Student Online Companion Alternate Exercises Chapter 1 1. The object of this activity is to see the difference that prior experience and level of expertise can have on one’s assessment of an event or experience. Accompany someone with a different level of experience in early childhood education to a public park with a playground. For example, if you are an experienced early childhood professional, take a teenager with you. If you are new to the field, take a veteran ECE teacher with you. Each of you evaluates the park for appropriateness of equipment, safety, and interest for young children. Compare your assessments with each other. The differences in what you each will see, remember and comment upon will be different reflecting your differing perspectives. Discuss the implications of this experience for you as an observer and assessor of young children. 2. Go out to eat with someone who works in the food service industry. Compare your evaluations of the cleanliness of the restaurant, the service, the presentation of the food, the organization of the payment system. The differences should reflect the differences in your expertise and experience. Discuss the implications of this experience for you as an observer and assessor of young children. Chapter 2 1. Use the following scenarios, which are based on Piaget’s methods for determining the stage of development of young children, on three different children, all of whom are developing “typically.” Use one child who is 2-3, one who is 4-5, and one who is 6-8. What can you deduce about Piaget’s stage theories of development and their universal applicability? Experiment 1: Comparison of whole and part Equipment: 10 wooden beads (the whole group) 2 red beads (one part of the whole) 8 brown beads (another part of the whole) Procedure: Ask the child, “In this box which is there more of brown beads or wooden ones? “Are all the brown ones mad of wood?” “If I take away all the wooden ones, will there be any left?” “If I take away all the brown ones, will there be any left?” “Which are there more of, brown beads or wooden ones?” Experiment 2: Conservation of length Equipment: Two sticks the same length Procedure: Place the two sticks before the child with the ends aligned. Ask the child if they are the same length. Then move one stick to the right and ask the child if they are the same length. Then move the stick back to the original position and ask again. i.e.: _____________ _____________ ______________ _______________ Experiment 3: Conservation of substance Equipment: Two equal balls of clay Procedure: Present the balls to the child. Ask if they are the same. If the child doesn’t think they are equal, ask him to make them the same. Then deform one ball – roll it out like a snake, smash it like a pancake, or make several small balls from it. Then ask the child if the two sets have the same amount of clay. Chapter 3 1. Go into a setting where you are not either familiar with the dominant language of the children, or where you are not culturally similar to the children. Observe for an hour. Then compare the interpretations of children’s behaviors you might make with a fluent speaker of that language. What can you learn about language miscues and your ability to accurately observe? What cautions in chapter 3 will be useful in being a good observer in this situation? 2. Describe how you might identify the dominant learning styles of a group of children and discuss how you would use this information to assist you with accurate and objective observation. Chapter 4 1. Think of three things /people you could observe. (things: plants, birds, insects; or people: children, youth or adults) Decide on what you will observe and how. Write a description of your process and methodology. Chapter 5 1. Design an example of an evaluation that shows the distinction between data and raw data. Explain appropriate uses for each. Chapter 6 1. Observe and record the behaviors of two children of about the same age, one of whom is well-known to you; one of whom is diverse either by culture, ability, family composition, or socio-economic status. For example, take a relative or family friend with their parent to a park, to church, to a public arena. Observe a particular behavior of “your” child to that of the other. Interpret their behaviors. Check your interpretations of “your” child with their parent. Then, describe how your cultural lens may have affected your interpretations of the behaviors you’ve observed. Chapter 7 1. Construct a modification of table 7-4 to use for toilet self-help skills with toddlers. Use categories like notification, flushing, hygiene to describe behavior to observe. Use your time sample to compare frequency of self care routine amongst a group of toddlers. Chapter 8 1. Go with a colleague or classmate to a center where you can each observe a group of children. (a group is 3 or more) Each of you uses a different observation technique- the event sample or the narrative description- to observe for 15 minutes. Agree before hand on what behaviors you wish to observe. Then one of you uses the event sampling method; the other uses the narrative method. The narrative must then be edited to glean the examples of behavior you wished to observe. Switch roles. Discuss your experiences using each method. Which one was appropriate for what purpose? 2. Write up a chart comparing the two types and their uses. Chapter 9 1. Use the diary format to document the development of a new skill or behavior over the course of several weeks. Describe the developmental progression of a new behavior for yourself or a child with whom you have daily contact. How is this methodology different from the previously used methods of observation? 2. Add the diary method to your comparison chart. Chapter 10 1. Use an anecdotal record to plan. If you work in an early childhood setting, use the anecdotal method to observe children in a specific setting and context. Then plan activities or supplemental materials or language experiences to support development in that domain. If you do not work in an ECE setting, use a classmate’s anecdotals to plan and observe the efficacy of your plans at that center. Chapter 11 1. Use a frequency count/duration chart to observe and record examples of cooperative behaviors in preschool aged children. 