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118

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 85

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            dfggLo GofofwLz >L s]bf/ k|;fb lu/L
         dfggLo GofofwLz >L dLg jxfb'/ /fodfemL
             dfggLo GofofwLz >L /fdglugf l;+x
              dfggLo GofofwLz >L cg"k/fh zdf{
             dfggLo GofofwLz >L /fd k|;fb >]i7
                              cfb]z

                     @)^@ ;fnsf] l/6
             g+========================!!*

        laifo M– g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& sf] wf/f
                              @#
       / **-!_ -@_ adf]lhd alGb k|ToIfLs/0f clwsf/k[R5f
       nufot cGo pko'Qm cf1f cfb]z jf k"lh{ hf/L ul/kfpF
                               .

k;f{ lhNnf lj=p=d=g=kf=j8f g+= $ 3/ eO{ xfn e|i6frf/
lgoGq0f
zflx cfof]usf] u}/sfg"gL cfb]zn] lh=k|=sf= nlntk'/df y'gfdf
/flvPsf]
k"j{ dlGq tyf /fli6«o k|hftGq kf6L{sf] s]lGb|o ;b:o jif{ $&
sf] /flhj
k/fh'nLsf] xsdf efO{ P]=P]=a:g] jif{ $@ sf] ;+lhj
k/fh'nL=================!lgj]bs
                           lj?4

>L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u, xl/x/ ejg nlntk'/
==================!
P]=sf       cWoIf        eQm         axfb'/      sf]O{/fnf
P]=P]====================================
========!
P]=sf         ;b:o         zDe'         k|;fb         vgfn
P]=P]====================================
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P]=sf          ;b:o          xl/        jfj'        rf}w/L
P]=P]====================================
================!
P]=sf        ;b:o         /3'rGb|        jxfb'/        l;+x
P]=P]====================================
===========!
P]=sf         ;b:o          k|]d        jxfb'/         vftL
P]]=P]====================================
==============!
P]=sf      ;b:o     ;lrj        zDe'      jxfb'/     v8\sf
=========================================
=!
>L % sf] ;/sf/ k|wfg dGqL tyf dGqL kl/ifbsf] sfof{no,
l;+xb/jf/
sf7df8f}+
=========================================
=========================================
!



                            2
>L          %         sf]      ;/sf/        u[x     dGqfno
P]=P]====================================
============!
>L dxfGofoflwjQmf, g]kfn clw/fHosf dxfGofoflwjQmfsf]
sfof{no,
/fdzfx                      ky                     sf7df8f}+
=========================================
=======================!
lhNnf              k|x/L             sfof{no,         nlntk'/
=========================================
==========!
      g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg , @)$& sf] wf/f @#, wf/f **-
!_-@_ cGtu{t kg{ cfPsf] k|:t't l/6 lgj]bg ;lxtsf] Joxf]/f Pj+
7x/ o; k|sf/ 5 M –
      bfh' /fhLj k/fh'nLn] kfFr k6s ;Dd dGqL eO{ ljleGg
dGqfnox?sf] lhDd]jf/L ;DxfnL kb d'Qm eP kZrft\ bfh' /
bfh'sf ;+o'Qmkl/jf/sf ;b:ox?sf] gfddf /x]sf] ;DkQLx?sf]
j}wtfsf] ;DaGwdf z+sf pTkGg ul/ ;+ljwfg jdf]lhd u7g
ePsf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]uaf6 pQm ;DklQ /
;DklQsf >f]tx?sf] ;DaGwdf 5fgljg tyf cg';Gwfg txlssft
eO{ s'g} sf/jfxL x'g g;Sg] 7x/ ul/ clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]uaf6 c=b'=c=cf=P]g, @)$* sf] bkmf #%
adf]lhd tfd]lndf /fVg] ul/ ldlt @)^!÷!÷@# df lg0f{o eO{
ldlt @)^!.@.! sf] kqaf6 lghnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fPsf] 5 . o;/L
/flv;s]sf] laifodf k'gM k|ToyL{ cfof]ujf6 5fgljgsf] sf/jfxL
cf/De ul/ kq k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] @$ 306f leq cfof]udf jofg
ug{ pkl:yt x'g' elg ldlt @)^!÷!÷@* sf] kq lgh bfh'nfO{
j'emfOPsf]n] k|fKt kq jdf]lhd jofgsf] nflu ldlt @)^!÷%÷!#
df k|ToyL{ cfof]udf pkl:yt ePsf]df ;f]xL ldltdf aofg cf/De
ul/ aofg g;lsPsf]n] y'gfdf /fVg k7fOPsf]n] lgh bfh'nfO{
lhNnf k|x/L sfof{no nlntk'/df y'gfdf u}/sfg"gL ?kdf y'gfdf

                             3
/flvPsf] 5 . k|ToyL{ cfof]u u7g ;DalGw ;"rgf wf/f **-!_
jdf]lhd jb/ x'g] ePsf]n] k|ToyL{ cfof]uaf6 s'g} sf/jfxL ug{
gldNg] eO{ alGbnfO{ /flvPsf] y'gf g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!-!_,!@-@_-3_,-ª_!$-!_,-@_
;d]tsf] lakl/t ePsf]n] u}/sfg"gL y'gfaf6 d'Qm ul/ kfpg
g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& sf] wf/f @# / **-!_,-@_
cGtu{t of] lgj]bg ub{ cfPsf] 5' .
      k|ToyL{ cfof]un] kq n]v]sf] tyf jofg u/fPsf]
;DkQLx?sf] j}wtf / >f]tsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg @)$& sf] wf/f (& tyf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]u P]g, @)$* sf] bkmf @-v_ adf]lhd clwsf/ ;DkGg
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]uaf6 k|rlnt sfg"g jdf]lhd
cg';Gwfg txlssft tyf 5fgljg ePsf] 5 . o;/L 5fgjLg x'Fbfsf]
cj:yfdf s'g}klg ;DklQx? u}/ sfg"gL tyf clgoldt tj/jf6 k|fKt
gu/]sf] ;a} ;DklQx? j}w / sfg"g ;Ddt /x]sf] sf/0faf6 ;DklQ
/ ;DkQLsf] >f]tsf] ;DaGwdf sf/jfxL ug'{ gkg]{ 7x/ ul/
;lsPsf] 5 . s;"/ ubf{sf] cj:yfdf tf]lsP eGbf a9L ;hfosf]
eflubf/ jgfpg tyf To;} s;"/df Ps k6s eGbf a9L d'2f rnfO{
;hfo ug{ g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !$-!_,-
@_ n] ;j{yf lgif]w u/]sf] 5 . gful/ssf] of] xsnfO{ df}lns
xssf] ?kdf Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . gful/ssf] of] df}lns ;+j}wflgs
xs cGoyf / lgolGqt x'g ;Sb}g . alGb bfh' / ;+o'Qm ;uf]n
kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?sf] gfddf /x] ePsf ;DklQx?sf] ;DaGwdf
;+ljwfg / sfg"g adf]lhd If]qflwsf/ ;DkGg clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]uaf6 5fgljg eO{ sfg"g ;Ddt / j}w 7x/ eO{
;s]sf] laifodf cg';Gwfg txlssft ul/Psf] sfo{ tyf To:tf]
cg';Gwfgsf] cfwf/df /flvPsf] y'gf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f !$-!_, -!_sf] lakl/t 5 . If]qflwsf/ ;DkGg
lgsfoaf6 ePsf] lg0f{o sfg"g jdf]lhd jb/ jfltn eO{ cGoyf
geP ;Dd oyfjt /xL /xg] / ;j} lgsfox?sf] nflu dfGo x'g]
Joj:yf Gofo k|zf;g P]g, @)$* sf] bkmf !( n] u/]sf] 5 .

                             4
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]ujf6 eP ul/Psf lg0f{ox?sf]
;DaGwdf k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg] jf cGo s'g} tl/sfaf6 cdfgo / jb/
3f]lift ug]{ If]qflwsf/ k|ToyL{ cfof]unfnO{ s'g} k|rlnt g]kfn
sfg"gn] k|bfg u/]sf] 5}g .
       g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& sf] wf/f *$ n] g]kfn
clw/fHosf] Gofo ;DalGw clwsf/ ;+ljwfg / cGo sfg"g tyf
Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt cg';f/ cbfnt tyf cGo Goflos lgsfox?jf6
k|of]u x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . pNn]lvt ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfsf]
jgf}6sf] cWoogjf6 ;+ljwfgn] Joj:yf / kl/sNkgf u/] adf]lhdsf
;+ljwfg / sfg"g jdf]lhd u7g / :yfkgf ePsf cbfnt tyf Goflos
lgsfox?jf6 dfq Gofo ;DalGw clwsf/ k|of]u u/fpg] ;+ljwfg
lgdf{t[sf] dgzfo /x]sf] ;xh ?kaf6 k'li6 x'G5 . e|i6frf/
lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f *$ n] Joj:yf / kl/sNkgf
u/] jdf]lhd ;+ljwfg / k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g jdf]lhd u7g / :yfkgf
g} gePsf]n] o:tf] cfof]un] Goflos clwsf/ k|of]u ug{ ;Sg]
cj:yf sbfkL klg 5}g . o:tf] cfof]usf] u7gnfO{ ;Ddflgt
cbfntn] pko'Qm cfb]z hfl/ ul/ tTsfn / z"Go 3f]lift ug]{
ljjfb/lxt 5 . :jtGq / :fIfd Gofokflnsfsf] :yfkgfsf] nflu ;+ljwfg
/ k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g jdf]lhd lglZrt / vfz of]Uotf cg'ej / bIftf
ePsf of]Uo JolQmx?nfO{ dfq Gofostf{sf] ?kdf lgo'Qm
ul/ Gofo ;Dkfbgsf] sfo{ u/fpg] Joj:yf ;d]t ;+ljwfgn] u/]sf] 5
. u7Lt cfof]usf cWoIf Pj+ ;b:ox?sf] of]Uotf gtf]lsPsf]jf6
hf] ;'s}nfO{ lgo'Qm ug{ ;"Sg] eGg] b]lvG5 . ;+ljwfg /
;+ljwfg jdf]lhd hfl/ ePsf sfg"gx?n] lgwf{/0f u/]sf of]Uotf
cg'ej / bIftf gePsf JolQmx?jf6 Gofo ;Dkfbgsf] sfo{ ug'{
u/fpg' Goflos dfGotf / ;+ljwfgsf] k|:tfjgf ;d]tsf] lakl/t
ePsf]n] cfof]u clwsf/ z"Go 5 . cfof]usf] u7g ;+ljwfgsf]
wf/f !!% -&_ sf] clwgdf ePsf] u7g cfb]zjf6 b]lvG5 . !!% -
&_ sf] k|of]u wf/f !!% -!_ k|of]u eO{ hfl/ ePsf] cfb]z
lqmofzLn /xFbfsf] cj:yf ;Dd dfq lqmofzLn x'g ;Qm5 .
wf/f !!% sf] k|of]u bL3{sflng ?kdf bL3{sfnLg sfo{sf] nflu

                               5
k|of]u x'g] geO{ tTsfn pTkGg uDeL/ ;Í6nfO{ lgoGq0fdf
lngsf] nflu lgtfGt} 5f]6f] ;dosf] nflu dfq k|of]u x'g ;Sg]
wf/f xf] . lgtfGt 5f]6f] ;dosf] nflu k|of]u x'g ;Sg] wf/fsf]
k|of]ujf6 clglZrt sfn;Dd sfod /xg / cl;ldt clwsf/ k|of]u ug{
;Sg] cfof]usf] u7g eO{ lqmoflzn /fVg' ;+j}wflgs d"No /
dfGotfsf] ;j{yf lakl/t /x]sf] 5 . @)^@÷!÷!^ adf]lhdsf]
;Í6sfn 3f]if0ffsf] cfb]z g} ;dfKt ePkl5 wf/f !@& jdf]lhd hfl/
cfb]zn] cfof]usf] lg/Gt/tf sfod /xg ;Sb}g . wf/f (* n] clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] Joj:yf ul/ cg';Gwfg txlssft
ug{ tf]s]sf laifox? nufotdf cg';;Gwfg txlssft ug]{ tyf
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f *% jdf]lhdsf cbfntx?n] x]l/ lsgf/f ug]{
d'2fx?sf] cg';Gwfg txlssft btf{ / km};nf nufot ug]{ clwsf/
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfOI{ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . o;/L
;+ljwfgtM :yfkgf ePsf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]uaf6 ul/g] cg';Gwfg txlssft tyf ;DalGwt cbfntx?n]
ph"/L bfjL u|x0f ul/ ug'{kg]{ d'2fsf] sf/jfxL lsgf/f ug]{
;dfgfGt/ If]qflwsf/ k|bfg ug'{jf6 clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]u tyf ;DalGwt cbfntx?sf] If]qflwsf/df cltqmd0f x'g
uPsf] 5 . l;4fGttM ;dfg k|of]hgsf nflu ;dfgfGt/ if]qflwsf/
ePsf lgsfox?sf] :yfkgf ug{ ldNb}g . ;+ljwfgn] g}
If]qflwsf/sf] ;[li6 u/]sf] cj:yfdf cGo s'g} dfWodjf6 of]
If]qflwsf/ ;+s'lrt / lgoGq0f ug{ gldng] ePsf]n] cfof]usf]
u7g wf/f *% / (* sf] lakl/t 5 . wf/f !!% / !@& sf] ;dfg ?kjf6
;dfg k|of]hgsf nflu ldl>t eO{ s[ofzLn x'g sbfkL ;Sb}gg\ .
oL wf/fx?sf] k|of]hg / lqmoflzntfsf] cj:yf lgtfGt k[ys 5g\ .
Pp6f wf/fsf] k|of]u csf]{ wf/fsf] kl/k'/ssf] ?kdf k|of]u x'g
;Sb}gg\ . wf/f !!% sf] k|of]usf] cfb]z lkmtf{ eO{ lglZqmo
eO{;s]sf] cj:yfdf wf/f !@& sf] k|of]un] k'glh{ljt ug{ ;Sb}g.
To;df klg wf/f !@& s]jn ;+ljwfgdf k|of]u ePsf] jfwf c8sfp
km'sfpg] ;DaGwdf dfq ePsf]n] ;+ljwfg jflx/sf] laifosf] nflu
of] wf/f k|of]u x'g g} ;Sb}g. ;+ljwfgsf] w/f ! n] ;+ljwfg;Fu

                              6
jflemPsf] sfg"g cdfGo x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . o; leq sfg"g
;/x nfu' x'g] ;j} k|s[ltsf cfb]z lgb]{zgx? :jtM ;dflxt x'G5g\ .
cfof]usf] u7g cfb]z g]kfn sfg'g ;/x nfu' x'g] ePsf]n] of]
cfb]z wf/f **-!_-@_ cGtu{t ;+j}wflgs kl/If0f x'g ;Sg]
ljjfb/lxt 5 . sfg"gL /fHodf pirf/ ljlxgtfsf] cj:yfsf] ;[li6 x'Fb}g
. ;bf ;j{bf pkrf/sf] xs k|Tofe"t x'G5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg @)$& n] ;d]t pkrf/ ljlxgtfsf] cj:yfsf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf]
5}g . o; cGtu{t >L % af6 hf/L ePsf cfb]zx?nfO{ ;d]t xs
k|efljt x'g] JolQmn] r'gf}tL ug{ ;Sb5g\ . To;df klg wf/f
#%-@_ jdf]lhdsf] clVtof/L g/x]sf] / sfo{sf/Lsf] x}l;otjf6
eP ul/Psf sfo{x?sf] j}wtf k'li6 ePsf] x'g' kb{5 . >L % af6
sfo{sf/L clwsf/ k|of]u uo/ e P ul/Psf cfb]zx?n] o:tf]
j}wtfsf] k'li6 ug{ g;s]sf] sf/0f u}/ Goflos, u}/sfg"gL /
z"Gok"0f{ 5g\ . xs k|efljt eP gePsf] laifodf ;+ljwfg jdf]lhd
x]/L lg?k0f ug]{ If]qflwsf/ o; ;Ddflgt cbfntnfO{ wf/f **
adf]lhd ;j{yf /x]sf]n]] ;Ddflgt cbfntjf6 lg?k0f x'g lglj{jfb 5 .
cfkm} jfbL jgL d'2fsf] ;[li6 ul/ cg';Gwfg txlssft / ;hfosf]
k|:tfj ul/ cleof]u bfo/ ug]{ / cleof]u bfjL jdf]lhd ;hfo x'g]
gx'g] s] xf] eGg] ;DaGwdf ;d]t cfkm} lg?k0f ug{ ;Sg]
k4tLnfO{ jt{dfg ;+ljwfgn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5}g . ;+ljwfg d}
ePsf] sfg"gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ff cfTd;ft ug]{ b]zx?df o:tf]
Joj:yf x'g klg ;Sb}g . o:tf] Joj:yfsf] k|fs[lts Gofosf] ljjfb
/lxt l;4fGt ;d]tsf] k|lts"n x'G5 . cfof]unfO{ d'2fsf] ;[li6
ug]{, cg';Gwfg txlssft ug]{, ;hfosf] k|:tfj ul/ cleof]u bfu/
ug]{ / cleof]u bfjL jdf]lhd x'g ;Sg] g;Sg] laifodf lg?k0f
ug]{ nufotsf ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/x? k|bfg ul/Paf6 cfof]u k|fs[lts
Gofosf] ljjfb /lxt l;4fGtsf] k|ToIfM lakl/t ePsf]n] k|f/DetM
z"Go k"0f{ 5 . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u cGo
wf/fx?n] Joj:yf u/]sf] laifonfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ ul/ x'g ;Sb}g .
of] wf/f cGo wf/fn] Joj:yf gu/]sf laifox?df ;+j}wflgs
lgoGq0f sfod u/ lgsfzf lbg dfq k|of]u x'g ;Sb5 . wf/f *$ n]

                                7
Goflos clwsf/ k|of]u ug{ ljz]if cbfnt nufotsf Goflos
lgsfox?sf] Joj:yf u/L clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] cj:yfdf o;/L Joj:yf
ePsf] laifodf cGo Joj:yf ug{ wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u x'g g}
g;Sg] ePsf]n] cfof]u u}/ ;+j}wflgs 5 . cfof]u u7g cfb]zsf]
bkmf ^-@_ df cfof]usf] lg0f{o pk/ o; ;Ddflgt cbfntdf
k'g/fj]bg nfUg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg, ;jf]{Rr cbfnt P]g, /
Gofo k|zf;g P]g nufot cGo s'g} k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gn] o:tf]
cfof]un] u/]sf] km};nf pk/ k'g/fj]bg u|x0f u/ km};nf ug{ o;
;Ddflgt cbfntnfO{ tf]s]sf] 5}g . ;+ljwfgsf] clGtd JofVof
ug]{ If]qflwsf/ ;DkGg of] ;Ddflgt cbfnt u}/ ;+j}wflgs ;"rgf
tfd]n ug{ jfWo 5}g . o;/L ;+ljwfg / ;+ljwfg cGtu{t jg]sf
sfg"gx?n] k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg gtf]s]sf] cj:yfdf ;+j}wflgs / sfg"gL
x}l;ot z"Go cfb]zn] k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg] egL tf]s]sf] cfb]z ;"rgf
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f *$,*%,*^ / Gofo k|zf;g P]g, @)$* sf] bkmf
( sf] k|ToIftM lakl/t 5 . ;+ljwfgsf] w/f !!) n] >L % sf] ;/sf/
jfbL eO{ rNg] d'2fx? dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no / dftxtsf
sfof{nox? dfkm{t bfo/ x'g] / o:tf d'2fx? bfo/ ug]{ gug]{
laifosf] lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/ ;d]t dxfGofoflwjQmf / dftxt
sfof{nox?nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L d'2f ;DaGwL P]g,
@)$( sf] bkmf @# n] cg';"rL ! / @ df k/]sf d'2fx?df >L
% sf] ;/sf/ jfbL x'g] / !& n] >L % sf] ;/sf/ jfbL x'g] d'2f
dxfGofoflwjQmf sfof{no / dftxt sfof{nojf6dfq bfo/ x'g
;Sg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . slyt cfof]unfO{ of] clwsf/ k|bfg
ul/Psf] 5}g . cfof]u u7gsf] cfb]zdf ;d]t o:tf] s]xL pNn]v
ePsf] 5}g . cleof]u bfo/ ubf{ tyf km};nf ubf{ jfbL >L % sf]
;/sf/ egL pNn]v ePsf] 5 . o;/L cg';"rLdf gk/]sf] tyf ;+ljwfg
/ s'g} k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gn] >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] tkm{jf6 d'2f
dfldnf ug]{ egL clwsf/ k|bfg g} gu/]sf] cj:yfdf :j3f]lift ?kjf6
clwsf/sf] ;[li6 u/]sf] sfo{ / cfof]u pNn]lvt ;+j}wflgs tyf
sfg"gL Joj:yfx?sf] lakl/t 5g\ .


                              8
      ctM Pj+ k|ToyL{ cfof]u u7g ;DalGw ;"rgf wf/f **-!_
jdf]lhd jb/ x'g] ePsf]n] k|ToyL{ cof]ujf6 s'g} sf/jfxL ug{
gldNg] eO{ alGbnfO{ /flvPsf] y'gf g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg @)$& sf] wf/f !!-!_,!@-@_-3_,-ª_!$-!_,-@_
;d]tsf] lakl/t ePsf]n] u}/ sfg"gL y'gfaf6 d'Qm ul/ kfpg
g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfwg wf/f @)$& sf] wf/f @# / **-!_ -
@_ cGtu{t of] lgj]bg ug{ cfPsf] 5' . k|ToyL{ cfof]usf]
u7g ;DalGw ;"rgf wf/f **-!_ jdf]lhd cdfGo / jb/ 3f]lift ul/
k|ToyL{x? sf]xL klg Gofoflwzsf x}l;otn] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{
of]Uo gePsf]n] x'gfn] jGbL k|ToIfLs/0fsf] cfb]z hfl/ ul/
y'gfjf6 tTsfn l/xf ug'{ / g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfgsf] k|lts"n
/x]g ul/ Gofoflwzsf] sfo{ ug{ gkfpg] eGg] ;d]t
clwsf/k[R5f nufot ;fj{hlgs ?kdf ;j}nfO{ hfgsf/L lbgsf]
lgldQ k|ToyL{ k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqL kl/ifbsf] sfof{nosf]
gfddf Goflos l6Kk0fL hfl/ ul/ clwsf/k[R5f nufot cGo hf]
rflxg] cf1f cfb]z k"lh{ wf/f **-@_ jdf]]lhd k"0f{ Gofosf]
nflu hfl/ ul/ kfpF . clwsf/ ljlxg lgsfon] /fv]sf] y'gfn] lg/Gt/tf
k|fKt ug{ g;Sg] ePsf]n] tTsfn y'gf d'Qm ul/ lbg' eGg]
alGb k|ToIfLs/0fsf] cfb]z hfl/ ul/ y'gf d'Qm ul/ cglws[t
lgsfon] cg';Gwfg txlssft / km};nf ug{ gldNg] ePsf]n] k|:t't
lgj]bg kqsf] lsgf/f geP lgh jlGb ;+u jofg u/fpg], cf/f]kkq
bfo/ / u|x0f ug]{, s'g} cfb]z ug{] nufotsf s'g} klg sfo{x?
gug'{ gu/fpg' oyfj:yfdf /fVg] eGg] cGtl/d cfb]z ;jf]{Rr
cbfnt lgodfjnL, @)$( sf] lgod $! jdf]lhd k|ToyL{x?sf]
gfddf hfl/ ul/ kfpF eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf] l/6 lgj]bg .
      o;df s] s;f] ePsf] xf] < lgj]bssf] dfu jdf]lhdsf] cfb]z
lsg hf/L x'g gkg]{ xf] < k|:t't lgj]bg pk/sf] ;'g'jfO{
)^@.%.@# ut] x'g] ePsf]n] ;f] cufj} ;DalGwt ldl;n ;fy} /flv
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no dfkm{t lnlvt hjfkm k7fpg' egL
l/6 lgj]bgsf] Ps k|lt gSsn ;fy} /flv lakIfL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f
zfxL cfof]u ;d]tnfO{ ;"rgf k7fO{ To;sf] af]wfy{

                               9
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{nodf k7fO{ lbg' . ;fy} cGtl/d
cfb]zsf] dfusf] ;DaGwdf ljrf/ ubf{ lgj]bssf] aofg nufotsf]
sf/jfxL k|s[of cl3 a9L;s]sf] eGg] hfgsf/Lsf] cj:yf /x]sf]
s'/fnfO{ lgj]bs tkm{sf ljåfg clwjQmfn] :jLsf/} ug'{ ePsf]
l:ylt ;d]tjf6 ljrf/ ubf{ tTsfn cGtl/d cfb]z hf/L x'g] cj:yf
b]lvPg . lgj]bsn] p7fPsf] ;Da}wflgs / sfg"gL k|Zgx?sf]
uflDeo{tfjf6 ljrf/ ubf{ k|:t't l/6 lgj]bgnfO{ lgod cg';f/
cu|flwsf/ lbg] / k|:t't l/6 lgj]bg @)^@.%.@# sf lbg k]z
ug'{ eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf] o; cbfnt Ps GofofwLzsf]
Ohnf;sf] ldlt @)^@.%.!^ sf] cfb]z .
      k|ydtM ;+ljwfgsf] w/f !!% lqmofzLn ePsf] cj:yfdf !!%
-&_ adf]lhd ul7t cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg wf/f !@& sf]
k|of]u ug{ ldNb}g eGg] klxnf] lhls/nfO{ x]bf{ >L %
dxf/fhflw/fhjf6 b]zsf] tTsfnLg kl/l:yltnfO{ dgg ul/aS;L
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !!% sf] pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd g]kfn clw/fHoe/
nfu" x'g] u/L ;+s6sfnLg l:yltsf] 3f]if0ff ul/aS;]sf] / ;f]xL
wf/f !!% sf] pkwf/f -&_ adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ul/aS;L ldlt
@)^!÷!!÷% df o; cfof]usf] u7g ul/aS;] kZrft ldlt @)^!.!!.!)
b]lv cfof]un] sfo{ k|f/De u/L ph'/L lng], 5fgjLg cg';Gwfg
ug]{ / cfof]unfO{ tf]lsPsf] sfo{If]q cGtu{t /xL sf/jfO{ lsgf/f
ug]{ ;d]tsf sfo{ ;'rf? /x]s} cj:yfdf ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !!%-
!!_adf]lhd >L % af6 ldlt @)^@÷!÷!^ df cfb]z hf/L
ul/aS;L ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] cfb]z lkmtf{ lnOaS;]jf6 wf/f
!!%-&_ sf] lqmofzLntfjf6 ;[lht sfd sf/jfO{sf] lg/Gt/tfsf nflu
;+ljwfgsf] sfof{Gjogdf jfwf kg{ uPsf] dx;'; ul/aS;L >L %
af6 tTsfnLg cj:yfsf] afwf c8\sfp km'sfpgsf nflu ;+ljwfgsf]
wf/f !@& jdf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ul/aS;]kl5 o; cfof]un] lg/Gt/tf
k|fKt u/]sf] xf] . lgh /fhLj k/fh'nL ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf]
JolQm ePsf] / e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g jdf]lhd lghn] e|i6frf/sf]
s;"/ u/]sf] 5 eGg] ;"rgf k|fKt eO{ cfof]u u7g cfb]zsf] bkmf
@ åf/f lglb{i6 sfo{If]q cGtu{t /xL ldlt @)^!.!@.!* df

                             10
lghnfO{ pkl:yt x'g ;"rgf hf/L u/L cg';Gwfg clws[tjf6 jofg
lng], ljj/0f bflvn u/fpg] ;d]tsf sfo{af6 k|f/De ul/Psf]
cg';Gwfgsf] k|f/lDes r/0fdf lghn] cfof]usf] j}wflgstfnfO{
:jLsf/ u/L cg';Gwfg sfo{df cfof]unfO{ ;xof]u ;d]t u/]sf],
ldlt @)^@÷%÷!# df cg';Gwfg clws[tjf6 cf/f]k – kq ;fy k]z
ul/Pkl5 jofg k|f/De u/L jofg g;lsPsf] sf/0f sfg"g jdf]lhd
lx/f;tdf /fVg k7fOPsf] / jofg sfo{ ;DkGg eO{ ldlt
@)^@÷%÷!% df y'g5]s cfb]z x'Fbf lgh;Fu ljz]if cbfnt
P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf & -3_ jdf]lhd ?= %!,)),))).– w/f}6
hdfgt dfu ug]{ cfb]z ePsf]df lghn] ;f] jdf]lhdsf] w/f}6
bflvn gu/]sfn] sfg"gn] k|bfg u/]sf] clVtof/L jdf]lhd Goflos
y'gfdf /flvPsf] xf] . t;y{, clVtof/ k|fKt lgsfon] sfg"g
jdf]lhdsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L u/]sf] cfb]zaf6 /x]sf] Goflos
y'gfnfO{ u}/ sfg"gL y'gf eGg ldNb}g . lgh /fhLj k/fh'nLn]
ldlt @)^!÷!@÷!* b]lv ldlt @)^@÷%÷!# ;Dd eP u/]sf sfd
sf/jfO{ k|lt ;dod} s'g} k|ltlqmof ghgfO{ ;f] sf/jfO{nfO{
:jLsf/} u/]sf] / cfkm" y'gfdf k/]kl5 ldlt @)^@÷%÷!$ df
;Ddflgt cbfntdf lgj]bg lbPsf] b]lvPsfn] Pp6} sf/jfO{nfO{
:jlsf/ klg OGsf/ klg ug{ lakIfLnfO{ Doctrine of Election n]
/f]Sb5 .
      ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !$-!_ n] tTsfn k|rlnt sfg"gn] ;hfo gx'g]
s'g} sfd u/]jkt s'g} JolQm ;hfoefuL x'g] 5}g eGg] ;d]t /
wf/f !$-@_ n] s'g} JolQm pk/ cbfntdf to;} s;"/df Ps k6s
eGbf a9L d'2f rnfO{g] / ;hfo ul/g] 5}g eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf]
5 . o; cfof]usf] u7g ;DaGwL cfb]zsf] bkmf @ n] cfof]usf]
sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tf]s]sf] / cfof]usf] sfo{If]q ;d]t ;f]xL
cfb]zn] lglZrt u/]sf] 5 . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g cg';f/sf] s;"/df
cfof]un] cg';Gwfg txlssft, cleof]hg / d'2fsf] sf/jfO{ lsgf/f
ug{ ;Sg] u/L clVtof/L k|fKt e}/x]sf] / lgh /fhLj k/fh'nL lj?4
ljleGg ldltdf o; cfof]udf ^ j6f ph'/Lx? kg{ cfP cg';f/ ePsf]
cg';Gwfg / cleof]hgnfO{ ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !$-@_ lakl/t eof]

                              11
eGg ldNg] b]lv+b}g . d"ntM wf/f !$-@_ n] Pp6} s;"/df
bf]xf]/f] d'2f rnfpg] / ;hfo ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lgif]w u/]sf] xf] .
lgh /fhLj k/fh'nL pk/ o; cl3 cf/f]k–kq ;lxt s'g} lgsfodf d'2f
bfo/ eO{ lg0f{o lg/f]k0f ;d]t eO{;s]sf] egL lgj]bsn] b]vfpg
;s]sf] l:ylt 5}g . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf #% sf]
Joj:yfn] e|i6frf/sf] s;"/sf] cGTo ug]{ xf]Og .
     >L % dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 ldlt @)^!÷!)÷!( ut] /fi6«sf gfddf
aS;]sf] zfxL 3f]if0ff cg';f/ b]zdf lg/Gt/ emflËb} uPsf]
e|i6frf/n] k|zf;gnfO{ ;d]t b"lift agfO{ k|ulttkm{ pGd'v
x'g'kg]{ b]zsf] kfOnf klg cj?4 kf/]sf] / sfg"gk|lt cfd hgtfsf]
ljZjf; w/d/fpg yfn]sf] x'Fbf hgtfsf] rfxgf / ;'zf;gsf] cfjZostf
k"/f ug{ Gofosf] l;4fGt pNn+3g gx'g] u/L e|i6frf/
lgoGq0fsf nflu k|efjsf/L sbd cljnDj rflng] 5 eGg] 3f]if0ff
ul/aS;] cg'?ik ldlt @)^!÷!!÷% df o; cfof]usf] u7g ul/aS;L
sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tf]lsaS;]sf] xf] .
      cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] of]Uotf / ;Ifdtfsf ;DaGwdf
lakIfLn] p7fpg' ePsf] lhls/ tkm{ x]bf{ ldlt @)^!÷!!÷% sf]
cfb]z hf/L x'Fbfsf cj:yfdf g} >L % af6 u7g cfb]zsf] bkmf !
cg';f/sf kbflwsf/Lx?n] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g cGtu{tsf s;"/sf]
sf/jfO{ lsgf/f ug{ of]Uo / ;Ifd 5g\ eGg] dx;"; ul/alS;
kbflwsf/Lx? tf]lsaS;]sf] xf] . t;y{, >L % sf] ljj]sjf6 tf]lsPsf
cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] of]Uotf / ;Ifdtfsf] ;DaGwdf
lgj]bsnfO{ k|Zg p7fpg] s'g} xsb}of /x]sf] b]lv+b}g .
cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lx?n] lg0f{o lg/f]k0fsf qmddf u/]sf] cfb]z
jf OG;fkmdf lrQ ga'emg] JolQmn] ;Ddflgt cbfnt ;dIf
lgj]bg, kg/fj]bg ug{ ;Sg] k|fjwfg cfof]u u7g cfb]zdf g} /x]
ePsf]n] ;Ddflgt cbfntn] d'2fsf] /f]xdf To:tf cfb]z jf
lg0f{osf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ ;Sg] g} x'Fbf lgj]bssf] lhls/
sfg"g;Ddt 5}g . cfof]u u7g ;DalGw cfb]zsf] bkmf @-$_
jdf]lhd cfof]un] ljz]if cbfnt P]g, @)%( cg';f/ ljz]if
cbfnntfO{ k|fKt x'g] clwsf/ k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] x'Fbf cfof]un]

