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					      ENHANCING
PRODUCTION/PRODUCTIVITY
           OF
         WHEAT


               Dr. N.B. Singh
         Agriculture Commissioner
           Government of India
   Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
           Ministry of Agriculture
         (September 14-15, 2006)
    Projected Production and Requirement of
              Wheat & Foodgrains

                                                 (Million Tonnes)

                       Wheat                        Foodgrains
  Year
            Production #    Requirement $ Production      Requirement


2006-07        69.62            76.61         213.14         214.90

2011-12          ??             81.95         240.06         229.48

# Present growth rate of foodgrains – 2.1% consists of rice 2.7%, wheat
0.2%, coarse cereals 4.5%
$ Requirement includes consumption, buffer stock (4 million tonnes),
availability of 15 days’ consumption in the open market of 2.9 million
tonnes in 2006-07 and 3.12 million tonnes in 2011-12.
              Area, Production and Yield of Wheat
                     (1980-81 to 2005-06)

  Year         Area (m ha)   Production (m tonnes)   Yield (tonnes/ha)
1980-81          22.28              36.31                   1.6

1990-91          24.17              55.14                   2.3
2000-01          25.73              69.68                   2.7
2001-02          26.34              72.77                   2.8
          @
2002-03          25.20              65.76                   2.6
2003-04          26.59              72.16                   2.7
2004-05*         26.38              68.64                   2.6
2005-06*         26.65              69.48                   2.6
@ Drought Year;
                                   0
* Sudden increase in temperature- 5 C during grain filling stages
  January to March
  State-wise Area, Production and Yield of Wheat
                                                      2004-05


                    Area         Production     Productivity
    States      (Million ha.)   (Million ha.)   (tonnes/ ha)

Bihar              2.02            3.26             1.6
Gujarat            0.73            1.81             2.5
Haryana            2.32            9.06             3.9
Madhya             4.14
Pradesh                            7.18             1.7
Maharashtra        0.76            1.02             1.3
Punjab             3.48           14.70             4.2
Rajasthan          2.01            5.71             2.8
Uttar Pradesh      8.99           22.51             2.5
Uttarakhand        0.39            0.80             2.0
West Bengal         0.4            0.84             2.1
All India         26.38           68.64             2.6
   Productivity trends in different States from 2000-1 to 2004-05

State                   Productivity (Quintal per hectare )
              2000-01   2001-02   2002-03   2003-04           2004-05

Bihar         21.4      20.6      18.9      17.7              16.0
Haryana       41.0      41.0      40.5      39.3              39.0
M.P.          14.7      16.2      14.5      18.0              17.3
Punjab        45.6      45.3      42.0      42.0              42.2
Rajasthan     24.0      27.9      27.0      27.9              28.3
U.P           27.2      27.5      25.9      27.9              25.0
Uttaranchal   18.8      19.3      18.2      18.7              20.3
Maharashtra 12.5        13.8      12.9      11.7              13.4
West Bengal   24.8      22.1      21.8      23.1              21.0
H.P.          6.9       17.3      13.7      13.8              18.9
J&K           5.2       13.2      16.4      18.0              19.1
Karnataka     9.1       7.6       5.9       4.1               7.4
Gujarat       22.6      24.3      19.6      26.8              24.8
All India     27.0      27.6      26.1      27.1              26.0
            Regional Variation in Productivity

    Zone                    States             Productivity
                                               (tonnes/ha)
North Zone      Punjab, Haryana, U.P.,             2.9
                Uttarakhand, Chandigarh,
                Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Delhi

East Zone       Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa,          1.8
                West Bengal

West Zone       Gujarat, M.P., Chhattisgarh,       1.8
                Maharashtra, Rajasthan




South Zone      Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka          0.6
      Causes for Low Productivity    of Wheat

   Delayed sowing in rice-wheat and in cotton-
    wheat system
   Low Seed Replacement Rate (SRR)
   Low and imbalanced use of fertilizers / nutrients
   Temperature rise during grain formation period
   Deficiency of micro and secondary nutrients
   Deceleration of factor productivity
   Soil degradation and loss of fertility
   Poor efficiency of irrigation water
   Escalating cost of inputs – (especially diesel)
                 Delayed sowing results in Yield Decline

                         Time of sowing and yield t / ha                       Loss kg/ ha /day
                               Normal        Late Mid       Very late
                               15 Nov.       Dec.           Late Dec.        Late    Very late
   North East ( East           3.8           3.1            2.4              33.4    49.9
   UP, Bihar, WB)

   Northwest                   4.5           3.6            2.8              32.1    49.6
   (Punjab, Haryana,
   West UP. )
   Central                     4.3           3.7            2.6              34.6    52.8
   (M.P., Raj. Guj.)
   Southern States             3.5           3.1            2.5              27.1    36.3
   (Karnataka, Mah.)