2. Use a frequency count/duration chart to observe and record examples of problemsolving behaviors in school aged children. 3. Use a frequency count/duration record to observe examples of self-help skills in infants or toddlers. Chapter 12 1. Use a checklist from an early childhood program. Compare your results with the results of the teachers in that classroom. What have you learned about interobserver reliability? Chapter `13 1. Use the checklist from your work in chapter 12. Make interpretations. Compare your interpretations with those of the teachers in the classroom. 2. Compare your interpretations in terms of your familiarity with the children( by way of language, cultural scripts, family lifestyles, ability) observed with the children’s teachers or parents. How can “bias” - or lack of knowledge - affect observations? 3. Use the results of a checklist to plan for young children. Compare using the checklist as a planning platform to your previous use of an anecdotal record to plan. Compare your process. For the following chapters, if observations of children the age group required by the activities in the book, the following are substitute activities to document the student’s understanding and experiences with the concepts and principles of the exercises. These are only recommended if the student has no access to children of these age groups with which to conduct REAL observations. These are not really substitutes, therefore, merely alternatives. Chapter 14 Alternate to Observation Exercise 1: After examining at least two developmental milestone charts, describe a hypothetical newborn whose physical characteristics will fall within the normal range of development. Use the observation tool in your textbook. Alternate to Observation Exercise 2: In pairs, students will use a doll to demonstrate the use of stimuli to elicit newborn state behaviors. Use Table 14-2 from your textbook. Use responses you have learned in child development classes about infant states. Each student will describe the stimulation, the state and the hypothetical response. They will work together to compare their hypothetic newborns to each other, and prepare a chart comparing their results in the use of their narrative descriptions from exercise 2 in the textbook. Alternate to Observation Exercise 3: Compare your two hypothetical infants in terms of the characteristics in Observation Exercise 3 in your textbook. Prepare a chart comparing the two. Alternate to Observation Exercise 4: In pairs, take turns using a doll to demonstrate a hypothetical newborn’s reflex responses to stimuli. Use Observation Exercise 4 from your textbook. Prepare a chart comparing the two “newborns.” Alternate to Observation Exercise 5: In pairs, take turns using a doll to demonstrate the perceptual responses of a newborn using the modified checklist in Observation 14-5 in your textbook. In your role play, be sure to cover all the responses to the question guides in your textbook. Alternate to Observation Exercise 6: In pairs, take turns using a doll to demonstrate the perceptual responses of a newborn using the modified checklist in Observation 14-6 in your textbook. After the role play, document development of Greenspan’s First Emotional Milestone. In your role play, be sure to cover all the responses to the question guides in your textbook. Chapter 15: Alternate to Observation Exercise 1: Use the developmental checklist and the developmental milestone chart from your textbook. Describe a hypothetical infant whose characteristics will fall within the normal range of development. Use the observation tool 16-1 in your textbook to document the hypothetical child’s physical characteristics and motor skill development. Compare these results with your results from chapter 14. In your description, be sure to cover all the responses to the question guides in your textbook Alternate to Observation Exercise 2: In pairs, use a doll to demonstrate the social behaviors of infants and toddlers. Use the background information from your textbook to role play the social development of your child. Take turns using the three methods for recording infant and toddler social development in Observation Exercise 2. Use all three recording methods contained in the observation exercise in your textbook. Be sure that in your role play you cover the question guides in your textbook. Work together to compare the hypothetical infants and toddlers to each other, and prepare a chart comparing your observations and interpretations. Alternate to Observation Exercise 3: Part I: In pairs, role play with a classmate and enact behaviors you would expect infant/toddler aged children to demonstrate as responses to the developmental tasks described in Observation Exercise 15-3. Use event sampling method. In Part 2: Use a narrative description method. Refer to the Question guides in your textbook. Part 3: Take turns role playing a child’s language in response to environmental cues. Use the event sampling method. Address all the Question Guides in your textbook in your record keeping of the process. Use Observation Exercise 3, Part III from your textbook. Alternate to Observation Exercise 4: Part I: In pairs, take turns role playing and recording either the behaviors you would expect to find or the lack thereof according to Greenspan’s Emotional Milestones. Use the event sampling method in your text, being certain to address all the question guides in your descriptions. Part II: Role play and record, alternating roles and using the format in the text and addressing all the questions in the study guide. Chapter 16, 17, and 18 Continue in a similar way to the methods described in chapter 14. In pairs, students should alternate between role playing a typically or atypically developing child and role playing the observer. Using the same format as in the textbook assignments be sure to address all the study questions in your role play. Be sure that each student has the opportunity to use the diverse methods of observing and recording behaviors, and learning to interpret and use interpretations.