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Advanced Interactive Media

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   Advanced Interactive Media                                                              1
   A Definition For Interactive Media                                                      4
   The Future For Immersive Media                                                          6
   A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future Media                                   9
   Media in Video Games                                                                   13
   Multisensory Media Is About To Explode                                                 16
   Virtual Experiences: Now More Like Our Real World                                      18
   Emerging Technologies: Preparing For The Next Job Market                               19
   Interactive Media Versus Other Kinds Of Media                                          20
   Creating an Interactive, Immersive, Multi-sensory, MultiMedia Project: A Student Log   21
   Determining Project Pixel Size for Various Digital Medias                              22
   How We Did This: A Brief History for One Interactive Project                           23
   Designing Media -- Impacting Your Audience beyond the Eye                              25
   Hands-On Project Directors                                                             26
   Hands-On Interactive Team                                                              26
   Hands-On Design Team                                                                   27
   Video Team                                                                             27
   Using Wikibooks and Facebook As Tools In an Interactive Society                        27
   Presentation Photo Documentary                                                         28
   Learning Resources                                                                     29
   Adobe Photoshop CS3 and Lightroom                                                      31
   Final Cut Pro                                                                          31
   Flash                                                                                  32
   Motion                                                                                 32
   Director                                                                               33
   DVD Studio Pro                                                                         34
   LiveType                                                                               36
   Newtek's 3-D & Animation with Lightwave                                                37
   Canon Still Camera                                                                     38
   Canon Digital Rebel XTi 10.1MP DSLR                                                    38
   Avid vs. FCP                                                                           39
   After Effects vs. Motion                                                               39
   3-D Products                                                                           40
   Article Sources and Contributors           41
   Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors   42

Article Licenses
   License                                    43
Advanced Interactive Media                                       1

    Advanced Interactive Media
    Learning to create interactive media requires
    conventional and traditional skills, as well
    as tools mastered in interactive classes
    (storyboarding, audio and video editing,
    story telling, etc.). Interactive design
    requires that you re-assess your assumptions
    about media production and learn to think in
    a non-linear ways. Interactive design
    requires that components of a project
    connect to each other, but also make sense
    as a separate entity.
    Things are developing so rapid that it is
    necessary to have a positive attitude and
    involve yourself with the tools and
    techniques that will be used while learning
    interactive design. There are, however, vital
    interactive concepts important to know
    about. You'll learn about the tools necessary
    to make interactive projects come to life.
    The creation of interactive projects requires
    competency in many tools, so it's necessary
    for studentsto learn from each other. You
    can prove your knowledge through quizzes,
    exams and hands-on tests.
    Research and on-line content created in this
    wiki can be used to learn advanced
    interactive media in a variety of settings,
    including classrooms, on-the-job training
    and in one's own spare time. Interactive
    learners should be required to use on-line
    social interaction tools such as wiki
    technology & blogs.

    During your study of interactive media, you
    can expect to
    1. Use more software tools than normally
       required for broadcast-type media.
    2. Be amazed and sometimes overwhelmed
       by what you can do with interactive
    3. Learn in a way you’ve never experienced
    4. Work with a team to create complex products;
    During a study of interactive media, you can not expect to
Advanced Interactive Media                              2

    1.   Work at a relaxed, normal pace.
    2.   Learn the way you have in past situations.
    3.   Master all of the software products you use.
    4.   Create an entire project alone.

    • A Definition For Interactive Media
    • The Future For Immersive Media
    • A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality
      for Future Media
    • Media in Video Games
    • Multisensory Media Is About To Explode
    • Virtual Experiences: Now More Like Our
      Real World
    • Emerging Technologies: Preparing For
      The Next Job Market
    • Interactive Media Versus Other Kinds Of
    • Creating an Interactive, Immersive,
      Multi-sensory, MultiMedia Project: A
      Student Log
    • Determining Project Pixel Size for
      Various Digital Medias
    • Other Topics
    • How We Did This: A Brief History for
      One Interactive Project
    • Designing Media -- Impacting Your
      Audience beyond the Eye
    • External links
Advanced Interactive Media                            3

    Interactive Content Producers: Job Descriptions
    • Directors
    • Interactive Design Project Graphics
    • Interactive Team
    • Design Team
    • Audio/Video Team

    Using Technology to Learn
    • Using and As Tools In an Interactive
    • Hypothetical Problems and Solutions for
      an Interactive Project
    • Presentation Photo Documentary
    • Learning Resources

    •   Adobe Photoshop CS3 and Lightroom
    •   Final Cut Pro
    •   Flash
    •   Motion
    •   Director
    •   DVD Studio Pro
    •   LiveType
    •   Newtek's 3-D & Animation with Lightwave

    • Canon Still Camera
    • Panasonic HD Video Camera
    • Canon Digital Rebel XTi 10.1MP DSLR

    Software and Hardware Tool Comparisons
    • Avid vs. FCP
    • After Effects vs. Motion
    • 3-D Products
A Definition For Interactive Media                                                                                                 4

    A Definition For Interactive Media
    The designers of interactive media, who are often information designers, rely on communication. User feedback is
    apart of the interactive process. Interactive media can be defined as media that allows users to participate and edit the
    content. Examples of interactive media are video games and websites that allow the user to post information. Not all
    forms of interactive media are electronic. There are forms of interactive media that are printed such as magazines
    that allow users to send in information and have it printed in another issue. Puzzle and game books are also
    considered interactive. Participation and communication are the key elements in making media interactive.
    An inclusive definition for interactive media is elusive, if not impossible to write. Perhaps interactivity can be
    described by degree, but not by a single, all-encompassing definition. Interactive media (hereafter referred to as
    "IM") has been called a "hybrid media technology", because it can combine any format (print, web, disc, video,
    audio, etc.) that allow users to interact with content. Interactive Media is the power of relating media that responds to
    the user's senses.
    A primary characteristic that makes inteactive media difficult to define is the fact that this field is evolving at a faster
    rate than most other aspects of new technology. For example, multisensory possibilities being developed by Japanese
    researchers are bringing startling new considerations to the multimedia mix. Movies an audience can taste, touch,
    see, hear and feel are not science fiction. User created content on YouTube is a manifestation of people's desire for
    interactivity in the media they experience. Ultimate control over a movie is achieved when the auidence creates the
    content themselves.
    Turning the pages of a textbook in
    order to read requires minimal
    involvement, while blockbuster video
    games can be described as much more
    highly interactive multimedia. A book
    might be defined as a multimedia
    format in that it can include pictures,
    maps, graphs, charts, or timelines, but
    while it uses other media, it is not
    interactive, because it is designed to be
    navigated in a way that the author has
    predetermined. A reader can use the
    index at the back of a book, or flip
    through pages, but the text itself has
    only one hierarchy of topics and is
    intended to be read from beginning to end. Writers can't include large volumes of additional information between the
    covers of a book even though that content might be a vital part of the story.
    Interactive Multimedia programs, on the other hand, bring the opportunity for extraordinary storage and delivery
    capabilities of computerized material. This is especially important for schools, libraries and learning institutions
    where books are difficult to obtain and update. Multimedia can provide access to other kinds of inaccessible
    materials, such as hard to find historical films, rare sound recordings of famous speeches, illustrations from difficult
    to obtain periodicals, and so on. Multimedia can put primary and secondary source materials at the fingertips of users
    in even the remotest locations of the world.
    It's not just access that makes multimedia powerful, but the control over content given to users. IM programs enable
    the user to manipulate the materials through linking, sorting, searching and annotating activities.
A Definition For Interactive Media                                                                                              5

                                                                                    Interaction with others gives our lives
                                                                                    meaning. In contrast, total isolation
                                                                                    from human contact or any stimuli is
                                                                                    considered one of the most effective
                                                                                    forms of torture. These facts help
                                                                                    define the significance of multimedia
                                                                                    that is designed to respond to user
                                                                                    interactions. Just as there seems to be a
                                                                                    craving for virtual experiences that
                                                                                    increasingly resemble the real world,
                                                                                    perhaps it is possible that the
                                                                                    requirement for interaction is at the
                                                                                    core of all human needs.