                              12
Gofoflws/0f - Tribunal _ sf] cjwf/0ff cg'?k sfo{ u/]sf] :ki6
x'G5 . h;nfO{ ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f *% n] ;dflxt u/]sf] 5 . t;y{
cfof]un] ;+ljwfg, sfg'g / Gofosf] dfGo l;4fGtnfO{ pNn+3g
ug]{ k|Zg} p7\b}g . cfof]un] Goflos clwsf/sf] k|of]u ubf{
syd sbflrt q'l6 x'g uPdf ;Ddflgt cbfntn] cfof]u u7g
cfb]zsf] bkmf ^-@_ adf]lhd k'g/fj]bsLo If]qflwsf/ u|x0f
u/L Gofo lg/f]k0f ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf x'Fbf o;sf] u7g
;+ljwfgsf] k|:tfjfsf] efjgf / wf/f *$sf] lakl/t 5 eGg ldNb}g .
      To;}u/L cfof]u cfkm}n] d'2f rnfpg], d'2fsf] sf/jfO{
lsgf/f ug]{ sfo{ ;+ljwfg lakl/t 5 eGg] lgj]bssf] egfO{ klg
oyfy{k/s 5}g . Pp6} lgsfojf6 d'2fsf] cg';Gwfg, cleof]hg /
lg0f{o lg?k0f ;DaGwdf k|rlnt eG;f/ P]g, @)!(, /fli6«o
lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f P]g, @)@( / jg P]g, @)$(
;d]tdf ePsf k|fjwfg cg';f/ g]kfnsf] sfg'g k|0ffnLn]
tT;DaGwL Joj:yfnfO{ c+lusf/ ul/;s]sf] b]lv+bf lgj]bssf]
lhls/ sfg"g ;Ddt 5}g . u7g cfb]zsf] bkmf !@ jdf]lhd
cfof]un] cfkm\gf] sfo{ljlw cfkm} lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg] k|fjwfg
/x] ePsf]n] cfof]un] ldlt @)^!÷!@÷! df hf/L u/]sf] sfo{ljlw
@)^! sf] Joj:yf cg';f/ cg';gwfg clws[t lgo'Qm ug{
;Sg],cg';Gwfgsf cfwf/df s;"/ ePsf] b]lvPdf cg';Gwfg
clws[tn] cfof]usf] Ohnf; ;dIf sfo{ljlwsf] bkmf !) cg';f/
cf/f]k–kq bfo/ ug]{ Joj:yf 5 . Pp6} 5ftf lgsfojf6 e|i6frf/
lg/f]k0fnfO{ 5'6\ofO{ sfo{ ;Dkfbg x'g] u/]sfn] k|fs[lts
Gofo l;4fGt lakl/t eof] eGg] ldNg] b]lv+b}g . ;Ddflgt
;jf]{Rr cbfntjf6 clwjQmf Hof]lt jflgof lj?4 k|ltlglw;ef ;d]t
ePsf] pTk|]if0fsf] cfb]z hf/L u/Lkfp+ eGg] l/6                 -
g]=sf=k= @)%^, c+s !, k[=@#_ df k|ltkflbt l;4fGtn] klg
lakIfLsf] pQm lhls/ vl08t ub{5 . >L % af6 sfo{sfl/0fL
clwsf/ k|of]u u/L hf/L ul/aS;]sf] cfb]zdf wf/f #%-@_ sf]
clVtof/L k'li6 geP To:tf] cfb]z wf/f **-!_ / -@_ cGtu{t
k/LIf0f x'g / dsf{ kg]{ JolQmn] pkrf/ k|fKt ug{ ;S5 egL

                              13
lnOPsf] lhs/ tkm{ x]bf{ k|ydtM >L % af6 ldlt @)^@.!.!^
df o; cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f !@& adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ul/alS;bf
sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/sf] k|of]u ul/aS;]sf] geO{ g]kfnsf]
;+j}wflgs l/ltl:ylt, k/Dk/f / >L % jf6 k|of]u eO{ cfPsf]
:jljj]sLo clwsf/ k|of]u ul/aS;L cfb]z hf/L aS;]sf] xf] . To:tf]
cfb]z ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& jdf]lhd ;+ljwfgs} cleGg c+usf]
?kdf k/] ;/x dflgg] x'Fbf ljwflosL         sfg"gsf] k'g/fjnf]sg
ePem} Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] laifo x'g ;Sb}g . ctM >L %
af6 :jljj]s k|of]u ul/aS;L cfb]z hf/L eO{ cfof]usf] sfd,
st{Jo / clwsf/ tf]lsaS;]sf] laifo Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf]
bfo/fleq gkg]{ :jtM l;4 5 . t;y{ >L % af6 :jljj]s k|of]u
ul/aS;L g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !@&
adf]lhd cfof]usf kbflwsf/L ;lxt o; cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf k|bfg
ul/aS;]sf] sfo{ ;+ljwfg ;Ddt ePsf] / >L % af6 ul/aS;]sf]
s'g} sfdsf ;DaGwdf s'g} cbfntdf k|Zg p7fOg] 5}g egL
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #! n] k|i6 Joj:yf u/]sf] tyf cfof]u u7g
cfb]zn] lglb{i6 u/] cg';f/sf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/sf] kfng /
k|of]u u/L cfof]uaf6 ;DkGg ePsf sfd sf/jfO{ ;+ljwfg /
sfg'g;Ddt ePsf]n] lgj]bssf bfh' k"j{dGqL /fhLj k/fh'nLnfO{
o; cfof]un] sfg'gåf/f tf]lsPsf] clVtof/L cGtu{t /xL Goflos
y'gfdf /fv]sf] laifonfO{ u}/ sfg"gL y'gfdf /fv]sf] eGg
gldNg] x'Fbf lgj]bssf] lhls/ cg';f/sf] cfb]z hf/L ul//xg' kg]{
gb]lv+bf l/6 lgj]bg vf/]h ul/ kfpg ;Ddflgt cbfnt ;dIf ;fb/
cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf] lakIfL zfxL cfof]u / P]
sf cWoIf tyf ;b:ox?sf] ;+o'Qm lnlvt hjfkm .
       l/6 lgj]bsn] o; sfof{nosf] s] s:tf] sfd sf/jfxLjf6 lghsf]
s] s:sf] xs clwsf/sf] xgg ePsf] xf] < To;sf] :ki6 lhls/
glnO{ ljgf cfwf/ / sf/0f o; sfof{no ;d]tnfO{ lakIfL agfO{ l/6
lgj]bg lbPsf] / lgj]bgkqdf pNn]v ul/psf JolQmnfO{
;DalGwt lgsfon] sfg"g jdf]lhd y'gfdf /fv]sf] laifonfO{ lnP/

                              14
o; sfof{nonfO{ ;d]t lakIfL jgfO{ lbPOsf] l/6 lgj]bg vf/]h
u/L kfpF eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf] k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\sf]
sfof{nosf] lnlvt hjfkm .
      /fhLj k/fh'nLnfO{ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]uåf/f
e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL s;"/sf] l;nl;nfdf k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd y'gfdf
/flvPsf] j'lemg cfPsf] x'Fbf l/6 lgj]bg vf/]h u/L kfpF eGg]
;d]t Joxf]/f u[x dGqfnosf] lnlvt hjfkm .
      lgj]bssf] l/6 lgj]bg ;/;tL{ cWoog ubf{ lgj]bsn] pNn]v
ug'{ ePsf laifodf g]kfn clw/fHosf dxfGofoflwjQmfnfO{
l/6 lgj]bgsf] lj?4 v08df pNn]v ug'{ jfx]s lgj]bssf] lj?4df
dxfGofoflwjQmfjf6 s] s:tf sfd sf/jfxL ePsf] xf] / g]kfn
clw/fHosf dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] s] s:tf] sfd sf/jfxLjf6
lgj]bssf] xs xgg\ eof] jf ;f] sfd sf/jfxL ;+ljwfg lakl/t eof]
eGg] s'/f lgj]bsn] cfkm\gf] lgj]bgdf pNn]v ug{ ;Sg' ePsf]
5}g . s]jn lj?4 v08df gfd pNn]v x'Fb}df s;}sf lj?4 /L6 hf/L
x'g ;Qm}g . lgj]bsn] p7fpg' ePsf] laifo ;+ljwfgn]
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ egL tf]s]sf] laifoj:t'
gePsf] / dxfGofofwLjqmf / dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no
;d]t jf6 eP u/]sf] sfd ;+u ;DalGwt ;d]t gePsf] l:yltdf l/6
lgj]bg :jo+ vf/]h efuL 5 eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf]
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{nosf] lnlvt hjfkm .
      u}x| sfg"gL ;DkQL cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] eGg]
d'2fdf jofg ;do cefjn] gEofPsf]n] y'gfdf /flv lbg] eGg]
Joxf]/fsf] ;Ddflgt e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] r=g+=
#%@ ldlt @)^@÷)%÷!# ut]sf] kq ;fy lakIfL /flhj k/fh'nL
o; sfof{nodf bflvnf x'g cfPsf] / lgh lakIfLnfO{ cfb]zfg';f/
Nofpg] n}hfg] u/L /x]sf]df , jfbL >L % sf] ;/sf/ k|ltjfbL /flhj
k/fh'nL ;d]t ePsf] u}x| sfg"gL ;DklQ cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/
u/]sf] d'2fdf y'g5]ssf] qmddf cfb]z jdf]lhd dfu ePsf]
w/f}6L bflvnf ug{ g;s]sf]n] lgh k|ltjfbL /fhLj k/fh'nLnfO{
o;} kq ;fy tfxfF k7fO{Psf] 5 . ;'/Iff ;fy /fVg' x'g cg'/f]w

                              15
ul/G5 eGg] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u xl/x/ejg, nlntk'/sf
r=g+= #*% ldlt @)^@÷)%÷!% ut]sf] kq ;lxt bflvnf
ePsf]n] lakIfL /flhj k/fh'nLnfO{ u|x| sfg"gL?kdf y'gfdf
/flvPsf] geO{ ;Ddflgt cfof]usf] cfb]zfg';f/ sfg"g jdf]lhd g}
o; sfof{nodf y'gfdf /flvPsf]n] l/6 lgj]bg vf/]h u/L kfpF
eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf] k|x/L sfof{no nlntk'/sf] lnlvt hjfkm .
      k|:t't l/6 lgj]bg @)^@.%.@*.# df x]bf{ x]b}{sf] k]zL
tf]sL jGbL /fhLj k/fh'nLnfO{ ;f] lbg cbfntdf pkl:yt u/fpg'
egL n]vL k7fO{ nufpsf l/6 g+= %& tyf lgj]bg g+= &$%
sf] lgj]bg ;d]t ;fy} /fvL lgodfg';f/ k]z ug'{ eGg] ;d]t
Joxf]/fsf] o; cbfnt % ;b:oLo ljz]if Ohnf;sf] ldlt
@)^@.%.@# sf] cfb]z .
      /fhLj k/fh'nLsf ;DaGwdf >f]t gv'n]sf] ;DklQsf]
cg';Gwfg ;DalGw sf/jfxL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf]
bkmf #% adf]lhd tfd]nLdf /flvlbg] u/L clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]ujf6 @)^!.!.@# df lg0f{o ePsf] b]lvPsf],
k|:t't lgj]bgsf] ax; g6'lËPsf] ;Gbe{df kl5 lgj]bgsf] 6'Ëf]
nfuL 7x/] jdf]lhd x'g] u/L ;jf]{Rr cbfnt lgodfjnL, @)$( sf]
lgod ## -s_ adf]lhd alGb /fhLj k/fh'nLnfnO{ lgj]bg k]zL
x'Fbfsf lbg pkl:yt u/fpg] u/L lghsf] sfg"gL Joj;foL
clwjQmf zDe' yfkfsf] o;} cbfntjf6 xflh/ hdfgL lnO{
y'gfaf6 d'Qm u/L tf/]vdf /fVg' . ;f] sf] hfgsf/L e|i6frf/
lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfO{ lbg' eGg] ;d]t Joxf]/fsf] o; cbfnt
% ;b:oLo ljz]if Ohnf;sf] ldlt @)^@.%.@* sf] cfb]z .
   lgodfg';f/ k]z ePsf] k|:t't l/6 lgj]bg / ;dfg ljifo ;dfj]z ePsf]
;fy} k]z ePsf] nufpsf] lgj]bs clwjQmf >L ;Gtf]if dxtf]
ePsf] l/6 g+= %& ;d]tdf ldlt @)^@.%.@# b]lv ldlt
@)^@.%.@*, @)^@.%#), @)^@.^.^, @)^@.^.!@,
@)^@.&.@&,            @)^@.&.@(,@)^@.*.^,              @)^@.*.&,
@)^@.*.!@, @)^@.*.!#, @)^@.*.@!, @)^@.*.@#,
@)^@.*.@( ;d]tsf lbg lgj]bs, lghtkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g

                                16
Joj;foLx? / ljkIfL tkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foLx? tyf ;jf]{Rr
cbfnt lgodfjnL, @)$( sf] lgod $@ cGtu{t ;l/s x'g' ePsf
;d]t #( hgf ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foLx?n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] jx;
lhls/ k|:t't ug'{ eof] .
  lgj]bs / lgj]bs tkm{sf sfg"g Joj;foLx? tkm{af6 M
    -!_ clwjQmf >L zDe' yfkf M - b'j}df _ M g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !@ n] sfg"g adf]lhd
jfx]s JolQmsf] j}olQm :jtGqtf ckx/0f ug{ kfOb}+g . g]kfn
sfg"g JofVof ;DaGwL P]g, @)!) sf] bkmf @-8_ n]
sfg"gsf] kl/efiff u/]sf] / ;f] kl/efiff ;+ljwfgsf] xsdf ;d]t nfu"
x'g] x'bf+ wf/f !@& sf] cf8df hf/L ePsf] ePsf] cfb]z ;f]
JofVof cg'?ksf] sfg"g xf]] xf]Og x]l/g' kb{5 . ;+ljwfgsf]
wf/f !!% cGtu{t hf/L ePsf] cfb]zn] lg/Gt/tf kfpg] cj:yf 5}g
. wf/ !!% cfkm}{df :jtGq wf/f ePsf] n] o; cGtu{tsf] cfb]zn]
;+ljwfgsf s]xL wf/f lgnDjg ug{ ;Sb5 t/ ;+ljwfgåf/f csf]{
c+unfO{ lbOPsf] clwsf/ lems]/ c?nfO{ lbg ldNb}g .
;+ljwfg b]zsf] /fi6« k|d'v b]lv gful/s ;j}nfO{ Pp6} ;+/rgfdf
/fVg] oGq xf] . wf/f !!% cGtu{t hf/L ePsf] ;+s6sfnsf] cj:yf
lgjf/0fsf nflu cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsg] / ;+s6sfn lkmtf{ lnPkl5 jf
;+s6sfn 3f]if0fsf] cjwL ;lsPkl5 ;f] wf/f !!% cGtu{t hf/L
ePsf] cfb]]z klg :jtM lg:s[o x'G5 . wf/f !@& k|of]u u/]/
wf/f !!% cGtu{t hf/L cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ldNb}g . wf/f
!@& sf] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]z hf/L ePkl5 jfwf km's]/
;j} ;+j}wflgs k|s[of ;+rflnt x'g k5{ . h'g ;+j}wflgs c8\rg
k/]sf] xf] ;f] s'/f v'Ng' k¥of] . e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u
u7g ug{ jfwf s;/L kg{ uof] . ef/tLo ;+ljwfgdf klg o; lsl;dsf]
jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] ;DaGwL Joj:yf wf/f #(@ n] u/]sf] 5 .
ef/tLo /fi6«kltn] hf/L u/]sf] cfb]zsf pk/ cbfntdf k|Zg p7L
ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]zsf]
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;Sg] lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . dflg;nfO{
k|qmfp ug]{, jofg lng] , y'Gg] h:tf clwsf/sf s'/f /fhfsf]

                               17
clwsf/ leq kb}{g egL j]nfotsf] cbfntn] ;d]t lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 .
wf/f !@& sf] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cj:yf ;DaGwdf bfz 9'Ëf
b"3{6gf ;DaGwL ljjfbdf >L % af6 o; cbfnt;+u /fo dfuL
jS;]sf] ljifodf 5nkmn e} ;f] sf] wf/f !@& sf] ;d]t pQm /fodf
ljZn]if0f ePsf] 5 . Tof] /fo s} ?kdf ePklg ;f] cg'?k >L %
af6 / ;/sf/af6 ;d]t sfd sfo{jfxL ePsf] x'+bf o; d'2fdf klg
nfu" ug{ jfwf kb}{g . cfb]z hf/L >L % af6 ePsf]n] wf/f
#!sf] Joj:yf cg';f/ cbfntdf k|Zg p7\g g;Sg] eGg] lnlvt
hjfkmsf ;DaGwdf xfd|f] lnlvt ;+ljwfg ePsf]n] j]nfotdf h:tf]
ljz]if clwsf/ Prerogative Power 5 eGg] s'/f dfGg ;lsb}+g .
wf/f #! sf ;DaGwdf k|wfg dGqL dgdf]xg clwsf/Ln] ;+;b
lj36g u/] ;DaGwdf k/]s]f d'2fdf lg0f{o eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . wf/f
#! Wff/f %^ ;+u hf]8L x]g{'k5{ . ;+ljwfgn] Joj:yf u/]sf] >L
%, ;+;b / cbfnt tLg}sf] clwsf/sf ;DaGwdf Ps csf{n] 5'g
ldNb}g . t/ tLg lgsfo jf ;+:yfsf aLrsf] ljjfb cfof] eg] To;sf]
lg/fs0f cbfntn] g} ug]{ xf] . lgj]bs cfkm\gf] Jo}olQms
:jtGqtf ckx/0f x'g nfUof] egL cfPs]f xf] . k|To]s
gful/snfO{ :jtGqtf ;+/If0fsf] clwsf/ ;+ljwfgn] k|bfg u/]sf]
x'+bf ;f] cGtu{t cfPs]f cj:yfdf k|Zg p7fpg gkfpg] eGg
ldNb}g . >L % :jo+sf] s'/fdf / ;+;bsf] l:ylt;DaGwdf jfx]s
c? s'/fdf ;+j}wflgs kl/If0f x'g wf/f ** sf] Joj:yfn] jfwf kb}+g
. lnlvt hjfkmdf pNn]v ePsf] Hof]lt jflgofsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf
ePsf] lg0f{osf] k|;+u o; d'2fdf cfslif{t x'b}+g . jg P]g,
:yflgo k|zf;g P]g, e+;f/ P]g ;+;bn] jgfPsf sfg"g cGtu{tsf
s'/f x'g\ . ljkIfL cfof]]]u sfg"g cGtu{t u7g ePsf] xf]Og .
cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] of]Uotg k|i6 5}g . wf/f *$ / *% sf]
dd{ ljkl/tsf] sfd ePs]f 5 . cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lsf] of]Uotfsf]
k|Zg p7fO lgj]bg k/]kl5 of]Uotf k|dfl0ft ug]{ bfloTj cfpF5
. of]Uotfsf ;DaGwdf klG5g kfOb}+g . ;+ljwfg d"n sfg"g
xf] . d"n sfg"gn] g} e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf wf/f (* n]
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] u7g u/]sf] 5 / e|i6frf/

                              18
lgjf/0f P]g cGtu{tsf d'2fsf] ;d]t cg';Gwfg txlssft e} d'2f
rNg] cbfnt ;d]tsf] 5'§} Joj:yf ;+ljwfgn] g} u/L /x]sf] cj:yfdf
;dfgfGt/ lgsfo v8f ug{ ldNb}g . cfof]un] rnfpg] d'2f klg
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g cGtu{t ePsf] ;f] P]g cGtu{t rNg] d'2fsf]
jfbL >L % sf] ;/sf/ x'G5 . jfbL >L % sf] ;/sf/ ePs]f d'2f
rnfpg] grnfpg] eGg] clGtd lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/ wf/f !!) n]
g]kfn clw/fHosf dxfGofoflwjQmf / dftxt ;/sf/L jlsnsf] x'g]
Joj:yf 5 . ;f]sf] ;d]t pn3+g cfof]usf] u7g sfdsfo{jfxLaf6
x'g uPsf] 5 . cfof]usf] km};nf pk/ o; cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg
nfUg ;Sb}g . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f **-#_ df ePsf] Joj:yf cg'?k o;
cbfnsf] k'g/fj]blso If]qflwsf/ t]flsg ;Sb5 . >L % af6 hf/L
cfb]z sfg"g gePsf] x'+bf To:tf] cfb]zn] k'g/fj]bg nfUg] u/L
u/]sf] Joj:yf eP klg ;f] cg'?k k'g/fj]bg nfUg] eGg ldNb}g .
sfg"g s] xf] eGg] ljZn]if0f cf/If0f ;DaGwL d'2fdf ;+o'Qm
Ohnfzn] u/]sf] 5 . cfb]znfO{ P]g, sfg"g dfGg] xf] eg]
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;S5 . olb cfb]z P]g sfg"g xf]Og eg]
Tof] :jtM lg:s[o x'g' k5{ . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f &! / &@ sf]
k|s[of gckgfO{ P]g jGg ;Sb}gg\ . o:tf cfof]un] gful/sfnfO{
;hfo ug{ ldNb}+g . Odfg l;+xsf] d'2fsf] glh/sf] k|;+uaf6
klg o; s'/fsf] k'i6L ub{5 . ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] ;jf]{Rr
cbfntsf] If]qflwsf/ ;DaGwdf AIR 2001 sc180 df ljZn]if0f ePsf]
5.
-@_ clwjQmf >L ;'efif g]DafË - b'j}df _ M lnlvt
hjfkmdf >L % af6 /Lltlylt, k/Dk/f, / >L % lglxt
/fhsLozQmf k|of]u u/L :jljj]sdf cfof]u u7g cfb]z hf/L u/]sf]
eGg] pNn]v eP ;DaGwdf g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)!( n] h:tf]]]
>L % df /fhsLo;Qf /xg] Joj:yf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& n] u/]sf] 5}g . ;+lawfgsf] k|:tfjgfaf6 g} ;f] s'/f k|i6
x'G5 . k|:tfjgfdf g} ;+j}wflgs /fhtGq /xg] s'/f :jLsf/ u/L >L
% af6 g} ;+lawfg hf/L ul/jS;]sf] xf] . ;+lawfgsf] JofVof
ubf{ k|:tfjgfnfO{ klg cfwf/ dfGg' kg]{ s'/f dgdf]xg

                             19
clwsf/Lsf] ;+;b lj36g ;DaGwL d'2fdf o; cbfntaf6 jf]nL
;lsPsf]5 . k|:tfjgfsf] d"ne"t s'/fnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ u/L s'g}
cfb]z hf/L x'g ;Sb}g . /Lltlylt k/+k/f cg';f/ ug{ ;lsg] eGg]
s'/f jt{dfg ;lawfgdf sxL+ pNn]v 5}g . /hsLozQmf /
;fj{{ef}d clwsf/ o;} ;+lawfg adf]lhd x'g] eGg] ;+lawfgdf
ePsf] pb\3f]if >L % sf] xf] . ;fj{ef}d;Qf wf/f # n] hgtfdf
lgxLt /xg] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f #!sf] Joj:yf /fhfn] uNtL ub}{gg\ eGg]
cfwf/df ul/Psf] xf] . /fhfn] uNtL ub}{gg\ eGg] cfwf/df
j]nfotsf] /fhfnfO{ lbOPsf] clwsf/x? >L % nfO{ /xg] Joj:yf
;+lawfgn] u/]sf] 5 . xfd|f] ;+lawfgn] cGt/lgxLt jf cjlzi7
clwsf/sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5}g . o:tf] cfof]u u7g ug{ ;Sg]
;+s]t;Dd ;+lawfgn] u/]sf] 5}g . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z
;+lawfgsf] c+u x'g] Joj:yf ;+lawfgn] u/]s]f 5}g . ef/tLo
;+lawfgn] klg wf/f #(@ df jfwf c8\sfp ;DaGwL Joj:yf
u/]klg Tof] Joj:yf ;g\ !(#% sf] Government of India Act af6
ef/tLo ;+lawfgdf cfpFbf k/]sf] ck\7\of/f] x6fpg Joj:yf
ul/Psf] / klxnf] ;+;b z'? ePkl5 To:tf] cfb]zn] dfGotf
kfpb}g eGg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfndf klg ;+;b j;L ;s]kl5
;f/} ckjfbfTd?kdf wf/f !@& k|of]u x'g;S5 . ;+lawfg
;+zf]wg ug]{ clwsf/ ;+;bnfO{ ePsf]n] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg]
s'/f klg ;+;b;+u ;DalGwt ePsf] xf] . ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] ;+lawfg
;+zf]wgsf] ;d]t kl/If0f ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ 5 . ljjflbt cfb]z
;+lawfgsf] c+u dflgg] s'/f klxn]sf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)!(
sf] wf/f ()s= sf] h:tf] Joj:yf clxn]sf] wf/f !@& n] u/]sf]
gx'+bf cfb]z ;+lawfgsf] c+u eGg] lnlvt hjfkm ;+lawfg
;Ddt 5}g . wf/f !@& sf] clwsf/ :jljj]lso klg xf]Og .
clwjQmf /fw]Zofd clwsf/Lsf] d'2fdf >L % af6 jf >L % af6
dfq jf >L %sf] :jljj]sLo clwsf/ k|of]u u/L ul/g] sfo{sf]
;DaGwdf ljj]rgf ePsf] 5 . bfz9'Ëf b"3{6gfsf ;DaGwdf
lbPsf] /fodf kl/jlt{t l:yltdf @)#^ ;fndf h;/L zfxL cfof]u u7g

                             20
cfb]z hf/L u/]h:tf] u/L cfof]u u7g ug{ g;lsg] s'/fs] ljZn]if0f
ePsf] 5 . sfg"g jgfO{ df}lns xsdf jGb]h nufpg ;+lawfgn]
jfwf ub}{g t/ o:tf] cfb]z hf/L u/L df}lns xs s'l07t x'g] sfo{
ug{ ldNb}g . ;f]xL /fodf c? j}slNks Joj:yf gePsf] cj:yfdf
dfq wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u x'g] eGg] ;d]t JofVof ePsf] 5 .
s'g} s'/fsf] lgoGq0f u5'{ eGgnfO{ klg untaf6f] ;dft]/ ug{
kfOb}+g . ;+lawfg adf]lhd/xL Gofo / sfg"gsf DffGo
l;4fGt gdg]{ u/L To:tf sfo{ ul/g' kb{5 . bfz9'Ëf s} d'2fdf
gful/ssf] xs clwsf/df x:tIf]k ug}{{ k/] ;+;bn] jgfPsf]
sfg"gaf6 dfq ;lsG5 eg]sf] 5 . e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf
wf/f (&,(* n] Joj:yf / kl/sNkgf u/]sf] lgsfo u7g e} sfo{
ul//x]sf] cj:yfd j}slNks Joj:yf g/x]sf] eGg] cy{h:tf] u/L ul7t
cfof]u ;+lawfg ;Ddt 5}g . jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg s] sf/0f
k¥of] lnlvt hjfkmaf6 v'Nb}+g . o;/L wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u
ug{ kfOg] xf] eg] ;f]xL wf/f k|of]u u/L c? ;dfgfGt/
;+a}wflgs c+u klg u7g ug{ kfOG5 eGg] j'lemg hfG5 .
wf/f !@& sf] dg;fo Tof] xf]Og . o;/L hf/L ePsf] cfb]zn]
;+lawfgsf] ;+zf]wg s}{ ?k lnPsf]5 . t/ ;+lawfg o;/L
;+zf]wg x'g] xf]Og . ;+lawfg ;+zf]wgn] klg :jtGq
GofokflnsfnfO{ c;/ k'¥ofpg kfpb+}g . wf/f !@& sf]
cfb]zn] eO/fv]sf] ;+a}wflgs c+unfO{ lj:yflkt ug{ ;Sb}g .
To;/L lj:yflkt ug{ ;+zf]wg g} cfpg' kb{5 . zfxL cfof]usf]
u7gn] Ps} k|s[ltsf] d'2fdf b"O{ k|s[ltsf] cg';Gwfg b]lv d'2f
rnfpg] ;d]tsf] sfo{ x'guPaf6 o;n] gful/ssf] ;dfg cj:yfsf
gful/ssf aLrdf c;dfg sfo{ u/]]sf] 5 . ;j} gful/snfO{ ;dfg
cj:yfdf ;dfg sfg"g k|of]u ul/g] eGg] ;dfgtfsf] l;4fGtsf]
ljkl/tsf] sfo{ ePs]f 5 . cfof]udf hf] ;'s} JolQmnfO{
lgo'Qm ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf :j]R5frfl/tfdf cfwfl/t x'bf+ of] klg
c;dfg Jojxf/ xf] . ;+lawfg cGtu{tsf] ljifo cbfntn] x]g{
gldNg] cj:yf 5}g . xfd|f] ;+lawfgn] ;+a}wflgs ;jf]{RrtfnfO{
:jLsf/ u/]sf] x'bf+ ;+lawfg k|lts"n cfb]z 5 5}g egL x]g{

                             21
gkfOg] eGg ldNb}g . ;+lawfgsf] k|:tfjgfsf] efjgf ljkl/t /x]sf]
egL ph'/ k/]sf] ljifodf ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] x]g{ gkfpg] eGg
ldNb}g . ;Dkt\ s'df/sf] d'2fdf ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] Goflos
k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ s'/f cbfntsf] cfwf/e"t ;+/rgf -Basic Features _
xf] eGg] s'/f :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . lnlvt hjfkmaf6 ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf]
clwsf/nfO{ ;Lldt ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 . wf/f #!sf] ;DaGwdf ljåfg
clwjQmf zDe' yfkfn] k|sf; kf/]sf] s'/faf6 klg k|:t't cfb]z
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg leq kg{ ;S5 . cfkm\gf] d'2f cfkm} x]g{
x'b}+g eGg] dfGoftfsf] ljkl/t ;d]t cfof]u u7g ePsf] x'bf+
df+u adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L x'g' kb{5 .
-#_     clwjQmf >L o1d"tL{ j~hf8] - lgj]bs /fhLj
k/fh'nLsf] tkm{af6 _ M lnlvt hjfkmdf >L % af6 cfb]z
hf/L ePs]fn] x]g{ gldNg] eGg] lhls/ lnOPsf] 5 . >L % af6
hf/L ePs]f cfb]zsf] klg Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;S5 egL
;+;b lj36gsf ;DaGwdf k/]sf lgj]bs /lj/fh e08f/L / lgj]bs xl/
k|;fb g]kfnsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o; cbfntaf6 lg0f{o eO;s]sf] cj:yf
x'+bf o; tkm{ cndlng' kg]{ cj:yf 5}g . ;+lawfgsf] wf/f
@&-#_ df ul/Psf] Joj:yf cg';f/ ;+lawfgs]f kfngf >L % af6
klg x'g' k5{ . ;+lawfg gfu]/ hfg ;Sg] ljz]ifflwsf/ >L % nfO{
5}g . Lord Denning n] j]nfotsf] /fhfsf ;DaGwdf /fhf klg sfg"g
cGtu{t x'G5g\ eg]sf 5g\ . >L % af6 hf/L ePsf]) cfb]znfO{
sfg"g xf]Og eGg] xf] eg] To;n] s;}nfO{ b08 ;hfo ug{
ldNb}g . sfg"g xf] eg] ;+lawfgsf] wf/f **-!_ cGtu{t Goflos
k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;S5 . ljkIfLx?n] ;j{k|yd of] s'/f k|i6 ug'{
k¥of] . Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ kfOb}+g eGg] xf] eg]
;+lawfg g} g/x] ;/x x'G5 . cfof]u wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{t hf/L
ePs]f cfb]zaf6 u7g ePsf] xf] . wf/f !!% df e|i6frf/ a9]sf]
egL ;+s6sfn 3f]if0ff ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5}g . zfxL
cfof]u u7g wf/f !!%-&_ cg's"n 5}g . wf/f !!%-&_ sf] cfb]z
sfg"g ;/x x'g] eGg] ePsf]n] To;df klg Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg
x'g ;S5 . wf/f !!%-&_ cg';f/ ;+s6sfn lgjf/0fsf] nflu egL

