                                  crafty, cunning

                                                  Implication: the skillful
                                                  should rule!
      Niccolo Machiavelli                         Implication: not the well

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The protestant reformation

-- English-Speaking Bibles
-- All kinds of protestant religious groups emerge, rebelling from
the idea of a centralized church.
People started constructing different versions of religious truth,
rebelling against a uniform, centralized message

   Democratizing Religion v. Democratizing society

                            Two political implication of the
                            protestant reformation:

                            (1) We don’t need a Pope to
Martin Luther                   select our leaders.

                            (2) Truths can come from the
                            ground up, not top down.

John Calvin
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                  Wrote a piece in political philosophy that
                  had two stunning ideas:

                  1. The Origin of society came from a
                  social contract

                          (Implications: society is a legal
                          relationship! It’s arranged, not pre-

Thomas Hobbes     2. Kicker: some things that exist in a
                  state nature cannot be sold!

                          (They can’t be contracted away)

                          The term alienate is originally a
                          commercial term. Alienate = to sell

                                              Inalienable Rights
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                          Important Caveat!


                 King is above the contract and presides
                 over it.

                 The King is still above the law upon
Thomas Hobbes    which ordinary society is based

                 Supported Monarchy; but had a really
                 interesting idea.

                  -- Writing in the late 1500’s when England
                      is being attacked by Spain

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The Statute
What is a Statute?
What is a statute?
  How does this idea
work in a world where
there are no branches
   of government?
What is a statute?
              Kings, Parliaments & Statutes

The Statute

-- King could issue proclamations, decrees, pronouncements,
-- as time goes by, the “statute” came about:
   • sometimes, for political purposes, King would have both
   himself and his nobility sign extremely important
   pronouncements so that they appeared more powerful
   (e.g., taxes, war)
   (Parliaments had to be convened for this purpose)
           Absolute Monarchy

Power over statutes          “Parliament” = “Congress”

                 The King

  Decree                       “Statute”
  “Calling Parliaments”
-- Kings would need to call Parliaments in order to pass statutes
for very important things

    taxes          war
                                      Things requiring
             Kings, Parliaments & Statutes

 Custom and Tradition
-- As each King would call a parliament to approve certain
issues, people became used to this practice
-- it became traditional and customary (in England) to say that:
   • no taxes unless parliament approves
   • no war unless parliament approves
-- as parliament is used more and more, this grows:
   • nothing big unless parliament approves
                           Note the corollary: The King can only
                           proclaim “regular” things on his own?
              Kings, Parliaments & Statutes

   Final Straw
-- Final straw: The parliament is permanent and is the sovereign
(English revolution)!
-- Parliament (the legislature) writes the law!

         The Final Straw:
         Parliament becomes permanent!
         Every statute must have
         parliament’s approval!
State the
                The Rise of Parliament

The Rise of the Gentry

-- I’ve left out an extremely important point!
-- By the time Parliament is permanent, it is no longer composed
of just the highest aristocrats. It is composed of two things

   The House of        -- highest aristocrats

   The House of         -- the gentry (middle-level aristocrats)
Spain and the New
              The Empires Compete

The New World

  -- The discovery of the “new world” was an important
  development for Europe
  -- Resources fit for a King


   gold, silver, timbers, resins, forest products, furs,
   fish – the resources of national power.
              The Empires Compete

The New World

  -- The discovery of the “new world” was an important
  development for Europe
  -- Resources fit for a King
  -- Alter the balance of power
  -- Columbus had landed in the new world by accident
             The Empires Compete

3 basic empires

  • Spain, France and England
  -- It was considered to be the strongest of the three
  -- they were the first to conquer the new world in the 1500s
  -- Spain conquered what we now call Mexico, Latin
  America and portions of South America

25% Kick Back:

When Cortez and the
others would go on their
missions, stealing plunder,
etc., they would kick back
1/5th of what they would
find to the throne in Spain
(required kick back).
             Plunder Gallore

Gold, Gold and More Gold:

Between 1500 and 1650, more than
200 tons of gold and 16,000 tons of
silver were extracted from mines in
America worth approximately 1.25

It provided about 3 to 5 times the
entire stock of gold and silver in all
of Europe's hands.
England and the High
            England and the High Seas

-- England is an Island
-- Several things result from this:

     She was harder to Conquer
   -- Although people had successfully conquered the island
   (e.g., Norman invasion) , as a general rule, it has been
   difficult for foreign invaders to cross the English Channel
              England and the High Seas

  English had to master the high seas

     -- For England to have contact with the outside world, it had
     to become sea worthy
     -- would develop an impressive merchant marine and navy
     -- European countries could get rich if they could develop
     trade networks with other lands, traveling by sea
Trading with India

And in 1498, the protégées adventurer Vasco Da Gama brought a
Portuguese fleet around Africa and directly to India. The goods in
cargo that De Gama returned to Portugal with netted him a profit of
            England and the High Seas

Pirating & Spain
-- English “privateers” were also pirating Spanish ships and
illegally trading with Spanish territories in what is now Mexico
and portions of South America
  Explain colony trade rules
   -- colonies cannot trade outside of their network
   -- If Spain conquered you, you could only deal commercially
   with them
            England and the High Seas

Spain Attacks England
-- England was involved in a war with Spain, largely because of
the pirating in 1588.
-- England thought there very lives as a country was at stake,
because Spain was so strong

     This is when Thomas Hobbes is Writing
           England and the High Seas

Defeat of the Spanish Armada
-- England surprisingly defeats the invading Spanish armada in
   • 130 ships, 30,000 men try to invade England by sea