    When human (person to person)
    interaction is impractical, unlikely or
    impossible, the next best experience
    requires     interactive,   immersive,
    multi-sensoral, IM. It follows that the
    most effective interactive experience
    should consider each of these issues.
    Until now, the technology to generate
    these kinds of experiences has been
    restricted to the holodeck of the
    starship Enterprise. With the advent of
    powerful          and        affordable
    personal-computer workstations and
    the rapid development of user-friendly
    multimedia software, almost anyone
    can get into the game.
    Among all the choices of hardware and software available to create IM, it is a challenge for students to identify the
    most effective tools that are accessible for creating IM. Once identified, learning to use this hardware/software can
    seem overwhelming, but this may be the least of all problems to be conquered. Judging by the general lack of
    success of IM thus far, the greatest challenge seems to be that of creating a product of significance, that is, something
    that makes a difference in people's lives.
    Addictive blockbuster video games are the essence of IM, but what is their lasting significance? The power of
    interactive, immersive, multi-sensoral, IM is unleashed by these games, but to what end?
    The generation of people born between 1982-2000 have been brought up in a completely different world than ever
    before. No longer does a young person spend their free time with their nose in a book, but rather, they express a need
    to be completely immersed in multi-sensory interactive media. In order to keep the attention of this up and coming
    generation of young people, companies are going to have to make their content more and more interactive. Teachers
    can no longer stand in front of a class and lecture to their students. Instead, teachers are now compelled to learn how
    to teach via interactive and immersive tools. Even three-year olds don't just sit and play with toy cars anymore, but
    are completely immersed in video games. If today's 12 and 13 year olds can't pay attention in class now, then what is
    it going to be like when today's 3 year olds are 13 and 14? Interactive, immersive media is taking over in every arena
A Definition For Interactive Media                                                                                           6

    of life and it something that needs to be dealt with by the older generations. However, the window of opportunity
    available for those older generations to influence this change is a limited one. The pace of change in the IM world
    dictates that only those who are constantly involved can keep up; otherwise, it will be the users themselves, most
    notably the youngest of generations who are growing up under these new dictates that will be the shapers, reversing
    millennia of human history, whence the older generations always used to shape the deveopment of those younger
    than them.

    The Future For Immersive Media
    Media that engulfs people with interactive experiences has invaded education, entertainment, business and just about
    every other aspect of life. Blockbuster video games lead the way in interactive development and some theaters are
    engaging viewers by stimulating all of their senses - This is all a reflection of the evolution of immersive media.
    Sub woofers placed under chairs vibrate viewers in order to influence the way they react to sound. Experiments with
    the sense of smell are also becoming possible as an actor/baker performs within an expanded movie-environment
    that can now generate the aroma of warm apple pie to the viewers; thus pulling them further into the story through
    their sense of smell. These kinds of ideas are revolutionizing how people react to media as a new generation of
    producers begin to realize that nothing is preventing them from impacting all of the human senses.
    Here are a few great examples of
    interactive media that were showcased
    at the Siggraph conference in San
    Diego, CA.
    [1] Music Table
    [2] Minority Report Becomes Reality

    A Paradigm Shift
    The stage is being set for a whole new
    level of interactive media. Television
    shows are involving audiences, and it's
    not uncommon to let viewers decide
    who wins on a show. Telling audiences
    what they want is a thing of the past
    and precedents are being set for immersive media in the immediate future. The success of reality shows is based on
    the fact that audiences want to take part in the plot. On the web, Flash is gaining more and more popularity; it
    enables users to merge more into the media scene and have more interactivty.
    Society is capturing new thought patterns, realizing that they are in control and can dictate what they want to
    consume. As a result, people are no longer willing to sit around and wait to be spoon fed. Instead they prefer to pick
    and chose when, where and how they want to experience information.
    How is this mindset infiltrating society? Consider the options: There are many sources of entertainment and
    information; people have options that were not previously available. Back in the day, if the news started at 6:00 one
    had to watch it at 6:00 or miss it altogether. Now, the consumer can see what they want, when they want and have
    numerous alternatives as to how. Consider the choices available: Today, one can listen on the radio, watch on the
    internet, keep up to day via 3G cellphone media, or possibly wait until a rerun. A new way of thinking is circulating
    through society, and it is becoming noticeable. Reading has already been in the backseat, and now ordinary
    television is starting to be pushed to the side by a new era of interactivity.
The Future For Immersive Media                                                                                                 7

    New Media
    An independent research company has discovered that 57% of all American teenagers create content for the internet.
    Paul Saffo, director at the Institute for the Future in California, says that people no longer "consume" media; they
    participate in it. Using personal creativity and allowing people to write their own newspaper will definitely
    revolutionize the participation in media. According to The Economist website, the days of media moguls and huge
    coorporate media giants have begun to come to an end. The days of individual person-to-person media are quickly
    approaching. It will be a revolution of interactivity across the world one person at a time.
    Check out the full article at
                                                                                 There is a vibe going around in the
                                                                                 media world that the Internet is soon
                                                                                 going to take over the TV. Meaning,
                                                                                 instead of watching programming from
                                                                                 the viewer's satellite or cable, the
                                                                                 viewer will download programming
                                                                                 from Internet sources and play it on
                                                                                 their TV. Making a head start into this
                                                                                 new way of watching media is
                                                                                 AxiomTV. AxiomTV is a Detroit
                                                                                 based company that is taking
                                                                                 family-friendly movies and DVD’s and
                                                                                 making them available for people to
                                                                                 download and play on their TV. The
    website is and is currently in beta-testing. Not only does AxiomTV provide movies to watch, they
    are also selling channels to major networks where they can provide their own programming to AxiomTV and people
    can watch it all day long. For example, Will Rogers films playing all day long on a Will Rogers channel, or MTV
    streaming all day long off of AxiomTV. AxiomTV is created by Christians, so they are having a feature called
    Mother, which watches everything that is downloaded on the viewer’s computer and protects children from seeing
    inappropriate content. AxiomTV wants to be a family-safe website and Mother is making that possible. AxiomTV is
    a great new technology that allows a person, sitting at their home computer, access to just about anything they want
    to see whenever and wherever they want to see it.

    IPTV- Internet Protocol Television'
    In case you haven’t noticed, telecommunications companies like AT&T, Verizon, and others have been aggressively
    creating miles of fiber-optic networks that can deliver digital media into the end users home through their TV. Telcos
    have poured hundreds of billions of dollars and several years of R&D into implementing small broadcast units
    (set-top boxes) that can stream media into user televisions. Telcos are making a bid to dominate how television and
    all media (data, voice, ect,) is delivered to you home in the future. They will do this through a service called IPTV or
    Internet Protocol Television.
    In 2007 AT&T made a $400 million deal to purchase Microsoft's IPTV Edition software, and a US$1.7 billion deal
    with hardware maker Alcate. The question is, “Why are they investing all this time and money to do something the
    cable providers are already doing?” It is because they want to be the sole communications link for you’re your home,
    increase revenue through selling blocks of airtime to broadcast networks and advertisers, and basically corner the
    television market by being your home’s sole pipeline. IPTV is how they plan to do this. What is IPTV? Internet
    Protocol Television delivers TV programming over a DSL connection from phone lines to homes through TV set-top
    boxes and is typically bundled with Video-On Demand, VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol- see Skype),
The Future For Immersive Media                                                                                                 8