Based on multilocation long term (10 Years) trials of ICAR (DWR Bul. 2004)
A sample of Pattern of Plant Nutrients Application
                                               (2004-05)


                                     Kg / ha
                    N        P205     K2O      Total
High   Punjab       150.6    39.7     5.4      195.7
       Haryana      124.9    38.1     3.1      166.2
       A.P.         90.7     42.3     22.9     155.8
Low    Rajasthan    26.1     9.8      0.8      36.6
       Orissa       25.4     8.9      6.1      40.4
       Assam        19.7     12.9     9.4      41.9
       Bihar        78.4     9.0      5.3      92.7
       M.P.         32.4     20.6     2.9      56
       Maharahtra 42.6       23.5     11.5     77.7
          Imbalanced use of Plant Nutrients

State           N             P205     K2 O
Bihar           14.7            1.7           1
Jharkhand       17.4            9.8           1
Orissa          4.2             1.5           1
West Bengal     2.2             1.2           1
Haryana         40.3            12.3          1
Punjab          27.8            7.3           1
Uttar Pradesh   13.2            4.1           1

Gujarat         7.8             3.1           1
Maharashtra     3.7             2.0           1

Required Ratios : 4: 2 : 1 (N,P,K)                2004 - 05
                         Wide spread deficiency of zinc




Source: IISS, Bhopal(ICAR)
                              Deficiency of Manganese




Source: IISS, Bhopal (ICAR)
                                          Widespread Boron deficiency

                                          70


                                          60
              % Boron Deficient Samples




                                          50


                                          40


                                          30


                                          20


                                          10


                                          0
                                                Uttar    Bihar   West Bengal   Orissa
                                               Pradesh
Source: IISS, Bhopal (ICAR)
Strategies for Production Enhancement



1.     Area Expansion
       1 to 1.4 million ha in the States of U.P.,
       M.P., Bihar, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and
       Gujarat


2.     Productivity Increase
       25 to 40%
        Targeted States for Area Expansion
                                    (Area in lakh ha)
        State    Normal   Possible Area Expansion
                   Area


Rajasthan        22.30             4.0

Gujarat           4.90             2.0

Maharashtra       7.60             2.0

Madhya Pradesh   38.00             2.0

Uttar Pradesh    91.50             3.0
Bihar            21.00             1.0

Total            185.30            14.0
       Productivity Enhancement

   Timely sowing (optimum sowing time between 15
    Oct. to Mid Nov.)

   Promoting high temperature tolerant varieties

   Improved agricultural practices/sowing

   Promoting integrated nutrient/pest management

   Increasing water use efficiency through sprinkler

   Zero Till cum Seed Drill

   Increasing balanced use of fertilizer/application
    Response of *N2 application on Wheat
                Productivity
 Agro-climatic zones                     Productivity t / ha

                                 N2120 kg/ha      N2150 kg / ha
 Northwest Plains                5.34             5.64
 (Punjab, Haryana,
 Western UP)
 Northeast Plains                3.73             4.10
 (East UP, Bihar, W.B)
 Central Plains                  4.40             4.70
 (M.P., Gujarat)
 * Accordingly ratio of Phosphorous and Potash to be added

Based on multilocation / year data recorded by ICAR (DWR Bul. 20)
Lessons learnt about N2 Response in Wheat

*    After 1990’s N2 application of 150kg / ha has
     recorded highest yield in entire wheat areas.


*    50 % N2 Basal + 50% at the time of first irrigation
     has given best results


*    More than two splits of N2 is usually beneficial
     after application of 50% basal dose

*    Under Zero tillage also      150   kg   N2/ha   has
     recorded highest yield
  Response of Potash Application on Wheat


                                                      Productivity     t / ha
K Application          North west          North east         Central

K0                     3.49                3.02               2.62

K30 (kg / ha)          3.43                3.19               2.90

K (60 kg / ha)         3.57                3.54               3.04

Based on multilocation long term (10 Years) trials of ICAR (DWR Bul. 2004)
                   Action Plan
Varietal Development

   Terminal heat tolerant varieties

   Suitable varieties with higher yield potential
    in Punjab, Haryana & western U.P.