    Stunning defeat
-- Net Result: England now has a virtual monopoly on the high
seas (most powerful navy on the globe)
Violating the Chain of
Port Towns Develop
-- In the 1500s and 1600s, the port towns in England begin to
really develop
-- That’s where the trade goods are coming in and out
-- There are good paying jobs there (unloading ships and so
-- There are stores, merchants, coffee houses, lodging, etc.,
that develop
People in port towns are starting to make serious money
“Wrong people” getting rich
   -- people of lower social rank were sometimes becoming
   more wealthy than noble aristocrats
   -- sailors, merchants, and traders were making good money
   -- started to become a threat to the hegemony of the landed
Sailors and Capitalists Getting Rich

People who lived in seaport towns are going to have an
interesting discovery: (1) Economic trading could make you
prosperous; (2) you could sail to certain places, buy goods in
bulk – like tea – and you could sell it to your countrymen. And it
didn’t matter what your last name was. Sailing was a like being
a smith; regular people did it
The New Capitalism
 Finance Capitalism

-- before the financing system was created, capitalism was only
like the “farmer’s market” (local shops)
-- now, there is a new system developing:
   • banking, stock trading, insurance,
   • liquidity
   • new instruments (mortgages, investments, loans, etc).
   • a new economic culture: (corporations, industrialization,
     manufacturing plants, urbanization, etc.)
                The Rise of Parliament

 New Capitalism

    Trading stocks
-- The first stocks ever traded in the West occur in coffee
houses in London. The very first stock market
             The Rise of Parliament

New Capitalism

Joint-Stock Corporations
    -- Invest in the ship ventures, and receive a percentage
    of the spoils
    (make money by speculation, “betting”)

           1. Different way to become

           2. You don’t have to be a first-
              born Barron of the land;
Rise of the Gentry
Social Mobility
             Some aristocrats
             are loosing ground                      Nobility
                  Some Gentry are
                  gaining ground


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Social Mobility


              High level peasants                    Gentry
              are doing better

    Low level peasants
    are doing worse


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Social Mobility


              Middle Class is                         Gentry

       So are the destitute


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                        Extended Benefits

 Changing nature of the Gentry

      -- No longer limited to second and third sons of aristocrats.
      If you are rich enough, you are now in the English middle
      ranks, period
      -- Gentry comes to mean “gentrified” – which is high middle
      class in English society
      --In America, the term will connote someone who is very
      wealthy, because we didn’t have a nobility or monarchical
      -- Thomas Jefferson was “Gentrified” (explain)
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               The Rise of Parliament

The Rise of the Gentry

-- The English gentry rose in power because of three things:
   • the radical intellectual ideas (liberty and reformation)
   • the invention of finance capitalism
   • the social erosion of the chain of being
               The Rise of Parliament

The Rise of the Gentry

-- By this time Parliament, parliament is dominated by two equal

   The House of       -- Nobility

   The House of       -- the gentry (middle-level aristocrats)
English Revolution
                The English Revolution


-- England goes through a period of immense cultural
transformation in 1600s
-- Civil war breaks out in 1642.
-- The English behead their King in 1649

1. Supporting the King: Most nobles, some
   gentry, high Anglicans and Catholics, and
   the north and west
                                                 Charles I is
2. Supporting the Parliament: most Gentry,       Beheaded
   some nobility, puritans, and the south and
                                        Reforms Hobbes’ Social Contract
                                            Agrees with Hobbes:

                                        1. The foundation of society is the
                                           social contract
                                        2. People had inalienable rights
Locke                                              Critical Modification:
                                        -- The King is party to the contract
 -- Begins to write this stuff
     in the 1670s, well
                                        -- Can be removed by the parties if
     after Charles was
     beheaded                           he misbehaves

                                        -- Misbehavior is violating the
                                        inalienable rights!
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What Government?
     House of

     House of

   What kind of
Government do you
put in place if there
     is no King?
    How does
government work?   0
Rump Parliament

One chamber                           House of
Compare: American Civil War
                                     House of
                       -- Conservative Lords are also on the
                       “outs.” This is largely a middle class
                       revolution involving the Gentry, who
                       are rising up in English politics to take
                       control of it.
                                        What about the
                                      executive? Where is
                                      the executive in this
Who performs the
   executive       0
  functions?       0
Rump Parliament

Unicameral parliamentary System

                                   House of

                  Prime Minister

          Executive is a clerk of the Congress. An
          appointed manager. The Congress is the boss
          of the executive
Rump Parliament

Unicameral parliamentary System

   Plural Executive
                                  House of
   How long do you                Commons
   think this form of
  government will last
      in England?

           1.   Not Very Long        0
           2.   For 100 years        0
           3.   They have it today   0
                 The English Revolution

  Too Liberal?

-- There is a feeling that reform is going too fast. Changes are
too liberal.

Radical England?

IN 1649, the Rump parliament established a republic, the
Commonwealth. There followed a period of experimentation
and relative political, social and religious freedom. Benefitting
from a free press and greater religious toleration, radical
groups “came out of the woodwork.”

             The English Revolution

Oliver Cromwell

  -- So they ask Lord Cromwell to administer the Realm from
  -- Lord Protector

     Military leader becomes

       Compare to Rome
            The English Revolution


 -- They then decide to bring back Kings
 Charles II and then King James II (1660-1688)
 -- But the Kings don’t work out.
 -- So they ultimately do something monumental:

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