    digital-telephone and Internet typically called a “Triple Play.” Video pulled from satellites enters the Telco’s main IP
    servers. It is encoded into any necessary format (WMV MPEG H.264), then streamed to its core IP network which
    handles data, voice, and video. The media is then broken into small containers of info and streamed to the users
    home, where it is efficiently reassembled and decoded for viewing.
    IPTV is much more efficient than cable. there is none of the annoying “pause” that cable users typically get when
    they change a channel. Multiple users can record multiple programs from several TVs at the same time to a single
    DVR without a significant price hike on the unit IPTV users will have full DVR functionality and be able to
    remotely program their DVR to record programs with a personal phone while they are away! .
    User customized view guides will make it easier for users to find their favorite programming. Picture-in-picture
    viewing will be done multiple tuners. You will watch one show, and channel surf with the PIP!
    All traditional cable services (such as Video-on Demand) will be featured
    Viewers won’t be far from their information as well. They will receive webmail and text messaging along with Caller
    ID on-screen. All this will be done at a vastly lower price for the end user compared to traditional cable.
    IPTV’s killer app is will be interactive television. Similar to the scene in Fahrenheit 451, users will be able to
    participate in real time with hosts and contestants on the television shows, and see live programs in multiple camera
    And since the Telco owns the entire network, total quality is assured. The Telcos believe that this technology, its
    reliability, and low cost will allow them to defeat the cable companies and corner the market.
    Apple Inc released the Apple iPhone in the summer of 2007. This new device merges interactive media, music and
    phone services together in one complete package. The iPhone is akin to a small personal laptop. It can take notes on
    the go and then send them as an email. It has a full calendar, and access to email from the most notable websites
    including Yahoo, Google and AOL. The phone also has YouTube built into the phone so users can access almost all
    the videos offered at Its biggest selling point is the touchscreen. It is also the only phone running a
    software copy of Mac OSX.
    Although this phone is not the greatest piece of equipment, it does allow the consumer many portable freedoms and
    connectivity. Future phones are attempting to copy and add their own specal feature to the phone market. This type
    of phone is inspiring other companies to allow users to do more with their phones. It is also forcing websites to
    function with standard computer users and mobile phone users. Now websites like Yahoo and Google have their
    classic website and a mobile website mode.
    With the summer 2008 release of the iPhone 2.0 software update, the iPhone is beginning to differentiate itself from
    most, if not all, current phones on the market. The iPhone now has to capability to download, and run various games
    and applications built on Apple's iPhone Software Development Kit. While allowing users to run or develop any
    conceivable application for the iPhone, Apple also assures their legendary penchant for control of its platform is
    upheld by approving all applications that are placed within Apple's Application Store; Which can be accessed on an
    iPhone, or iPod touch running the 2.0 software, or through the Application navigation option which was built into
    iTunes beginning in version 7.7. The application store also allows for Apple to provide the seamless connection
    experience that they build into much of their software that is not currently available, or executed as well by other
    companies. Importantly, this is considered by many to be Apple's first foray into the extremely competitive market of
    video gaming, and is one of the few current examples of interactive media that is multi-platform, and executed
    without the use of conventional storage media. (i.e. DVDs, CDs, etc.)
The Future For Immersive Media                                                                                                  9

    [1] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=thA_Oox1Cfc
    [2] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=PLhMVNdplJc

    A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future
    Copyright or Copy Wrong?
    Applying copyright laws written 100 years ago to creative content produced today (or even laws created five years
    ago, for that matter) is futile - no one during that time period was trying to protect content on their websites. There
    was no "copy, paste" option on people's manual typewriters and the thought of "working around the computer
    system" in order to download video clips or photos did not even exist. Who knows, "Bit Torrent" could have been
    slang for a rambunctious, rebellious preadolescent than a term for illegal downloads.

    Drawing the Line
    I was sitting in a future media class and I listened to a discussion about sharing music and how long it will last.
    Mixed with my own opinion and personal experience I wanted to type a few ideas down. First of all P2P sharing is
    illegal. There is no way to argue that fact, the law forbids sharing of music without paying the artist.

    Are Today's Challenges Tomorrow's Problems?
    In order to go forward a person must "go backward" to fully understand where they came from. When one talks
    about ethics and morality it hits the very core of a human being. In a sense, these words "ethics" and "morality"
    almost form our existence because they help to form personal views, both culturally and as a society. While their
    meanings never change, to each occupation the meanings are dissected in many different parts to fit that particular
    Ethics and morality as it relates to the media industry seem to have taken a negative turn. Instead of forming its own
    ethical values, the media industry often does what is accepted within society. When I think a few years back it seems
    as if the media of today has evolved to something completely different to that of past generations. Before it was
    unusual for a movie to have obscene language the exposure of private parts for the indulgence of a sexual scene.
    However, nowadays this behavior seems to be common place. The media portrays this behavior as commonplace;
    these things are no longer a taboo but have become culturally acceptable. But this very stigma has contaminated the
    very fabric of our morals. Children now see this as being the norm and instead of allowing the teachings of their
    parents to permeate them they instead turn to the media and in turn begin to experiment with the things that they are
    seeing in the media. If this trend continues it has the potential to have an adverse impact on our future generations.
    With these changes it is now up to society and to the media industry to accept the responsibility and take a stand by
    restoring integrity and morale. We can take steps to preserve the future of the media industry now by reversing the
    negative components that are presently acceptable and raise the standard so that anything does not go.
    In today's culture, it is hard to anyone to define the words ethics and morality. In fact, states that
    ethics are: a system of moral principals. It also defines morality as: conformity to the rules of right conduct. There is
    a reason why no one can truly say without a shadow of a doubt what these two words mean, as shown by their
    definitions. These words mean different things to different people. Some people may believe that cussing is not a
    challenge to their morals while others may believe that is a dark sin. As religion is fading out and becoming less
    conservative and more liberal, these words are becoming more and more vague, even to those who consider
A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future Media                                                                           10

    themselves Christians.
    How then, with no concrete definition can we define this in terms to Media? The more advanced the media becomes,
    people are choosing for themselves what is moral and what is ethical according to their own "right of conduct".
    Those who consider themselves Christians should go back to the one source of ethics- the Bible. The Bible is the
    ultimate "right of conduct". It defines what is moral and what is not. We should cling to those words when dilemmas
    are presented to us that pull us in question of our morals.
    When it comes to today’s technology and fancy software programs, people must be aware of the power that they
    have at their fingertips. This is not in reference to the power of the program itself – surely that is understood to some
    degree. Producers and editors must be careful to present the truth as it is – unedited and unchanged. There was an
    article in the Houston Chronicle a while ago and it was talking about photojournalists using Photoshop to “touch up”
    their pictures. They were not using Photoshop to just make their pictures look good, but to give a false reality to the
    people that read their columns or saw their work. There have been a number of documentary movies whose
    producers and editors have taken what a person has said, twisted it for their own end, and released it. Sure someone
    may have said something, but anything can be taken and used inappropriately, thus creating a lie. The future
    producers and editors and videographers must make sure that they present reality as it is played out. Even if
    changing just one thing someone says can “help further the gospel,” it’s a lie and whoever changed it will be held
    accountable for that in the end.

    Cost-Free College?
    More than a decade ago MIT put all of the content for their classes online. It just didn't make sense that such an
    expensive product should be made available to anyone with an internet connection. Of course, content is nearly
    worthless without someone to explain the meaning of things - students still had to enroll in classes to make sense out
    of MIT's content. Then MIT made all of their CLASSES available at no cost through online courses! More and more
    businesses are discovering that giving away their most valuable information online can become a big moneymaker.
    How can copyright laws be enforceable in such an inconsistent and confusing environment? Why does MIT seem to
    be more successful than ever? If I published everything I know about how to become an iconic rock star, could my
    website evolve into a great online university like MIT's?