   Early maturing cotton varieties in cotton-
    wheat system.

   Early maturing high yielding rice varieties for
    rice-wheat system.

   Improved wheat varieties for late sowing.
                          Action Plan

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


   Improved sowing methods for different cropping system

   Direct seeding of rice in rice-wheat system

   Efficient fertilizer/micro-nutrients use

   Improved agronomic practices to address rise in
    temperature

   Weed management

   Mopping of Micronutrient deficiency
        Required Interventions for
         enhancing Productivity
   Identify Potential Regions / States i.e. Eastern
    UP, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal

   Identify the districts with high yield potential ;
    138 districts identified

   Channelize input supply i.e. Seed fertilizer,
    farm machinery on priority
         Identified districts and targeted areas for intervention

States          Districts               1st year           2nd year           3rd year
                Total       Area        Districts   Area   Districts   Area   Districts Area
                            (lakh ha)               (“)                (“)              (“)
Bihar           25          15.4        13          7.2    7           5.9    5          2.2
Gujarat         4           2.5         4           2.5
Haryana         7           6.3         5           4.8    2           1.4
M.P.            30          29.0        9           7.5    9           11.2   12         10.2
Maharashtra     8           3.5         4           1.7    4           1.8    14         16.0
Punjab          7           15.2        5           9.1    2           6.0
Rajasthan       15          8.4         6           3.6    6           3.7    3          1.7
U.P             38          49.7        10          13.6   14          19.9
West Bengal     4           1.0                                               4          1.0
Total above     138         131.2       56          50.3   44          50.2   38         30.6
States
                     Action Plan
3 Year Plan for 138 districts : coverage 13 million ha.


 Interventions m              Particulars            Financial
                                                         Req.
                                                      (Rs. In
                                                        crores)

1.Demonstration One demonstration for every 50 ha
   of  Improved No of demonstrations -- 5.2 lakh –
   Package      unit    0.4    ha    Cost  of  one
                demonstration = Rs. 2000/-
                Total Cost     520000 x 2000= Rs.
                104.0 crore
                I year      1.2 lakh Demos
                                                      24.0
                II Year      2.0 lakh Demos
                                                      40.0
                III year     2.0 lakh Demos
                                                      40.0
                Total       5.2 lakh Demos
                                                     104.0
   Contd..
Interventions             Particulars                 Financial Req.
                                                      (in Rs.
                                                      Crores)
2. Seed Replacement       Subsidy @ Rs. 8 per kg
(33% SRR)                 Quantum       of     seed
over 10 million ha.       Required

                          I year         4 lakh Q     32.0
                          II Year        8 lakh Q     64.0
                          III year       8 lakh Q     64.0
                          Total         20 lakh Q     160.00




3. Incentive for          Incentive @ Rs.500/ha.
   micro nutrients        Area to be covered 20
   (in deficient soils)   lakh                        40.00
                          I Year -- 4.0 lakh ha.
                          II Year – 8.0 lakh ha.      80.00
                          III Year – 8.0 lakh ha.     80.00
                          Total:    20.00 lakh ha.    200.00
      Contd..

Interventions       Particulars                           Financial
                                                          Req. (Rs.
                                                         In crores)

4. Incentives for   Target area 20 lakh ha
Gypsum              Assistance of cost or Rs 1000 / ha
(Salt affected      I year   4.0 lakh ha                   40.00
alkaline soils)     II Year 8.0 lakh ha                    80.00
                    III year 8.0 lakh ha                   80.00
                    Total   20.0 lakh ha                  200.00

5. Zero till Seed   Target Area 2.0 lakh ha
drill               No of Machines required 18000
                    Assistance @ 50% of the cost or
                    Rs. 15000 per machine                   9.0
                    I year      6000                        9.0
                    II Year    6000                         9.0
                    III year    6000                       27.0
                    Total     18000
   Conntd.