                              22
hf/L ePs]f cfb]z ;+s6sfn 3f]if0fsf] cfb]z lkmtf{ ePkl5 klg
To:tf] cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOG5 eg] Tof] ;+ljwfg k|lt ul/g]
wf]vf - Fraud _ xf] . ;+lawfg adf]lhd rNg] egL >L % af6
cfkm} :jLsf/ u/L;s]kl5 /Llt lylt k/+k/f egL s'g} sfo{ ug{
ldNb}{g . j]nfotdf klg zfxL ljz]ifflwsf/ - Royal Prerogative_ n]
gofF s'/f lbg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 . Gofo
;+kfbg ;DaGwL sfo{ sfg"gsf 1ftfaf6 ul/g' k5{ eGg]
Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt xf] . :jtGq / lgZkIf GofofwLzx?åf/f
lbOPsf] Gofodf dfq Gofo / sfg"gsf dfGo l;4fGt k|of]u
ePsf] dflgg ;S5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf] ;g\ !(*% df kfl/t
:jtGq Gofokflnsf ;DaGwL cfwf/e"t l;WbfGt - Basic Principles
on the Independence of the Judiciary _ n] sfg"gsf 1ftf / Gofo tyf
sfg"gsf ;DaGwdf pk'oQm tflnd lnPsf JolQmaf6 Gofo
;+kfbgsf] sfo{ x'g'kg]{ s'/fnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 . Gofo
;+kfbgsf] sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf] ljkIfL cfof]usf ;b:osf]
of]Uotfsf] k|Zg p7]sf]df of]Uotf s;}n] v'nfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .
cfof]usf] u7g plNnlvt UNO åf/f :jLs[t ul/Psf] dfGotfsf]
ljkl/t x'g uPsf] 5 . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z :yfoL k|s[ltsf] x'b+}g
. ;+lawfgdf Joj:yf gePsf] t/ tt\sfn sfd rnfpg cfjZos k/]sf]
5 eGg] nfu]df dfq wf/f !@& cGtu{t cfb]]z hf/L u/L sfd
rnfpg] xf] . sfd rnfPkl5 To;sf] k|of]hg ;lsG5 . cfof]usf]
u7g / tf]lsPsf] sfd sfo{jfxLaf6 :jR5 ;'g'jfO{ - Fair Trial _
;DaGwL k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;WbfGt -Principal of Natural Justice _
h:tf Gofo / sfg"gsf dfGo l;4fGtnfO{ k|efljt kf/]sf] 5 . jGbL
k|ToIfLs/0fsf] d'2faf6 klg p7]sf] ;a} k|Zgsf] lg/fs/0f x'g
;S5 . pko'Qm cfb]z jGbL k|ToIfLs/0fsf] l/6 lgj]bgaf6 klg
x'g ;S5 eGg] s'/f lgj]bs d cfkm} ePsf] @)@& sf] d'2f /
lgj]bs cf]dsf/ >]i7 lj?4 jfudtL c~rnfwLz sfof{nosf] d'2fdf
;d]t :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 .
-$_ jl/i7 clwjQmf >L >Lxl/ cof{n - b"j}df _ M jt{dfg
;+lawfgn] k|hftGqsf] vfsf tf]Sg] / ;j}nfO{ jfWg] sfo{ u/]sf]

                               23
5 . wf/f ! n] ;+lawfgsf] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ ;j}sf] st{Jo tf]s]sf] 5
. wf/f !$ n] sfg"g adf]lhd jfx]s ;hfo gul/g] k|Tofe"tL u/]sf]
5 . ;+lawfgn] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf ;DaGwdf Ps cfof]usf]
u7g u/sf]5 . k|To]s ;+a}wflgs c+usf] of]Uotf s] x'g] ;f]
;d]t tf]s]sf] 5 . @)^!.!).!( sf] 3f]]if0ffdf klg Gofosf dfGo
l;4fGtsf] ljkl/t gx'g] u/L cfof]u u7g ug]{ eGg] pNn]v
ePaf6 ;+ljwfg jflx/ j;]/ 3f]if0ff u5'{ eg]sf] b]lvb}+g . zfxL
cfof]usf] u7g of]] 3f]if0ffsf] ljkl/t e} 3f]if0ff;+u jflemPsf] 5
. ;+a}wflgs ljjfb p7fO{ cfPsf] cj:yf x'+bf To;sf] lg/fs/0fsf]
nflu ;+ljwfg;+u ;DalGwt ;j} s'/f x]/L lg0f{o ug'{ k5{ .
;jf]{Rr cbftn j'n]l6g jif{ !! c+s * k"0ff{Í @$@ k''i7 & df
k|sflzt lg0f{odf ;+ljwfgsf] JofVof ubf{ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf
qmddf tof/ ePs]f JofVofTds l6Kk0fLnfO{ klg cfwf/ lng
;lsG5 elgPsf] 5 . wf/f *$ cGtu{tsf cbfnt / Gofoflws/0fn]
dfq sfg"g / Gofosf dfGo l;4fGtsf s'/fnfO{ cuf+Ng ;Sb5 .
zfxL cfof]usf] lg0f{o pk/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg nfUg]
eGg] Joj:yf ePklg ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] ;+ljwfg / sfg"g cGtu{t
/x]sf lhNnf cbfnt k'g/fj]bg cbfnt ljz]if cbfnt / cGo
cw{Goflos lgsfonfO{ h:tf] u/L lg/LIf0f lgoGq0f ug{ ;Sg]
cj:yf 5}g . o;y{ zfxL cfof]usf] u7g ;+a}wflgs xf]Og .
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #%-@_ sf] Joj:yf cg';f/ >L % af6 cfkm\gf]
:jljj]s jf :jOR5faf6 o:tf] cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsjS;g] cj:yf
b]lvb+}g . ;+lawfg jrfpg] lsl;daf6 ;+lawfgsf] JofVof
x'gkg]{ ePsf] 5 . ;+lawfg ljkl/tsf] zfxL cfof]u /fVg ldNb}g
.
-%_ clwjQmf >L xl/x/ bfxfn - b'j}df _ M ;+s6sfn
3f]if0ff ;+u;+u} cfof]u u7g cfb]z hf/L ePsf] xf]Og . b]zdf
JofKt lx+;f xTof /f]Sg eg]/ ;+s6sfn 3f]if0ff ePsf] 5 .
;+lawfgsf] wf/f !!%-&_ cg';f/ egL ;+s6sfn 3f]if0ff;+u
c;DalGwt ljifdf cfof]u u7g cfb]z hf/L ePsf] ;+lawfg ;Ddt
5}g . o:tf] c;+a}wflgs cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg egL wf/f

                              24
!@& sf] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]z hf/L ePsf] 5 . s'g}
;+:yf >[hgf ug]{ s'/fdf wf/f !@& cfslif{t x'g ;Sb}g . o:tf]
cfof]u hGdfpg] clVtof/L wf/f !@& n] lbPsf] 5}g . bfz9'Ëf
b"3{6gfsf ;DaGwdf o; cbfntaf6 JoQm /fodf ljsNk gePs]f
cj:yfdf dfq wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u x'g] /fo JoQm ePsf] 5 .
s'g} cfb]zn] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] clwsf/ ;+s'lrt jf lj:tfl/t x'g ;Sb}g
. zfxL cfof]u u7g cfb]zn] ;+lawfgsf] Joj:yf pn3+g u/]sf] 5
. ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] If]qflwsf/sf] lj:tf/ ;+;bn] jgfPsf] sfg"gåf/f
dfq x'g ;Sb5. wf/f !@& cGtu{t hf/L ePsf] cfb]zn] wf/f #!
cGtu{tsf] ;+/If0f kfpg ;Sb}+g . ;+lawfgsf] cfwf/e"t
;+/rgfnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ u/L wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 .
wf/f #! sf] ;+/If0f /fhfn] uNtL ub}{gg\ eGg] l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t
5 . /fhfn] cfkm} sfd gug{] x'gfn] of] ;+a}wflgs ;+/If0f
lbOPsf] xf] . ;+lawfgsf] kl/lw jflx/ >L % klg hfg ldNb}g .
;/sf/ k|d'vsf] x}lzotn] u/]sf] sfd s'/fnfO{ wf/f #!n] ;+/If0f
lbPsf] dfGg ldNb}+g . o:tf] cfb]zsf] ;+a}wflgs kl/If0f
;jf]Rr cbfntn] ug{ gkfpg] xf] eg] ;+lawfgsf] k|f0f g} x/0f
x'g hfG5 . wf/f #! n] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf]
clwsf/nfO{ ;+s'lrt ug{ ;Sb}g . ;+lawfgsf] efjgf dd{ cg's"n
sfo{ ePsf] s'/fnfO{ lnP/ wf/f @&-#_ n] ;+/If0f k|bfg u/]sf]
5 . of] ;sf/fTds - Positive _ s'/f xf] . t/ k|:t't ljjfbdf ;+lawfgsf]
pn3+g ePsf] cj:yf 5 . ;+/If0f ;sf/fTds s'/fsf] nflu xf] . wf/f
*% b]lv jfx]ssf cbfntn] d'2f x]g{ kfpb}+g . wf/f *% sf]
kl/lwjflx/ uO{ cfof]u u7g ePsf] x'bf+ o:tf] sfo{n] ;+/If0f
kfpg] cj:yf 5}g .
-^_ clwjQmf >L s'df/ /]UdL - lgj]bs /fhLj k/fh'nLsf]df
dfq _ M k|:t't ljjfbdf d"n ?kdf clwsf/k[R5f,pTk\]if0f,sfg"g
cdfGo u/L kfpF eGg] / jGbLk|ToIfLs/0fsf] cfb]z ;d]t $
ljifodf 5nkmn x'g' kg]{ cj:yf 5 . lgj]bsn] clwsf/k[R5fsf]
clwsf/ k|of]u u/L ljkfIfL cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] of]Uotfsf]
k|Zg p7fPsf]df To:tf] k|Zgsf] hjfkm h;nfO{ ;f]lwPsf] xf]

                                25
p;}n] lbg' k5{ . clwsf/k[R5f lgo'Qm ug]{nfO{ ;f]lwg] ljifo
xf]Og . lgo'Qm ePsf JolQmsf ;DaGwdf xf] . s'g
clwsf/af6 j;]sf] eg]/ ;f]lwg] xf] . ;fj{hlgs hjfkm b]lxtfsf]
lgsfodf j;]sf JolQmsf] xsdf ;f]lwg] x'bf+ hjfkm lbGg eGg
kfOb}+g . >L % af6 lgo'Qm ePsf]n] j;]sf] eGg] hjfkm
lbP/ k'Ub}g . s] of]Uotfn] j;]sf] xf] hjfkm lbg' k5{ . wf/f
!@& sf] cfb]z ;+;bdf k]z ug{ kg]{ eGg] ePaf6 ;+;b
gePsf] / dlGqkl/ifb\ gePsf] cj:yfdf wf/f !@& k|of]u x'g
;Sb}+g . ;+lawfgn] >L % nfO{ s'g :yfgdf /fv]sf] 5 JofVof
x'g' kg]{ cj:Yff cfPsf] 5 . ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 B.K.Kapoor
v. State of Tamilnadu sf] d'2fdf AIR 2001 sc 3435 df clwsf/ k[R5f /
/fi6«k|d'vsf] ;+/If0f jf pGd'QmL (Immunity) sf ;DaGwdf
lg0f{o ePsf] 5 . h'g o; k|;+udf klg dxTjk"0f{ x'g ;Sb5 .
;+lawfgsf] JofVofsf ;DaGwdf ljleGg % j6f dfWod
ckgfOg' kg]{ l;4fGt /xL cfPsf] 5 . h;dWo] klxnf] :jo+
;+lawfg s} k':tssf] cfwf/df ;+ljwfgsf] JofVof ul/g'k5{ .
To;kl5 ;+lawfgsf] Original Intention / Structural Reasoning sf ;fy}
Moral Reasoning cyf{t Liberal Interpretetion / cbfntsf k"j{ cEof; jf
ghL/x?sf] cfwf/df JofVof x'gk5{ . o; JofVofsf] l;4fGtsf]
kl/lwaf6 wf/f #! / wf/f !@& sf ;DaGwdf JofVof x'g' k5{ .
wf/f #! Wff/f #% ;+u ;DalGwt 5 . wf/f #! cfkm}df :jtGq
wf/f xf]Og . wf/f #%-@_ af6 dfq wf/f #! n] k"0f{tf kfpF5 .
wf/f #! NffO{ PSn} x]bf{ e|d >[hgf x'G5 . wf/f #%-@_
af6} >L % n] s:tf] sfdu/L jS;g] / s:tf] sfddf k|Zg p7fpg
gkfOg] eGg] k|i6 x'G5 . xfd|f] lnlvt ;+lawfg ePsf]n]
;+lawfg jflx/ >L % klg hfg ldNb}g . ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntn]
/fi6«kltnfO{ s] s:tf] l;kmfl/; ePsf] eGg] x]g{ gkfOg] eGg]
lg0f{o ePklg /fi6«kltsf] cfb]zsf] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;S5
eGg] s'/f State of Rajsthan v. Union of India sf] d'2fdf lg0f{o
ePsf] 5 . ;fy} S.R.Bomai sf] d'2fdf ePsf] JofVof klg xfd|f]
;+lawfgsf] wf/f #%-^_ sf] JofVofsf] ;DaGwdf ;fGble{s 5

                                26
. o; d'2fdf ;fj{hlgs lxtsf] nflu s] s:tf s'/fx? dGqLkl/ifb\n]
l;kmfl/z u/]sf] lyof] < Tof] Goflos k'g/fjnf]ssf] If]q leq kg{
;S5 eGg] lg0f{o ePsf] 5 . clxn] hf/L ePsf] cfb]z wf/f #%-
@_ cg?k dGqLkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df >L % af6 ePsf] eP
wf/f #! adf]lhd >L % sf] sfo{ dfly k|Zg ug{ kfOb}g lyof] .
wf/f #%-@_ nfO{ 5f]8]/ x]g]{ xf] eg] ;+lawfgdf s]xL jf+sL
/xb}+g . pGd"QmLsf] bfjL klg ;+lawfg ;Ddt x'g' k5{ .
-&_ clwjQmf >L dfwj s'df/ j:g]t - b'j}df _ M lnlvt
;+lawfgsf] cGt/lgxLt rl/q cg';f/ g} ljjfb x]g]{ clGtd clwsf/
cbfntnfO{ lbOPsf] x'G5 . ;+s6sfn hf/L ePsf] 7Ls 5 5}g
eg]/ x]l/b}+g . k|:t't ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf laifox? cbfntnfO{
x]g]{ clwsf/ 5}g eGg] xf] eg] ;+a}wflgs c+usf aLr pTkGg
ePsf] cGt/åGbsf] lg/fs/0f jf ;+lawfgdf cfPsf] c:ki6tfsf]
lg/fs/0f s:n] ug]{ < oL ;a}sf] lgSof}{n ug]{ cbfnt g} xf] .
cd]/LsL hgtfn] cfkm"n] jgfPsf] sfg"gsf ;DaGwdf ;d]t (
hgf GofofwLzx?n] h] eG5g\ ToxL x'G5 elgG5 . cbfntdf
;DalGwt ljifosf 1ftf /xG5g\ eGg] cfwf/df tL s'/fx?nfO{
:jLsf/ ul/G5 . jfwf c8\sfpsf] cj:yf cfPsf] 5 5}g eg]/
5'6\ofO{ lbg] cbfntn] g} xf] . k|Zg p7fpg gkfOg] egL
lnPsf] cfwf/ k|i6 5}g . /fhgLlts sf/0fn] xf] eg] /lj/fhsf]
d'2faf6 w]/} s'/fsf] lgSof}{n eO;s]sf] 5 . wf/f !!%-&_
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z ;+s6sfn /x];Dd /xg] eGg] ePaf6 >L %
af6 ;+s6sfn lkmtf{ lnPkl5 ;f] cfb]z klg :jtM ;dfKt x'G5 .
To;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ldNb}+g . ldN5 eGg] xf] eg] Tof]
;+a}wflgs k|ltul/Psf] wf]vf Fraud xf] . cfb]zsf] lg/Gt/tf lbg
jfwf k/]sf] egL wf/f !@& k|of]u ePsf] 5 . ;+a+wflgs jfwf
c8\sfp k/]df dfq ;f] wf/f k|of]u x'g] xf] . s'g} cfb]z
sfof{Gog ug{ jfwf k/]sf] cj:yfdf xf]Og . wf/f !!%-&_
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z hLljt 5 eGg] xf] eg] ;+s6sfn klg af+sL g}
5 eGg] hgfpF5 . wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{tsf] cfb]z xf] eGg]
dflgPs} cj:yfdf klg ;f] cfb]z sfg"g ;/x xf] To;nfO{

                             27
;+lawfgsf] c+u dfGg ldNb}g . ;+lawfgn] ;fj}ef}d hgtfdf
gLlxt /xg] Joj:yf u/]sf] x'bf+ /fhlsozQf >L % df /x]sf] s'/f
:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsb}+g . >L % nfO{ :jljj]s k|of]u ug{ kfpFg]
Joj:yf wf/f @* / !@! n] u/]sf] 5 . ;f] b]lv jfx]s wf/f #%-@_
adf]lhd dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df dfq >L % af6 sfo{ ug{
;lsjS;G5 .
-(_ clwjQmf >L a›L jxfb'/ sfsL{ -b'j}df_ M xfdL lnlvt
;+lawfgaf6 zfl;t 5f}+ . ;+lawfgn] /fHosf] ;j} c+usf]
If]qflwsf/ tf]Sg'sf] ;fy} tL c+ux?sf] k|of]u s] s;/L ug]{
eGg] s'/f klg tf]lslbPsf] 5 . ljkIfLx?nfO{ nfu" x'g] ;+lawfg
klg oxL xf] . clxn] ;+lawfgn] Joj:yf u/]s]f sfo{sfl/0fL
clwsf/ ;d]tsf] JofVof / ljZn]if0f x'g' kg]{ ePsf] 5 .
;+lawfgs]f JofVofsf] ;DaGwdf kfls:tfgL ;jf]{Rr cbfntn]
kfls:tfgsf] ;+;b lj36g ;DaGwL d'2fdf ;+lawfgs]f JofVof
ubf{ d'ntM ;DalGwt wf/fsf] cy{sf ;fy} lnlvt ;+lawfgsf
;+k"0f{ Joj:yf / ghL/ ;d]tsf] /f]xdf JofVof ul/g' kg]{ eGg]
s'/f :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 . lkmlnlkG;sf] ;+lawfgsf] Joj:yf / xfd|f]
;+lawfgs]f Joj:yf w]/} ldNbf] h'Nbf] 5 . lkmlnlkG;sf
/fi6«klt Pi6f8f{sf] zkyu|x0fsf ;DaGwdf k/]]sf] d'2fdf
;+lawfgs]f JofVof ubf{ Rule of constructions sf] k|of]u ug'{
k5{ eGg] lgSof]{n u/L JofVof ubf{ ;+lawfgs]f ;j} Joj:yfsf]
/f]xdf JofVof ul/g' kb{5 elgPsf] 5 . cbfntnfO{ Faithful
Guardian of the constitution eGg] ul/G5 . ;+lawfg cGtu{t /xL
sfo{ ug'{ kg]{ lgsfon] sfd u/]sf] 5}g eGg] ljjfb cfpF5 eg]
To;sf] lg/fs/0f ug]{ clwsf/ / lhDjjf/L ;jf]{Rr cbfnt s} xf] . o;
cbfntn] wf/f ** cGtu{tsf] Goflos JofVof u/L lg0f{o ug{
kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ wf/f !@& n] 5]]s]sf] 5}g . wf/f !!^
cGtu{tsf] s'/fdf Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ kfpFg] s'/fnfO{
/f]s]sf] 5}g eg] wf/f !@& sf] cfb]znfO{ x]g{ gldNg] eGg]
cy{ ug{ ldNb}g . ;+lawfgs]f dd{ / efjgf ljkl/t Gofo
;DaGwL clwsf/ cbfnt jfx]s c?nfO{ lbg ldNb}+g . wf/f @*-

                              28
#_ n] /fhu2L pQ/flwsf/L ;DaGwL P]g jgfpg] >L % nfO{
dfq clwsf/] lbPsf] ePklg ;f] P]gsf ;DaGwdf klg Goflos
k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;Sg] /x]5 eGg] s'/f lgj]bs s[i0f k|;fb
lzjfsf]6L lj?4 dlGqkl/ifb\ ;lrjfno ;d]t ePsf] d'2fdf o;
cbfntaf6 g]=sf=k= @)%$ k'[i7 @(% df k|sflzt d'2faf6
k'i6L ePsf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ljkIfL cfof]u u7gsf ;DaGwdf
x]g{ gldNg] eGg] cj:y} cfpFb}++g . >L % af6 hf/L x'g]
P]g, lgod, cfb]z ;j} /fhkqdf k|sflzt x'g] x'bf+ To:tf] P]g
;d]tsf] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g g;Sg] xf]Og . ;+a}wflgs
/fhtGqaf6 ;j}sfd c?sf] l;kmfl/;df x'g] ePsf] / s'g} klg sfd
cfkm\g]f tkm{af6 x'b}+g eGg] l;4fGtsf cfwf/df wf/f @&
n] ;+/If0f k|bfg u/sf] xf] . lnlvt ;+lawfg x'g'sf] cy{ g}
k/Dk/f / /Lltlyltsf s'/fnfO{ dfGotf glbg' xf] . k/Dk/f
/Lltlyltsf] s'/f gcfcf];\ eg]/} ;+lawfg cfpg] x'bf+
;+lawfgcg';f/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] u/]sf] lg0f{o dfG5f} eGg]
lnlvt hjfkm cfpg' kg]]]{df k|Zg p7fpg kfOb}g eGg] hjfkm
lbP/ /fHosf c+un] pGd"QmL kfpFg ;Sb}g . xfd|f] ;+lawfg
ldlt @)$&.&.@# af6 Ps} lbg ;j} wf/f nfu" ePsf] cj:yf x'bf+
wf/f !@& sf] afwf c8\sfpsf] k|fjwfg g} g/xg' kg]{ xf] .
;+lawfg s[ofzLn ePkl5 o:tf] Joj:yfsf] cfjZostfg} kb}{+g .
o:tf] Joj:yf /flvPs} ePklg To;sf] k|of]u u/L Pp6f c+usf]
sfd lems]/ csf]{ c+unfO{ lbg ldNb}+g . wf/f !@&
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z ljwflosL -Legislative _ k|s[ltsf] xf] . To;}n]
of] cfb]znfO{ ;+;b ;dIf /flvg' k5{ eGg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] xf] .
;+;bdf k]z ug]{ ljifo ePsf] eGb}df wf/f **-!_ cGtu{tsf]
clwsf/ adf]lhd Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g g;Sg] eGg ldNb}+g
. wf/f !!% sf] Joj:yf >L % af6 dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl;df x'g]
eGg] Joj:yf ePaf6 o:tf] cfb]zsf ;DaGwdf >L % af6
pGd'QmLsf] bfjL ug}{ kb}+{g . ljkIfL cfof]u u7g cfb]zdf
cbfntnfO{ eP ;/xsf] kqmfp ug]{ jofg u/fpg] ;d]tsf] clwsf/
lbOPsf]5 h'g s'/f wf/f !@& cGtu{t o:tf cfb]z hf/L x'g

                             29
;Sb}g egL bfz9'Ëf b"3{6gfsf ;DaGwdf o; cbfntaf6 JoQm
/fosf] k|lts"n ePsf] 5 . >L % af6 State Function cGtu{t
ul/Psf] sfo{af6 s'g} gful/ssf] clwsf/df jfwf jf x:tIf]k
k'¥ofpF5 eg] ;+lawfgs} Joj:yf c'g;f/ cfkm\gf] xs /Iffy{ o;
cbfntdf cfpg gkfpg] xf]Og . o;/L clwsf/df cf3ft k/]sf] egL
k/]sf] d'2faf6 x]g{ gldNg] eGg] lhls/ lng ldNb}g .
-!)_     lgj]bs clwjQmf >L           ;Gtf]if dxtf] M zfxL
cfof]unfO{ sfg"gL clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ / JolQmnfO{ ;hfo
tf]Sg] clwsf/ ;d]t k|bfg ul/Psf] x'+bf cfof]u u7g cfb]z
sfg"g g} xf] . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #! sf] k|Zg lgj]bg btf{ ug]{
cfb]z x'bf+ g} lg/fs/0f e} ;s]sf] 5 . km]/L of] k|Zg p7fpg
ldNb}g . wf/f #! sf] JofVof ubf{ wf/f #%-@_ ;+u ldnfP/
ug'{ k5{ . >L % af6 :jljj]sdf x'g ;Sg] sfd sfo{jfxLdf k|Zg
p7fpg g;lsg] xf] . ;f] jfx]s hgtfsf] xs clwsf/;+u ;DalGwt
sfo{ ePsf] cj:yfdf k|Zg p7fpg gldNg] xf]Og . ljjflbt cfb]z
>L % sf] :jljj]saf6 hf/L x'g] ljifo gePsf]n] wf/f #! n] ;+/If0f
k|bfg u/]sf] 5 eGg ldNb}g . wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u klxnf] k6s
k|wfgdGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df ePsf] xf] . jfwf c8\sfp s]df k/]sf]
xf] s;/L km'sfpg vf]lhPsf] xf] ;f]xL cfb]zdf pNn]v x'g' k5{
. zfxL cfof]u u7g cfb]zdf ;+lawfgsf] s'g wf/f sfof{Gjog
ug{ jfwf c8\sfp k/]sf] xf] eGg] pNn]v 5}g . @)%(.^.!* df
hf/L ePsf] cfb]zaf6 jfwf c8\sfp k/L cfb]z hf/L ePsf] s'/f
k|i6 ul/Psf] 5 . @)^!.!).@% df hf/L ePsf] cfb]z sfg"g ;/x
x'g] ePsf]n] To:tf] sfg"g sfof{Gjogdf jfwf k/]sf xf] eGg
ldNb}g .sfg"g sfof{Gjogdf jfwf k/] P]g ;+zf]wg jf vf/]h u/L
sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . xfn ;+;b s[oflzn gePsf] x'+bf
;+;bsf] If]qflwsf/ egL l/6 lgj]bg vf/]h ug{ ldNb}g.
-!!_ clwjQmf >L c?0f 1jfnL - lgj]bs /fhLj k/fh'nLsf]df
_ M g]=sf=k= @)%#, lg0f{o g++ ^@)%, k[i7 $%) df
k|sflzt o; cbfntsf] k"j{ lg0f{oaf6 clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]unfO{ z;Qm / zlQmzfnL lgsfosf] ?kdf :yflkt u/]sf]

                              30
s'/f :jLsf/ ul/Psf]5 . g]kfnsf] ;+lawfg, @)!( n] cg'';Gwfg /
lg0f{o cfkm}n] ug]{ u/L :yfkgf ePsf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u
lgjf/0f cfof]usf] sfo{ k|s[lt k|fs[ltsGofosf] l;4fGt ljkl/t ePsf]
eGg] dxz'; u/L xfnsf] ;+lawfgn] cg'';Gwfg ug]{ / d'2f
x]g]{ cnu cnu lgsfosf] Joj:yf u/]sf] x'bf+ zfxL cfof]usf]
u7g ;+lawfg cg's'n 5}g .
-!@_ clwjQmf >L xl/ k|;fb pk|]tL - lgj]bs /fhLj
k/fh'nLsf]df dfq _ M wf/f @&-#_ n] tf]s]sf] lhDd]jf/L
wf/f #% -@_ sf] cj:yf k"/f u/]kl5 dfq x'g ;S5 . ;+ljwfgsf]
k|:tfjgfdf g} of] ;+ljwfg jdf]lhd /fhsLo;Qf k|of]u x'g]\ eGg]
pNn]v ePjf6 wf/f #%-@_ sf] cj:yf jf6 gu/L k|of]u x'g
;Sb}g . wf/f !@& df >L % jf6 dfq jf >L % sf] :jljj]sjf6 dfq
cfb]z hf/L x'g] eGg] Joj:yf gePsf]n] wf/f #%-@_ jdf]lhd
gu/L wf/f !@& k|of]u x'g ;Sb}g . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]zdf
sfg"gL cfwf/ 5}g . cfof]usf] u7g, If]qflwsf/ sfg"gåf/f
tf]lsPsf] cj:yf gx'+bf sfo{jfxL ug{ kfpb}g . wf/f !@& sf]
cfb]z sfo{sfl/0fL cfb]z xf] . wf/f @&, #% / !@& nfO{ Ps}
7fpFdf ldnfP/ x]bf{ :ki6tf cfp+5 . ;+;b ePsf] cj:yfdf dfq
;+;bdf /fVg] xf] . cfb]zn] sfg"gL x}l;ot g} k|fKt gu/]sf]
x'Fbf wf/f **-@_ jdf]lhd klg cfb]z jb/ x'g'k5{ .
-!#_ clwjQmf >L xl/s[i0f sfsL{                 - lgj]bs /fhLj
k/fh'nLsf] dfq _ M k|:t't ljjfbdf lg/fs/0f ug'{ kg]{ laifo
/fhgLlts laifo xf]Og . ;+ljwfg\ cfkm}df Pp6f /fhgLlts
Document xf] . ;+j}wflgs k|Zgsf] lg/fs/0f x'g'kg]{ cj:yf 5 .
wf/f #! sf] -#_ sf] ljZn]if0f lgj]bs /lj/fh e08f/L ePsf] ;+;b
lj36g d'2fdf ePsf] 5 . ;+s6sfnsf] 3f]if0ff cfb]zdf e|i6frf/sf]
k|;+u pNn]v gePsf]n] wf/f !!% -&_ sf] cfb]zsf] wf/f !@&
sf] cfb]z cg';f/sf] sfo{ sfof{Gjog eO{;s]kl5 ;+;bdf /fVg'
g/fVg'sf] s'g} cy{ 5}g . c;+j}wflgtfsf] k|Zg p7]sf] cj:yfdf
cbfntjf6 k/LIf0f gx'g] eGg ;ls+b}g .