    Why Do Wierdos Use The Cool Tools First?
    Exciting new emerging media technologies can be lucrative but some of the most perverted minds seem to realize
    this before anyone else. How can video games and some of the most promising on-line features (streaming video,
    social networking, immersive/virtual experiences, etc.) be encouraged, cultivated and promoted when the industry
    leaders for these technologies seem to care about nothing more than profits, violence, sex, entertainment value and
    immediate gratification?

    MP3 Jail Terms?
    In November of 2007, a marketing vice president for one of the major television networks said "My industry paid
    attention to what just happened during the startling collapse of Tower Records. I predict that the music industry, as
    we know it, will be completely unrecognizable within the next eighteen months." Whether I agree with his forecast
    or not, no one can deny the middleman is almost gone. A talented musician in the right place at the right time can go
    platinum after recording in their living room, being discovered on YouTube, forming their own record company and
    distributing their albums on the net. But how can this same musician reap the rewards of success when one of her
    songs is duplicated 50,000 times by people using the same technology that the artist used to bypass alhil of the
    systems created by the music recording industry? Was it illegal, immoral and unfair for 50,000 people to rip off her
    hit song? Were you one of them? What would be a reasonable jail term?
A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future Media                                                                             11

    In response to this I would like to quote something a rather prescient friend of mine wrote just over a year ago as his
    new year's prediction: 'Caving in on itself, the MPAA will inevitably file a lawsuit over the RIAA’s violation of the
    MPAA’s copyrighted ability to file lawsuits for misuse of copyrighted materials. Citing that the RIAA did it first, the
    MPAA (and the courts of America) will not care, due to the fact that the RIAA did not copyright the act properly,
    thus nullifying the copyright. The RIAA will file countersuit for royalties not paid on their “poor man’s copyright” of
    mailing the idea to themselves in a USPS metered envelope.'
    The absurd lengths to which these two organisations have pursued copyright infringement is well captured by my
    friend's satire! The result has been a developing public perception that they are no better than the greedy moguls their
    products so often malign and warn us about. It's one thing to go after those who deliberately rip off stuff for their
    own pecuniary gain and no reasonable person should begrudge such an effort; it is entirely another when we start
    hearing of lawsuits against grandmothers, whose granddaughters may have used their PC's to download something or
    other, and not relenting even after the facts become clear. That’s not justice; it’s greed. Attacking one’s own customer
    base is a really dumb business move, but the entertainment industry has fallen prey to an entitlement mentality, that
    by God, they're going to get back every last dime they’re due. It is also completely futile, as one of the other entries
    so well points out, because they will never be able to keep up with the prolific growth of networks. So in their
    frustration, rather than take a deep breath, they have attacked the creators of the software, and so the merry-go-round
    continues! Additionally, when the same industry continues to pay out literally millions to its top stars, it’s cries of
    lost revenue are liable to fall on deaf ears when it comes to working people who can only ever imagine such riches!
    There is a case, as I noted above, for legitimate prosecution, but what about the new artist worried that all their
    potential livelihood might be sucked away by the evil cybernet black hole? Contrary to the nightmare described
    above, the reality has actually given cause for hope in that regard: When Death Cab for Cutie found that the record
    label did not want to produce the record they had just been paid $500,000 to create, since they had the rights, they
    posted it on their website to be downloaded for free! In just a short time, they were being inundated by email from
    fans wanting to pay for the product! A far cry from the stereotypical legions of lecherous downloaders that we are
    led to believe inhabit the internet and which the above writer clearly believes are dominant. Contrary to the paranoia
    of the MPAA, RIAA and myriad others who take such a dim view of their fellow man, technology has always turned
    out to be the friend of the entertainment industry. Particularly when their efforts are akin to the sticking of a finger in
    a leaking dike, the industry should be embracing further progress rather than trying to stifle and tame it, simply
    because some revenue is being lost. The sad fact, which they apparently are determined to not face, is that such
    practices will always go on by people determined enough. They could however endear themselves to their
    customers, and so ellict some help in that fight, rather than the current policy of alienation that treats us all as if we
    are just a bunch of dirty thieves! The more the media industry resists the rampant technological progress in
    distribution, the more it's simply going to get left behind.
    To further expound on this, and to provide a brief example, the music entertainment industry has gone to great
    lengths within the last decade to ensure that its music is copyright protected in a process known as digital rights
    management (DRM). This effort at combating piracy has arguably done little to maintain the surmounting number of
    illegal file sharing between computers and removable data copied from the CD format which files are DRM-free. In
    an unprecedented move, Apple CEO Steve Jobs proposed a new initiative in early 2007 following the release of his
    provocative essay entitled "Thoughts on Music," conditioning for the adoption of a DRM-free system, allowing users
    interoperability and a greater freedom to distribute files without fear of retribution. Apple launched what became
    iTunes Plus in May, featuring high quality 256 kbps AAC encoding music files indistinguishable from the original
    recordings. Of the four major distribution companies: EMI, Universal, Sony BMG, and Time Warner, only EMI has
    contracted to distribute its catalog through the iTunes DRM-free store, while Universal, Sony and Time Warner have
    signed deals with competitors, hoping to loosen Apple's hold on the market. DRM-free music offered through such
    competitors as Amazon mp3 and Wal-Mart however are encoded at a variable kbps rate, falling short of iTunes
    consistent 256 kbps, which is unsettling to the listener and a dangerous business move for the three remaining
A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future Media                                                                         12

    companies who have found it still unnecessary to fully satisfy the wants of the consumer they are trying to reach.

    Living in a Virtual World
    In October 2007, comedy website published an article by David Wong and Steve Woyach called "The
    Next 25 Years of Video Games." [1] The article, though humorous in tone, is a serious look at predicted
    technological expansions in five-year increments from 2008-2033. Citing technology currently being constructed,
    the article theorizes that by 2033, the cost of constructing a computer on level with the human brain will be about $1.
    It concludes by predicting that, in less than thirty years, computers will directly interface with the human brain
    without surgery, and living and interacting with a virtual world will become more commonplace than actually
    leaving the house to interact with the actual "real" world.
    Modern computing devices have only existed since the 1940s. If civilization has existed since roughly 10,000 BC as
    suggested by most historical research, 60 years is .005% of the history of human civilization. To suggest that, in that
    five thousandths of a percent, human life could change so dramatically, is fairly audacious. However, the changes
    brought about in both technological advancement and social perspectives during the twentieth century are
    astounding. For the first time in human history, information is available freely and readily to anyone all over the
    planet without leaving the comforts home, the office or the schoolroom. Throughout the world, the Western
    Hemisphere in particular, emphasis is being placed on the individual rather than a mass group. Government criticism
    comes frequently and freely, and even a solitary individual with no connections or friends could have an online
    readership numbering in the millions. Before 1908, the first, and perhaps only, mass media device was the printing
    press. In 2008, mass media and instant access to new information can be acquired through devices smaller than any
    Going back to the Wong/Woyach article, it is not particularly radical to suggest that human beings will be living in
    completely virtual environments by the year 2033. The technological and social changes brought about in the past
    150 years have proven that complete lifestyle change can be abrupt and severe. Is it so absurd, then, to suggest that
    in twenty-five years human beings will shake hands with pixels instead of flesh and bone?
    Assuming that the future of social interactions is a complete virtual world, does this change the way we should even
    govern people? Could a parent send their child into the virtual world to avoid the responsibility of raising them?
    Could said child construct their own ideal parents in their tiny, virtual world? If this child grows up into an angry,
    hostile individual with violent tendencies, who could he hurt in a world made of ones and zeros?
    Could we send people to prisons for real-world crimes, but let them roam free in a virtual world? Could a person be
    prosecuted for stealing a virtual stereo?
    Could there be a couple married forty years that have never met face-to-face? Is there anything wrong with that?