Interventions   Particulars                          Financial Req.
                                                        (Rs. In

 6. Sprinkler    Assistance @ 50% of the cost
sets            or Rs. 8000/ ha
                Target Area 5 lakh ha                   80.0
                I year    1.0 lakh ha                  160.0
                II Year 2.0 lak ha                     160.0
                III year 2.0 lakh ha                   400.0
                Total     5.0 lakh ha
7. Diesel       Assistance @ Rs.500/ha.
Subsidy         Target Area 30.0 lakh ha.
                 st
                1 Year - 10.0 lakh ha.                50.00
                 nd
                2 Year – 10.0 lakh ha.                50.00
                 rd
                3 Year – 10.0 lakh ha.                50.00
                                                      150.00

Total Financial Requirement for 3 year Rolling Plan
I Year                                                   275.00
II Year                                                  483.00
III Year                                                 483.00
                                            Total:      1241.00
         Outline of the Scheme


1.Total cost of the scheme Rs.2482 cr. over 3
  years
2.Proposed share (50%) of Central
  Government – Rs.1241 cr.
3.Proposed share (30%) of State Government
  – Rs.548 cr.
4.Rest contribution by beneficiary
    State of preparedness for Rabi : 2006-07

Seed
    •Requirement - 20.0 lakh Quintal;   Available – 45 lakh qtls.

Fertilizer
    •Requirement       - 127 lakh tonnes urea
                       - 48 lakh tonnes DAP &
                       - 19 lakh tonnes of MOP

Micro-nutrients
    •Available as per requirement

Zero Till Machines
    •Requirement : 6000 Zero till cum seed drill -   Available

Micro-Irrigation : Systems Available
      Region wise Recommended varieties of Wheat
ZONES        RECOMMENDED VARIETIES

Northern     Irrigated timely sown : VL 738, VL 804, HS 240
Hill Zone    Rainfed timely sown: VL 738, VL 804, HS 240
             Rainfed late sown: HS 295, HS 420,
             Rainfed early sown: VL 616, HS-277, VL-829,
North        Irrigated timely sown: PBW 502, PBW 343, HD 2687, WH 542, UP
Western      2338, RAJ 3077 – PDW 233*, PDW 291*, WH-896*
Plain Zone   Irrigated late sown: PBW 373 UP-2338 UP-2425, RAJ 3765
             Rainfed : PBW 299, PBW 396, PBW 175, C-306, Salt affected soils,
             KRL 1-4, KRL 19
North-       Irrigated timely sown : HD 2824, HD 2733, PBW-343, PBW 443,
eastern      HUW 468, NW-1012, K-8804
plain zone   Irrigated late sown : NW 2036, DBW-14, HW-2045, HP-1744, HP-
             1633, HD-2643
             Rainfed Timely sown : K-8962, K9465, K-8027, C-306
             Salt affected soils : KRL 1-4, KRL 19
   *Durum                                             Contd…
  Contd….
ZONES          RECOMMENDED VARIETIES
Central Zone   Irrigated timely sown : GW 322, GW 273, DL-803-3,
               GW-190, LOK1 HI 8498*, HI-8381* RAJ 1555*
               Irrigated late sown HD 2864, DL 788-2, MP-4010, GW
               173
               Limited Irrigation : HI – 8627*
               Rainfed - HD 4672*- HI 8627*, HI 1500, HW 2004, JWS
               17, Sujatha, C-306
               Salt affected Soils : KRL 1-4, KRL 19,
Peninsular     Irrigated Timely Zone – RAJ – 4037, GW-322- DWR-162,
Zone           MACS 2496, HD-2189, MACS-2846*, DDK 1009*.
               Irrigated late sown : DWR 195, NIAW 34 HUW-510
               Rainfed timely sown : HD-2781 K-9644 MACS 1967
               Salt affected soils : KRL – 19, KRL -1-4
Southern Hill Bread wheat : HW-2044, HW 1085
Zone          Dicoccum: DDK-1001, DDK 1009


  *Durum
Thank you
Identified Districts of different States with
potential for increasing production and
productivity of Wheat

Bihar                           Identified Districts 25
Araria, Baghalpur, Banka, Bhabua, Champaran (E) Champaran (W),
Darbanga,    Jamui, Kathiar, Khagaria,     Kishanganj,  Madhubani,
Madhupura, Muzaffarpur, Nalanda, Purania, Rohtas, Samastipu, Saran,
Sitamarhi, Supaul, Vaishali, Monghyr, Nawada, Sekhpura
Total Area under identified Districts             15.43 lakh ha
Range in Productivity                             1.26 – 2.53 t / ha
State Average of productivity                     1.78 t / ha
Irrigation Range                                  50 – 100 %
State Average of irrigation in Wheat              90%

                                                      Contd….
    Contd..