                               31
-!$_ clwjQmf >L k|sfz /fpt -lgj]bs ;Gtf]if dxtf]sf]df
dfq_ M wf/f !@& k|of]u x'g ;+ljwfgsf] sfof{Gjogdf jfwf
c8\sfp k/]sf] x'g'k5{ . zfxL cfof]u gx'+bf ;+ljwfgsf] s'g
Joj:yf sfof{Gjogdf jfwf k/]sf] ;"rgfdf pNn]v 5}g . jfwf k/]sf]
egL ldYofsf/0f jgfP/ cfb]z hf/L ug{ ldNb}g . ;+j}wflgs
k/LIf0f x+'bf ;+j}wflgstfsf] k'i6L ug{ ;Sg' k5{ . wf/f !@&
>L % jf6 :jljj]sdf k|of]u x'g] wf/f xf]Og . :jljj]s ePklg Tof]
cl;ldt / clgoGqLt x'+b}g . ;+ljwfgn] o:tf] zfxL cfof]usf]
kl/sNkgf u/]sf] 5}g . wf/f !@& k6s k6s k|of]u ePsf]
eGb}df o;n] dfGotf kfp+5 eGg ldNb}g . sfg"g JofVof
;DaGwL P]g, @)!) sf] Joj:yfn] klg cfb]z sfg"g ;/x x'g ;S5
t/ ;+ljwfgsf] dfu x'g ;Sb}g . Pp6} lgsfojf6 cg';Gwfg /
txlssftsf ;fy} d'2f ;d]t x]g]{ Joj:yfdf lg:kIf ;'g'jfO{ / lg:kIf
lg0f{o x'g ;Sb}g . wf/f !!% -&_ sf] cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]
;+j}wflgs Joj:yf 5}g o;n] ;+j}wflgs ;jf]{Rrtf / ljlwsf]
zf;gnfO{ cf3ft k'¥ofPsf] 5 .
-!%_ jl/i7 clwjQmf >L jf;'b]j k|;fb 9'Ëfgf -b'j}df_ M
wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z hf/L x'g ;+lawfgsf] sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf]
jfwf Jojwfg b]vfpg' k5{ . j:t'lgi7       -Objectively_ tj/df Tof]
cj:yf /x]sf] b]lvPsf] x'g' k5{ . To:tf] cj:yf sf] cefjdf To;sf]
k|of]u u/L gful/ssf] xs clwsf/ x/0f ug{ ldNb}g . klxnf]k6s
@)%! ;fndf r'gfj ;fg]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u
x'+bf To;n] gful/ssf] xs clwsf/ xgg u/]sf] lyPg . hf/L
ePsf] cfb]zn] jfwf Jojwfg k/s]f k"jf{j:yf b]vfpg ;s]sf] 5}g .
;+lawfg eGbf jflx/sf] lgsfo u7g u/]/ sfo{ ;+rfgng ug{ jfwf
Jojwfg cfPsf] eGg] cfwf/df wf/f !@& k|of]u x'g ;Sb}g .
wf/f **-%_ n] ;jf]{Rr cbfnt;+u >L % af6 /fo lng ;lsjS;g]
Joj:yfn] g} ;+lawfgn] >L % sf] clwsf/ ;Lldt /x]sf] k'i6L
x'G5 . sfg"gsf] clGtd JofVof ;jf]{Rr cbfnt jfx]sf c?n] ug{
;Sb}g . @))( ;fnsf] j]bs[i0f >]i7sf] d'2fdf klg >L % af6
ePsf] sfddf >L % nfO{ ljkIfL gjgfPklg ePsf] sfd sfg"g

                               32
ljkl/t / c;+a]wflgs b]lvP To:tf] sfd jb/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]
l;4fGt :yfkgf ePsf] 5 . æ King can do no wrong Æ eGg]
l;4fGtsf cfwf/df klg ljkIfL gjgfO{g] xf] . >L % af6 hlt
sfo{sfl/0fL ;DaGwL sfd ul/jS;G5 ;j} dlGqkl/ifb\sf]
l;kmfl/;af6 x'g] xf] . o;}n] l/6 ;'g'jfO{ ug{ jfwf 5}g .

ljkIfL tkm{sf sfg"g Joj;foLx? tkm{af6 M

-!_ dxfGofoflwjQmf >L kjg s'df/ cf]emf -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]u ;d]tsf] tkm{af6_ M lgj]bs /fhLj k/fh'nLnfO{ ldlt
@)^!.!!.^ df ePsf] klxnf] zfxL cfb]zåf/f ul7t cfof]uaf6}
cg';Gwfg z'? ePsf] xf] . cfof]udf pkl:yt e} jofg / y'g5]s
sfo{df ;l/s ePkl5 w/.}6L lbg g;sL y'gfdf k/]kl5 cfof]un]
cg';Gwfg u/]]sf] w]/} ;dokl5 lgj]bg k/]sf] 5 . h'gj]nf sfo{
k|f/De ePsf] lyof] Tolxj]nf lgj]bg ug{ cfpg' kYof]{.
;+s6sfnsf] cj:yfdf hf/L ePs]f cfb]znfO{ b'j}n] l/6 lgj]bgdf
:jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . ;+;bsf] r'gfj x'g g;s]sf]n] lgjf{lrt
hgk|ltlglwsf] ;/sf/ aGg ;s]sf] 5}g . r'gfj x'g ;s]sf] eP
;+lawfg oyf:yfgdf cfpg] lyof] . clxn]sf] ;d:of ;+;b lj36g
eP/ l;h{gf ePsf] xf] . ;+;bsf] lgjf{rg e} g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f #^ / wf/f $@ cGtu{tsf] ;/sf/ xfn
g/x]sf] cj:yf x'+bf Gofokflnsf ;DaGwL clwsf/ jfx]s ;j}
sfo{sfl/0fL / Joj:yflksLo clwsf/ >L % df /xg uPsf] 5 . oL
clwsf/ c?df lglxt ePs} cj:yfdf klg ;+lawfgsf] kfngf / ;+/If0f
u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L wf/f @& -#_ / wf/f $# n] >L % df /xsf] 5
. g]kfn clw/fHosf hgtfsf] ;jf]{Qd lxt / ;Dd'GgtLsf] nflu >L
% n] pko'Qm sbd rflnjS;g wf/f @&-#_ n] clVtof/L k|bfg
u/]sf] 5 . hgtfsf] ;jf]{Qdlxtdf rflng] sfo{ g} sfg"g xf] .
sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ ePsf] dlGqkl/ifb\ u7g ePs} cj:yfdf klg
>L % nfO{ of] clwsf/ 5 . ;+;bsf] lgjf{rg x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf
s[ofzLn x'g] elgPsf] wf/f &@ / !@& g} xf] . oL b'Oj6f

                             33
wf/fsf] k|of]uaf6 /fHo Joj:yf ;+rfng eO/x]sf] 5 . ldlt
@)^!.!).!( sf] zfxL 3f]if0ffdf e|i6frf/ km}lnPsf] / b]z ljsf;df
jfwf k/]sf] ;d]tsf sf/0faf6 e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f x'g' kg]{ / ul/g]
s'/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . wf/f #%-@_ df pNn]lvt dGqLkl/ifb\
eg]sf] lgjf{lrt k|ltlglwsf] dlGqkl/ifb\ xf] . clxn] To:tf] cj:yf
5|}g . clxn]sf] dlGqkl/ifb\ wf/f !@& cGtu{t u7g ePsf]n]
>L % n] ug]{ lg0f{ox? s;}sf] l;kmfl/;df ug'{ kg]{ xf]Og .
>L % cfkm}n] ug]{ x]f . sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ >L % df g}
/x]sf] x'bf+ wf/f !@& k|of]u ubf{ wf/f #%-@_ adf]lhd
dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df x'g' kg]{ eGg] s'/fsf] cy}{ 5}g .
g]kfnsf] clxn]sf] cj:yf ljlzi6 k|s[ltsf] /x]sf] 5 . >L % n] sfd
rnfp ;/sf/ u7g u/]sf] xf]Og . >L % n] zf;g Joj:yf ;+rfng
ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf ljlzi6 k|s[ltsf] cj:yf xf] . ljlu|Psf] sfo{nfO{
7Ls dfu{df Nofpg] sfo{ ePsf] 5 . >L % sf] Joj:yf
;+lawfgsf] wf/f @& n] u/]sf] 5 . wf/f @&-!_ df pNn]v
ePsf] lxGb" wdf{jnDjL >L % x'g] ePaf6 k"jL{o k/Dk/f /
rlncfPsf s'/fnfO{ dgg ubf{ klg >L % n] lhDd]jf/L jxg ug'{
k/]sf] 5. lxGb"wd{ / ;+:s[ltsf] k[i6kf]ifs / To;af6 lgb]{lzt
x'g] >L % sf] k/+k/f / cj:yf xf] . j}lbs k4lt cg'?k >L % af6
hgtfsf] x/]sf ;'vb'Mvdf ljrf/ k'¥ofpg' kg]{ x'G5 . e|i6frf/
a9]sf] / z'zf;g gePs} sf/0f clxn]sf] cj:yf cfOk'u]sf] xf] .
e|i6frf/ ;d]tsf] sf/0faf6 åGbsf] cj:yf cfO{ ;+s6sfn nfu"
ePsf] xf] . e|i6frf/n] h/f uf8]sf] / ljs[lt km}nfPs]f s'/f
tt\sflng /fli6«o ;efsf ;b:o dxfb]j k|;fb ofbjsf] ;+of]hsTjdf
ul7t ;ldltsf] k|ltj]bgn] tof/ u/]sf] k|ltj]bgn] ;d]t k'i6L u/]sf] 5
. d'n's clxn]sf] cj:yfdf cfOk'Ug'sf] Pssf/0f e|i6frf/ tTj klg
xf] . o;sf] pko'Qm pkrf/ / lgoGq0f x'g'k5{ egL lhDd]jf/L
lng] clxn] Psdfq ;+:yf /fh;+:yf g} xf] . >L % sf] ;Gt'i6Laf6
x/]s sfo{ x'g] xf]. wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{t >L % sf] ;Gt'i6Ldf
ul/Psf] sfo{sf ;DaGwdf cbfntdf k|Zg p7fpg ldNb}+g . ldlt
@)^!.!).!( sf]] 3f]if0ffdf klg o:tf] cfof]u u7g ug]{ s'/f k/]sf]

                                34
5 . wf/f !!%-&_ df ;+s6sfn lgjf/0f ug{ eGg] jfx]s c? zt{
gtf]lsPsf]n] o:tf] cfof]u u7g ug{ ldNb}g eGg ldNb}g . ;f]
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z sfg"g ;/x nfu" x'g] Joj:yf 5 . t/ of] P]g ;/x
xf]Og . of] ;+lawfg ;/xsf] xf] . ;+lawfg klg sfg"g g}
ePsf]n] ;f] cfb]z klg ;f]xL adf]lhd ;++lawfgs} c+u xf] .
em+s s8]n ;d]tsf] lgj]bgdf o; cbfntaf6 ePsf] lg0f{odf
;+lawfgnfO{ klg sfg"g g} xf] eGg] dflgPs]fn] klg of] cfb]z
;+lawfgs} c+u xf] . wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{t cfof]u u7g e}
ph'/L 5fgljg, d'2f btf{, lg0f{o ;d]tsf sfo{ k|f/De e} tL
sfo{x? ljrf/flwg /x]sf] cj:yfdf >L % af6 ldlt @)^@.!.%
;+s6sfn lkmtf{ lnOjS;]sf]n] cfof]udf ljrf/fwLg d'2fx? cGo
lgsfodf k7fpg] Joj:yf ;d]t ge} sfo{ ;rfngdf jfwf c8\sfp k/L
cfof]usf] sfd sfo{jfxLnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg >L % n] wf/f !@&
adf]lhd cfb]z ul/jS;]sf] xf] . ;+lawfgdf jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] ;DaGwdf @))$ ;fnsf] j}wflgs sfg"g / @)!% ;fn /
@)!( ;fnsf] ;+lawfgn] klg >L % nfO{ clwsf/ lbPsf] lyof] .
@)!( ;fnsf] ;+lawfgn] o:tf] cfb]znfO{ ;+lawfgsf] Ps c+u
x'g] s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] t/ clxn]sf] ;+lawfgsf] wf/f !@& df o;
;DaGwL Joj:yf gk/]sf]n] JofVof x'g' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
;+lawfgsf] lqmofzLntfdf cfpg] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]z
e} ;+lawfgsf] sfof{Gjgn] ult lng] x'bf+ o:tf] cfb]z
;+lawfgd} k/]sf] dfGg' k5{ . h'g P]g cGtu{tsf] jfwf
km'sfpg] cfb]z hf/L x'G5 Tof] cfb]z ToxL P]gsf] c+u
dflgg] x'+bf o;y{ klg ;+lawfgsf] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg hf/L
x'g] cfb]znfO{ ;+lawfgs} c+u dfGg'k5{ . jfwf c8\sfp
;DaGwL Joj:yf km/flsnf] Joj:yf xf] eGg] s'/f ef/tLo
cbfntaf6 klg :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5. o;/L / o:tf] dfq ug{ kfpF5
eGg] 5}g . wf/f !!%-&_ sf] cfb]z sfg"g ;/x e} ;+lawfgsf]
Psc+u ePsf]n] To;}n] >[hgf u/]sf] sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg
wf/f !@& adf]lhd cfb]z ePsf] 5 . ;+lawfgsf] JofVofubf{
h'gxb;Dd ldN5 ldnfO{ JofVof ug'{ kg]{ eGg] dfGo l;4fGt

                             35
/lxcfPsf] 5 . wf/f (* n] ;fj{hlgs kbwf/0f u/]sf JolQmsf]
xsdf dfq clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un] cg';Gwfg u/L
d'2f rnfpg] clwsf/ tf]lsPsf] 5 . zfxL cfof]unfO{ Tof] jfx]s
c? JolQ,m ;fj{hlgs ;+3 ;+:yf, j}+s tyf ljlQo ;+:yfdf sfo{/t
lglh JolQm / 7]Ssf k§f /fhZj 7uL, t:s/L h:tf ck/fwsf
;DaGwdf ;d]t cg'';Gwfg u/L d'2f x]g]{ Joj:yf x'bf+ Pp6}
sfo{sf] nflu b'Oj6f ;+:yf u7g ePsf] xf]Og . cfof]usf] bkmf
@ n] cfof]unfO{ lbOPsf] clwsf/ / wf/f (* cGtu{tsf] clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] u7gsf] cfwf/ km/s km/s 5 .
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] sfd sfo{jfxLsf]
jf]emnfO{ Go"g ug{ klg zfxL cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . oL
b'j} lgsfosf] sfd sfo{jfxL / clwsf/df s]xL ldn]sf] h:tf]
b]lvPsf] ePklg 5'§f 5'§} ?kdf sfo{ ePsf] / clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]un] cfkm\gf] sfo{ If]qdf c;/ k/]sf] egL
cfPsf] cj:yf ;d]t gx'+bf ;+lawfgsf] ;fd~h:ok"0f{ JofVof u/L
cfof]usf] u7g ;+lawfg ;Ddt /x]sf] 7x/ x'gkb{5 . jt{dfg
;+lawfgn] kmf}hbf/L Gofo;DaGwL b'O{ k4ltdWo]
k|ltåGbfTds k4ltnfO{ dfq :jLsf/ u/]sf] eGg] pNn]v 5}g .
jg P]g, e+;f/ P]g, :yflgo k|zf;g P]g, df ePs]f Joj:yfn]
cGj]if0ffTds k4ltnfO{ klg :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 / o; Joj:yfnfO{ o;
cbfntn] ;+lawfg ;Ddt dfg]sf] x'+bf cfof]unfO{ cg';Gwfg
ug]{ d'2f cfkm}n] rnfpg] / d'2f lg0fo{ ug{ lbPsf] clwsf/
Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt / k|fs[lts Gofosf l;4fGt ljl/t eGg]
egfO{ ;+lawfg / sfg"g ;Ddt 5}g . To;df klg
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{noaf6 vl6uPsf clws[tx?n]
cg';Gwfg clwsf/Lsf] x}lzotaf6 d'2f cg';Gwfg u/L lghx?n]
d'2f btf{u/] kl5 cfof]uaf6 d'2fsf] ;'g'jfO{ ug]{ Joj:yf
ePsf]n] Pp6} lgsfoaf6 ;j}sfd ePsf] klg 5}g . k|lt/Iff ug{
rfxg]nfO{ pko'Qm ;do klg lbOPsf] 5 . :jR5 lg:kIf Gofo
;+kfbg x'g] Joj:yf 5 . cfof]usf] lg0f{o pk/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf
k'g/fj]bg nfUg] Joj:yf ;d]t ePaf6 cfof]uaf6 sfg"g / Gofosf

                            36
dfGo l;4fGtsf] k|lts"n lg0f{o ePsf] /x]5 eg] d'2faf6 klg
kl/If0f e} ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] lgoGq0fdf /fVg ;S5 . nfdf]
k|zf;sLo cg'ej ePsf] JolQmx? cfof]udf /x]sf 5g\ . of]Uotf
bIftf klg ltgdf /x]sf]5 . k"0f{?kdf cbfnt h:tf] gePklg
cw{Goflos lgsfon] ckgfO{ cfPsf] k|f?ksf] ?kdf cfof]u u7g
ePsf] 5 . sfo{ Goflos lgsfos} h:tf] ePsf] 5 . wf/f !@& sf]
cfb]z ;+;b ;dIf /flvg]5 eGg] Joj:yf ePsf]n] of] k|Zg klxn]
/fhlgtLs ?kaf6 ljrf/ x'g'kg]{ eGg] b]lvG5 . of] cfb]zsf]
hfFrj'em ug]{ clVtof/L ;+;bsf] xf] . >L % sf] sfdsf]
;DaGwdf wf/f #! n] d'2f nfUg ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . wf/f &@
cGtu{t hf/L x'g] cWofb]z Joj:yflksLo clwsf/ cGtu{tsf]
kg]{ x'+bf To;df cbfntn] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ ;Sg] eP
klg wf/f !@& cGtu{ts]f cfb]zdf Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g
;Sb}+g . lgj]bsx?af6 xfd|f] clxn]sf] cj:yf;+u ldNbf] h'Nbf]
lg0f{o / cflwsfl/s b:tfj]hx? k|:t't ePsf 5}gg\ . d'n'sdf JofKt
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] k|of;sf] nflu o:tf] cfb]z ePs]fn] df+u
adf]lhd cfb]z x'g] cj:yf 5}g .
-@_ gfoj dxfGofoflwjQmf >L ›f]0f/fh /]UdL -ljkIfL
zfxL cfof]u ;d]tsf] tkm{af6_ M ;+a}wflgs cEof;sf]
qmddf xfnsf] l:ylt cfOk/]sf] xf] . ldlt @)^!.!).!( sf] zfxL
3f]if0ffsf] bkmf !@ df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug'{ cfjZos k/]sf]
pNn]v ePadf]lhd >L % af6 e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f zfxL cfof]usf]
3f]if0ff ePsf] xf] . zfxL 3f]if0ffdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]unfO{ >f]t ;fwgn] ;DkGg u/fpg] s'/f ;d]t
pNn]v ePs]fn] ;f] cfof]usf] sfddf x:tIf]k x'g] u/L zfxL
cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf]Og . lgj]bs ;Gtf]if dxtf]sf] lgj]bgdf
ldlt @)^!.!!.% df hf/L ePsf] klxnf] cfb]znfO{ dfGotf lbPsf]
5 . e|i6frf/ /fli6«o ck/fwsf ?kdf /x]sf] x'+bf ;f] sf]
lgoGq0fsf] nflu cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{t
hf/L ePsf] cfb]zaf6 u7g ePs]f cfof]usf] sfd sfo{jfxLdf >L
% af6 ;+s6sfn lkmtf{ lnOjS;]kl5 cfof]usf] sfd sfo{jfxLdf

                             37
jfwf k/]sf] s'/f hu hfx]/} 5 . /fHosf] cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df zfxL
cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOg' kg]{ cj:yf cfO{ wf/f !@& adf]lhd
cfb]z ePsf] xf] . wf/f !!%-&_ sf] cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg
ldNb}g eGg] cy{ ug]{ xf] eg] wf/f !@& nfO{ lgoGq0f
u/]sf] x'g hfG5 . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z hf/L ubf{ k"/f ug'{ kg]{
k"j{ zt{ s]xL tf]lsPsf] 5}g . o;} wf/f cGtu{t hf/L ePsf] cfb]z
;+;b ;dIf /flvg] / /fhg}lts 5nkmnaf6 lg/fs/0f x'g] k|s[ltsf]
cfb]z xf] . o; ljifodf cbfntaf6 ljrf/ x'+bf ;+;bsf] clwsf/df
x:tIf]k x'ghfG5 . k"0f{dfg zfSosf] l/6 lgj]bgdf ;+;bsf]
If]qflwsf/sf ;DaGwdf ljZn]if0f ePs]f 5 . wf/f !@& cg'?k
lg/Gt/tf k|fKt u/]s]f cfof]usf] k|s[lt ;+a}wflgs g} xf] . em+s
s8]n / pk]G›gGbg ltldlN;gfsf] lgj]bgdf o; cbfntaf6 ePsf]
cfb]zdf wf/f !@& cGtu{t hf/L ePs]f cfb]zdf klg wf/f #!
adf]lhdsf] ;+/If0f /xg] s'/f o; cbfntn] :jLsf/ ul/;s]sf]5 .
;+lawfgsf] Joj:yfnfO{ 6]s]/ cfof]u u7g ePsf]n] c;+a}wflgs
egL k|Zg ug{ ldNb}g . ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg nfUg]
Joj:yf ePsf] x'+bf Gofosf] dfGo l;4fGt ljkl/t cfof]uaf6
lg0f{o ePsf] cj:yfdf klg o; cbfntaf6 ;f] sf] kl/If0f e}
lgoGq0f x'g ;S5 . cfof]usf] sfd sfo{jfxL Goflos k4ltdf
cfwfl/t /x]/ sfof{Gjog ePsf 5g\ . cfof]usf] lg0f{o pk/ o;
cbfntdf lgj]bg k'g/fj]bg ;d]t btf{ e} o; cbfntaf6 lgj]bgdf
lg0f{o ;d]t eO;s]sf] cj:yf x'+bf cfof]unfO{ c;+a}wflgs eGg
ldNb}g . ;+a}wflgs k/Dk/fsf] ?kdf wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u
ePsf] 5 . of] k|s[of ;+lawfgsf] >f]tsf] ?kdf cfPsf] 5 . cfb]z
;+lawfgsf] g} efu ePsf]n] To;sf] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g
;Sb}g .
-#_ gfoj dxfGofoflwjQmf >L g/]G› k|;fb kf7s -ljkIfL
zfxL cfof]u ;d]tsf] tkm{af6_ M k|:t't ljjfbsf] lg/fs/0fsf]
nflu g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!%-&-
,!@&, wf/f *$,*%, wf/f #%-@_ / wf/f @& sf] ljZn]if0f x'g'
kg]{ b]lvG5 . cfof]u u7g ug'{s]f cf}lrTo ldlt @)^!.!).!( s]f

                              38
zfxL 3f]if0ffdf g} pNn]v 5 . ck/fwsf] k|s[lt tf]sL To:tf
ck/fwsf ;DaGwdf cg';Gwfg ug{, d'2f rnfpg / d'2fdf lg0f{o
ug]{ clwsf/ tf]lsPsf] 5 . wf/f !!%-&_ sf] cfb]znfO{ sfg"g
;/x x'g] elgPsf] / ;+lawfg klg sfg"g g} ePs]fn] of] cfb]z
;+lawfgs} Ps c+u xf] . cfof]u u7g e} sfo{ ul//x]sf] cj:yfdf
To;sf] sfo{ ;+rfngdf jfwf k/]sf] sf/0faf6} jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfO{ cfof]usf] sfo{df lg/Gt/tf k|bfg ul/Psf] xf]. ;+;b
j;]sf] cj:yf ePklg gePklg wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u ug]{ clwsf/
>L % nfO{ g} ;+lawfgn] k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ef/tLo ;+lawfgsf]
wf/f #(@ df /x]sf] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] Joj:yf / xfd|f]
Joj:yfdf km/s olt dfq 5 . c? Joj:yf ;dfg 5 . c;xh kl/l:yltdf
;+lawfgsf] JofVof s;/L ug'{ kg]{ eGg] s'/f lgj]bs ;Gtf]if
dxtf]n] ;efd'v tf/fgfy /fgfef6sf lj?4 lbPsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o;
cbfntaf6 ljZn]if0f eO;s]sf] 5 . xfd|f] ;+lawfgn] >L %
;lxtsf] sfo{kflnsf / Joj:yflksfsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . wf/f !@&
sf] cfb]zn] ;+lawfgsf] c? wf/f s[oflGjt x'g] x'+bf of] wf/f
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z ;+lawfgs} efu xf] . ;DdfggLo k|wfg
GofofwLzsf] lgo'QmLsf nflu ;+a}wflgs kl/ifb\sf] u7gdf
k/]sf jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]z eO ;+lawfg s[oflzn
ul/Psf] x'+bf wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z ;+lawfgs} efu xf] eGg]
k'i6L ub{5 . wf/f !@& c? wf/f h:t} k|of]u x'g] wf/f xf] . of]
wf/fsf] k|of]u clxn] /fHosf] cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df cfjZostfsf]
l;4fGt adf]lhd ePsf] 5 . lgj]bs ljgf]b sfsL{sf] l/6 lgj]bgdf
o; cbfntsf] ljz]if Ohnfzaf6 ePsf] lg0f{odf / g]=sf=k=
@)%! k[i7 %%# df k|sflzt l/6 lgj]bgdf /fHosf] cfjZostfsf]
cfwf/df cWofb]z hf/L x'g] / k'/fg} sfg"gn] dfGotf kfpFg]
lg0f{o ePsf] 5 . tLg k|sf/sf cbfntaf6 Gofo lg/f]k0f ul/g]
k|rng /x]sf] 5 . ;fdfGo cbfnt, s'g} vf; d'2f x]g{ tf]lsPsf] vf;
cbfnt / GofofwLs/0fx? o; cGtu{t kb{5g\ . o; cGtu{t
Gofosf] sfd ug]{ t/ ;fdfGo jf ljz]if cbfntsf] k|s[lt h:tf]
gb]lvg] cbfntsf] k|s[lts} sfd ug]{ h:t} lgsfox? klg Tribunal

                              39
sf ?kdf /x]sf] x'G5 . o:tf Tribunal klg sfg"gsf dfGo l;4fGt
leq} c6]sf x'G5g\ . t/ ltgn] u/]sf] sfd eg] v'nf / ts{k"0f{ x'g'
kb{5 . Odfg l;+x u'?ªsf] d'2fdf ePs]f lg0f{o o; k|;+u;+u
ldNg cfpb}g . Pp6} lgsfon] cg';Gwfg u/L d'2f x]b}{df
Gofo x'g ;Sb}g eGg ldNb}g . c? lgsfoaf6 ;+sng ePsf]
;j"b k|df0f eGbf cfkm\g} k|of;af6 ;+slnt ;j"b k|df0fdf
ljZj;gLotf w]/} x'g] x'G5 . Goflos sfd sfo{jfxL jf k|0ffnLsf
;DaGwdf o; cbfntdf klxn] klg ljjfb cfPsf] lyof] . g]=sf=k=
@)%^ k[i7 @# / l/6 g+ #@^$ df ldlt @)%*.@.% df
ePsf] lg0f{odf ;+lawfgsf] wf/f *$, *% ;d]tsf] /f]xdf ljz]if
cbfnt / cw{Goflos lgsfosf ;DaGwdf ltgnfO{ ;+lawfg ;Ddt
dfgL lg0f{o ePsf] 5 . cfof]un] cg';Gwfg txlssft ubf{s}
cj:yf b]lv cfkm\gf] s['/f eGg kfpFg], jxz k}/jL x'g],
cfof]usf] lg0f{o pk/ k'g/fj]bg ;d]t nfUg] Joj:yf ePs]fn]
cfof]usf] u7g / sfd sfo{jfxL Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt ljkl/t 5
eGg ldNb}g . s:tf] cbfnt jf lgsfo u7g ug]{ / s:tf] d'2f x]g]{
clwsf/ lbg] eGg] s'/f sfo{kflnsfsf] gLltut s'/f xf] . e|i6frf/
lgoGq0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf ^% n] o; P]g cGtu{tsf d'2f
c? lgsfon] x]g{ kfpg] s'/fnfO{ :jLsf/ u/]sf]5 . ;fdfGo
cbfntaf6 klg d'2fsf] cfkm} txlssft x'g ;Sg] lg0f{o ePsf] 5 .
jb\lgotk"j{s ?kdf jf b'/f;oefjgfaf6 sfd ePsf] eGg] pNn]v
u/]/ dfq x'b}+g ;f]sf] k'i6L klg ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . wf/f !@&
adf]lhd >L % af6 hf/L ePsf] cfb]z k/LIf0f x'b}+g eGg]
lg0f{o eO;s]sf] 5 . gful/stf ljw]ossf] ;DaGwdf o; cbfntaf6
lbPsf] /fodf ;d]t wf/f @&-#_ sf] JofVof / ljZn]if0f ePsf] 5
. wf/f **-!_ cGtu{tsf] o; cbfntsf] clwsf/ k|of]u x'g s'g}
sfg"gsf] Joj:yf ;+lawfg;+u jflemPsf] x'g' kg]{ ;+lawfgs}
Joj:yfx? k/:k/df jflemPsf] laifo **-!_ cg';f/ x]g{ gldNg]
egL lgj]bs rG›sfGt 1jfnLsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o; cbfnt ljz]if
Ohnfzaf6 lg0f{o ePs]f 5 . cbfntn] sfNklgs s'/fsf] lg0f{o


                              40
ub}{g eGg] o; cbfntaf6 k"j{ ePsf lg0f{ox? ;d]taf6 l/6
lgj]bg x]g{ ldNg] cj:yf 5}g .
-$_ sf=d'= gfoj dxfGofoflwjQmf >L k'ik/fh sf]O/fnf -
ljkIfL zfxL cfof]u ;d]tsf] tkm{af6_M >L % af6 cfof]u
u7g ul/jS;]sf] xf] . >L % af6 wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u u/LjS;L
k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm u/LjS;]sf] ;DaGwdf k/]sf] l/6
lgj]bgx?af6 wf/f !@& sf] k|of]usf] s'/fnfO{ cbfntn] :jLsf/
ul/;s]sf] 5 . ;+lawfgsf] ;+/If0f / kfngf ug]{ wf/f @&-#_ s]f
Joj:yfnfO{ Conventional ?kdf :jLsf/ e} ;s]sf] 5. >L % af6
wf/f !@& k|of]u u/LjS;L ePs]f cfb]z Supreme Law xf] . of]
s'g} sfg"g, lgod,ljlgod cGtu{t cfPsf] xf]Og . o;}n] of] wf/f
** sf] kl/wL leq cfpg ;Sb}g . wf/f (* n] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf
;DaGwdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u afx]s c? lgsfo
u7g x'g ;Sb}g eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5}g . ljz]if cbfnt P]g,
@)%( n] lglZrt ul/Psf k|s[of ckgfO{ sfo{ ug]{ ul/Ps]fn]
wf/f *$,*% ljkl/t cfof]u u7g ePs]f eGg ldNb}g . wf/f !@&
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] ;Ddsf] cfb]z xf]
;+lawfg ;+zf]wg ul/Ps]f xf]Og . k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"gdf cem}
klg Inqusitorial System ckgfPsf] cj:yf 5 . lhpdf:g] j]Rg] - sfo{
lgoGq0f _ P]g, @)$# n] cbfntsf] cg'dltaf6 jfx]s d'2f rNg
g;Sg] Joj:yf u/]af6 klg o; tYosf] k'li6 x'G5 . clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un] klg cg''Gwfg ug]{ dfq xf]Og
cfkm}n] lg0f{o ug]{ Joj:yf klg /x]sf] 5 . wf/f !@& k|of]u
u/L ;dfgfGt/ ?ksf] csf]{ lgsfo u7g ug{ kfOb}+g eGg]
Joj:yf u/]sf] 5}g . wf/f !@& df h:tf] zAb k/]sf] 5 ;f]xL
adf]lhdsf] JofVof x'g' kb{5 .
-%_ ;xGofoflwjQmf >L 6Lsf jxfb'/ xdfn -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]u ;d]tsf] tkm{af6_ M l/6 lgj]bs /fhLj k/fh'nLsf] l/6
lgj]bgdf s'g ldltsf] cfb]z jb/sf] df+u u/]sf] pNn]v 5}g .
cfb]z s;/L jflemPsf] x]f ;f] klg k|i6 v'nfOPsf] 5}g . l/6
lgj]bs ;Gtf]if dxtf]sf] l/6 lgj]bgdf @)^@.!.!^ sf] cfb]znfO{

                              41
dfq jb/sf] df+u u/L ldlt @)^!.!!.% sf] cfb]znfO{ dfGotf
lbOPsf] 5 . ldlt @)^@.!.!^ df ldlt @)^!.!!.% sf] cfb]znfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbg cfb]z ePsf] xf] . cfb]z hf/L ug]{ clwsf/
ePsfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] cfb]z hf/L ug]{ clwsf/ klg x'G5 .
sfg"g JofVof ;DaGwL P]g, @)!) sf] bkmf @! sf] Joj:yfn]
;f] s'/f k'i6L ub{5 . /fhLj k/fh'nLs]f l/6 lgj]bgdf k|i6 lhls/
gePs]fn] g]=sf=k= @)$^ lg=g=+ @#$^ df k|sflzt l;4fGt
cg';f/ lgj]bg nfUg ;Sb}g . wf/f #!-#_ n] >L % af6 ul/jS;g]
sfdnfO{ hgfpF5 . To:tf]df k|Zg p7fpg ldNb}g . wf/f @&-
#_ >L % sf] :jljj]sdf k|of]u x'g] wf/f xf] . ;+lawfgsf] wf/f
@*,$#,!@! sf] Joj:yf jfx]s >L % af6 k/Dk/f / lglxt
/fhsLozQf k|of]u u/L sfo{ u/LjS;g] Joj:yf /xL cfPsf] 5 .
tt\sflng k|wfg dGqL >L ;"o{jxfb'/ yfkfn] ;+;b lj36gsf]
l;kmfl/;sf ;DaGwdf / gful/stf ljw]ossf ;DaGwdf o; cbfntsf]
/fo j'emLjS;]af6 klg ;f] s'/f k'i6L ub{5 . bfz9'+uf b'3{6gfsf
;DaGwdf o; cbfntaf6 k]z ul/Psf] /fodf s'g} lgsfon] sfd
ug{ g;Sg] l:ylt >[hgf ePdf tt\sfnsf] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ wf/f
!@& k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] Joxf]/f pNn]v 5 . xl/ k|;fb g]kfnsf] l/6
lgj]bgdf klg >L % df ;+a}wflgs pGd'QmL /x]sf] ljZn]if0f
ePs]f 5 . g]=sf=k= @)!^ k[i7 @#$ df k|sflzt j]bs[i0f
>]i7sf] d'2fdf King can do no wrong eGg] lg0f{o ePsf] 5 .
lgj]bsn] p7fPsf k|Zgx? /fhgLlts k|s[ltsf x'g\ . hgtfsf]
;jf]{Qd lxtnfO{ Wofg lbOjS;L wf/f @&-#_ ;d]tsf] cfwf/df
cfb]z hf/L ePsf]n] cfb]z ;+lawfg ;Ddt 5 . wf/f !$-@_ n]
b'O k6s cg';Gwfg x'g ;Sb}g eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5}g . Pp6}
ljjfbsf ;DaGwdf klg cnu cnu P]g cGtu{t sfo{jfxL ug{
ldNg] lg0f{o @)%( ;fnsf] l/6 g+= @*$% lgj]bs lszf]/
>]i7sf] l/6 lgj]bgdf ePsf] 5 . /fi6« k|d'vnfO{ hgtfsf] ;jf]{Qd
lxtsf] lglDt h:tf] ;'s} sbd rfNg ;lsg] cGt/lglxt clwsf/ /xG5
eGg] lg0f{o ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] klg u/]sf] 5 . hg lgjf{lrt