    The Future of Commercials
    It is becoming common to see a particular product strategically placed on TV shows, movies or online content.
    Computers, cell phones, foods and even the weirdest of products have made "cameo appearances" with the help of
    these mediums. The product’s manufacturer has usually paid a large sum of money to have their product displayed or
    have arranged some type of agreement with the producer of the media. The placement may be very subtle like a bag
    of chips on the table or as obvious as a logo cleverly integrated into the design of a website. The audience does not
    realize that they are subconsciously being influenced by this growing form of marketing. Although it appears to be
    an effective strategy for advertisers, ethical questions arise about its influence on children and others who may be
    easily influenced by seeing their favorite stars using or talking about a particular product. With commercial-skipping
    DVR technology and the rise of shows available online without ads, product placement may be the commercials of
    the future. Is it fair to the audience the hide advertising inside their favorite shows? How much can advertisers place
    in a show before the show just becomes one big ad itself? These questions remain to be answered as the future of
A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future Media                                                                        13

    advertising takes shape.

    The New Interpersonal Interactive Ethic
    One issue that arises with the advent of newer and more interactive media types is that of hospitable, interpersonal
    communication and action. With technologies such as the Internet, which is fast approaching a stage where it will
    become the source of all subsequent communications that were once relegated to other means, one can easily find
    themselves mistreating or misjudging the other user due to the lack of personal interaction. Just as driving on a busy
    highway causes many to lose their manners and treat other drivers as nuisances instead of fellow human beings, so
    this new highway of interactive communication can become a place of selfishness and hostility, instead of
    helpfulness and hospitality. The key is to discover ways to make these new emerging forms of communication more
    natural and interpersonal so the average user will remain in the proper composure which ethics demand. This,
    however, may become a natural side effect of increasing realism within the realm of Interactive Media.

    [1] http:/ / www. cracked. com/ article_15243_next-25-years-video-games. html

    Media in Video Games
    Multimedia is not only prevalent in cinema, television and the internet. Video game developers and producers are
    introducing new ways for people to interact with their games and game consoles. In the early years of video games,
    the most interactivity involved hitting a button and the onscreen character would react to the button's command.
    Today, however, media conglomerations, primarily Sony and Microsoft, are attempting new ways to bridge video
    games and other forms of media.

    Microsoft Xbox
    Launched in the fourth quarter of 2005 around the world, the Xbox 360 is Microsoft's second foray into gaming
    hardware production. The console has expanded the internet media capabilities of Microsoft's original Xbox console.
    Xbox Live
    Launched in the summer of 2002 on the original Xbox, Xbox Live arguably set the standard for online console
    gaming. Players were able to create one profile for Xbox live. This profile, in turn, could interact with any Xbox
    Live equipped game.
    Xbox Live Marketplace
    In November 2005, Microsoft launched the Xbox Live Marketplace, an ancillary to their online gaming service.
    Through this, Xbox owners can download smaller arcade games, view previews of upcoming games and download
    demos for games still in development. Perhaps the most significant service provided in the Xbox Live Marketplace,
    however, is the Video Store, allowing gamers with an Xbox 360 to download movies and television shows directly
    to their computer. Though Microsoft is not the first company to offer downloadable content for television, they have
    arguably been the most successful and appear to be in a prime position to establish market domination. By bundling
    video downloads with games, it appears Microsoft is trying to create one central home theater peripheral by using
    games as the bridge. Microsoft's two biggest competitors in the gaming market, Nintendo and Sony, have both
    offered their own online services. Sony's, the PlayStation Network, currently offers many of the same online
    functions as the Xbox, while the Nintendo is currently limited to gaming information. The 2008 Consumer
    Electronics Show has released new features from Sony that will be a new point of interactivity for gamers.
    Xbox & Windows Media Center
Media in Video Games                                                                                                         14

    Xbox is breaking the mold by becoming the first game console to allow you to connect your pc to your gaming
    system. Using the Windows Media Center Extender technology built into your Xbox 360, you can connect it to your
    PC through your home network and enjoy all of the digital entertainment stored on your PC on the big screen from
    the comfort of your couch. You can easily play you’re your favorite music, view photos as a slide show, watch
    DVDs, download movies, and even watch and record TV shows. Xbox transforms you TV room into a digital media
    room all with the touch a remote.

    Playstation 3
    The PlayStation 3 is Sony's fourth home market console.
    Sony's Home
    Still in prototype form, Home is a giant, free, massively multiplayer online community similar to the PC game
    Second Life. Offered as a free application exclusive to the PlayStation 3, Home allows users to create an online
    avatar and roam around a virtual world created by Sony. These worlds can include your PS3 and other PS3's. You
    can create your own home with furniture, rooms and electronics. You can also visit your friend's homes inside their
    PS3. It appears Home also features an online mall features shops like JCPenny, Gamestop, and American Eagle. This
    software is expected to be released sometime in 2008.
    Folding @ Home
    A neat and "educational" free software program for the PS3 is folding @ home. What this little bit of code does is
    simulate proteins folding. In a nutshell, folding is when a protein atom changes its form. Evolution is another way of
    describing the process. The software was created for the Stanford Institute to help study folding. They are taking the
    data from the PS3 owners and attempting to find cures for many diseases. A disease is formed when a protein folds
    incorrectly and they hope to simulate correct and incorrect folding to find out how diseases are formed and can be
    cured. This software is also offered free to PC users. However the PS3 can run the software approximately 20-30
    times faster than a PC.

    Playstation Portable

    The Sony PSP or PlayStation Portable is the only handheld competition to Nintendo's DS system. The PSP boasts
    graphics slightly stronger than the current PS2. But the game play and graphics are not the focus of this article. The
    thing I want to address is the VOiP and output to televisions from the PSP. First of all, Sony and Skype set an
    agreement to work together to create a VOiP network for PSP and PC users. VOiP or Voice Over Internet Protocol
    allows Skype users to take advantage of a free software program that allows PC to PC calls. With the new PSP,
    VOiP PSP users can make calls from PSP to PSP or PSP to PC for free. The software is free and only requires a
    firmware update from Sony. The only thing people have to purchase is a headset, but this is subject to change. Sony
    might charge a small fee for the Skype software to download into the PSP, but so far, this is still speculative. As of
    January 2008, the Skype firmware should be released for free. To use the Skype program on your computer go to
Media in Video Games                                                                                                          15 and sign up for their services.
    The second part of this article is the new ability for PSP slim owners to output UMD movies onto a television. The
    new PSP slim allows users to take their games, music and movies and play them on their personal TV at home. You
    have to purchase some component cables for around $20, depending on the location, but now people can play their
    games and movies, even on the road, on a full size TV. This is a nice function if you forget your DVD player or are
    in a hotel with nothing better to watch.
    One of the newest games for the PSP takes cell-shaded art and music and melts them together to create Patapon. This
    game is a very basic game. You are in charge of a small tribe of funny looking people who have been oppressed by
    big bad guys and you are there to help them defeat their enemies. Where the meat of this game lies is within the
    gameplay. You pound out beats on the square, circle, triangle and X button to create a beat that the soldiers will
    respond to. Based on what beats you let out depends on their attacks and movement. This game doesn't require quick
    shooting and reloading skills. It just takes a good sense of rhythm and beats per measure, In a sense it is teaching
    non-musical people how to play a drum beat. It can be an underlying way of teaching people more about the science
    of music through games.

    Nintendo DS
    The Nintendo DS has their best hand-held console on the market featuring local wi-fi multiplayer and online
    gameplay. The Nintendo company has their own version of Xbox live called NFC. The NFC of Nintendo Wi-fi
    Connection is a free online video game community through Nintendo. The players have to use friend codes that are
    linked with either your Nintendo DS or Nintendo Wii. The games on the current market require players to have
    friend codes in order to communicate over headsets. All the online games allow online gameplay, but
    communication is limited only to friends. Future games will allow players to talk to complete strangers during an
    online match. The Nintendo Wii has no availability for players to talk to each other currently. No future releases
    feature interactive features for 2008, yet.
    Random Nintendo DS Facts
    1. The Nintendo President Satoru Iwata thought it a smart move to launch the DS system in the US a week before it
    was launched in Japan.
    2. The primary cost of the system was relatively cheap considering the technology built in.

