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Studying Deviance Adler and Adler

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									Part III
 What are official statistics?
 Statistics: numerical data
 Official: gathered by government officials or
  people receiving government money in the
  course of doing performing normal jobs
 Uniform Crime Reports (UCRs)
 Property Crimes
   Burglary, vandalism, arson, larceny/theft


 Crimes Against the Person
   Robbery, rape, murder, assault


 Victimless Crimes
   Drugs, sex, gambling
 Unrecognized
 Unreported
 Unrecorded
 Strengths
     Fast: Pre-collected
     Cheap
     Longitudinal: over history
     Breadth: no sampling
 Weaknesses
   Validity
   Change/Absent categories
   Data gathering
   Self interpretation
 Survey Research – one of the most popular
 Participant-Observation Field Research
 Questionnaire
 Sampling
   Probability
   Convenience
   Snowball
 Mode of Administration
 Coding and Analysis
 Choose a Topic/Personal Biography
 Gaining Entrée
 Forging Trust and Relationships
 Developing Analysis
                   Survey      P-O          Official
                                            Stats
Cost               High        Low          Free
Time               Medium      Long         Done
Approach           Objective   Subjective   Clerical
Generalizability   High        Low          High

Accuracy           Medium      High         Low
 Part III
Chapter 12
Part 3: Ch. 12
 All states have passed laws that require
 designated professionals to report specified
 types of child maltreatment

 Over the years, both the range of designated
 professionals and the scope of reportable
 conditions have steadily expanded



                                         Part 3: Ch. 12
 Today most states have laws that require
 most professionals who serve children to
 report of all forms of suspected child
 maltreatment:
   Physical abuse
   Sexual abuse
   Physical neglect
   Exploitation
   Emotional maltreatment



                                        Part 3: Ch. 12
 These reporting laws have been very
 successful:
   In 1993 about 3 million reports of child abuse
   or neglect reported compared to only 150,000
   in early 1960s

 Earlier reporting statistics not reliable so
 cannot provide a baseline study against
 which to make comparisons

                                             Part 3: Ch. 12
 Increase in reporting accompanied by a
  substantial expansion of prevention and
  treatment programs
 Increase in reporting accompanied by a
  substantial expansion of prevention and
  treatment programs
 Estimated that as a result, child abuse and
  neglect deaths have fallen from 3000-5000
  per year to about 1000 annually

                                         Part 3: Ch. 12
Part 3: Ch. 12
 56% or about 500,000 abused & neglected
  cases unreported (1986)
 2,000 with observable signs (bruises,
  scrapes) that required hospitalization
 100,000 with moderate signs of abuse
 30,000 of those sexually abused




                                      Part 3: Ch. 12
 A stratified sample of counties, a broadly
 representative sample of professionals who
 serve children were surveyed

 Asked if they had seen children who
 appeared to have been abused or neglected

 Results were compared against pending
 cases in local child protective agency


                                          Part 3: Ch. 12
Part 3: Ch. 12
Unsubstantiated Reports
 Nationwide 60 to 65 percent of all reports
  closed after finding of unfounded
 Each year about 700,000 families are
  needlessly put through investigations of
  unfounded reports, a massive violation of
  parental rights
 So many unfounded reports waste valuable
  resources of child protection agencies
 This explains why 25 to 50 percent of child
  abuse deaths involve children previously
  known to authorities since caseworkers are
  overwhelmed and desensitized

                                         Part 3: Ch. 12
 What reporting laws govern those who work
  or serve children in most, if not all, states?
 What is the difference between substantiated
  and unsubstantiated case of child abuse?




                                         Part 3: Ch. 12
 Part III
Chapter 13
Part 3: Ch. 13
Skepticism About a National
Survey of Sex Behavior
 Nobody will agree to participate, and if they
  do, they won’t answer honestly
 Until recently, scientific research on
  sexuality has been taboo and marginalized
 Little prior research exists on sexuality in
  the general population
 Exceptions are adolescence, premarital sex,
  and sexual deviance


                                         Part 3: Ch. 13
Part 3: Ch. 13
National Health and Social Life
Survey (NHSLS): Sample Design
 Probability sampling used: every member
 of a population has a known probability
 of selection

 No other scientifically acceptable way to
 construct a representative sample and to
 be able to generalize from the actual
 sample on which data are collected



                                      Part 3: Ch. 13
National Health and Social Life
Survey (NHSLS): Sample Design
 Every sample produces a slightly
 different estimate:
  the larger the sample size, the closer the
   sample size results will be to each other and to
   actual population

 Subpopulations also become important
 determinant of sample size:
  One wants to know intersections between
   various categories such as young black women


                                            Part 3: Ch. 13
Part 3: Ch. 13
      Gaining Cooperation
 No survey is able to get every sampling-
 designated respondent to complete an
 interview:
   Even the better, face-to-face surveys average
   only about 75% of target

 The missing 25% pose a serious issue for
 reliability and validity of survey:
   Is there a nonrandom process at work that
   distinguishes respondents from
   nonrespondents?