West Bengal                     Identified Districts 4


Jalpaiguri, Coochbehar, Dinajpur (N) Dinajpur (S )

Total Area under identified Districts                1.01 lakh ha
Range in Productivity                                1.76 – 2.73 t/ ha
State Average of productivity                        2.31
Irrigation Range                                     -
State Average of irrigation in Wheat                 79%
    Contd..


M.P.                            Identified Districts 30


Betul, Bhind, Chattarpur, Damoh, Dewas, East Nimar, Guna, Harda,
Indore Jabalpur, Katni, Raisen, Rajgarh, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore,
Seoni, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Vidisha, Balaghat, Dhaar,
Dindori, Jhabua, Mandala, Panna, Shahdol
Total Area under identified Districts              29.02 lakha ha
Range in Productivity                              0.55 – 2.08
State Average of productivity                      1.78 t / ha
Irrigation Range                                   45 – 100%
State Average of irrigation in Wheat               72%
   Contd..


Punjab                          Identified Districts 6

Hoshiarpur, Ropar, Bhatinda, Rupnagar, Amritsar, Sangrur, Gurdaspur


Total Area under identified Districts               15.24 lakh ha

Range in Productivity                               3.49 – 3.99 t / ha

State Average of productivity                       4.20 t/ha

Irrigation Range                                    86 – 100 %

State Average of irrigation in Wheat                98%
    Contd..




Haryana                         Identified Districts 7
Bhiwani, Ambala,      Gurgaon,         Jamunanagar,   Rohtak,       Jhajjar,
Mahendergarh
Total Area under identified Districts                  63.06 lakh ha
Range in Productivity                                  3.36 – 3.87 t / ha
State Average of productivity                          3.96 t/ ha
Irrigation Range                                       95 – 100 %
State Average of irrigation in Wheat                   99%
    Contd..


U.P.                            Identified Districts 40
Allahabad, Ambedkar Nagar, Azamgarh, Bahraich, Balia, Balrampur,
Barelly, Basti, Chandauli, Chitrakoot, Deoria, Faizabad, Fathepur,
Gazipur, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Hamirpur, Hardoi, Jaunpur, Jhansi,
Kaushambi, Lalitpur, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mahoba, Mau, Mirjapur,
Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Ravidasnagar, Santkabir Nagar, Shravasti,
Siddarthnagar, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Unnao, Sonbhadra, Varanasi


Total Area under identified Districts            49.72 lakh ha
Range in Productivity                            1.43 – 2.7 t / ha
State Average of productivity                    2.79 t / ha
Irrigation Range                                 36 – 100 %
State Average of irrigation in Wheat             95%
    Contd..




Rajasthan                       Identified Districts 15
Ajmer, Banswara, Bhilwara, Bikaner, Jaipur, Jalore, Jhalawar, Kota,
Nagore, Pali, S. Madhopur, Sikar, Sirohi, Tonk, Udaipur
Total Area under identified Districts             8.42 lakh ha
Range in Productivity                             1.28 – 3.28 t / ha
State Average of productivity                     2.79 t / ha
Irrigation Range                                  91 – 100 %
State Average of irrigation in Wheat              98%
    Contd..




Maharashtra                        Identified Districts 8
Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Dhule, Nagpur, Nasik, Parbhani, Pune, Solapur


Total Area under identified Districts         3.55 lakh ha
Range in Productivity                         1.10 to 1.70 t / ha
State Average of productivity                  1.33 t / ha
Irrigation Range                              91 – 100 %
State Average of irrigation in Wheat          65
    Contd..




Gujarat                         Identified Districts 4
Ahmedabad, Sabarkantha, Banaskantha, Mehsana

Total Area under identified Districts            2.53
Range in Productivity                            1.28 – 2.83 t/ha
State Average of productivity                    2.68 t / ha
Irrigation Range                                 42 – 100 %
State Average of irrigation in Wheat             89

				
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