    Nintendo Wii
    The Nintendo Wii has taken interactivity to a whole new level. Games for the Wii have stopped focusing on button
    mashing and forces players to be active. Games using swords, fists and weapons can be activated by waving the
    WiiMote. The WiiMote and Nunchuk have motion sensors inside the controller and can sense even the slightest
    change in balance of the controller. A new game coming out in 2008 called Wii Fit uses a "Balance Board" for the
    game. Players must use the board for Yoga positions, balance positions, dance steps and many other features. Wii Fit
    also uses the WiiMote and has the player jog in place to simulate a race. The length of the race can range from feet to
    miles, but the approximate calories lost and similar stats are taken throughout the game.
    Another feature the Wii has is the ability to send and receive emails to and from the Wii console. People, not
    necessarily just gamers, can send a full email to a Wii console as long as the Wii is connected to the internet, and
    sending emails from the Wii is also possible. This is not a new feature for a moblie game console, but the Wii is the
    first to do it effectively and smoothly. One other small feature is that when Wii-mail is sent there is a very specific
    identifier on the email.
    Random Wii Facts
    1. The Wii calendar shows dates from the year 2000 to the year 2035.
Media in Video Games                                                                                                             16

    2. The Wii photo channel supports JPGs up to 8192×8192
    3. The effect of direct sunlight and different light sources can make the WiiMote operation less responsive.
    4. Classic Nintendo controllers can be used on SOME virtual console games.

    Multisensory Media Is About To Explode
                                                                                    At the 2006 Boston SIGGRAPH
                                                                                    symposium (http:/ / www. siggraph.
                                                                                    org/ s2006/ main. php?f=boston), it
                                                                                    was possible to experience paintings
                                                                                    that responded to touch, movies that
                                                                                    could be taste and nasal canons that
                                                                                    triggered precise aromas at the instant
                                                                                    they were required to enhance a video
                                                                                    clip. Participants sat in a virtual kayaks
                                                                                    and paddled through a virtual version
                                                                                    of the west coast of Alaska while
                                                                                    feeling the pressure of salt water on a

                                                                             Research proves that smell is, by far,
    the most effective physical sense for triggering vivid memories, so why couldn't nasal cannons be used to help
    students use smell to recall important information during an exam?
    And why don’t more media
    experiences take advantage of all
    human senses, rather than just sign and
    In the world of Theme parks, 4D
    entertainment is becoming more and
    more popular. For example Disney's
    California Adventure offers Soarin'
    Over California which is an experience
    where you literally feel like you're
    flying over California. The ride
    triggers wind, water, and even the
    scent of oranges as you fly over orange
    In Las Vegas, at the Luxor, there is a
    virtual reality ride which is 4D. Not
    only do things come at you from the screen, but also from the floor, chair, and even from above.
    The world is so close to reality that I believe we should be afraid of what is next. In my mind, I believe the next or
    future of multisensory media is to be able to affect our emotions by somehow connecting us with the characters in
    the story. We would feel what the character is feeling, If he is angry, our emotions will imitate that, if he was scared,
    we would be able to feel the depth of the fear. This would make a lot of movies better than just viewing because we
    will be placed in the character shoes, making us one with character and can understand why he did things in the
Multisensory Media Is About To Explode                                                                                            17

    movie. The Dark Knight, the recent Batman movie, created a dark and cynical atmosphere once Joker enters the
    scene. The sound is gripping, making you pay attention to the seriousness of what is being shown on screen. Joker's
    voice had the psycho-deranged touch to it, that many knew he wasn't playing around or just want money-he wanted
    to destroy Gotham. You can tell by his voice, He didn't have any sympathy, no care in the world, he didn't care about
    dying, He wanted to see Gotham burn, destroyed. All this was made just from sound. Sound affects the body in an
    amazing way and if movie producers, game designers, commercials even, find a way to control their onlookers, then
    effectiveness is boosted from a normal commercial to something memorable. Sound move us in such a way, where
    we can find sleep music that puts our body at ease, or music that can have our adrenaline pumping at the thump of
    rock. This is just a hair of what I believe is to come.
    In Orlando Florida, at the amusement park Sea World; the ride Wild Arctic, gives adventure seekers a ride like none
    other. People are placed in what look like a space ship that has a big screen in front of everybody on the inside. The
    screen comes on and it appears that you are looking out the main window of an aircraft. The air craft takes off and all
    the seats turn right and left, and lift forward and back to give the feeling of flying. This feeling is increased do to the
    intense visual experience a person gets fro the screen in front of them. As the aircraft moves around the screen
    begins to show pictures of Polar Bears and at one point it gets to close and the bears attack the aircraft. The pilot of
    the aircraft looses control of the ship and it crashes. The door on the other side of the ride (directly across for the one
    you entered) opens and allows you to walk off the aircraft. As you walk off it becomes obvious that this is not the
    end of the ride. You are in a real life setting of the Arctic. As you follow the crowed, You are viewing real, living
    Polar Bears and penguins in artificial settings that mimic their natural habitat. By adding this to the end of the ride
    Sea World really took Interactive, Multisensory Media to the next level. You were not just seeing the world through
    a screen and feeling the effects of the aircraft through the seats, but you were feeling the cold of the Arctic as you got
    off the aircraft and walked into the artificial setting. This gives you the most real feeling of being there without
    actually being there. I think more things like this are expected. Rides and media that will actually be able to fuel a
    persons mind into believing they are really there.
Virtual Experiences: Now More Like Our Real World                                                                           18

    Virtual Experiences: Now More Like Our Real
    Have you seen or experienced Nintendo's Wii controllers? Get ready to enter the game - I mean really ENTER the
    game when you become part of the action. Check these URL links for descriptions of this new controller technology
    that may make gamers the most physically fit people in their neighborhoods.
    Los Angeles Times: http:/ / www. latimes. com/ features/ health/ la-he-wii5mar05,1,1929371.
    story?coll=la-headlines-health      http:/    /     www.      canada.   com/                topics/      bodyandhealth/       story.
    html?id=e4cac3b3-1f74-4616-be23-4d3b27afb65b&k=30298 http:/ / www. mlive. com/ entertainment/ grpress/ index. ssf?/ base/ entertainment-2/

    This website showed how AMD demonstrated and taught about their new chips that are coming out. They also
    compared their chips to Intel's. Showing exactly why AMD is better. Its a "virtual tradeshow." I found it really
    interesting that they used a virtual experience in order for the crowd to interact with software. It was pretty cool.
    Check out the link.
Emerging Technologies: Preparing For The Next Job Market                                                                         19