                             42
;/sf/sf] cjl:ylt g} 5}g eg] wf/f #%-@_ sf] l;kmfl/; rflxG5
eGg ldNb}g .
-^_ ljåfg jl/i7 clwjQmf >L s'~h ljxf/L k|;fb l;+x -ljkIfL
zfxL cfof]usf] tkm{af6 _ M g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& sf] Joj:yf ctGt /fd|f] 5 . ;+lawfgsf] sfo{fGjogdf jfwf
c8\sfp km'sfpg] wf/f !@& sf] Joj:yf gePsf] eP b]zdf
clxn] s'g} klg lgsfon] sfd ug{ ;Sb}g lyof] . wf/f %#-$_ sf]
sfof{Gjogdf jfwf k/L ;f] wf/fsf] k|of]u e} >L % af6 zfxL
3f]if0fx? ePsf x'g\ . lgj]bs em+s s8]n;d]tsf] lgj]bgdf >L
% af6 wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u u/L u7g ePsf] dGqLkl/ifb\sf
lj?4 l/6 lgj]bgnfUg g;Sg] o; cbfntaf6 wf/f #!-#_sf] JofVof
eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . ;+;b lj36g e} r'gfj x'g g;s]sf] kl/k|]Ifdf
;+lawfgsf] wf/f @&-#_ ;d]tsf] cfwf/df ;+lawfgsf] ;+/If0f /
kfngf u/LjS;L ldlt @)^!.!).!( sf] zfxL 3f]if0ff e} ;+s6sfnsf]
;d]t 3f]if0f ePsf] / ;f] 3f]if0ffdf pNn]v eP adf]lhd b]zdf
em+flub} uPsf] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug{] pB]Zon] wf/f !!%-&
sf] ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L e} @)^!.!!.% df
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] xf] . wf/f !!%-
&_ adf]lhdsf] cfb]z ;+s6sfn /x];Dd nfu" x'g] x'+bf ldlt
@)^@.!.!^ df >L % af6 ;+s6sfn 3f]if0ff lkmtf{ lnO{jS;]sf]
/ @)^!.!!.% sf cfb]z adf]lhd ul7t cfof]usf] sfo{ ;+rfngdf
jfwf k/]sf] sf/0faf6 cfof]udf k/L /x]sf d'2fx? / ph"/Lx? x]/L
sfo{jfxL lsgf/f ug{ lg/Gt/tf k|bfg ePsf] xf] . lgj]bs ;Gtf]if
dxtf]n] l/6 lgj]bgdf of] of] sf/0faf6 cfb]z ;+lawfg;+u
jflemPsf] egL v'nfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . cbfnt df+u;+u ;Lldt /xg'
kg]{ x'G5 . wf/f !@& k|of]u u/L dGqLkl/ifb\sf] u7g ug{
x'G5 eg] sfo{sfl/0fLsf] Ps ;fgf] efusf] ?kdf /x]sf] zfxL
cfof]u u7g x'g g;Sg] xf]Og . lgj]bgdf wf/f @& sf] JofVof
u/fO{ kfpF eGg] df+u 5}g . ljjfblt cfb]z >L % af6 hf/L
ePsf] eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g . >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] sd{rf/Laf6
o:tf] sfo{ gePsf] >L % sf] ;/sf/ ljkIfL klg gePsf] x'+bf o;

                             43
ljjfbdf wf/f #! sf] ;+/If gkfpg] eGg] cj:yf g} 5}g . bfz9'Ëfsf]
;DaGwdf p2[t ul/Psf]] o; cbfntaf6 d'2f dfldnfsf] ;'g'jfO{
x'bf+ lg0f{o ePsf] ljifo ge} /fo ePsf] x'+bf glh/ dfGg
ldNb}g . wf/f !@& cGtu{tsf] cfb]z klxn] ;+;bdf k]z u/]kl5
dfq To;sf] a}wflgstf cbfntn] hfFr ug{ kfpg] xf] . ljjflbt
cfb]z ;+;bdf k]z gu/L l/6 k/]sf] x'bf+ l/6 lgj]bgnfO{
kl/kSjdfGg ldNb}g . lgj]bg btf{ ug]{ u/L ePsf] cfb]z
ldn]sf] 5}g . lnlvt hjfkm ;a} ljkIfL;+u gdfluPsf] / lnlvt
hjfkm k]z ug]{ ;dofjwL klg sd lbPsf] x'bf+ o; Ohnfzaf6
k"0f{ ;'g'jfO{ ug{ ldNb}g . Ps GofofwLzsf] Ohnfzdf
k7fO{ ;f] k|s[of k'/f u/fO{ kfpF .
-&_ clwjQmf >L k|]djxfb'/ lji6 -ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf
cWoIf eQm jxfb'/ sf]O/fnfsf] tkm{af6 _ M lgjf{lrt
k|wfgdGqL cefjsf] sf/0f wf/f !@& cGtu{t u7g ePsf]
dlGqkl/ifb\nfO{ :jLsf/L cfPsf] cj:yf 5 . @)^!.!).!( sf]
3f]if0ffdf pNn]v ePadf]lhd zfxL cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] xf] .
u7g cfb]z d} kbflwsf/Lsf] of]Uotf, cfof]usf] sfdsfo{jfxL /
clwsf/ tf]lsPsf] x'bf+ cfof]u clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]usf] ;dfgfGt/ lgsfosf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 eGg ldNb}g . wf/f
!!%-&_ cGtu{t ul7t cfof]usf pk/ ph"/ ug{ g;s]sf] x'bf+
To;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] ;DaGwdf dfq l/6 k/]sf] 5 . wf/f
@&-#_ s} kl/lwleq /xL >L % af6 zfxL 3f]if0ff ePsf] /
;f]xL cg'?k cfof]u klg u7g ePsf] xf] . >L % df /fhlsozQf
/x]sf] s'/f ;+lawfgsf] k|:tfjgfn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] x'+bf ;f]xL
cfwf/df cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] s'/f lnlvt hjfkmaf6 klg k'i6L
ePsf]5 . /fhLj k/fh'nLsf xsdf klxn] cbfntdf d'2f grn]sf]
x'bf+ bf]xf]/f] sfo{jfxL ePsf] eGg ldNb}g . ;fdfGo
cbfntaf6 e|i6frf/ d'2fsf] sfo{jfxL lsgf/f ubf{ ;do j9L lng]
ePsf]n] o; k|sf/sf] cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . cfof]u c:yfoL
k|s[ltsf] xf] . ;+;b cfPkl5 o:sf] ;d:of cfkm} ;dfwfg x'G5 .


                              44
-*_ clwjQmf >L s[i0f/fd >]i7 -ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf
cWoIf eQm jxfb'/ sf]O/fnfsf] tkm{af6 _ M cfof]usf]
u7g g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !@& sf]
k|of]u u/L ul/Psf] x'bf+ /fhlsozQf k|of]u u/L jf >L % af6
:jljj]s k|of]u u/L u7g u/]sf] xf] eGg ldNb}g . wf/f !@&
;+lawfgsf] clGtd lt/ /x]sf] ePklg of] wf/f dxTjk"0f{ /
zlQmzfnL 5 . o; wf/fn] cGo wf/fnfO{ ;+s'rg jf lgoGq0f
klg ug{ ;Sb5 . wf/f %# adf]lhd ^ dxLgf gg3fO{ x'g' kg]{
;+;bsf] r'gfjsf] tf]lsPsf] ldlt k/;fg]{ l;kmfl/; wf/f !@&
adf]lhd ePsf]n] o;n] wf/f %# sf] Joj:yfnfO{ ;+s'rg u/]sf]
dfGg' kg]{ x'G5 . lgjf{lrt ;/sf/sf] cefj ePsf] cj:yfdf olxwf/f
k|of]u u/]/ dGqLd08n klg u7g x'g] x'bf ;/sf/ u7g ;DaGwL
cGo ;+lawfgsf] Joj:yfdf yk36 h]klg o; wf/fn] ug{ ;Sg]
eGg] b]lvG5 . wf/f !@& cGtu{t hf/L x'g] cfb]z ;+lawfgs}
Ps c+u xf] . ;+lawfgn] Joj:yf u/]sf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]un] cfof]u:yfkgfsf] pB]Zo k"/f ug{ g;sf]sf]
x'bf+ cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf]nf . zfxL ;Gb]z / ;/sf/sf] @!
j+'b] sfo{qmddf klg e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwL s'/f pNn]v
ePsf] x'+bf cfly{s lj>[ªvntfaf6 ePsf] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf]
nflu cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . cfof]u u7g e} sfo{/t /x]sf] x'+bf
lg/Gt/tf lbg wf/f !@& adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ePsf] xf] .
cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg gkfO{g] cj:yf 5}g . bfz9'Ëfsf] /fo
cbfntsf] cfGtl/s 5nkmnaf6 cfPsf] s'/f x'bf+ To;nfO{ wf/f
(^ cGtu{tsf] dfgL glh/ dfGg ldNb}g . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]zn]
;+lawfgsf] cGo Joj:yfnfO{ ;+s'rg lj:tf/ ug{ ;Sg] x'bf+ of]
;+lawfgsf] c+u g} ePsf]n] wf/f **-!_ cGtu{t hf+r x'g
;Sb}g . h'g cfb]z jf Joj:yf cGtu{t lgo'Qm ePsf] xf] To;n]
of]Uotf tf]lsPsf] cj:yfdf dfq ;f] cg'?ksf] of]Uotf k'u]
gk'u]sf] x]g]{ xf] . To:tf] cfb]zdf pNn]v gePsf] jf ;f]
cfb]zn] s'g} s'/f jGb]h gu/]sf] cj:yfdf h'g;'s} JolQm
lgo'Qm ug{ jfwf kb}{g . cfof]usf] sfd sfo{jfxL 7Ls 5 5}g

                             45
eg]/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 hf+r x'g ;Sg] Joj:yf ;d]t cfb]zn] u/]sf]
x'bf+ cfof]usf] sfdsfo{jfxL Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt ljkl/t ePdf
kfngf ug{ ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] nufpg ;S5 . cfof]u ;jf]{Rr cbfnt
dftxts} Pp6f c+u xf] . cfof]uaf6 s] s;/L sfo{ ;Dkfbg ul/g]
xf] eGg] ;DaGwdf lgodn] Joj:yf u/L cg';Gwfg / lg0f{o
ug]{ 5'§f 5'§} Joj:yf u/]sf] x'bf+ Pp6} lgsfoaf6 ;j} sfd
ePs]f eGg ldNb}g . cfof]u u7gsf] p2]Zo e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f
u/L b]z / gful/snfO{ kmfObf k'¥ofpg] /x]sf] x'+bf o;n]
;+lawfg g} ;+zf]wg ePs]f eGg] cy{ ug{ ldNb}g .
-(_ clwjQmf >L u0f]z jxfb'/ 9'Ëfgf -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf ;b:o k|]d jxfb'/ vftLsf] tkm{af6 _ M cfof]udf
of]Uotfk"/f ePsf / bIfdflg;x? /x]sf 5g\. b]zdf e|i6frf/ JofKt
e} b]zg} c;kmn x'g] l:yltdf k'u]sf] x'+bf hgtfsf] bjfjdf
cfof]u u7g ePs]f xf] . wf/f #%-@_ sf] / ;+;bsf] clwsf/ ;d]t
>L % df uO{ ;s]sf] x'bf+ >L % df cGt/lglxt ljz]if clwsf/
k|of]u u/LjS;L cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] xf] . cfof]usf] u7g
;+a}wflgs 5 .
-!)_ clwjQmf >L sf}zn lszf]/ b'j]bL - ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf ;b:o xl/jfj' rf}w/Lsf] tkm{af6_ M lgj]bsn]
p7fPsf] k|Zgx?sf] lg/fs/0fsf] nflu xfd|f] ;+a}wflgs Joj:yfg}
kof{Kt 5 . ljb]zL Joj:yfx?sf] zGbe{ cfjZos 5}g . b]z c;xh
l:yltdf /x]sf]j]nf ;+lawfg s[ofzLn x'g ;Sb}g . b]zdf /x]sf]
zfGtL z'/Iff ;d]tsf] b[li6jft pko'Qm kfOnf rfNg cfjZos k/]sf]
xf] . ljb]zL /fhtGqsf] Joj:yf / xfd|f] Joj:yf km/s 5 . cd]/LsL
/ ef/tLo ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf klg xfd|f];+u d]n vfb}g . xfd|f]
;+lawfgn] h] h:tf] cj:Yff cfO{ k/]klg >L % nfO{ r'knfu/]j:g'
kg]{ u/]s]f 5}g . b]zsf] zf;g Joj:yf ;+rfngdf ?sfj6 cfO{ >L
% af6 ldlt @)^!.!).!( sf] sbd rflnjS;]sf] xf] . 3f]if0ffdfg}
sf/0f / p2]Zo pNn]v 5 . zfxL 3f]if0ff kl5 nfu" ul/Psf]
;+s6sfnsf cj:yfdf hf/L ePsf] cfb]zsf] lg/Gt/tfsf] nflu g}
wf/f !@& cg'?k cfb]z hf/L ePsf] xf] . /fhLj k/fh'nLnfO{

                             46
zfxL cfof]un] 5fgljg ug'{ k"j{ lghsf lj?4 ;f]xL cf/f]kdf s'g}
cbfntdf d'2f k/L cbfntaf6 lg0f{o ePsf] cj:yf gx'+bf
cg';Gwfg / cGj]if0f u/L clVtof/ b'?kfof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]un] tfd]nLdf /fVb}df b'O{k6s d'2f rnfPsf] egL
;l+awfgsf] wf/f !$ ljkl/t /x]sf] eGg] cj:yf 5}g . e|i6frf/sf]
;DaGwdf csf]{ lgsfo u7g ug{ gkfpg] u/L ;+lawfgn] jGb]h
nufPsf] 5}g . l56f]5l/tf] ?kdf e|i6frf/hGo ck/fwsf] sfd
sfo{jfxL ug{ cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . wf/f !@& cfkm} k|i6 5
. JofVof ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfsf] 5}g . o; wf/f cGtu{tsf] cfb]z
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] If]qleq kb}{g . bfz9'Ëf b"3{6gfsf
;DaGwdf o; cbfntn] lbPsf] /fosf] tYo / k|:t't ljjfbsf] tYo
km/s km/s 5 . o;;+u d]n vfb}g . wf/f @&-#_ cGtu{t
ul/Ps]f sfo{ ;f]]xL wf/fn] k|bfg u/]sf] lhDd]jf/L cg'?k ePsf]
5 . cfof]usf ;b:ox?nfO{ GofofwLz dfg]/ lgo'Qm u/]sf]
xf]Og . cfof]usf] ;b:osf] ?kdf ltgsf] Ifdtf / bIftf x]/L
lgo'Qm ul/Psf] xf] . of] ljifo Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] ljifo x'g
;Sb}g .
-!!_ clwjQmf >L ldlyn]z s'df/ l;+x -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf ;b:o xl/jfj' rf}w/Lsf] tkm{af6_ M wf/f !@&
cGtu{t hf/L ePsf cfb]zx? wf/f &@ cGtu{t hf/L ePsf]
cWofb]z h:t} klxn] ;+;baf6 cg'df]bg x'g' kg]{ ;+a}wflgs
Joj:yf xf] . ;+lawfgsf] JofVof cIf/; xf]Og ;dGjofTds?kdf
x'g' k5{ egL g]=sf=k= @)%! lg=g+= $*%@ df l;4fGt
k|ltkfbg ePsf] 5 . clxn] b]zdf åGbfTds l:yltsf] cj:yf ePsf]
x'+bf /fi6« k|d'vaf6 s]xL g s]xL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf
>[hgf ePsf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;j} blIf0f PlzofnL d'nsx?df
/fi6« k|d'vaf6 dxTjk"0f{ Joj:yfx? ul/Psf5g\ . @)!%,@)!( /
@)$& ;fnsf] ;+lawfgn] >L % df /fhlsozQmf /x]sf] s'/f
:jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . @)$& ;fnsf] ;+lawfg 3f]if0ff x'bf+ >L %
af6 /fhsLozQf g} k|of]u u/L ePsf] x]f . e|i6frf/ ;dfhdf
km}lnPsf] Kn]u /f]u h:t} xf] . To:tf] e|i6frf/hGo sfo{

                             47
/f]Sgsf] nflu cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . cfof]u u7g u/]sf]
;DaGwdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u jf /fli6«o zts{tf
s]G› cfkm\gf] clwsf/df x:tIf]k ePsf] egL l/6 lnP/ cfPsf]
5}g . cfof]u @)^!.!!.% sf] cfb]zåf/f u7g ul/Psf] ePklg ;f]
pk/ lgj]bssf] ph"/ 5}g . jfwf c8\sfp ;DaGwL Joj:yf
@)!%,@)!( / @)$& ;fnsf tLga6} ;+lawfgn] u/]sf] /
tLg}j6fdf >L % af6 cfb]z hf/L x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
lgj]bs ;Gtf]if dxtf]n] lgj]bgdf s'g sfg"g ;+lawfgsf] s'g
Joj:yf;+u s;/L jflemPsf] xf] v'nfPsf] kfOb}g . cfb]z c:yfoL
k|s[ltsf] x'bf+ cdfGo x'g ;Sb}g . @)^@.!.!^ sf] cfb]z gof+
xf] o;n] klxn]sf] cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] xf]Og . klxn]sf]
eGbf kl5sf] cfb]z km/s 5 . gof u7g adf]lhd cfof]usf]
cWoIf ;b:osf] klg kl/jt{g x'g ;SYof] . cfb]zn] s'g xssf]
ckx/0f u/]sf] xf] lgj]bgdf pNn]v 5}g . o;af6 wf/f ** -!_
adf]lhd lgj]bg btf{ x'g / o; cbfntn] x]g{ ldNg] cj:yf
b]lvb}+g . klxn]sf] ;+lawfg cGtu{t klg >L % af6 ljleGg
k|sf/sf cfof]u u7g ul/jS;b} cfPsf] xf] . @))& ;fn b]lv k6s
k6s ljleGg cfof]ux? >L % af6 u6g ul/jS;]sf] x'bf+ of]
cfof]udfq u7g ug{ gkfpg] eGg ldNb}g . /fhtGq ePsf]
b]zdf o:tf] cfb]z k6s k6s x'G5 . /fhfaf6 uNtL x'b}g eGg]
dfGo l;4fGt cg';f/ klg >L % af6 hf/L ePs]f cfb]z wf/f #! -
#_ cg';f/ o; cbfntaf6 kl/If0f x'g ;Sb}g .
-!@_ clwjQmf >L h'QmLh+u nfld5fg] - ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf ;b:o /3'rG› jxfb'/ l;+xsf] tkm{af6_ M l/6
lgj]bg u+le/ / hl6n ljifosf] 5 . k/Dk/f ,sfg"g, lgodsf]
cfwf/df lg0f{odf k'Ug' kg]{ b]lvG5 . lgj]bs sfo{jfxL z'?
eO{ dWoefudf k'u]kl5 l/6 lgj]bg lnO{ cbfnt k|j]z u/]sf 5g\
. cfof]u u7g c;+a}wflgs /x]sf] eGg] lhls/ lnPsf] 5}g .
cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lsf ;DaGwdf k|Zg p7fpg] clwsf/
lgj]bsnfO{ 5}g . dsf{ k/]sf] eP ;dod} cbfntdf cfpg' kg]{
lyof] . lgj]bs :jR5 / ;kmfxft lnO{ cfPsf 5}gg\ . wf/f !!%-&_

                            48
sf] cfb]zsf] ;do ljlt;s]kl5 k/]sf] l/6 lgj]bgdf lnlvt hjfkm k|i6
?kdf cfPsf] 5 . lgj]bsn] p7fPsf] h:tf] cj:yf ljBdfg 5}g .
cffof]u cbfnt xf]Og . -Tribunal _xf] . Tribunal u7g ug{ kfpg]
;+lawfgs} Joj:yf xf] . xfd|f] Joj:yf /fh;+:yf ;lxtsf] ePsf]n]
/fhf ;DaGwL k"jL{o bz{gnfO{ klg x]g'{ k5{ . kfZrfTo
l;4fGt / lg0f{oaf6 x]g{ ldNb}g . k|:t't ljjfbsf] JofVof ubf{
ljb]zL ;+a}wflgs sfg"gL Joj:yf dfq x]/]/ k'Ub}g . j]b,
pklifb\, :d[tLx?nfO{ x]g'{ k5{ . wf/f @&-#_ sf] Joj:yf g}
>L % df ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ /xg] Joj:yf xf] . >L % sf]
clwsf/nfO{ s'g} klg wf/fn] lgolGqt u/]sf] 5}g . ;jf]Qd lxt /
;d'GgtLsf] nflu eGg] cy{ ;+lawfg kfngf ug'{ k5{ eGg]
xf]Og . ;Dk"0f{ hgtfsf] lxt x'g] sfo{ x'g ;s]g eg] >L % af6
h'g;'s} sbd rflnjS;g ;lsjS;G5 . wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u l;w} >L
% af6 ePsf] xf]Og . tt\sflng k|wfg dGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df
k|of]u ePsf] xf] . wf/f !@& zt{o'Qm 5}g . wf/f !!%-&_
;fgf] wf/f xf] ;fgf] wf/f k|of]u ug{ >L % af6 ;lsjS;g] ePkl5
7"nf] wf/fsf] ?kdf /x]sf] wf/f !@& cfkm\g} :jljj]sdf k|of]u
ug{ gkfOg] xf]Og .
-!#_ clwjQmf >L s[i0f s'df/ yfkf - ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf
;b:o /3'rG› jxfb'/ l;+xsf] tkm{af6_ M e|i6frf/n] b]z c;xh
kl/l:yltdf k'u]sf] sf/0fn]cfof]u u7g ePsf] u/]sf] xf] . wf/f
!@& k|of]u u/LjS;L >L % jf6 g]kfnLsf] dfg dof{bfsf]
;+/If0f ul/jS;]sf] 5 . wf/f !@& sf] If]q Jofks 5 . cfof]usf]
u7g k|s[of / If]qflwsf/ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf]
eGbf leGb} k|s[lt 5 . c=b'=c=cf= :yfoL k|s[ltsf] xf] . of]
cfof]u c:yfoL xf] . c=b'=c=cf=n] ge]6]sf] gb]v]sf] / ug{
g;s]sf] sfd ug{ zfxL cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] . jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] u/L hf/L ePsf] cfb]z ;+;bn] x]g]{ xf] cbfntn]
To;sf] cfjZostf / cf}lrTotf ljrf/ ug]{ xf]Og .
-!$_ clwjQmf >L lqnf]rg uf}td - ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf
;b:o zDe' k|;fb vgfnsf] tkm{af6_ M cfof]usf] u7gn]

                              49
;+ljwfgsf] cfwf/e"t ;+/rgfnfO{ c;/ k'¥ofPsf] 5}g . wf/f @%
n] Joj:yf u/]sf] ;fdflhs Gofo k|bfg ug]{ nIo cg'?k cfof]u
u7g ePsf] xf] . /fHosf lgb]{lzs l;4fGt jdf]lhd s'g} sfo{sf]
yfngL x'G5 eg] df}lns xsdf lgoGq0f x'g ;S5 . ;+ljwfg
lg/k]If b:tfj]h - Absolute Document _ xf]Og . /fHosf] k|d'v
bfloTj g} ;sf/fTds bfloTj Positive Responsibility k"/f ug'{ xf] .
/fhtGq ePsf] b]zdf c;xh kl/l:yltdf Positive Obligation k"/f ug'{
kg]{ st{Jo /fh;+:yfdf x'G5 . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @& -#_ / wf/f
!@& sf] ;DaGw /x]sf] 5 . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z ;+;b ;dIf
g/fvL kl/kSj x'+b}g . ;+;b gcfP;Dd g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)!(
sf] wf/f () s h:t} j}w e} ;+ljwfgs} c+usf] ?kdf /xG5 .
;+ljwfgdf h] n]lvPsf] 5 To;/L g} JofVof ug'{ kg]{ eGg]
xfd|f] ;+ljwfgn] dfg]sf] 5}g . bfz 9'+ufsf] ;DaGwdf
ul/Psf] /fo /fo df+u ug]{nfO{ t dfGo x'g ;Sb}g eg]
cbfntnfO{ s;/L dfGo x'G5 < wf/f *$,*% n] Gofo ;DaGwL
clwsf/ cbfntn] dfq ug]{ eGg] s'/f :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5}g . cd]l/sL
;+ljwfgsf] – æ Total judicial power vested to the supreme court Æ
h:tf] Joj:yf xfd|f] ;+ljwfgn] u/]sf] 5]g . xfd|f] ;+ljwfgn]
Goflos clwsf/ s] s;/L k|of]u ug]{ egL lgSof}{n ug]{ clwsf/
Joj:yflksfnfO{ k|bfg u/]sf]n] klg of] tYo k'i6L x'G5 . wf/f
@& -#_ / !@& n] lbPsf] clwsf/ lgolGqt xf] eGg] xf] eg]
;+ljwfgn] g} lgoGq0f ug'{ k5{ . cbfntn] /f]Sg ldNb}g .
zfxL cfof]u u7g ;DaGwL cfb]z wf/f (* sf] k|lts"n 5}g .
cfof]usf] gfd}n] lg leGgtf b]vfPsf] 5 . Public Domain nfO{
dfq geO{ Private Domain ;d]tnfO{ sfo{jfxL ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/
zfxL cfof]unfO{ lbOPsf] 5 .
-!%_       clwjQmf >L afns[i0f g]pkfg] -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf cWoIf eQm jxfb'/ sf]O/fnfsf] tkm{af6 _ M
wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z ;+o'Qm ;bgdf k]z ul/g] Joj:yf ;+o'Qm
;+bg ;+rfng ;DaGwL sfo{ljlwsf Joj:yf ePsf] x'+bf wf/f
!@& sf] cfb]z wf/f !!% -&_ sf] eGbf dflyNnf] :t/df /xG5 .

                               50
>L % jf6 rflxjS;]sf]df ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg cfb]z klg wf/f !@&
cGtu{t hf/L x'g ;S5 . o:tf] cfb]z wf/f **-!_ cGtu{t Goflos
k'g/fjnf]sgsf] laifo x'g ;Sb}g . ;+ljwfgn] gful/stf P]g,
@)@) nfO{ ;d]t lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] / wf/f !!% -&_ cGtu{t hf/L
cfb]z klg sfg"g ;/x x'g] tyf ;+ljwfg klg sfg"g g} ePsf]
x'+bf wf/f !!% -&_ sf] cfb]znfO{ wf/f !@& n] lg/Gt/tf lbg'
;lsG5 . wf/f !@& sf] k|of]ujf6 g} d'n's rn]sf] 5 . wf/f !@&
sf] k|of]u k6s – k6s eO;s]sf] 5 . u'0f bf]ifsf s'/f u7g
ug]{n] lhDdf lng] laifo xf] . ;+ljwfgdf s]xL x]/km]/ ug'{
k¥of] s'g} lgsfo u7g ug'{ k¥of] eg] olx wf/f !@& sf]
k|of]ujf6 ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ :yfoL ?kjf6 xf]Og s]xL ;dosf] nflu
ug'{ k5{ . cWofb]zn] g;d]6]sf s'/f klg wf/f !@& sf]
k|of]ujf6 cfpg ;S5 . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z hg k|ltlglwTjn] g}
x]5{g . clxn]sf] cfb]z ;+;bdf /flvPsf] 5}g . Ps k|sf/sf]
ljw]ossf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg ;DaGwdf cbfntn]
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg u/] klg wf/f **-!_ lg0f{o eO{;s]sf] 5 .
wf/f !!% -&_ jdf]lhd lgsfo u7g ug{ ;lsg] t/ wf/f !@&
jdf]lhd g;lsg] eGg ldNb}g . wf/f !@& sf] bfo/f km/flsnf]
kfl/g' k5{ . ;+s'rg ug{ ldNb}g . cfjZostfn] sfg'g x]b}{g .
cfof]usf] cg'xf/ x]/]/ lg0f{o x'g' x'+b}g . clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]un] sfd u/]g eg] csf]{ cfof]u u7g ug{ lsg
gkfpg] < wf/f (* n] csf]{ cfof]u u7g ug{ gkfOg] eg]sf] 5}g
. e|=lg=P]g, @)%( n] klg P]g cGtu{tsf] sfo{jfxL ug{
csf]{ lgsfosf] klg u7g x'g ;Sg] :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . sfg'g jgfP/
cfkm}n] cg';Gwfg u/L d'2f x]g{ ;lsg] Joj:yf u/]sf]df k|fs[lts
Gofo l;4fGtsf pn+3g eof] eGg kfOb}g .
-!^_ clwjQmf >L xl/ uf}td -ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf ;b:o
xl/jfj' rf}w/Lsf] tkm{af6_ M ljjfb sfg"gL xf]Og . /fhgLlts
xf] . cbfntn] lg/fs/0f ug]{ laifo xf]Og . xfd|f] b]zn] k"jL{o
;+:s[ltnfO{ gx]/L x'+b}g . zfxL cfof]u rflxGg eGg'
e|i6frf/LnfO{ ;hfo ug{ x'Gg eGg' xf] . >L % sf] st{Jo g}

                             51
;+ljwfgnfO{ kfngf ug'{ xf] . cfof]u u7g b]z / b]zjf;Lsf]
lxtsf] nflu ePsf] xf] . cfof]usf] u7g ;+j}wflgs 5 .
-!&_ clwjQmf >L nIdL k|;fb kf]v/]n -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf ;b:o xl/jfj' rf}w/Lsf] tkm{af6_ M clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un] lgj]bssf ;DaGwdf cg';Gwfg
dfq u/L sfjf{xL tfd]nLdf /fv]sf] x'+bf bf]x/f] sfo{jfxL u/]sf]
eGg ldNb}g . tfd]nLdf /flvPsf] cj:yfdf k'gM sfo{sf/L x'g
;S5 . wf/f !!% -&_ sf] lkmtf{ e} ;s]sf] cfb]z ;d]t jb/sf] df+u
cf}lrTok"0f{ 5}g . g]kfnsf] ;j} ;+ljwfg >L % jf6 jS; ePsf]
xf] . ;+ljwfg g} hf/L ug{ ;Sg] /fhsLo;Qf lglxt >L % jf6 c?
cfb]z hf/L ug{ gldNg] xf]Og .
-!*_ clwjQmf >L sfdfVofnfn s0f{ -ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf
;b:o /3'rG› jxfb'/ l;+xsf] tkm{af6 _ M >L % jf6 ;j}
;+ljwfg jS; ePsf] xf] . k/Dk/f ;d]tsf] cfwf/df >L % df ;j}
zlQm /x]sf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)!( sf] wf/f @) sf] Joj:yfn]
k'i6L ub{5 . jt{dfg ;+ljwfgn] hgtfnfO{ k|bfg u/]sf]
;fj{ef}dzlQm of] ;+ljwfgdf pNn]v eP jdf]lhd k|of]u ug]{
Joj:yf u/]sf] xf] . wf/f @*,&@,!!% / !@! n] >L % nfO{
;j{zlQmdfg clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . >L % jf6 ul/jS;]sf] sfo{
;j{dfGo x'G5 . wf/f !!% -&_ sf] cfb]z sfof{Gjogdf jfwf k/]
klg wf/f !@& k|of]udf cfpg ;S5 . wf/f **-!_ ;+;bn] jgfPsf]
sfg"gsf ;DaGwdf dfq cfslif{t x'G5 . ;+k"0f{ lsl;dsf] jfwf
c8sfp km'sfpg ;lsg] wf/f !@& sf] x}l;ot xf] . cfly{s
lj>[ªvntf xfn ;Dd sfod /x]sf]n] cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf]
sfo{ ;+ljwfg;Ddt 5 .
-!(_ clwjQmf >L /fhs'df/ yfkf - ljkIfL zfxL cfof]usf
;b:o /3'rG› jxfb'/ l;+xsf] tkm{af6_ M wf/f !@& sf]
laifodf cbfntn] x]g]{ xf] eg] w]/} wf/fsf] ;+zf]wg x'g hfG5 .
;+ljwfgn] g} /fhsLo;Qf >L % /xg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
sfo{kflnsLo, ;+;bLo / GofokflnsLo ;j} clwsf/ >L % df
lglxt 5 . /fhsLo zQf /fi6« k|d'vsf] klbo clwsf/ xf] .