                                            Part 3: Ch. 13
      Gaining Cooperation
 Experience teaches us that moderately high
 response rates as 75% do not lead to biased
 results;
   Response rates of 90% seem to represent an
   upper limit

 NHSLS study achieved response rate of near
 80% but was expensive:
   $450 per interview due to training and mobile
   field staff



                                           Part 3: Ch. 13
Part 3: Ch. 13
 Mode of Administration
 NHSLS used face-to-face interviews, the
 most costly;
   Other methods considered but rejected


 Phone interviews, though cheaper, ruled out:
   Needed about 90 minutes to complete
   questionnaire, about twice the length shown
   to be an upper limit for phone interviews

 Self-administered as main method ruled out:
   Questions must be simpler in form and
   language than an interviewer can ask
                                            Part 3: Ch. 13
Part 3: Ch. 13
       The Questionnaire
 Most important element of the study design:
   Determines content and quality of
   information gathered for analysis

 B. Over a 6-month period 220 interviewers
 contacted 7,800 households and completed
 3,432 interviews

 Included demographic attributes:
   Gender, age, race/ethnicity, frequency of
   certain practices, sexual experience measures,
   etc


                                            Part 3: Ch. 13
       The Questionnaire
 Had to decide where to draw boundaries in
 defining sexual behavior:
   Intercourse for example because defined by
   penis insertion would exclude sex acts
   between women

 How much if any slang should be used to
 refer to sex acts? Or limit it to clinical terms
 people may or may not understand?




                                            Part 3: Ch. 13
Part 3: Ch. 13
Privacy, Confidentiality, Security

 Respondent confidentiality goes to very
 heart of survey research since willingness
 of subjects to fully & honestly respond
 depends on assurance of confidentiality




                                     Part 3: Ch. 13
 What issues arise with sexual behavior
  research?
 In the context of confidentiality, what issues
  affect the accuracy of responses by
  participants?




                                           Part 3: Ch. 13
 Part III
Chapter 14
Part 3: Ch. 14
 Adlers’ backgrounds & interests well-suited
  for drug study
 They had previous experience with
  fieldwork techniques as undergraduates
 They had open view toward soft drug use
  (marijuana and cocaine)
 As young graduate students in mid-20s they
  fit in with people being observed


                                        Part 3: Ch. 14
 Research study about drug dealers began as
 a fortunate accident of moving next door to
 and socializing with a neighbor who, as it
 turned out, was a dealer-smuggler

 Drug dealing identity of their neighbor,
 Dave, accidentally divulged one day by his
 friends and from this point on Adlers had
 “entered” this drug world of smugglers


                                         Part 3: Ch. 14
 Dave was a member of a smuggling crew that
 imported a ton of marijuana and 40Ks of
 cocaine every few months;
   Over time admitted into this “inner circle” of
   dealers

 Dave and others became key informants; life
 histories, taping open-ended interviews, etc.




                                             Part 3: Ch. 14
 Illegal nature of illicit drug dealing made
  adoption of overt research role problematic
 Adlers’ agreed with informants to be very
  discreet about research for everyone’s safety
 As non-participants in drug business, it was
  at times hard to be fully accepted as peers




                                          Part 3: Ch. 14
 Building trust was slow and difficult process
 Given informal drug dealing subculture, one
  has to earn trust of new people all the time
 Cultivated trust by offering favors: use of
  cell phone, offer use of car, etc.
 Trust difficult to maintain: not given once
  and for all but constantly being negotiated




                                          Part 3: Ch. 14
 After initial covert phase, and as some
 persons trusted Adlers, would attempt to
 approach them and go to overt role as
 researchers




                                       Part 3: Ch. 14
 Indirect: Use key informants to approach
  their friends and acquaintances
 Direct: Adlers approached directly asking
  for help with project




                                     Part 3: Ch. 14
 Coming on too fast: some persons may be
  frightened or threatened
 Juggling overt and covert roles: danger that
  cover could be blown with some who did not
  know about their research with others who
  did in same situation




                                        Part 3: Ch. 14
 What was problematic about the research
  undertaken by Adler?
 How did the participants of the study react
  to nonparticipation on the part of the
  researcher?




                                         Part 3: Ch. 14

								
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