    Emerging Technologies: Preparing For The Next
    Job Market
    According to some books now on the best seller list (The World is Flat, A New Kind of Thinking, The Tipping
    Point, Freakanomics), the rules for career success have changed. Jobs that require systematic, repetitious, detailed
    instruction sets or, that is to say, skills largely dictated by the analytical side of the human brain, have been, or soon
    will be, outsourced to another country or a computer.
    If these authors are forecasting trends to be reckoned with in the immediate future, then it seems that well established
    and accepted rules for success have changed. The information age, as we knew it, rewarded systematic thinkers who
    could program computer code, analyze business trends or understand complex processes. According to these authors,
    the future belongs to those who have developed social skills and a creative approach to problem solving.
    People entering the job market or new
    to the job market need to be aware of
    the current trends. It is very important
    to develop social skills and make
    connections with people that you meet
    in the market. Connections are key to
    your future success. If you lose your
    job in the future, the connections you
    made in the past could bring about
    your new job. You never know who
    you're sitting next to in a meeting, in a
    seminar, or even at a bookstore. So,
    develop the social skills early and be
    friendly with people; it could set up
    your future.
    Another key to success in the job market is being flexible and wanting to learn new technologies. Because the
    market is changing so rapidly, you may be asked to make something with a program you have never used before. So,
    be open to teaching yourself new programs with online tutorials or books. If an employer asks you to make a flash
    website and you never have before, say yes, and try as hard as you can to teach yourself the program and create an
    excellent website. Even if you are not in the job market right now, it is wise to start learning different technologies
    other than just the one that you specialize in. Be open, be flexible, and most of all be dependable.
    Change in Motion
    Film is on its way out the door and video will soon take its place. Film style shooting will never change, the rules
    will still apply to the film medium, the technology of shooting will change. With advances in video like the RED
    camera, studios should be changing gears and adopting high-end video equipment over film. The RED camera is not
    as good as film, but the differences are so small that the average person will not know the difference. The beauty of
    video equipment in the film business is the cost. The RED camera is a fraction of the cost of a film camera, plus the
    RED does not require any type of film stock. With hard drive and VTR decks, studios can shoot straight from their
    camera to a deck or hard drive and then edit from the deck or drive, no more waiting to process the film. This will
    make productions take less time to finalize and less money will be spent to pay crews. The best of the film and video
    worlds will collide in the future. When that date is, no one really knows but it is coming. George Lucas ordered some
    RED cameras for his next production, and with more and more high-end video cameras and equipment coming
    online, the faster and less expensive movies will cost.
Interactive Media Versus Other Kinds Of Media                                                                                     20

    Interactive Media Versus Other Kinds Of Media
    I believe that Interactive Media is the most wide range type of media possible. There is no limit to what you can do
    in interactive media. All types of avenues such as web design, web development World Wide Web, Internet forums,
    computer games, online games, interactive television, e-Mail and electronic literature and many other sources of
    media apply. One of the benefits of interactive media is that the technologies of it are always emerging. It does not
    stay at a stand still because there is no definite measure of interactive media. Many times, clients have changing
    views for what they want for their product and being the developer for the product as an interactive developer, this
    makes it that much more difficult. I assume that in other forms of media it is more clear cut in the sense that you
    have a need and without little trouble, the product is developed. In conclusion, if you crave to be creative in what
    you do or want to pursue, then interactive is the way to go!
    People will always crave media that will allow them to experience an environment that is more like the world as God
    made it. In other words, the more media becomes like the "real" world, the more it will be accepted and embraced by
    human beings. We are made in God's own image and this is why we can look at the beauty of the earth and say "it is
    good," just as God said in the book of Genesis.
    This is also why television overtook radio, color television overtook black and white and why high definition
    television is overtaking standard definition television. Interactive, immersive, multi-sensoral, multimedia will
    eventually be widely accepted and even demanded, because it is more like God's real world - never as good as His
    world, but "like" His real world. When it's not possible to actually stand in a rain forest, virtual experiences will offer
    the next best thing until you can get there.
    Is interactive media something that is completely attainable? I view it as an immersive element of our world that few
    will actually indulge in when the media becomes available. I am not doubting that the media will be attainable
    (technology and creativity are at an all-time high), I am merely asking whether or not those ordinary people in
    everyday life will be excited about the medium that is creating a huge buzz in this field.
    Then my second question - is it healthy
    to have such interactive media in
    today's lifestyles? According to, One in three
    people in this world are obese.
    According to the National Institutes of
    Health, obesity and being overweight,
    together, are the second leading cause
    of preventable death in the United
    States, close behind tobacco use. An
    estimated 300,000 deaths per year are
    due to the obesity epidemic. [1] My
    question then: is it going to be a
    problem as more and more interactive
    types of media are surfacing; is it
    going to take away from user physical interactivity or will it add to it.
    In my personal opinion I believe that it is our job as the initiators and developers of this medium to make it add to
    the amount of physical activity. I believe Nintendo hit the mark when they released the Wii to the consumer. It is
    completely interactive and it makes the user become physically involved in the interactive pursuit. If our media,
    which up until now has been engaged in by sitting back and watching or by clicking a mouse here or there, can
    physically involve its user in the process, I think that we can help better our future.
Interactive Media Versus Other Kinds Of Media                                                                                 21

    So how can media logically be used to improve our future? One answer is social networking, and many websites are
    created just for that!
    Getting the Word Out
    How can you create a buzz without a budget? Use what you have - which just might be one of the many free tools
    now available to you.
    Interactive media can address a vast audience with little to no budget simply by creating a buzz about your message.
    Post a video on You Tube with links to your Myspace and Facebook accounts and e-mail friends in your address
    book to view your project. If they like it and mail it on to their friends you just might have some highly contagious,
    viral media on your hands.
    Friends in your Facebook and Myspace accounts view the video and may decide to link it to their pages, adding
    more exposure. Other free online sources such as Xanga or online blogging can branch to different audiences and
    multiply your audience exponentially. The only cost to you is your own creativity along with friends who help you
    get your message linked up to the world.
    People are grabbing hold of this concept and bypassing the traditional avenues of marketing. Several people have
    created a buzz about themselves, bypassing Hollywood and, as a result, it opened the door to a job. If you get a large
    enough audience, people will listen. Television executives are lost and disarrayed over the power of this medium.

    Creating an Interactive, Immersive,
    Multi-sensory, MultiMedia Project: A Student
    Team leaders and other class members have encountered new problems and challenges while creating their group
    project. This chapter describes some of the activities and processes unique to interactive design.
    A multimedia project, in any field –
    corporate, educational, private, or
    otherwise – is one of the hardest to
    define or manage. While a standard
    project, such as construction, have a
    set time, resources, cost and goals, all
    these points are interdependent and
    overlap in a multimedia project. This
    overlapping of the different project
    elements is precisely what makes it so
    hard to manage. In this chapter we will
    discuss a hypothetical project scenario,
    and walk it through from beginning to
    end. It is our goal to have you, the
    reader, come away with a healthy
    respect for this type of work, and to understand what goes into it.

    To begin any project, it must first be mapped out. This includes identifying the client, the target audience or who the
    product is being made for, what type of multisensory experience will be created, project goals, costs, resources,
    manpower, and of course, the deadline or when it needs to be finished.
Creating an Interactive, Immersive, Multi-sensory, MultiMedia Project: A Student Log                                            22

    IN MULTI-MEDIA... “Quality" is difficult to define
    One difficulty in the process of multimedia management and production that is rarely, if ever, addressed is the
    difficulty in defining “quality” in meaningful terms. When one begins to identify the obstacles concerning a given
    project, it is logical to begin by screening the list of tasks and procedures for “hang-ups” in reference to time, money,
    client relations, team work, communication, and the like. However, these are really all contingent upon the prior
    definition of quality. The project is only finished when it has passed the client’s vision of quality. This client-based,
    relative, subjectively defined standard of “quality” is difficult to establish. It must be devised anew for each new
    project, with each new client.
    Authors Elaine England and Andy Finney have attempted to defining “quality” in their book Managing Multimedia:
    Project Management for Interactive Media. They write the following:
    “Design quality for media projects = Content and treatment agreement.”

    "Looking at the future of Interactive Multi-sensory Media" :Aiwink824.
    The future of Interactive technology is already here and it is only going to get better. Today when have “ I-Phones”
    that allow friends to e-mail each other in real time, search for information, directions and get your pin point locations
    with google maps. Right now the only way today’s technology interacts, is if you interact with it first. The best we
    can get now is proactive interactivity, like video games with complex tasks or complex websites. Gamers are
    pushing the envelope with social gaming, playing each other over the internet. The future is mutual interactivity or
    virtual reality with connections to the central nervous system. With people who are playing games to get away from
    realty this is the next best thing. Virtual reality might be able to give people in comas new life and help with medical
    research. Other examples are the "Nintendo Wii" and militaries using simulators to train soldiers.