                             52
/fhsLo;Qf / ;fj{ef}d clwsf/ Pp6} l;Ssfsf b'O{kf6f x'g . wf/f
!@@ sf] Joj:yfn] GofokflnsLo clwsf/ klg >L % df lglxt 5
. wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u @)%! ;fnb}lv g} x'+b} cfPsf] xf] .
-@)_       clwjQmf >L df]xg k|;fb cfrfo{ - ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf ;b:o k|]d jxfb'/ vftLsf] tkm{jf6 _ M sfg'g
hlxn] klg ;dfhsf] lxtlt/ nlIft x'g'k5{ . clxn] klg JofVof
o;}u/L x'g'k5{ . /fHodf clxn] b08lxgtfsf] l:ylt /x]sf] 5 .
e|i6frf/ r/d ?kdf j9L /fHosf]if vfnL x'+b} uPsf] sf/0fn]
cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf]. cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf wf/f !@& sf]
Joj:yfsf] cfwf/df ;+ljwfg leq} /x]/ lbOPsf] x'+bf c;+j}wflgs
/x]sf] eGg ldNb}g . >L % jf6 cfb]z hf/L ug]{ jf 3f]if0ff
ug]{ k/Dk/f /xL cfPsf]jf6 klg u}/ ;+j}wflgs cfb]z eGg
ldNb}g . jfwf c8\sfp km'spg] Joj:yf kl5 cfpg] sfo{nfO{
nlIft u/L ul/Psf] x'G5 . ;+ljwfgdf o:tf] Joj:yf /x]jf6 h'g;'s}
sfo{ / k|of]hgsf nflu k|of]u x'g ;S5 . /fhfsf] dxTjnfO{
Oltxf; / xfd|f x/]s sfo{n] :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . @)!( ;fnsf] ;+ljwfg
vf/]h ePsf] 5}g . >L % df clwsf/ k"/} /x]sf] 5 . b]zdf
ck\7]/f] k/]sf] l:yltdf j]nfotL Crown n] klg h'g;'s} sfo{ ug{
;S5g\ eGg] s'/f ljåfg 8fo;Ln] :JfLsf/ u/]sf 5g\ . wf/f !@&
k|of]u u/L wf/f !!% -&_ sf] cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;lsG5 .
>L % df ljz]if sfo{ ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ 5 . jt{dfg ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f
@& -#_ n] ;+j}wflgs ?kd} clwsf/ /x]sf] :jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 .
sfg"gåf/f Joj:yf ePsf] laifodf k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt cfslif{t
x'+b}g eGg] s'/f s';'d >]i7sf] cjx]ngf d'2fdf ljZn]if0f ePsf]
5 . h'g;'s} b[li6sf]0fjf6 klg cfb]z ;+j}wflgs 5 . lgj]bssf]
df}lns xs xgg ePsf] 5}g .
-@!_        clwjQmf >L cjw]z s'df/ l;x -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf cWoIf eQm jxfb'/ sf]O/fnfsf] tkm{af6 _ M
wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u k6s k6s ePsf] 5 . lgj]bs /lj/fh e08f/L
ePsf] ;+;b lj36g ;DaGwL d'2fdf >L % af6 :jljj]sdf ePsf]
sfo{df Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g g;Sg] lg0f{o ePsf] 5 . >L %

                              53
sf] ;Gt'i6L / :jljj]sjf6 wf/f !@& k|of]u u/L cfof]unfO{
lg/Gt/tf k|bfg ePsf]n] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg x'g ;Sb}g .
-@@_ jl/i7 clwjQmf >L nIdL jxfb'/ lg/fnf -ljkIfL zfxL
cfof]usf cWoIf eQm jxfb'/ sf]O/fnfsf] tkm{af6 _ M
;+ljwfgsf] JofVofåf/f g} ljjfbsf] lg/fs/0f x'G5 . JofVof
ul0ftLo x'+b}g . cfjZostfdf lge{/ ub{5 . ;do / kl/l:ylt cg';f/
JofVofnfO{ 8f]/fP/ n}hfg'kb{5 . b]z sfn kl/l:ylt cg';f/
To;sf] JofVof x'g'kb{5 . r'gfj ;fg{ l;kmfl/; ul/P cg';f/
;+j}wflgs z"Gotfsf] l:ylt cfPsf]jf6 wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u
ePsf] xf] . wf/f #%-@_ nfO{ s[ofzLn ug{ wf/f !@& k|of]u
ePsf] xf]. wf/f @&-#_ sf] Joj:yfn] >L % jf6 jfWoftfjz\ of]
sbd rflnjS;]sf] xf] . wf/f #! n] >L % sf] sbddf k|Zg p7fpg
gkfOg] s'/fsf] lg/fs/0f pk]Gb|gGbgsf] lgj]bgdf eO;s]sf] 5
. wf/f #%-@_ lg:s[o 5 . >L % af6 l;w} hf/L ePsf] cfb]z
x'+bf wf/f #!-#_ sf] ;+/If0f k|fKt 5 . sfg"gsf] k/LIf0f ug{
;lsg] Joj:yf ePsf]n] cWofb]zsf] k/LIf0f x'g ;Sg] x'G5 .
wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z cWofb]z ;/x gePsf]n] To:tf] xf] egL
jnk"j{s JofVof ug{ ldNb}g . >L % n] zf;g ug{ ldN5
ldNb}g eGg] laifo /fhgLlts xf] . k|ToIf k/f]If b'j} ?kjf6 o;
;DaGwdf cbfntn] ljrf/ ug{ ldNb}g . wf/f !@& :ki6 5 .
o;nfO{ c? pkfoåf/f JofVof ug{ ldNb}g . ;dfgfGt/ lgsfo
u7g ePsf] xf]Og . gfd, sfd / If]qflwsf/jf6} zfxL cfof]u /
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u leGg 5g\ . ;+ljwfgsf]
k|:tfjgfn] cj pk|fGt >L % df /fhsLo zQf g/xg] eGg] Joj:yf
u/]sf] 5}g . hxfF e|i6frf/sf] ljuljuL /xG5 Toxf+ Rule of law
/xg ;Sb}g . cg'';Gwfgsf qmddf ePsf sfdsf] ;DaGwdf
c=j+= *% g+= nfu" x'+b}g . ef/tdf !) j6f Ph]G;Ln] 5fgjLg
u/]kl5 klg CBI n] km]/L hfFrj'em u5{ . h'g cfb]z k/LIf0f g}
x'g ;Sg] cj:yf b]lvb}geg] clwsf/ k[R5fsf] df+usf ;DaGwdf
ljrf/ u/L /xg' kb}{g .


                             54
     ;jf]{Rr cbfnt lgodfjnL, @)$( sf] lgod $@ jdf]lhd
;l/s x'g' ePsf sfg"g Joj;foLx?sf] tkm{jf6 M

      -!_ clwjQmf >L jfz'b]j zdf{M b'j} kIfjf6 wf/f !@&
sf] :ki6 sfg"gL JofVof cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . wf/f !@& cg';f/
hf/L x'g] cfb]z sfo{sfl/0fL cfb]z xf] . Tof] ;+;bdf k]z x'g]
x'bf ;+;bn] hf+r gu/L kl/kSj x'Fb}g . wf/f !@& jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] k|of]hgsf nflu k|of]u x'g] xf] . jfwf c8\sfp sfg"gL
?kdf k/]sf] x''g'k5{ . /fhgLlts p2]Zo k"/f ug{ wf/f !@&
cGtu{tsf] jfwf c8\sfp k/]sf] eGg ldNb}g . @)!% ;fnsf]
;+ljwfgn] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfp cfb]z ;+ljwfg d} k/]sf] dflgg]
eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf]df jt{dfg ;+ljwfgdf To:tf] Joj:yf 5}g .
wf/f !@& k|of]u ug{ jfwf c8\sfp k/]sf] s'/f klxn] olsg x'g'
k¥of] . d'n'sdf e|i6frf/ JofKt 5 eGb}df wf/f !@& k|of]u
ug{ kfOb}g . zfxL cfof]usf] u7gnfO{ ;+;bn] :jLsf/ ug]{
cj:yf 5}g . zfxL cfof]u ;+j}wflgs 5}g . zfxL cfof]usf]
lg/Gt/tfsf nflu hf/L cfb]z / c? sfo{sf] k|of]hgsf nflu hf/L
cfb]zsf] k|s[tL km/s km/s 5 . wf/f !@& h'g;'s} ?kdf klg
k|of]u ug{ kfOb}g . )%(.^.!* sf] cfb]z ;+j}wflgs l/Sttf k"/f
ug{ cfPsf] xf] . ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} wf/fsf] JofVof ubf{
;Dk"0f{wf/f pkwf/fsf]
cWoog x'g'k5{ . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z ;+;bsf] nflu hf/L
ePsf]n] ;+;b d} hfg'k5{ / ;+;bn] g} x]g'{k5{ . P]gsf] h:tf]
jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] Joj:yf h:t} ;+ljwfgsf] Joj:yfnfO{ lng
ldNb}g . JolQmut df}lns xggsf] laifo ePsf]n] wf/f !@&
sf] cfb ]z ;+;bdf k]z x'g] laifoxf] eGb}df cbfntn] x]g{
gldNg] xf]Og . wf/f **-@_ sf] pkrf/ k|bfg ug{ jfwf kg]{
b]lvb}g . wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z ;+;bdf k]z x'g] eGg] b]lvPsf]
eGg] cfwf/df lgj]bsn] p7fPsf laifosf] pkrf/ ;lxtsf] Goflos
lg0f{o x'g'k5{ .


                            55
-@_ clwjQmf >L wd{/fh /]UdLM cfof]usf] u7gnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] s;/L ;+ljwfgsf] k|:tfjgf / wf/f !@& sf] lakl/t
ePsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf v'nfOPsf] 5}g . wf/f !@& jdf]lhd hf/L
cfb]z ;+;bdf k]z ul/g] eGg] :ki6 Joj:yf 5 . ;f] cfb]z sfg"g
xf] . ;+;bdf k]z ge} cbfntjf6 o; laifodf jf]Nbf ;+;bsf] clwsf/
s6f}tL x'g hfG5 .
  cfh lg0f{o ;'gfpg tf]lsPsf] k|:t't l/6 lgj]bgdf l/6 lgj]bg
lhls/, ljkIfLx?sf] lnlvt hjfkm tyf b'j} tkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g
Joj;foLx?n] k|:t't u/]s]f jx; lhls/ tyf lnlvt jx;gf]6 ;d]tsf]
cWoog ubf{ k|:t't l/6 lgj]]bgdf b]xfosf k|Zgsf ;DaGwdf
lg0f{o lbg' kg]{ b]lvg cfof] .

     !_   g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& n] /fhsLo;Qfsf]
          k|of]usf]         ;DjGwdf s] s:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 <
     @_     >L % af6 ul/aS;]sf] s'g} sfdsf ;DjGwdf cbfntdf
          k|Zg p7fpg ;lsg] g;lsg] / To;sf] ;+a}wflgs
          k/LIf0f x'g ;Sg] g;Sg] s] xf] <
     #_   k|:t't ljjfb /fhg}lts jf ;+j}wflgs s] xf] <
     $_   e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] u7g / To;nfO{
          lg/Gt/tf lbg] sfo{ ;+ljwfg ;Ddt 5, jf 5}g <
     %_   lgj]bssf] df+u adf]lhdsf] cfb]z hf/L x'g' kg]{ xf],
          jf xf]Og <

      ;a{k|yd klxnf] k|Zg tkm{ ljrf/ ubf{ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f
zfxL cfof]usf] lnlvt hjfkmdf d"Vo ?kdf g]kfnsf] ;+j}wflgs
/Llt l:ylt k/Dk/f / >L % af6 k|of]u eO{ cfPsf] :jljj]sLo
clwsf/ k|of]u u/L wf/f !@& adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ul/aS;]sf]
eGg] ePsf]df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u / cfof]usf
;b:ox? Tfkm{jf6 /xg' ePsf ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foLx?af6 >L %
lxGb" /fhf /lxjS;]sf], lxGb" wd{ adf]lhd /fhfn] cfˆgf] st{Jo
kfng ug'{ kg]{, >L % nfO{ ;+ljwfgn] lgoGq0f ug{ g;Sg],

                             56
/fhsLo;Qf >L % df g} lglxt /x]sf] x'gfn] hgtfsf] lxt x'g]
sfo{ >L % af6 cfˆg} :jljj]sdf ug{ ;lsaS;g], g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg,
@)!( vf/]h gePsf]n] pQm ;+ljwfgdf ePsf] Joj:yf cg';f/
;fj{ef}d clwsf/ >L % df g} /x]sf] cflb s'/fx? ax;df p7fpg'
ePsf] x'Fbf g]kfn clw/fHosf] /fhsLo;Qfsf] k|of]usf]
;DaGwdf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& nfu" x'g' eGbf
cufl8 s] s:tf] Joj:yf lyof] / pQm ;+ljwfg nfu" ePkl5 To;
;DaGwdf ;+ljwfgdf s] s:tf] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 < To;tkm{
Ohnf;sf] Wofg hfg' cfjZos ePsf] 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg, @)!% sf] wf/f ^* n] ;+ljwfg / tTsfn k|rlnt sfg"gdf
Joj:yf ul/Pb]lv afx]ssf >L % df lglxt c? ;Dk"0f{ /fhsLo
clwsf/ df};"kmdf lglxt /x]sf] egL /fhsLo clwsf/sf ;DjGwdf
:ki6 Joj:yf ul/Psf] kfOof] . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( sf] wf/f
@) sf] pkwf/f -@_ n] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf >L % df lglxt
/x]sf] 5 . sfo{sfl/0fL, Joj:yflksf / Gofo ;DjGwL ;a} clwsf/
df};"kmjf6 lgl>t x'g]5 eGg] Joj:yf ug'{sf cltl/Qm wf/f () n]
;+ljwfg jf tTsfn k|rlnt cGo sfg"gdf Joj:yf ul/Pb]lv afx]ssf
>L % sf c? ;a} cGt/lglxt clwsf/ df};"kmdf g} lglxt /xg]5g\
eGg] Joj:yfaf6 wf/f @)-@_ sf]] Joj:yf adf]lhsf >L % af6
lgl>t x'g] sfo{sfl/0fL, Joj:yflksf / Gofo ;DjGwL clwsf/
;d]tsf ;a} /fhlso;Qf ;DjGwLt cjlzi7 clwsf/ >L % df g} :ki6
?kdf lglxt u/]sf] b]lvg cfof] .
   g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( nfO{ k|lt;+x/0f u/L hf/L ul/Psf]
g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& n] g]kfn clw/fHosf]
/fhsLo;Qf / ;fj{ef}d clwsf/sf] af/]df s] s:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 <
eGg] ;DjGwdf ;+ljwfgsf] k|:tfjgf cWoog ubf{ :jtGq /
;fj{ef}d ;Qf ;DkGg g]kfn clw/fHosf] /fHozlQmsf] >f]t
g]kfnL hgtf g} xf] eGg] tYonfO{ x[boËd u/L nf]s;Ddlt
cg's"n zf;g Joj:yf ;+rfng ug]{ ;+sNk ;do ;dodf cleJoQm
ePsf] / g]kfnL hgtfn] s]xL ;do cl3 ePsf] hg cfGbf]ngsf]
dfWodjf6 ;+j}wflgs kl/jt{g ug]{ OR5f cleJoQm u/]sf]n] ;f]

                              57
cg"?k g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ lr/ sfn ko{Gt ;fdflhs /fhg}lts Pj+
cfly{s Gofo k|fKt x'g ;sf];\ eGg] p2]Zojf6 g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& lgdf{0f ePsf] eGg] pNNf]v
ePsf] b]lvG5 . k|:tfjgfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] pQm Joxf]/fjf6
g]kfnL hgtf g} /fHozlQmsf] >f]t ePsf] tYonfO{ cfTd;ft
ul/Psf] / g]kfnL hgtfn] cfGbf]ngsf] dfWodjf6 g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfg, @)!( cg';f/sf] ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfdf kl/jt{g rfx]sf] d"n
sf/0fjf6 g} g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] cfjZostf
ePsf] eGg] :ki6 x'G5 . k|:tfjgfsf] bf]>f] cg'R5]bdf g]kfn
clw/fHosf] zf;g Joj:yfsf] :j?k s:tf] x'g] eGg] ;DjGwdf
k|To]s g]kfnLsf] cfwf/e"t dfgj clwsf/ ;'/lIft ug]{, :jtGqtf /
;dfgtfsf] cfwf/df g]kfnL hgtfsf ljr e|ft[Tj / Pstf sfod ug]{,
jflnu dtflwsf/ , ;+;bLo zf;g k|0ffnL, ;j}wflgs /fhtGq, tyf
ax'bnLo k|hftGqnfO{ ;'b[9 ug]{, :jtGq Pj+ ;Ifd Gofo
k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf u/L sfg"gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;fsf/
kfg]{ h:tf nIo xfl;n ug]{ p2]Zo ;d]t ;+ljwfgn] lnPsf] b]lvG5
. k|:tfjgf s} t]>f] cg'R5]bdf g]kfnL hgtfsf] OR5f cg';f/
;+ljwfg k|f/De ePkl5 g]kfn clw/fHosf] /fhsLo;Qf / ;fj{ef}d
clwsf/ o;} ;+ljwfg adf]lhd k|of]u x'g] u/L >L % af6 k|of]u
eOcfPsf] /fhsLo;Qfsf] k|of]u ul/aS;L dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ;Nnfx
/ ;Ddlt cg';f/ ;+ljwfgsf] 3f]if0ff u/L nfu" ul/jS;]sf] eGg]
pNn]v 5 . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f # df g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf g]kfnL
hgtfdf lglxt /xg]5 h;sf] k|of]u o; ;+ljwfgdf Joj:yf eP
adf]lhd x'g]5 eGg] Joj:yf 5 . To:t} u/L jt{dfg ;+ljwfgn]
zf;g Joj:yf ;DjGwL sfo{sfl/0fL, Joj:yflklso tyf Gofo
;DjGwL d"n e"t clwsf/x? /fHosf k|d"v tLg c+udf ljefhg
u/L zlQm k[YfSsLs/0fsf] l;4fGtnfO{ cg';/0f u/]sf] cj:yf
;d]t /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
      g]kfnL hgtfsf] OR5f cg';f/ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De ePkl5
g]kfn clw/fHosf] /fhsLo;Qf, ;fj{ef}d clwsf/ o;} ;+ljwfg
adf]lhd k|of]u x'g] eGg] g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&

                             58
sf] k|:tfjgfn] :ki6 ?kdf JoQm u/]sf] cj:yf 5 . g]kfn
clw/fHosf] /fhsLo;Qf / ;fj{ef}d;Qf g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg, @)$& adf]lhd g} k|of]u x'g] ePkl5 g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& nfu" x'g' k"j{sf] g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfg, @)!( n] Joj:yf u/] adf]lhd g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf >L
% df lgxLt /x]sf], sfo{sfl/0fL, Joj:yflksf / Gofo ;DjGwL
;a} clwsf/ >L % af6 lg>[t x'g] egL ;Demg ldNg] cj:yf
b]lv+b}g . ;+j}wflgs kl/jt{g kl5 g]kfn clw/fHosf] /fhsLo;Qf
/ ;fj{ef}d clwsf/ g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& n] Joj:yf
u/] adf]lhd dfq k|of]u x'g ;Sg] :ki6 ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf
eO/x]sf] o; l:yltdf /fhsLo;Qf ;DjGwdf cndn u/L ljjfb
p7fpg' / g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( vf/]h ePsf] 5}g eGg] h:tf
ts{ ug'{ ;+j}wflgs cfwf/ / Joj:yf ljkl/t x'g hfG5 . ;+ljwfgn]
d"n Pj+ zlQmzfnL sfg"gsf] :yfg u|x0f ub{5 . lnlvt ;+ljwfg
ePsf d'n'sx?df zf;gsf] l;4fGt Pj+ Joj:yf, lqmofsnfk,
/fHosf ljleGg c+ux?df /fhsLo;Qfsf] afF8kmfF8 ;+ljwfgn]
g} to u/]sf] x'G5 . ;+ljwfgn] u/]sf] Joj:yf / lgwf{/0f u/]sf
ljifoj:t'sf] pNn+3g ug''{        ;+ljwfg ljkl/t x'G5 / o:tf]
pNn+3gsf] cj:yfn] ;+j}wflgs ;d:of >[hgf x'g] x'Fbf o:tf]
l:ylt cfpg glbg' jf 6fg{' /fHosf] lxtdf x'g] x'G5 .

     ca bf]>f] k|Zg tkm{ ljrf/ ubf{ ljkIfL tkm{jf6 /xg' ePsf
ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foxLx?n] >L % af6 ul/jS;]sf] s'g} sfdsf
;DjGwdf cbfntdf k|Zg p7fpg kfOg] Joj:yf ;+ljwfgn] u/]sf]
gx'Fbf e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] u7gsf] ljifo cbfnt
k|j]z ug{ g;Sg] eGg] ax; k|:t't ug{' ePsf] 5 . g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f #! sf] Joj:yfsf ;DjGwdf
lgj]bs xl/ k|;fb g]kfn ;d]t lj?4 ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqL lul/hf
k|;fb sf]O/fnf ;d]t ePsf] pTk|]if0fsf] cfb]z hf/L u/L kfpF
eGg] lgj]bg -g]=sf=k=:j0f{ ;'ehGdf]T;j ljz]iff+s @)%@
k[i7 **_ df o; cbfntsf !! hgf dfggLo GofofwLzsf] ljz]if

                             59
Ohnf;jf6 >L % af6 dlGqkl/ifb\ jf cGo s'g} kbflwsf/L jf
lgsfosf] ;Nnfx / l;kmfl/;df ul/aS;g] sfo{sf] pQ/bfloTj ;f]
;'emfj lbg] kbflwsf/L jf lgsfon] g} Joxf]g'{ kg]{ egL
af]lnPsf] To:t} lgj]bs /lj/fh e08f/L lj?4 ;DdfggLo k|wfg
dGqL dgdf]xg clwsf/L ;d]t ePsf] pTk|]if0fsf] cfb]z hf/L
ul/kfpF eGg] lgj]bg -g]=sf=k=:j0f{ ;'ehGdf]T;j ljz]iff+s
@)%@ k[i7 !_ df o; cbfntsf !! hgf dfggLo
GofofwLzx?sf] ljz]if Ohnf;jf6 ;+a}wflgs /fhtGqfTds
Joj:yfsf] dd{ / cfbz{ cg'?k >L % af6 df};"kmsf] :jljj]sdf
ul/jS;]sf] sfo{sf] k|s[lt / lj:tf/nfO{ ;+ljwfgn] g} l;dfÍsg u/]sf]
To:tf sfo{x? ;fwf/0ftM /fhg}lts k|s[ltsf] x'g] ePsf]n]
;+ljwfg adf]lhd >L % af6 df};"kmsf] :jljj]sdf ul/aS;g]
sfo{x?sf] ;DjGwdf wf/f #! sf] Joj:yf lg;Gb]x ljrf/0fLo x'G5
t/ df};"kmjf6 ;+ljwfg adf]lhd cGo ;+j}wflgs c+u lgsfo jf
kbflwsf/Lsf] ;Nnfx / l;kmfl/;df ul/aS;g] jf ul/aS;]sf] sfo{
klg wf/f #! sf] cfwf/df Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] If]qjf6 cnu
/fVg' kg{] eGg] xf] eg] lnlvt ;+ljwfg, ;Lldt ;/sf/, pQ/bfoL
zf;g Joj:yf, sfg"gsf] /fHo h:tf ;+ljwfgåf/f clu+s[t
cjwf/0ffsf] s'g} cy{ x'Fb]g egL wf/f #! sf ;DjGwdf JofVof
eO/x]sf] cj:yf b]lvg cfof] .
     ;+o'Qm clw/fHosf] ;+j}wflgs ljsf;sf] qmddf /fhfjf6
/fHosf] Joj:yf, /fhsLo;Qf dlGqkl/ifb\ jf lhDd]jf/
kbflwsf/Lsf] l;kmfl/; jf ;Nnfxdf k|of]u x'g] kl/kf6Ln] /fhfjf6
ulNt / u}/ sfg"gL sfo{ x'Fb}gg\ eGg] cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; eof] .
oyfy{df hj /fhfjf6 s;}sf] k/fdz{ jf ;Nnfxdf dfq s'g} sfo{ x'G5
eg] /fhfn] ulNt u/]sf] eGg] k|Zg g} p7g ;Sb}g . ulNt olb
x'G5 eg] To:tf] sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L ;Nnfx jf k/fdz{ lbg]
kbflwsf/Ldf g} /xG5 . olx l;4fGtnfO{ g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f #! n] cjnDjg u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #! sf] If]q klxrfg ug{ >L % af6 ul/aS;g]
sfo{sf] k|s[lt x]g'{ kg]{ x'G5 . o; lgldQ ;+ljwfgdf >L % af6

                               60
ul/aS;g] sfo{sf ;DjGwdf ePsf Joj:yf To;df klg wf/f #% sf]
pkwf/f -@_ sf] Joj:yf ljz]if ?kjf6 x]l/g' kg]{ x'G5 .
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #%-@_ nfO{ afx]s u/]/ wf/f #! sf] JofVof
x'g ;Sg] cj:yf b]lv+b}g .
       g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f #% sf]
pkwf/f -@_ n] >L % af6 ul/aS;g] sfo{nfO{ tLg ju{df
ljeflht u/]sf] kfOof] . k|ydtM >L % af6 jf df};"kmsf]
:jljj]sdf ul/aS;g] sfo{, bf]>f] s'g} lgsfo jf kbflwsf/Lsf]
l;kmfl/;df ul/aS;g] egL ls6fgL ;fy Joj:yf ePsf sfo{, t]>f],
dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ;Nnfx / ;Ddltjf6 ul/aS;g] sfo{ . ;+j}wflgs
Joj:yf cg';f/sf >L % jf6 dfq jf df};"kmsf] :jljj]sdf ;DkGg
x'g] sfo{sf] ;DjGwdf obfsbf ;+j}wflgstfsf] k|Zg uDeL/
?kdf p7\g' :jefljs} x'g ;Sb5 . >L % af6 dfq jf df};"kmsf]
:jljj]sdf ;+ljwfg adf]lhd ul/jS;]sf] uDeL/ ;+j}wflgstfsf] k|Zg
afx]s cGo s'/fx?sf ;DjGwdf cbfntdf k|Zg p7fpg' pko'Qm
b]lv+b}g . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& n] ;fdflhs
/fhg}lts Pj+ cfly{s ;d'Ggltsf] cfwf/ g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfnfO{ :jLsf/ u/L ;+j}wflgs
;jf]{Rrtfsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ u|x0f u/]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @&
sf] pkwf/f -#_ df >L % af6 g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;jf{]Qd lxt /
;d'Ggltsf] nflu ;+ljwfgsf] kfng / ;+/If0f ul/aS;g]5 eGg]
Joj:yf ePsf]n] ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfjf6 dfq g]kfnL hgtfsf]
;jf]{Qd lxt x'g] ePjf6 g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;af]{Qd lxt lgldQ
;+ljwfgsf] kfng / ;+/If0fsf] bfloTj ;+lawfgn] >L % df
tf]s]sf] cj:yf 5 . ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf g} g]kfnL hgtfsf] ;j{tf]d'vL
k|ultsf] cfwf/ eGg] s'/fsf] c7f]6 ;+ljwfgsf] /x]sf] / ;+j}wflgs
;af]{Rrtfsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/Psf] l:yltdf /fHozlQm
;+j}wflgs Joj:yf ljkl/t k|of]u ePsf] egL ;+j}wflgs ljjfb
p7fO{ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt k|j]z u/]sf]df ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 ;+j}wflgs
k|Zgsf] lg?k0f gx'g] xf] eg] g]kfnL hgtfsf] zfGtL /
pGgltsf] ;+j}wflgs cfwf/df ljWg cfpg ;Sg] l:ylt kg{ ;Sb5 .

                              61
;+j}wflgs ljjfbx? clgl0f{t cj:yfdf /xg' x'Fb}g . o;sf] ;dfwfg
pko'Qm dfWodjf6 geP ck7\of/f] / c;xh kl/l:ylt >[hgf x'g
hfG5 / /fHo Joj:yf c;xh cj:yfdf k'Ug hfG5 . ;+ljwfg tyf
sfg"gn] ;+/If0f u/]sf hgtfsf xsx?sf] k|rng jf ;+j}wflgs
ljjfbsf] Goflos lg/f]k0fsf] lhDd]jf/L ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f ** n]
;af{]Rr cbfntnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] ;+j}wflgstfsf] k|Zgdf ;af]{Rr
cbfnt k|j]z ug{ gkfpg] eGg' ;+ljwfg cg's"n x'g hfb}+g .
      g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f #! h:t}
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( sf] wf/f *& sf] Joj:yf /x]sf] b]lvG5 /
pQm ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @! -@_ adf]lhd /fhu2L pQ/flwsf/L
;DjGwL sfg"g agfpg] ;+zf]wg ug]{ jf vf/]h ug]{ ;Dk"0f{
clwsf/ >L % df dfq /x]sf] / >L % df dfq /x]sf] To:tf] clwsf/
k|of]u u/L agfO{ aS;]sf] /fhu2L pQ/flwsf/L ;DjGwL P]g,
@)$$ sf] bkmf !# df Joj:yf ePsf] d[To'b08 ;DjGwdf
lgj]bs s[i0f k|;fb lzjfsf]6L lj?4 dlGqkl/ifb\ ;lrjfno ;d]t ePsf]
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f **-!_ adf]lhd ;+ljwfg;+u aflemPsf] sfg"g
ab/ ul/kfpF eGg] ljifosf] lgj]bg -g]=sf=k= @)%$ lg=g+=
^#*& k[i7 @(%_ df pQm sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] ;+j}wflgs kl/If0f
eO{ wf/f !#! sf] k|ltjGwfTds jfSofFz v08n] ;+ljwfg;+u
aflemg] k'/fgf sfg"g :jtM lgliqmo x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] x'Fbf
ab/ / cdfGo 3f]lift geP klg lqmofzLn /lx/xg] cj:yf kb}{g
egL ;+j}wflgs k|Zgsf] kl/If0f eO{ p7]sf] ;+j}wflgs ljjfbsf]
lg?k0f ;d]t ePsf] cj:yf ePaf6 >L % df dfq /x]sf] clwsf/
k|of]u e} >L % af6 jgfOjS;]sf] P]gsf] Joj:yfs}
;+a}wflgstfsf] k|Zgsf] kl/If0f o; cbntaf6 ePsf]g} cj:yf
ePaf6 g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!% df
Jojl:yt ;+s6sflng clwsf/, wf/f !@& df Jojl:yt afwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] clwsf/ ;DaGwdf plJemPsf] ;+a}wflgs k|Zgdf
;af]{Rr cbfntdf k|Zg p7fpg gkfOg] eGg ldNg] cj:yf b]lvg
cfPg .


                              62
      GofofwLzx? lgZro g} cfkm"n] k|ltkfbg u/]sf] l;4fGt jf
cfˆgf] k"j{ cjwf/0ff k|lt k|lta4 /xg cfjZos 5 . tyflk ab\ln+bf]
kl/l:yltdf GofofwLz Gofosf] lgldQ cfˆgf] k'/fgf] wf/0ffk|lt
k|lta4 /lx/xg' pko'Qm gx'g] l:ylt klg /xg ;Sb5 . cfkm"n]
k|ltkfbg u/]sf] k"j{ l;4fGt cfˆgf] k"j{ cjwf/0ff jf c8fg ljkl/t
Gofosf] lgldQ lg0f{o ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf k/]df cfkm\gf] k"j{
cjwf/0ff unt jf jblnbf] kl/l:ytLdf cg''s"n g/x]sf] cfwf/ / sf/0f
GofofwLzn] :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . ljkIfL
tkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foLx?n] o; cbfntsf] Ps
GofofwLzsf] Ohnf;jf6 lgj]bs clwjQmf pk]Gb| gGbg
ltldlN;gf lj?4 >L % sf] ;/sf/ dlGqkl/ifb\ ;lrjfno ;d]t ePsf]
;Djt\ @)%( ;fnsf] lgj]bg g+= #!#) df ;+ljwfg sfof{Gjog
ug{ afwf c8sfp k/]df To:tf] afwf c8sfp km'sfpg ;+ljwfgsf]
wf/f !@& k|of]u ul/aS;]sf] sfd s'/fdf ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #!
cfslif{t x'g] egL ldlt @)%(.*.!& df cfb]z ePsfn] pQm
cfb]z ;d]tsf] cfwf/df k|:t't ljjfbsf ;DjGwdf klg ;+ljwfgsf]
wf/f #! cg';f/ o; cbfntn] k|Zg p7fpg ldNb}g eGg] lhls/ lng'
ePsf] 5 . o; ;DjGwdf pQm lgj]bg ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f #%-#_
cg';f/ d'n'ssf] zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;fdfGo lgb]{zg, lgoGq0f /
;+rfng ug]{ cleef/f dlGqkl/ifb\df ePsf]n] pQm Joj:yfnfO{
lqmofzLn u/fO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ >L % af6 ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f
!@& k|of]u u/L dlGqkl/ifb\sf] u7g ul/aS;]sf] ljifo;+u
;DjlGwt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . pQm lgj]bgdf k|:t't l/6 lgj]bgdf
h:tf] ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& k|of]u u/L 5'§} lgsfo u7g ul/Psf]
ljjfb ;dfj]z ePsf] b]lv+b}g . o;}n] k|:t't ljjfb eGbf leGb}
k|s[ltsf] ljjfbdf Ps GofofwLzsf] Ohnf;jf6 ldlt @)%(.*.!& df
ePsf] cfb]zsf] cfwf/df k|:t't l/6 lgj]bg;+u ;DjlGwt ljifodf
;+ljwfgsf] w/f #! cg';f/ o; cbfntn] x]g{ gldNg] eGg] ljåfg
sfg"g Joj;foLx?sf] ax; lhls/;+u ;xdt x'g ;lsPg .
      ljkIfL e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u tkm{sf ljåfg al/i7
clwjQmf s'~hljxf/L k|;fb l;+x ;d]tn] l/6 g+= %& sf] lgj]bs

                              63
clwjQmf ;Gtf]if s'df/ dxtf] ePsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o; cbfntsf] Ps
GofofwLzsf] Ohnf;jf6 ldlt @)^@.%.!( df lnlvt hjfkm dfu
ug]{ u/L ePsf] cfb]z g} c;+j}wflgs / u}/ sfg"gL ePsf] ax;
lhls/ k|:t't ug'{ ePsf] 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&
sf] wf/f ** df Jojl:yt o; cbfntsf] c;fwf/0f clwsf/ If]q
;dGoflos tyf :jljj]sLo k|s[ltsf] clwsf/ If]q xf] . o; clwsf/ If]q
cGtu{t o; cbfntn] ljjfbsf] ljifoj:t'sf] k|s[ltsf] cfwf/df ;DjlGwt
kIfjf6 lnlvt hjfkm dfUg] nufotsf pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug{
;S5 . To; ;DjGwdf ;af]{Rr cbfnt lgodfjnL, @)$( sf] lgod
$) sf] pklgod -$_ df ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f **-!_ / -@_ adf]lhdsf]
lgj]bg kqsf] k|f/lDes ;'g'jfO{ ubf{ cbfntsf] ljrf/df lgj]bssf]
lhls/ plrt / sfg"g ;+ut h:tf] b]lvPdf lgj]bgkqdf dfu ul/P
adf]lhdsf] cfb]z hf/L x'g' gkg]{ s'g} sf/0f eP tf]lsPsf]
tfl/vsf] lbg pkl:yt x'g egL tf/]v tf]sL k|ToyL{sf] gfpdf cfb]z
hf/L ug'{ k5{ eGg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] kfOG5 . l/6 g+= %& sf]
l/6 lgj]bgdf ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !!%-&_ adf]lhd ldlt @)^!.!!.%
df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u u7g ug{ cfb]z hf/L ePsf] /
ldlt @)^@.!.!^ df ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !!%-!!_ cg';f/ ;+s6sflng
cj:yfsf] cfb]z lkmtf{ eP kl5 ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& k|of]u u/L
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] sfo{
;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& ljkl/t ePsf] egL ;+ljwfgsf] ljleGg
wf/fx? pNn]v u/L ljkIfL cfof]usf] ;+j}wflgstfsf] k|Zg
p7fPsf] / l/6 g+= !!* sf] /flhj k/fh'nLsf] xsdf ;+hLj k/fh'nL
lgj]bs ePsf] aGbL k|ToIfLs/0fsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf klg d"n ?kdf
;dfg k|s[ltsf] ljjfb ;dfj]z ePsf] b]lvPsf] tyf pQm l/6 lgj]bgdf
ldlt @)^@.%.@# df k]z ug]{ cfb]z eO;s]sf] cj:yf ;d]tnfO{
ljrf/ u/L ;dfg ljjfbsf ljifox? ;dfj]z ePsf b'j} l/6 lgj]bgx?
Ps};fy ;'g'jfO{ x'g' Gofo k|zf;gsf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;d]t plrt
ePsf]n] pNn]lvt b'j} l/6 lgj]bgx? Ps} ;fy k]z ug]{ u/L
ePsf] cfb]znfO{ ;+ljwfg tyf sfg"g ljkl/t dfGg ldNb}g . o;sf
cltl/Qm o; cbfntsf] Ps GofofwLzsf] Ohnf;jf6 ldlt

                               64
@)^@.%.!( df ljkIfL cfof]ujf6 lnlvt hjfkm dfu ug]{ cfb]z
hf/L ePsf]df pQm cfb]z cg';f/ ljkIfL cfof]ujf6 o; cbfntdf
lnlvt hjfkm k]z ul/;lsPsf] b]lvG5 . pQm lnlvt hjfkmdf o;
cbfntjf6 ePsf] cfb]zsf ;DjGwdf s'g} lhls/ lnPsf] kfOb}g .
o; cbfntjf6 ePsf] cfb]z sfof{Gjog eO{ lnlvt hjfkm k]z
eO;s]sf] / ;DjlGwt kIfn] To; ;DjGwdf s'g} ljjfb gp7fPsf]
cj:yfdf kIfsf] tkm{jf6 ;'g'jfO{sf] nflu pkl:yt x'g] sfg"g
Joj;foLn] lnlvt hjfkmdf p7fpFb} gp7fPsf] ljifodf ljjfb
p7fO{ o; cbfntjf6 ePsf] cfb]z u}/ sfg"gL / u}/ ;+j}wflgs
ePsf] egL lnOPsf] ax; lhls/ sfg"g cg's"n dfGg ldn]g .
      ca t]>f] k|Zg tkm{ ljrf/ ubf{ cbfntn] cfkm" ;dIf cfPsf
ljjfb Goflos lg/f]k0fsf] dfkb08 -Judicially Manageable Standard _
leq kg]{ gkg]{ s] xf] < lgSof}{n ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . ;+j}wflgs
jf sfg"gL k|Zg ;dfj]z gePsf], Goflos lg/f]k0fsf] nflu of]Uo
gePsf] /fhg}lts k|Zgdf lgZro g} cbfnt k|j]z ug'{ x'Fb}g .
s'g} ljjfbnfO{ /fhg}lts eg]/ eGb}df Tof] ljifo /fhg}lts x'g
;Sg] xf]Og . ljjfbsf] ljifo /fhg}lts xf] jf xf]Og < egL
5'§ofpg To:tf] ljjfbsf] k|s[lt jf rl/q a'em\g cfjZos x'G5 .
;+a}wflgs sfg"gL jf Goflos lg/f]k0fsf] dfkb08leq gkg]{
/fHo / zf;g Joj:yfsf gLltut s'/fx? Pj+ Gofokflnsfn] eGbf
sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf jf cGo lgsfojf6 k|efjsf/L lsl;dn]
lg/f]k0f x'g ;Sg] /fhg}lts ljjfbnfO{ g} /fhg}lts k|Zgsf] ?kdf
lng' kg]{ x'G5 . >L % jf6 ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !!% -&_ adf]lhd
u7g ul/jS;]sf] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] u7gnfO{ ldlt
@)^@.!.!^ df ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& cg';f/sf] cfb]z hf/L u/L
lg/Gt/tf lbOjS;]sf] cfb]z df3 !( @)^! sf] zfxL 3f]if0f cg'?k
hgtfsf] lxt lgldQ >L % df lglxt /fhsLo;Qf k|of]u u/L
ul/jS;]sf] sfo{ x'Fbf /fhg}lts k|Zg ;dfj]z ePsf] ljifo xf] eGg]
ljkIfLx?sf] lhls/ /x]sf] 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] /fhsLo;Qf /
;fj{ef}d clwsf/ g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& adf]lhd g}
x'g] u/L >L % af6 ;+ljwfg hf/L ul/jS;]sf] cj:yfdf e|i6frf/

                               65
lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] u7g ;DjGwL ;+j}wflgs ljjfb
;+ljwfgn] to u/]sf] /fhsLo;Qf k|of]u ;DaGwL Joj:yf ;d]tsf]
cfwf/df lg/f]k0f ug{' kg{] ePsf]n] To:tf] ljjfb /lxt ;+j}wflgs
ljifonfO{ /fhg}lts ljjfbsf] ;+1f lbg ldNg] b]lvPg .
      cj rf}yf] k|Zg e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]usf] u7g /
To;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] sfo{ ;+lawfg ;Ddt 5 jf 5}g < eGg]
;DaGwdf ljrf/ ubf{ o; ;DaGwdf lgj]bs tkm{af6 cfof]usf]
u7g @)^!.!).!( df >L % af6 hf/L ePsf] ;+s6sfnLg
3f]if0ffsf] lgjf/0f k|of]hg;+u ;DalGwt gePsf], g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{t o:tf]
cfof]u u7g ug{ ;lsb}g, ;+lawfgsf] wf/f !@& n] o:tf] cfof]u
u7g ug{ jf wf/f !!%-&_ cGtu{t u7g ePsf] cfof]unfO{ wf/f
!@& n] lg/Gt/tf lbg ldNb}+g . cfof]usf] sfdsfo{jfxL k|fs[lts
Gofosf] l;4fGt cg'?k gePsf], g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f (* sf] Joj:yf k|lts"n ;d]t ePsf] eGg] l/6
lgj]bgdf / jx; tyf k|:t't ug'{ ePsf] lnlvt jx; lhls/df pNn]v
u/]sf] b]lvG5 . d'n'sdf e|i6frf/ Jofks?kdf km}lnO{ åGbsf]
l:ylt cfPsf]n] ;f] /f]Sg' kg]{ /fHon] cfjZostf dxz'; u/L
cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] xf] . cfof]usf] If]qflwsf/ / clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg'G;fwfg cfof]usf] If]qflwsf/ km/s km/s /x]af6
wf/f (* k|lts"n x'g] u/L cfof]usf] u7g ul/Psf] xf]Og . wf/f
!@& n] ;f] cGtu{t hf/L cfb]z ;+;b ;dIf k]z ul/g]5 eGg]
Joj:yf u/]sf] ;f] k|s[of k"/f gePsf] cj:yf5 . >L % sf]
;Gt'i6Ldf wf/f !@& adf]lhd lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] ljifodf cbfntn]
x]g{ ldNb}g eGg] ljkIfLx?sf] lnlvt hjfkm / jx;sf qmddf
ljåfg dxfGofoflwjQmf ;lxt ljkIfLx? tkm{af6 pkl:yt x'g'
ePsf ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foLx?sf] jx; lhls/ / lnlvt jx;gf]6 ;d]t
/x]sf] b]lvg cfpF5 .
       e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u u7g cfb]z >L % af6
hf/L ePsf]n] cbfntdf k|Zg p7\g g;Sg] eGg] ljkIfLx?sf]
lhls/sf ;DaGwdf wf/f @&-#_ / #! -#_ sf ;DaGwdf k|Zg

                             66
g+=@ df ;f] s'/fsf] ljZn]if0f ePsf] lgZsif{af6 /
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{noaf6 k|fKt lnlvt jx; gf]6sf] k[i7
$ k|s/0f ^= df æ ;Ddflgt cbfntaf6 Judical Review sf]
dfWodaf6 x]l/g] ljifo eg]sf] zfxL cfof]usf] cfb]z ;+lawfg
;Ddt 5 5}g eGg] dfq xf] .Æ eGg] pNn]vgaf6 cfb]zsf
;DaGwdf ljrf/ x'g g;Sg] bl]vg cfPg .
      æ d'n'sdf JofKt e|i6frf/nfO{ lgoGq0f u/L bf]ifL pk/
k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ / o:tf] sfo{jfxLsf k|s[of l56f]
5l/tf] ;/n jgfpg cfjZos ePsf] kl/k|]Ifdf State Necessity cGtu{t
cfof]u u7g ul/Psf] xf] . State Necessity cyf{t Doctrine of Necessity
sf] cfwf/df /fHon] pko'Qm sbd rfNg ;Sg] @)^! ;fnsf] l/6
g+=%( df o; cbfntaf6 ldlt @)^@.@.@& df ePs]f
lg0f{oaf6 ;d]t cfof]usf] u7g ;+lawfg ;Ddt /x]sf]Æ eGg]
dxfGofoflwjQmsf] sfof{noaf6 k|:t't lnlvt jx;gf]6df lhls/
pNn]v ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;fy} wf/f !!%-!_ adf]lhd ;+s6sfnLg
cj:yf 3f]if0ff ePsf] j]nfdf wf/f !!%-&_ cg'?k >L % af6
cfb]z hf/L u/L o:tf] cfof]u u7g ug{ ;lsjS;g] Joj:yf adf]lhd
cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] eGg] ;d]t lnlvt hjfkm / ljkIfLx?s]f
jx;gf]6df pNn]v ePsf] b]lvbf+ g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f !!% sf ljeGg Joj:yf / >L % af6 ldlt
@)^!.!).!( df hf/L ;+s6sfnLg 3f]if0ffsf] cfb]z ;d]ts]f oxf+
z'Id cWoog ug{ cfjZos ePsf]5 . v08 %$_, sf8df8f}+ ldlt
df3 !( ut] @)^! ;fn - cltl/StfÍ $&-v_ efu $ sf] g]kfn /fhkqdf
>L % dxf/fhflw/fhsf k|d'v ;lrjfno /fhb/jf/sf] lj1KtL o; k|sf/
/x]sf] b]lvG5 M
        æ >L % dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;fj{ef}d;Qf, cv08tf Pj+ ;'/Iffdf uDeL/ ;+s6 pTkGg x'g
uPsf]n] g]kfn clw/.Hosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!% sf]
pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd g]kfn clw/fHoe/ tt\sfn nfu" x'g] u/L
;+s6sfngLcj:yfsf] cfb]z hf/L ul/jS;L ;f]xL wf/fsf] pkwf/f -
*_ adf]lhd g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !@ sf]

                                67
pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_, -v_,-u_ / -3_, wf/f !# sf] pkwf/f -
!_ / w/f !%,!^,!&,@@ / @#                - jGbLk|ToIfLs/0fsf]
pkrf/ k|fKt ug]{ xs jfx]s _ lgnDjg ul/jS;]sf]5 .Æ
      g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!% sf]
ljleGg pkwf/fx? /x]sf5g\ . tL dWo] k|:t't ljjfb;+u ;DalGwt
;f] wf/fsf] pkwf/f -!_, pkwf/f -&_ / pkwf/f -!!_ df qmd;M
b]xfo adf]lhdsf] Joj:yf /x]sf] b]lvg cfpF5 M
      æ wf/f !!%-!_ M g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;fj{ef}dzQf,cv08tf
jf s'g} efusf] ;'/Iffdf o'4, jfXo cfqmd0f, z;:q ljb|f]x jf r/d
cfly{s lj>[ªvntfsf] sf/0fn] uDeL/ ;+s6 pTkGg ePdf >L %
af6 g]kfn clw/fHoe/ jf s'g} vf; If]qdf nfu" x'g] u/L
;ªs6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff ug{ jf cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsjS;g]5
.Æ
      æ wf/f !!%-&_ M pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd ;ªs6sfnLg
cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z ePkl5 To:tf] cj:yfsf] lgjf/0f ug{ >L
% af6 cfjZos cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsjS;g]5 . To;/L hf/L ePs]f
cfb]z ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yf jxfn /x];Dd sfg"g ;/x nfu" x'g]5 .Æ
       æ wf/f !!%-!!_ M >L % af6 pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd
ul/Psf] ;ª6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z ;f] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z
jxfn /x];Dd h'g;'s} jvt klg lkmtf{ lng ;lsjS;g]5 .Æ
      ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf cg';f/ g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf,
cv08tf, s'g} efusf] ;'/Iff, o'4 jfXo cfqmd0f, ;z:q ljb|f]x jf
r/d cfly{s lj>[Fvntf s] sf/0fn] ;+s6 pTkGg ePsf] xf]
;+s6sflng cj:yf nfu" x'g] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]zdf pNn]v x'g' h?/L
5 . ;+s6sflng 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z hf/L ePsf]df 3f]if0ff jf cfb]zdf
h'g sf/0f pNn]v ePsf] xf] ;f]xL sf/0fjf6 ;+s6sfnsf] l:ylt
pTkGg ePsf] ;Demg' kg]{ x'G5 .;+s6sflng cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff
jf cfb]z ePkl5 wf/f !!% -&_ cg';f/ To:tf] cj:yfsf] lgjf/0f ug{
>L % jf6 cfjZos cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsjS;g] / To:tf] cfb]z
;+s6sfn axfn /x];Dd sfg"g ;/x nfu" x'g] eGg] Joj:yfjf6
g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, cv08tf, s'g} efusf] ;'/Iff, o'4,

                               68
jfXo cfqmd0f, ;z:q ljb|f]x jf r/d cfly{s lj>[Fvntf s] sf/0fjf6
;+s6sflng cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff ePsf] xf] ;f]xL cj:yfsf] lgjf/0fsf]
lgldQdfq wf/f !!%-&_ adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsjS;g] x'bf+
;+s6sfn 3f]if0ff jf cfb]zdf pNn]v ePb]lv afx]ssf] cj:yfsf
;DjGwdf wf/f !!% -&_ sf] Joj:yf cfslif{t x'g ;Sg] :ki6
;+j}wflgs Joj:yfsf] cefj b]lvG5 . e|i6frf/n] ufFh]sf] sf/0f
e|i6frf/ a9]sf] / cfly{s lj>[Fvntf pTkGg ePjf6 e|i6frf/nfO{
lgoGq0f ug{ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf]
eGg] ts{ k]z x'g cfPsf] 5 . pNn]v ePsf] @)^! ;fn df3 !( sf]
g]kfn /fhkq cltl/QmfÍ $& -v_ efu $ df >L % dxf/fhflw/fhsf
k|d"v ;lrjfno, /fhb/jf/jf6 k|sflzt lj1lKt cjnf]sg ubf{ >L %
dxf/fhflw/fhjf6 g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, cv08tf Pj+
;'/Iffdf u+eL/ ;+s6 pTkGg ePsf]n] g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!%-!_ adf]lhd g]kfn clw/fHo e/L
nfu" x'g] u/L ;+s6sflng cfb]z hf/L ul/aS;]sf] b]lvg cfpF5 .
;+s6sfn nfu" ul/Psf] cfb]zdf h'g sf/0fjf6 ;+s6sflng cj:yf
ljBdfg /x]sf] egL elgPsf] 5, To;eGbf leGg / cnu cfwf/
sf/0fjf6 klg ;+s6sfn nfu" ePsf] /x]5 egL sNkgf ug'{
;+ljwfg ;Ddt x'Fb}g . ;+s6sflng cj:yf nfu" ul/Psf] ;DjGwdf
ldlt @)^!.!).!( df hf/L ul/Psf] cfb]zdf ;+s6sflng cj:yf hf/L
x'g] cj:yfdf cfly{s lj>[Fvntf pNn]v gePsf] / ;fy} ;f]xL ldltdf
>L % af6 aS;]sf] zfxL 3f]if0ffsf] bkmf !@ df klg cfly{s
lj>[Fvntfsf] s'/f pNn]v gul/aS;]sf] Gofosf] l;4fGt
pNNf+3g gx'g] u/L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] sbd rflng] 5 eGg]
;Dd pNn]v ePsf] sf/0fn] ljåfg sfg"g Joj;foLx?n] lhls/ lnP
h:tf] u/L cfly{s lj>[Fvntfsf] sf/0f e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL
cfof]usf] u7g ePsf] egL eGg ;lsg] ;+j}wflgs cfwf/ s]xL
k]z x'g cfPsf] 5}g . h'g cj:yfsf] sf/0f ;+s6sfn 3f]if0ff jf
cfb]z hf/L ul/Psf] xf] ;f] cj:yfsf] lgjf/0f x]t' wf/f !!%-&_
adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsg] x'Fbf ;+s6sflng 3f]if0ff jf
cfb]zdf gk/]sf] ;+j}wflgs cj:yf jf sf/0f jfx]ssf] cj:yfsf

                              69
;DjGwdf wf/f !!%-&_ sf] Joj:yf k|of]u x'g g;Sg] ;+j}wflgs
dg;fo :ki6 b]lvG5 . To;df klg v08 %%- sf7df08f}+, j}zfv
!^ ut] @)^@ ;fn - cltl/StfÍ & df >L % dxf/fhflw/fhsf] k|d'v
;lrjfno /fhb/jf/sf] lj1KtLdf æ >L % dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!% sf] pkwf/f -!_
adf]lhd @)^! ;fn df3 !( ut] g]kfn clw/fHoe/ nfu" x'g] u/L
hf/L ul/jS;]sf] ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] cfb]z ;f]xL wf/fsf] pkwf/f
-!! adf]lhd cfh}sf ldlt b]lv nfu" x'g] u/L lkmtf{ lnOjS;sf]5
.Æ egL k|sflzt Joxf]/faf6 wf/f !!%-!_ sf] ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yf /
;f] lgjf/0f k|of]hgsf] nflu egL wf/f !!%-&_ adf]lhd hf/L
cfb]z :jtM lg:k|of]lht eO z""Gosf] l:yltdf k'u]sf] ;+a}wflgs
Joj:yfaf6 :ki6 b]lvG5 . o;/L Pp6f ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf
s[ofzLn eO{ ePsf] sfd sfo{jfxL ;+lawfg s} Joj:yf adf]lhd
ul/Psf] csf]{ sfo{af6 z"Gosf] cj:yfdf k'u]sf]df :ki6
;+a}wflgs Joj:yfsf] cefjdf z"Godf k'uL ;s]sf] l:yltnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbg ;lsg], kfOg] eGg] cy{ lgsfNg]] xf] eg] To:tf]
sfo{ jnk"j{s ePsf] dfGg' kg]{ x'G5 / To:tf] sfo{af6
;+a}wflgs ljsf;sf] qmddf cj/f]w pTkGg x'g hfG5 .
      cj State Necessity sf sf/0f cfof]usf] u7g ug'{ k/]sf] eGg]
;DaGwdf dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no, ljåfg jl/i7 clwjQmf
s'~h ljxf/L k|;fb l;+x, ljåfg clwjQmfx? ldlyn]z s'df/ l;+x,
cjw]z s'df/ l;+x ;d]tn] lnlvt jx; gf]6df ;d]t ;f] s'/fnfO{ ljz]if
hf]8lbg' ePsf] 5 .æ That is necessary which cannot be otherwise .
Necessity defences or justifies what it compels . Necessity is the law of time
& place . Necessity makes the lawful which otherwise                   is not
lawful.ÆeGg] cfwf/ klg dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{nosf] lnlvt
jx;df pNn]v u/L dfly pNn]v ePsf] ljgf]b sfsL{,s[i0f k|;fb
nD;fn tyf ljgf]bk|;fb clwsf/Lsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o; cbfntaf6
ePsf lg0f{ox?sf] pNn]vg / cfwf/ cfˆgf] lhls/sf] ;dy{gdf
pNn]v ug'{ ePsf] b]lvG5 .


                                     70
      lgj]bs ljgf]b sfsL{sf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o; cbfntaf6
cfjZostfsf] l;4fGtsf] ;DaGwdf ul/Psf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ jx;
lhls/df ;d]t ;j} h;f] ljkIfL sfg"g Joj;foLx?n] pNn]v ug'[{
ePsf]n] ;f] lgj]bgdf s] s:tf] lg0f{o ePsf] /x]5 x]g'{ kg]{
b]lvg cfof] .
      ;f] l/6 lgj]bgdf lgj]bsn] ;+;b ;dIf dfq k]z ug'{ kg]{
/fhZj tyf Joosf] jflif{s cg'dfg tyf k|ltlglw ;efdf dfq k]z ul/g'
kg]{ cfly{s P]gn] dfq s/sf] b/df yk36 ug{ ;lsg]df
cWofb]zsf] cfwf/df hgk|ltlglwTj ljgf s/ nufpg gldNg] egL
k|ltlglw;ef lj36gsf] l:yltdf hf/L ePsf] cfly{s cWofb]z
)%(.)^), )^).)^! )^!.)^@ cdfGo / jb/ 3f]lift u/L kfpF eGg]
lhls/ lnO{ ;f] l/6 lgj]bg k/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;f] l/6 lgj]bgdf o;
cbfntaf6 cfjZostfsf] l;4fGtsf] rrf{ u/L æ h:tf] ;'s} c;fwf/0f /
c;xh kl/l:yltdf klg /fi6«nfO{ hf]ufO{ /fVg /fHosf
sfdsf/jfxLx? ;+rfng ul/g' clt cfjZos 5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf
;/sf/af6 ;+kfbg ul/Psf sfo{x? ;+ljwfgn] ;fdfGo cj:yfsf nflu
lgwf{/0f u/]sf k|fjwfg cg's"n gePtf klg olb ;+j}wflgs
k|fjwfg ljkl/t x'+b}g eg] cfjZostfsf] l;4fGt -doctrine of
necessity_ cg';f/ To:tf sfdsf/jfxLn] cf}lrTotf k|fKt ub{5 .
;fdfGo cj:yfdf /fHosf h'g;'s} sfdsf/jfxL ;+ljwfgsf] cIf/ /
efjgf -Letter and Spirit_ cg's"n ;+kfbg ul/g' kb{5 / To; cg"?k
ul/Psf] gkfO{Pdf To:tf] sfd sf/jfxLnfO{ ;+j}wflgs tyf
sfg"gL dfGotf lbg ldNb}g . t/ c;fdfGo cj:yfdf hxfF s'g}
ljsNkg} 5}g eg] To:tf] cj:yfdf ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} k|i6 k|fjwfgsf]
pn+3g u/]sf] cj:yfdf afx]s ;+ljwfgåf/f cjnlDat cfwf/e"t
;+/rgf jf d"ne"t cjwf/0ff k|lts"n Go"gtd ?kdf /fHo Joj:yf
;+rfngsf] l;nl;nfdf /fHoaf6 ;+kfbg ul/g] sfo{nfO{ ckl/xfo{
cfjZostf -inevitable necessity_ sf] cfwf/df ;DkGg ul/Psf]
dfGg' Goflos pko'Qmtf -Judicial propriety_ sf] b[li6sf]0faf6
;d]t dgfl;j x'G5 .Æ eGg] cfwf/df k|ltlglw;ef lj36g ePsf]
cj:yfdf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f &@

                              71
adf]lhd hf/L ePsf] cfly{s cWofb]znfO{ ;+ljwfgsf] Joj:yf
ljkl/t gePsf] elg ;+ljwfg ;Ddt x'g] lg0f{o u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;f]
lgj]bgdf lg0f{o x'bf+ cfjZostfsf] l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df
;+j}wflgs, sfg"gL ljsNk ePsf] cj:yfdf ;+ljwfgsf] Joj:yf
ljkl/tsf] sfdn] ;+j}wflgs dfGotf kfpg] eGg] :ki6f]QmL
u/]sf] gx'Fbf ;f] df ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] cfjZostfsf] l;4fGtsf]
cfwf/af6 k|:t't ljjfbnfO{ jn k'Ug] jf k'li6 x'g] cfwf/ b]lv+b}g
. cGo l/6lgj]bgx? lghfdtL sd{rf/L ;DalGw ljifosf] s'/f
ePsf] o; ljjfb;+u k|ToIf k/f]Io ?kdf ;fb[Zotf /x]sf] tL
l/6lgj]bgdf ePsf] lg0f{oaf6 b]lvb}g . cfjZostfsf] l;4fGtn]
eO/x]sf] ;+j}wflgs ;+/rgfnfO{ tx;gx; kfg{] sfo{ ug{] xf]Og
. tt\sfn ;dfwfg x'g' kg,]{;dfwfgsf] ljsNkg} gePsf] cj:yfdf
:ki6 ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf ljkl/t gx'g] u/L To:tf] cj:yfsf]
lg?k0f;Dd ug]{ xf] .
       e|i6frf/ b]zsf] snÍ xf] , o;n] ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ tx;
gx; kfb{5 , g}lts d"No / dfGotfsf] zq'sf] ?kdf /x]sf]
e|i6frf/nfO{ emfFlug glbO{ lgoGq0fdf /fVg' clgjfo{ 5 .
sfg"gL /fHonfO{ g} zf;gsf] d"n cfwf/ xfd|f] ;+lawfgn] to
u/]sf]5 . o;}n] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] alnof] cfwf/ ;+ljwfg
;Ddt ljZj;gLo / k|efjsf/L sfg"gL Joj:yf afx]s c? aGg ;Sb}g
. e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f lgldQ k|efjsf/L sfg"gL Joj:yf cfjZos
k/]sf], To:sf] ljsNk gePsf] cj:yfdf /fHon] ;+lawfg ljkl/t
gx'g] u/L sfg"gåf/f pko'Qm Joj:yf ug{ jfwf kg]{ xf]Og . t/
cltl/Qm Joj:yf ug'{ k"j{ d"nsfg"gsf] ?kdf /x]sf] ;+lawfgn]
s] s:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 To;nfO{ x]g'{ kg]{ x'G5 / ;+lawfg
;Ddt?kaf6 cfjZos b]lvPsf] Joj:yf ug{ kg]{ x'G5 . e|i6frf/
lgoGq0fsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$&
nfu" x'g' k"j{sf k|of; / Joj:yfnfO{ ;d]t b[li6ut u/L k|efjsf/L
;+oGqsf] ?kdf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] efu !@
df clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .
;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] cg'lrt sfo{ jf e|i6frf/ u/L

                              72
clVtof/sf] b'?kof]u u/]sf] ;DjGwdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]un] sfg"g adf]lhd cg';Gwfg jf txlssft ug]{ jf
u/fpg kfpg] clwsf/ wf/f (*-!_ n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]unfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] / cg';Gwfg txlssftjf6 ;fj{hlgs kb
wf/0f u/]sf] s'g} JolQmn] sfg"g adf]lhd e|i6frf/ dflgg] s'g}
sfd u/]sf] b]lvPdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un]
;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQm / ck/fwdf ;+nUg cGo
JolQm pk/ sfg"g adf]lhd clwsf/ k|fKt cbfntdf d'2f rnfOg]
Joj:yf ePjf6 cg'lrt sfo{ jf e|i6frf/sf ;DjGwdf cg';Gwfg
txlssft u/L clwsf/ k|fKt cbfntdf d'2f rnfpg] clwsf/ clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]udf /x]sf] b]lvof] . cg'lrt sfo{ jf
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf ;DjGwdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]u ;+ljwfgtM dxTjk"0f{ ;+/rgf ePjf6 clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]unfO{ ;+lawfgn] tf]s]sf]] lhDd]jf/L ;+j}wflgs
Joj:yf oyfjt /x];Dd ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf cg';/0f ug'{ g}
;+ljwfg;Ddt x'g hfG5 . s'g} sf/0f b]vfP/ ;+j}wflgs c+unfO{
k|bfg ul/Psf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/df k|ToIf,ck|ToIf ?kdf k|efj
kfg]{, cltqmd0f x'g] of ;+a}wflgs lgsfo k|efljt jf k|efjlxg
cj:yfdf k'Ug] sfo{af6 ;+a}wflgs hu sdhf]/ dfq xf]Og
vnjlng klg k'Ub5, ;+lawfgjfb / ;+lawfgsf] ljsf;df ;d]t cj/f]w
k'Ug hfG5 .
      >L % dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg @)$&
sf] wf/f !!%-&_ k|of]u u/L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u
u7g ul/jS;]sf] @)^!.!!.% cltl/Qmfªs %% df k|sflzt cfb]z
cWoog ubf{ cfb]zsf] bkmf @ n] t:s/L u/]sf] jf /fh:j 5n]sf],
clgoldt 7]Ssf k§f jf sld;gdf ;+nUg ePsf], k|rlnt sfg"g
adf]lhd e|i6frf/ dflgg] cGo sfd u/]sf] cj:yf b]lvP 5fg ljg
u/L sf/jfO{ ug]{ sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/sf cltl/St bkmf @-$_ n]
e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL k|rlnt sf"gg adf]lhd cg';Gwfg clwsf/Ln]
k|of]u ug{ kfpg] ;j} clwsf/ / ljz]if cbfnt P]g, @)%( adf]lhd
ljz]if cbfntnfO{ k|fKt clwsf/ k|fKt x'g] eGg] pNn]v ul/Psf]

                             73
b]lvG5 . bkmf ^ n] e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd
s;"/ u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePdf cfof]un] lghnfO{ ;f]xL sfg"g
adf]lhd ;hfo ug{ ;Sg]5 eGg] Joj:yfaf6 cfof]usf] gfddf
cfof]uaf6 ul/g] 5fgljg ;DaGwL sfo{ / ul/g] ;hfo ;d]tsf ;j}
sfo{ / clwsf/sf] k|of]u e|i6frf/;+u ;DalGwt b]lvg cfPsf]5 .
cfb]zsf] bkmf @ / ^ sf] Joj:yf x]bf{ 5fgljg ug]{ / ;hfo ug]{
clwsf/ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]udfg} /x]kl5 5fgljg u/L
d'2f rnfpg] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u leqsf] 5'§} lgsfon]
ug]{ u5{ eGg] egfO{ sfg"gsf] b[li6df s'g} dxTj /fVg]
b]lvb}+g . 5fgljg u/L sfo{jfxL ug]{ / ;hfo ug]{ b'j} clwsf/
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]udf lglxt /x]sf] :ki6 b]lvg
cfPsf]5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg @)$& sf] wf/f (* n]
;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] cg'lrt sfo{ jf e|i6frf/ u/L
clVtof/ b'?kof]u u/]sf]df cg';Gwfg txlssft u/L ;fj{hlgs kb
wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] sfg"g adf]lhd e|i6frf/ dflgg] sfd
u/]sf] b]lvPdf sfg"g adf]lhd clwsf/ k|fKt cbfntdf d'2f bfo/
ug{ jf u/fpg ;Sg] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]unfO{
sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tf]lsPsf] cj:yfdf cg';Gwfg ug]{ lgsfo /
d'2f ;'Gg] lgsfo Pp6} geO{ 5'§f 5'§} x'g' kg]{ ;+a}wflgs
Joj:yf :ki6 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfgn] e|i6frf/
;DaGwdf cg';Gwfg txlssft ug]{ lgsfo / d'2f x]g]{ lgsfosf]
5'§f 5'§} Joj:yf u/]sf]df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfO{
5fgljg sf/jfO{ ug]{ / ;hfo ug]{ ;d]tsf] sfo{ Pp6} lgsfonfO{
tf]Sg] sfo{ ;+lawfgsf] pB]Zo / efjgf cg's"n /xsf] eGg
ldNg] ;d]t b]lvg cfPg .
      Goflos lhDd]jf/L jxg ug]{ JolQmx?n] cfkm" Goflos
kbdf lgo'Qm ePkl5 kbdf jxfn x'g' eGbf k"j{ cfkm\gf]
kbsf] ;ky lng' kg]{ x'G5 . Goflos lhDd]jf/Lsf ;DaGwdf ;ky
lng] sfo{ sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] cleGgc+usf] ?kdf /x]sf] x'G5 .
;ky eGgf;fy sfg"gn] ;kysf] ?kdf k|lt1f jf 3f]if0ff ug'{ kg]{n]
u/]sf] ;kysf] ?kdf u/]sf] k|lt1f jf 3f]if0ff ;Demg' kg]{ x'G5

                             74
/ ;ky lnPkl5 cfkm"n] lnPsf] ;ky k|lt k|ltj4 /xg' g}tLs bfloTj
xf] . o;}sf/0faf6 g} ;kysf] sfg"gL dxTj ljz]if /x]sf] x'G5 .
;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] GofofwLz g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& k|ltjkmfbf/ / OdfGbf/ /xg] ;ky lnG5g\ . k'g/fj]bg
cbfnt, ljif]z cbfnt, k|zf;lso cbfntsf] GofofwLz Pj+ lhNnf
cbfntsf GofofwLzn] sfg"g, ;+lawfgk|lt jkmfbf/ /
OdfGbfl/tfsf] ;ky lng' kg]{ Joj:yfaf6 Goflos lhDd]jf/Lsf] jf
GofofwLz ;dfgsf] lhDd]jf/L lng] JolQmn] ;+lawfg
sfg"gk|lt jkmfbf/Lsf ;fy} OdfGbfl/tfsf] ;ky lng' kg]{ x'FG5
. t/ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cffof]usf] u7g cfb]zdf Joj:yf eP
adf]lhd cfof]usf cWoIf Pj+ ;b:on] kb tyf uf]klgotfsf] ;ky
lng' kg]{df ;+lawfg sfg"gsf] ;ky lng' kg]{ cj:yf b]lvg cfPg
. ;+lawfg / sfg"gsf] k|ltj4tf k|lt ;ky lng' gkg]{ / ;f] jfx]s cGo
s'/fsf] ;ky lng' kg]{n] cfkm"n] ;ky lnPsf] s'/fdfg} k|ltj4 /xg]
eGg] wf/0ff c:jefljs b]lvb}+g .
    g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!%-!_ adf]lhd
hf/L ul/jS;]sf] ;+s6sflng 3f]if0ff jf cfb]zsf] cjwL l;ldt cjwL
lgldQ x'g] ;+lawfgn] :ki6 u/]sf] 5 . ;+s6sflng cj:yfsf]
3f]if0ff jf cfb]z ePdf 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z ePsf] # dxLgfleq
cg'df]bgsf] lgldQ k|ltlglw ;efsf] j}7sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{ /
k|ltlglw ;efsf] pkl:yt b'O{ ltxfO{ jx'dtn] cg'df]bg u/]df
3f]if0ff jf cfb]z ePsf] ldltn] ^ dxLgf;Dd nfu" /xg] ^
dxLgfsf] cjwL e'Qmfg gx'+b} ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] l:ylt
cem} ljBdfg 5 egL k|ltlglw ;efsf] j}7sdf pkl:yt ;b:osf]
b'O{ ltxfO{ jx'dtn] k|:tfaf6 lg0f{o u/L csf{] Ps k6s ^
dxLgfdf gj9fO{ ;+s6sflng cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]zsf] Dofb
j9fpg ;lsg] cj:yf ;+lawfgn] tf]s]s]f 5 . ;+s6sflng cj:yfsf]
3f]if0ff jf cfb]zdf h'g sf/0faf6 ;+s6sfnsf] cj:yf >[hgf ePsf]
xf] To:tf] cj:yfsf] lgjf/0f lgldQ >L % af6 cfb]z hf/L ug{
;lsjS;g] / To:tf] cfb]z ;+s6sflng cj:yf jxfn /x];Dd sfg"g ;/x
nfu" x'g] egL ;+s6sflng cj:yfsf] lgjf/0f lgldQ wf/f !!%-&_

                               75
adf]lhd hf/L x'g] cfb]zsf] x}lzot lgwf{/0f u/]sf] cj:yf 5 .
wf/f !!%-&_ adf]lhd hf/L ePsf] cfb]z ;+s6sflng cj:yf
ljBdfg eP;Dd jxfn /xg] eGg] ;+lawfgn] :ki6 ls6fgL Joj:yf
u/]sf] ljifodf c?g} wf/fsf] ;xf/f lnO{ ;+s6sflng cj:yfnfO{
lgjf/0f ug{ hf/L ePsf] cfb]znfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] sfo{sf]
cGtMTjf]uTjf ck|ToIf ?kdf glthfdf ;+s6sflng cj:yf sfod
/fVg' ;/x x'g] x'+bf ;+lawfgn] :ki6?kdf Joj:yf u/]sf s'/fdf
;f] ljkl/tsf] sfo{ ;+lawfg ;Ddt x'g] b]lvb}+g .
       g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg @)$& sf] wf/f (* n] ;fj{hlgs
kb wf/0f u/]sf] s'g} JolQmn] sfg"g adf]lhd e|i6frf/ dflgg]
s'g} sfd u/]sf] b]lvPdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un]
To:tf] JolQm / ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQm pk/ sfg"g adf]lhd
clwsf/ k|fKt cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ u/fpg ;Sg]5 eGg] :ki6
Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ;+lawfgsf] wf/f *$ n] Gofo ;DaGwL clwsf/
;+lawfg, sfg"g tyf Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt cg';f/ cbfnt tyf
cGof Goflos lgosfoaf6 k|of]u ul/g] eGg] / wf/f *% n]
;jf]{Rr cbfnt, k'g/fj]bg cbfnt / lhNnf cbfnt u/L tLg txsf
cbfnt /xg] Joj:yf u/L vf; vf; lsl;dsf d'2f x]g]{ sfg"gåf/f vf;
lsl;dsf cbfnt jf GofofwLs/0fsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf
u/]sf] 5 sfg"gåf/f jfx]s Goflos clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ lgsfo u7g
x'g g;Sg] :ki6 ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf /x]sf]5 . cfof]usf] u7g
cfb]zsf] bkmf ^-@_ df cfof]un] u/]sf] lg0f{o pk/ lrQ
ga'Efm\g]n] ;af]{Rr cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 eGg]
Joj:yf u/]sf]df ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f **-#_ n] ;af]{Rr cbfntnfO{
sfg"gdf Joj:yf eP adf]lhd dfq k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg] clwsf/ /x]sf]5
. ;+lawfgn] ;+/rgf u/]sf] ;jf]{Rr cbfnt, k'g/fj]bg cbfnt,
lhNnf cbfnt jfx]ssf cbfntdf sfg"gåf/f ul7t k|zf;lso cbfnt,
ljz]if cbfnt, /fhZj Gofoflws/0f, >d cbfnt cfbL sfo{/t\ /x]sf
5g\ . oL ;j} sfg"gåf/f u7g ePsf cbfnt / GofofwLs/0f x'g\ /
logLx?sf] sfd sQ{Jo / clwsf/ sfg"gåf/f Jojl:yt ul/Psf]5 .
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u s'g} P]g jf cWofb]zsf] Joj:yf

                             76
adf]lhd cfPsf] ge} ;+lawfgsf] wf/f !!%-&_ adf]lhd >L %
af6 hf/L ul/jS;]sf] cfb]zaf6 u7g ePsf]df wf/f !!%-&_ s}
Joj:yfn] ;+s6sfnsf] cj:yf ;dfKt x'gf;fy To:tf] cfb]z hLljt
g/xL sfg"g ;/x nfu" x'g] cj:yf b]lvb}g . >L %
dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 @)^! ;fn df3 !( ut] hf/L ul/jS;]sf] ;+s6sflng
cj:yf @)^@ ;fn j}zfv !^ ut] b]lv lkmtf{ lnOjS;]kl5 g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !@& adf]lhd cfb]z hf/L
ul/jS;L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO{
jS;]sf] cj:yf b]lvg cfof] . >L % af6 of] ;+lawfg sfof{lGjt
ug{ s'g} jfwf c8\sfp k/]df To:tf] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg cfb]z
hf/L ul/jS;g] 5 To:tf] cfb]z ;+;b ;dIf /flvg]5 eGg] wf/f !@&
sf] ;+a}wflgs Joj:yfsf ;DaGwdf wf/f !@& sf] If]q s] s:tf]
/x]5 ;f] x]g'{ kg]{ x'g cfof] . jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] ;DaGwdf
k"j{ ;++lawfgdf s] s:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] /x]5 egL x]bf{ g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)!% sf] wf/f && n] jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] clwsf/ >L % df lglxt /fv]sf], jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg
hf/L ul/Psf] k|To]s cfb]z ;+;bsf] b'j};bg ;Dd'v /flvg],
P]gåf/f vf/]h x'g ;Sg], ;+zf]wg jf vf/]h geP;Dd ;+lawfgdf
k/] ;/x dflgg]5 eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf], To:t} g]kfns]f ;+lawfg
@)!( sf] wf/f ()s= n] ;+lawfg sfof{Gjog ug{ s'g} jfwf
c8\sfp k/]df ;f] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg >L % af6 cfjZos
;DemL jS;]sf] cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;lsjS;g] / To:tf] cfb]z
;+lawfgdf k/] ;/x dflgg] Joj:yfaf6 g]kfn clw/fHosf]
;+lawfg, @)!% g]kfnsf] ;+lawfg @)!( n] jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg >L % af6 ul/g] cfb]zsf] x}lzotsf] :ki6 Joj:yf
u/]sf]df g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg @)$& sf] wf/f !@& n]
;+lawfg sfof{lGjt ug{ jfwf c8\sfp k/]df jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] cfb]zsf] x}lzot ;+a}wflgs jf sfg"g s] xf] < s]xL
pNn]v u/]sf] cj:yf 5}g . jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/nfO{
;+lawfgn] h'g x}lzot k|bfg u/]sf]5 ToxL cy{df j'em\g' kg]{
x'G5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& eGbf k"j{

                             77
;+lawfgn] jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/nfO{ ;+lawfg ;/x
eg]sf] g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !@& n]
:ki6 ?kdf jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]zsf] x}lzot ;+lawfg ;/x
x'g] eGg] pNn]v gePkl5 o:sf] x}lzot klg k"j{ ;+lawfg
adf]lhd g} x'g] egL ;Demg ;lsg] cj:yf /x]g .
       ;+lawfgsf] wf/f !@& sf] p2]Zo / nIo g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& n] Joj:yf u/]sf] s'g} ;+j}wflgs
k|fjwfgnfO{ sfo{df kl/0ft ug{ jfwf c8\sfp k/]df ;f] afwf
c8\sfp k'msfO{ ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf jf ;+/rgfnfO{ ls|ofzLntf
k|bfg ug{] /x]sf] b]lvG5 . cem :ki6 x'g'' kbf{ ;+j}wflgs
Joj:yfsf] sfof{Gjogdf s'g} jfwf c8\sfp k/]df To;nfO{
km'sfO{ eO /fv]sf] ;+ljwfg adf]lhdsf] Joj:yfnfO{ ;+lhjlg
k|bfg u/L ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfnfO{ ;"rf??kn] ;+rfng u/fpg' wf/f
!@& sf] efjgf / p2]Zo /x]sf] kfOG5 . ldlt @)%(.@.* df
k|ltlglw ;efsf] lj36g kZrft tf]lsPsf] ldltdf ljleGg sf/0fjz
;+;bsf] lgjf{rg x'g g;ls wf/f #^ jf $@ cGtu{t dGqLkl/ifb\
u7g x'g g;ls ;f] sf] sfof{Gjogdf kg{ uPsf] jfwf c8\sfp
k'msfO{ nf]s]Gb| axfb'/ rGbsf] k|wfgdGqLTjdf jf To;kl5
klg u7g ul/Psf dlGqkl/ifb\ wf/f #% -!_ sf] s[ofzLntfsf]
nflu wf/f !@& k|of]u x'g' /fHosf] cfjZoostfsf] s'/f x'g ;Sb5
. k|wfg GofofwLzsf] lgo'lQm x'g g;ls wf/f !!& adf]lhdsf]
;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\sf] u7gdf ;+j}wflgs jfwf c8\sfp k/L k|wfg
GofofwLzsf] lgo'lQmsf nflu axfnjfnf k|wfg GofofwLzsf]
cWoIftfdf ;+j}wflgs kl/ifbsf] u7g wf/f !@& sf] p2]Zo leq}
k/]sf] dflgg' kg]{ x'G5 . ;+lawfgdf jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg]
;DaGwdf ul/Psf] Joj:yf ;+lawfgsf] s'g} wf/fsf]
sfof{Gjogdf s'g} jfwf c8\rg cfO{ sfof{lGjt x'g g;Sg] cj:yf
ePdf ;+lawfg s[oflzn jgfpg wf/f !@& adf]lhd hf/L ul/g]
cfb]z ;+lawfgn] Joj:yf u/] b]lv jfx]ssf cGo s'/fdf cfslif{t x'g
g;Sg] / ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf lg:s[o jf ;+j}wflgs ;+/rgf jblng
hfg] cj:yf >[hgf x'g] k|sf/sf] klg x'g ldNg] b]lvb}+g .

                              78
     wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u If]q / ;Ldfsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn
clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f **-%_ adf]lhd >L % df
hfx]/ u/]sf] ldlt @)%).%.!* sf] @)%) ;fnsf] ljz]if ;+j}wflgs
lgb{]zg g+= ! df wf/f !@& sf] k|of]usf] ;DaGwdf o;
cbfntsf] ljz]if Ohnfzn] æ s'g} ;+a}wflgs c+u jf lgsfosf]
u7g x'g g;sL s'g} ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf sfof{lGjt x'g g;Sg]
cj:yf pTkGg ePdf jf s'g} ;+a}wflgs ;+oGqn] ;+lawfgdf
Joj:yf eP adf]lhd sfd ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf e} Pp6f z"Gosf] l:ylt
jf ;+a}wflgs ult/f]w -Stalemate_ pTkGg ePdf To;sf] lgjf/0f
u/L ;+a}wflgs ;+oGqnfO{ lqmofzLn u/fpgsf] nflu tTsflns
;dfwfgsf] pko'Qm Pj+ cfjZos Joj:yf ug{ jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] clwsf/sf] k|of]u x'g ;S5 . ck|Toflzt ?kdf pTkGg
ePsf] ;+a}wflgs ult/f]w jf l/Qmtf ;dfKt ug]{ c? s'g}
;+a}wflgs jf sfg"gL ljsNk gePsf] cj:yfdf dfq jfwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] c;fwf/0f clwsf/sf] k|of]u x'g ;S5 t/ h'g jfwf
c8\sfpsf] lgjf/0f ;+;bn] sfg"g jgfP/ cyjf ;+;b g/x]sf] cj:yfdf
>L % dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 cWofb]z hf/L u/L jS;]/ x'g ;S5
To;sf] nflu ;+lawfg sfof{lGjt x'g g;s]sf] eGg] ldYof wf/0ff
jgfP/ wf/f !@& sf] k|of]u x'g slt klg pko'Qm x'b}+g .
;+a}wflgs l/Qmtf jf ult/f]w ;dfKt ug{ pQm wf/f cGtu{t
cfb]z hf/L ug'{ Pp6f s'/f xf], To;n] s;}sf] JolQmutxsdf
s'g} cf3ft kb}{g . t/ s'g} JolQmsf] OR5f lj?4 p:sf] jofg
lng], zky Vjfpg], pkl:ytx'g jfWo ug]{, s'g} 3/ jf 7fpFsf]
tnfzL lng] h:tf] ;++lawfg k|bQ df}lnsxsdf cltqmd0f x'g]
sfo{x? ug{ clwsf/ k|bfg ljns'n cnu s'/f xf] To;sf] nflu wf/f
!@& k|of]u ug{ ldNb}g . To;/L ;+lawfgåf/f k|Tofe"t
j}olQms :jtGqtf jf ;fDklQs xsdf cltqmd0f x'g] u/L s'g}
clwsf/sf] k|of]u ug{ nflu ;+lawfgdf lglb{i6 ul/Psf] Joj:yfkg
k|s[of adf]lhd ;+;bn] jgfPsf] sfg"gåf/f clwsf/ k|bfg ul/Psf]
x'g' k5{ . ;+a}wflgs ult/f]w j l/Qmtf ;dfKt u/L ;+a}wflgs
;+oGqnfO{ s[ofzLn u/fpg] p2]Zon] Jojl:yt jfwf c8\sfp

                             79
km'sfpg] clwsf/sf] k|of]u JolQmsf] j}olQms :jtGqtf jf
cGo s'g} df}lns xsdf cltqmd0f ug{sf] nflu x'g ;Sb}g .
To;f] x'g] u/L wf/f !@& cGtu{t s'g} cfb]z hf/L ePdf Tof]
c;+a}wflgs x'G5 Æ eGg] /fo k|s6 ul/Psf] 5 .
      >L % dxf/fhflw/fhaf6 bfz9'Ëf b"3{6gfsf] hfFr j'em
ug{ cfof]u u7g ug]{ ;DaGwdf wf/f **-%_ adf]lhd /fo
j'em\g rfxLjS;] adf]lhd ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] ljz]if Ohnfzn] >L %
df hfx]/ u/]s]f /fo k|:t't ljjfbdf zfGble{s / dxTj slt /fVb5
eGg] k|Zg p7]sf] 5 . wf/f **-%_ sf] /fon] ;+lawfgsf] wf/f
(^ sf] :yfg u|x0f ug{ g;Sg] x'bf+ cbfntsf] Wofg To; tkm{
cfslif{t x'g g;Sg] lhls/ ljkIfLx?sf] /x]sf] 5 . lgZrog} wf/f **-
%_ adf]lhd >L % af6 /fo j'em\g rflx jS;]sf] / ;jf]{Rr
cbfntn] cfkm\gf] /fo hfx]/ u/]sf]df ;+lawfgsf] wf/f (^
cg'?ksf] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] km};nfsf] :yfg u|x0f ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf
/xb}g . /fo / km};nfsf] leGbf leGb} cj:yf x'bf+ wf/f **-%_
cGtu{tsf] /fo / km};nfsf] t'ngf ;dsIfdf x'g ;Sb}g . km};nfsf]
kfngf clgjfo{ x'G5 t/ /fosf] kfngf /fo dfUg]sf] lgldQ clgjfo{
x'G5 eGg ldNg] cj:yf x'b}+g . wf/f **-%_ cGtu{tsf] /fo
lbg' cuf8L cbfntn] cfjZos b]v]sf ljifoj:t'sf ljz]if1ftfsf] /fo /
Amicus Curiae sf] ?kdf pkl:yt sfg"g Joj;foLx?sf] jx; Pj+ ljrf/
;d]tsf] cfwf/df cbfntsf] /fo lgdf{0f e} ;f]xL /fo >L % ;dIf
k]z x'g] x'G5 . >L % nfO{ cbfnntn] k]z u/]sf] /fo
;DaGwdf ;+lawfgn] jfWo gu/]sf] cj:yfdf >L % jfWo
xf]OjS;Gg tyfkL ;+lawfg jf cGo s'g} sfg"gsf] JofVof
;DaGwdf hl6n sfg"gL k|Zgdf >L % af6 ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf]
/fo j'em\g rflx jS;]df ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] >L % df /fo r9fpg'
dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L ePsf] / of] lhDd]jf/L ;+lawfg / sfg"g
k|lts"n gx'g] u/L w]/} xf]lzof/L / ;fjwfgLsf;fy lbg' kg]{ /
o:tf] lbOPsf] /foaf6 ;+a}wflgs ljjfb 6g]{ cj:yf x'+G5 .
g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& nfu" ePkl5 wf/f ** -%_
adf]lhd cbfnt;+u /fo dfu u/LjS;L cbfntaf6 k|:t't u/]sf] /fo

                              80
c:jLsf/ ul/jS;]sf] cj:yf gb]lvPs]fdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 k|bfg
u/]sf] To:tf] >L % af6 c:jLsf/ gul/jS;]sf] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf]
/fosf] s'g} ;+a}wflgs dxTj /xb}+g eGg ;lsg] cj:yf /xb}+g .
;jf]{Rr cbfntn] k|bfg u/]sf] /fosf cfwf/df s'g} sfo{ cuf8L
a9]sf] jf lgsfz ePsf]df kl5 cfP/ To:tf] /fosf] ;+a}wflgs
cfwf/ gePsf] eGg' s'g} klg b[li6sf]0faf6 ldNg] cj:yf
b]lvb}g . æs'g} ;+a}wflgs c+u jf lgsfosf] u7g x'g g;sL
s'g} ;+a}wflgs ;+oGqsf] ;+lawfgdf Joj:yf ePadf]lhd sfd
ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf e} Pp6f z"Gotfsf] jf ;+lawfgsf] ult/f]w
pTkGg ePdf To:sf] lgjf/0f u/L ;+a}wflgs ;+oGqnfO{
s[ofzLn u/fpgsf] nflu tTsflng ;dfwfgsf] pko'Qm Pj+
cfZos Joj:yf ug{ jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/ k|of]u x'g
;Sb5 . ck|Tolzt ?kdf pTkGg ePsf] ;+a}wflgs ult/f]w jf
l/Qmtf ;dfwfg ug]{ c? s'g} ;+a}wflgs jf sfg"gL ljsNk
g/x]sf] cj:yfdf dfq jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] c;fwf/0f clwsf/
k|of]u x'g ;Sb5 . t/ h'g jfwf c8\sfpsf] lgjf/0f ;+;bn] sfg"g
jgfP/ cyjf ;+;b g/x]sf] cj:yfdf >L % af6 cWofb]z hf/L u/]/
x'g ;Sb5 To;sf] nflu ;+lawfg sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sg] eGg]
ldYof wf/0ff jgfP/ wf/f !@& k|of]u ug{ ldNb}g Æ eGg]
;d]t & hgf GofofwLzsf] ljz]if Ohnfzn] >L % df /fo k]z eO{
;f]xL /fosf cfwf/df pko'Qm sbd rflnjS;]kl5 ;+lawfgsf] wf/f
!@& sf] ;DaGwdf ;+lawfgsf] ljsfzsf] qmd z'? gePsf]
eGg ldNb}g . ;+a}wflgs Joj:yf cg';f/ ;+lawfgsf] JofVof
;DaGwdf ;jf]{Rr cbfnt eGbf cflwsfl/s lgsfo c? x'g ;Sb}g .
;+lawfgsf] JofVof ;DaGwdf p7]sf] hl6n sfg"gL k|Zgdf >L
% af6 ;+lawfgsf] wf/f **-%_ adf]lhd ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] /fo
dfuL jS;]df >L % df r9fPsf] /fon] ;+a}wflgstfsf] k|Zg
lgSof]{n x'g] x'bf+ o:tf] /fon] ;+lawfgsf] ;xL cg';/0f tyf
;+a}wflgs ljsf;df dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 . o;}n] o:tf]
/fosf] ;+a}wflgs ljsf;df ljz]if dxTj /fVb5 . lkmtnf] ts{sf]
cfwf/df s'g} dxTj g/fVg] eGg ldNb}g .

                            81
       wf/f !@& adf]lhd hf/L cfb]z ;+;bn] k/LIf0f klxn] ul/g'
kg{] eGg] ljkIfLx?sf] lhls/ tkm{ larf/ ubf{ wf/f !@&
cGtu{tsf] cfb]z ;+ljwfg ;/xsf] jf P]g jf sfg"g ;/x jf s'g} lgod
;/xsf] x}l;otsf] xf] eGg] ;+lawfgn] :ki6 u/]sf] b]lvg
cfp+b}g . wf/f !@& cGtu{t hf/L ePsf] cfb]z ;+;b ;dIf
/flvg]5 eGg] Joj:yf;Dd ePsf] ;+ljwfgn] ;+;bdf k]z ug{
kg{] k|s[of v'nfPsf] 5}g . ;+;bsf] ;+o'Qm j}7s / ;+o'Qm
;ldlt -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)$* sf] lgod @@ n] æ >L
% af6 ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !@& adf]lhd ;+ljwfg sfof{lGjot ug{
s'g} jfwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] cfb]z aS;]df ;f] cfb]z
k|wfgdGqLn] ;+o'Qm j}7sdf k|:t't ug{' kg{] 5 .Æ eGg]
Joj:yf u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;f] afx]s o:tf] cfb]z ;DaGwdf c? s'g}
Joj:yf b]lvb}g . ;+o'Qm ;ldltdf lgod !@ cg';f/ ljw]os dfly
5nkmn x'g], ljw]os kfl/t ug{] lgod !# sf] ljw]os dfly
;+zf]wg k]z ug{] h:tf] ;d]tsf s'g} k|s[of k'/f ug{' kg{] jf wf/f
!@& cGtu{tsf] cfb]zsf ;DaGwdf 5nkmn ;+zf]wg x'g] cflb
s'g} s'/fsf] ;+s]t u/]sf] 5}g . o;af6 wf/f !@& sf] cfb]z
;fdfGo tj/af6 ;+;bsf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu dfq k]z ul/g' kg{]
;+j}wflgs Joj:yf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ljjflbt u7g cfb]z ;+ljwfg,
P]g jf cWofb]z k|s[ltsf] geP klg ljjflbt u7g cfb]zaf6
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]un]] cbfnt, ljz]if cbfntsf] ;d]t
clwsf/ k|fKt u/]sf] lgsfo b]lv+bf sfg"gs} zlQm wf/0f u/]sf]
cfb]z ;+;bdf hfgsf/L gu/fPsf] eGg] cfwf/df dfq wf/f **-!_-
@_ sf] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] If]q leq gkg{] eGg] lhls/;+u
;xdt x'g ;lsPg .
   dfly pNn]lvt cfwf/ / sf/0fx?af6 e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL
cfof]usf] u7g ;DaGwdf ldlt @)^!.!!.% df >L %
dxf/fhflw/fhsf] k|d'v ;lrjfnosf] ;"rgf / To;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]
ldlt @)^@.!.!^ sf] >L % dxf/fhflw/fhsf] k|d'v ;lrjfnosf]
;"rgf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f *$, wf/f


                              82
*%, wf/f **-#_, wf/f (*, wf/f !!%-&_ / wf/f !@& sf] p2]Zo /
efjgf cg's"n b]lvg cfPg .
      ca lga]bssf] dfu adf]lhdsf] cfb]z hf/L x'g' kg]{ xf],
xf]Og < eGg] k|Zg tkm{ larf/ ubf{ ldlt @)^!.!!.% sf]
cfb]zåf/f ul7t e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg
ldlt @)^@.!.!^ df ePsf] cfb]z g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f *$, wf/f *%, wf/f **-#_, wf/f (*, wf/f !!%-
&_ / wf/f !@& sf] p2]Zo / efjgf ljkl/t eO{ ;+lawfg;+u
aflemPsf] dfly pNn]lvt cfwf/ / sf/0faf6 b]lvg cfof] . u7g
cfb]z / lg/Gt/tf lbg] cfb]z ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f &! sf] Joj:yf
adf]lhd P]g jf wf/f &@ adf]lhdsf] cWofb]z adf]lhd sfg"g
gePsf] cj:yf ePklg u7g / lg/Gt/tf lbg] cfb]zjf6 e|i6frf/
;DjGwL k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd cg';Gwfg clwsf/Ln] k|of]u
ug]{ ;a} clwsf/, laz]if cbfnt P]g, @)%( adf]lhd laz]if
cbfntnfO{ ePsf] clwsf/ / sltko s'/fx?df cbfntnfO{ eP
;/xsf] clwsf/ k|fKt u/]sf] eO{ sfg"gn] dfq k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]
clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] b]lv+bf ;+ljwfg;+u aflemg] u/L ldlt
@)^!.!!.% sf] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u u7g ug]{ u/]sf]
cfb]z g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg, @)$& sf] wf/f !!%-!_
cGtu{t hf/LePsf] ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf]] cfb]z ;f]xL wf/fsf]
pkwf/f -!!_ adf]lhd ldlt @)^@.!.!^ df lkmtf{ lnOPsf]
sf/0faf6 ;f] ldlt @)^!.!!.% sf] cfb]z k|efjxLg e};s]sf] x'bf+
k|efjxLg eO;s]sf] cfb]zsf ;DjGwdf cdfGo jf ab/ s]xL
af]ln/xg' kg]{ cj:yf gePaf6 lqmofzLn /x]sf] lg/Gt/tf lbg
ePsf] ldlt @)^@.!.!^ sf] cfb]z g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+lawfg,
@)$& sf] wf/f **-!_ adf]lhd cfhsf ldlt b]lv cdfGo 3f]lift
ul/Psf]5 .
      e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]unfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] u/L
ePsf] ldlt @)^@.!.!^ sf] cfb]z cdfGo 3f]lift ePsf] x'Fbf
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f zfxL cfof]u sfod /xg ;Sg] cj:yf gx'Fbf
cfh}sf ldltjf6 vf/]h ul/Psf]5 .

                             83
      dfly laj]rgf ul/Psf] cfwf/ / sf/0faf6 e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f
zfxL cfof]unfO{ u7g Pj+ lg/Gt/tf lbg] sfo{ ;+lawfgsf]
Joa:yf / p2]Zo lakl/t eO{ ;+ljwfg;Ddt gePsf] cfwf/df cfh}
ldlt @)^@.!.!^ df hf/L ePsf] ldlt @)^!.!!.% sf] cfb]znfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbg ePsf] cfb]z cdfGo 3f]lift ePsf] u}/ ;+a}wflgs
cfof]uaf6 eP u/]sf] sfd sf/afxLn] sfg"gL dfGotf k|fKt ug{
g;Sg] x'Fbf ljkIfL cfof]usf] u}/ sfg"gL sf/jfxLsf cfwf/df
lgj]bs;+u ljz]if cbfnt P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf &-3_ adf]lhd ?
%!,)),))). w/f}6 dfu u/]sf] tyf w/f}6 bflvn ug{ g;s]sf]
cfwf/df lghnfO{ y'gfdf /fVg] u/L ePsf] cfb]z tyf sfd sf/jfxL
sfg"g;Ddt gb]lv+bf aGbLk|ToIfLs/0fsf] cfb]z hf/L
ul/lbPsf]5 . o; cbfntsf] ldlt @)^@.%.@* sf] cfb]z adf]lhd
lgj]bsnfO{ g]kfn af/ Pzf]l;Pzgsf cWoIf clwjQmf >L zDe'
yfkfsf] hdfgtdf y'gfjf6 d'Qm ul/;lsPsf]n] c? s]xL ul//xg
kg]{ ePg .
      ljkIfLx?sf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu cfb]zsf] k|ltlnlk
dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no dfkm{t k7fO{ lgod adf]lhd
u/L ldl;n j'emfO lbg' .



                                   GofofwLz

    pko{'Qm /fodf ;xdt 5f}+ .



    GofofwLz              GofofwLz               GofofwLz
GofofwLz



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    Olt ;Dat\ @)^@ ;fn kmfNu'0f ! ut] /f]h @ z'ed\
================================= .




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