    Determining Project Pixel Size for Various
    Digital Medias
    How big should it be? Pixel frame sizes for various media formats
    When producing digital visual media (stills or video) one of the first perplexing, yet relatively simple problems
    encountered is related to the question of pixel size dimensions. "How big should my project frames be for computer
    screens, the web, DVD, Podcasting, HD DVD, etc.?
    Below are three URL links that provide good explanations. Be sure to notice the squeezing effect that occurs when
    projects move from screens with square pixels to those with rectangular pixels.

    Computer Monitors
    15" - 640x480
    17" 800x600
    19" - 1024-768
    Newer, wide screen 22" monitors becoming common around 2007: 1440x900

    Standard Definition Video
    350×240 (260 lines): Video CD
    330×480 (250 lines): Umatic, Betamax, VHS, Video8
    400×480 (300 lines): Super Betamax, Betacam (pro)
    440×480 (330 lines): analog broadcast
Determining Project Pixel Size for Various Digital Medias                                                                    23

    560×480 (420 lines): LaserDisc, Super VHS, Hi8
    670×480 (500 lines): Enhanced Definition Betamax

    Digital Formats
    720×480 (520 lines): D-VHS, DVD, miniDV, Digital8, Digital Betacam (pro)
    720×480 (400 lines): Widescreen DVD (anamorphic)
    1280×720 (720 lines): D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDV (miniDV)
    1440×1080 (810 lines): HDV (miniDV)
    1920×1080 (1080 lines): D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDCAM SR (pro)
    10,000×7000 (7000 lines): IMAX, IMAX HD, OMNIMAX

    More Information About Screen Sizes and Pixel Dimensions

    How We Did This: A Brief History for One
    Interactive Project
    The Advanced Interactive Media class of Spring 2008 laid out the foundations of a proposed immersive interactive
    project for the Elsing geological museum. This will detail that process and the reasoning for the decisions made:
    - Why did we focus on the age-group that we did?
    > The Elsing Museum’s primary clientele are 3rd graders (ten to twelve years old), so that naturally became this
    project’s primary focus. However for the website, it was decided to focus on the older age-group that would
    encompass the teachers and parents, since they were considered more likely to be the ones to consult that as part of
    their research and decision whether to include the museum as part of their children’s education.

    - Colour Palette / Design layouts / Branding / Look & Feel:
    > The final colour pallette was chosen due to its earth-tone like look that reflects the project’s subject, namely a
    geological museum. Nonetheless, that was also balanced by a desire to keep some element of saturated, advanced
    colours that more naturally appeal to children. In addition, while the somewhat more dull look of the pallette may not
    be so appealing to children of the focus age-group, we think the media interactivity offered by the Surround-Screen
    Video (hereafter: SSV) elements, such as the Wii-controllers, the chroma-keying and the touchscreen experience, as
    well as the use of high-energy, child-friendly fonts (developed in LiveType) will more than compensate.
    > Similarly, there was an understood need to balance what could otherwise be opposing requirements in the look and
    feel to the VR environments, which would naturally be set within the context of a cave (designed in Lightwave).
    Normally, the interior of a VR cave might not be considered particularly appealing to children looking for an
    interactive experience, but the museum’s own artifacts come to the rescue in this with their amazing variety in
    colours and even picturesque, natural designs. Combining the two, with specimens interspersed throughout the VR
    cave, will more than resolve any balancing issues.
    > These first two items gave rise to a natural branding of the museum, and therefore this project, by showcasing the
    most aesthetic of the museum’s artifacts on an interactive lazy-susan display. This would be used on the website to
    give interested parties a taste of what’s available without the complexities of the more extensive VR cave
How We Did This: A Brief History for One Interactive Project                                                                    24

    - Scripting and Games:
    > The tone of any story to accompany the VR environments was naturally set from the beginning by the clientele, as
    well as any proposed length, taking into their attention spans. Initially, it was thought that competition would be a
    worthwhile interactive experience, with the children split into two or more groups which would then have a certain
    length of time to complete the challenges/games put before them. Eventually, this was relinquished in favour of
    merely running the games as separate entities which would nonetheless still fit into the context of the story intro
    presented at the beginning of the SSV experience.
    > The story itself was developed along the ideas of a villain who steals and/or breaks certain artifacts leaving the
    children, directly as well as through their VR alter-egos to solve the clues and repair the damage, etc. It is a standard
    format that easily lends itself to all kinds of permutations but is also simple enough to be a format that children are
    familiar with.
    > Both the story and the games were kept simple enough so that they would not become time consuming, but still
    retained the potential of fully engaging the children in the VR experience with the Wii-controllers. The story was
    consequently created with characters that the children could relate to, and the games broken down into two
    quickly-understood, self-explanatory categories:
    1) The jigsaw puzzle
    2) Identify the piece/item that doesn’t belong, and

    Breakdown of the project:
    > Phase 1:
       Colour palette, look & feel of layout, fonts, livetype templates, motion backgrounds, basic
       navigation mind map & buttons
    > Phase 2:
       Detailed navigation including all globals, plus applying branding to all screen formats
    > Phase 3:
       To create at least one working prototype for every format (VR, touch screen, video
       projection, brochure, touchscreen, etc.) and finally the client demonstration

    Creation of the 3 teams:
    > Design:
    o Development of the Colour Palette, Design layouts, Branding and overall Look & Feel that
       will be the confines within which the other teams will develop their products.
    o Creation of PR materials such as non-standard brochures, etc. that can be disseminated to
       schools in the effort to bring the SSV experience to those places.
    > Interactive:
    o Creation of the game concept, including the Wii-controller interface, and attendant story
       script and characters.
    o To create the navigational user-interface and apply it to the touchscreen and website
       templates produced by the Design Team, primarily using Director software.
    > AV:
    o Naturally, the filming and recording of elements such as the real-life, curator character
       as well the lazy-susan display.
    o Creation of a mini-documentary about the museum, done in coordination with the curator. This
       documentary would then be featured on the website and be part of the promotional material
       for the museum and the SSV.
How We Did This: A Brief History for One Interactive Project                                                                 25

    In keeping with the developing media world that is the focus of this class, communication was conducted primarily
    through Facebook (http:/ / www. facebook. com/ group. php?gid=2248278720)and a job/task list in Google docs
    As the weeks in this Spring 2008 semester began to pass by, a better understanding was gained about how far this
    current class could be expected to go in completing the concepts being developed. As a consequence, the last two
    weeks were focused on developing prototypes of all the material and concepts that will serve as the foundation for
    the completed project. Those prototypes were then presented to the curator and Grants coordinator who will then
    take those prototypes and use them in grant applications for the funds necessary to continue. Further development
    and the final completion will now be passed to future Ai Classes!

    Designing Media -- Impacting Your Audience
    beyond the Eye
    Color Design
    When designing a concept for a media project, there are many things to be aware of. As it is important to keep the
    audience interested in the product visually and as it relates to sound, the color palette and the choice of soundtrack
    will be affecting the audience in other ways as well. For example, color can easily suppress appetites, make the body
    physically weaker, and help in creating a positive or negative impression of a product. reported that
    the human eye can see 7,000,000 colors, some of which can strain the eyes. Certain colors and color relationships
    can also be eye irritants, cause headaches, and cause mayhem with human vision. Other colors and color
    combinations are soothing. Consequently, the appropriate use of color can maximize productivity, minimize visual
    fatigue, and relax the whole body.

    Sound Design
    As interactivity develops, greater demands are made on different facets of the whole that were never made before.
    On such area is that of audio. As technology has developed, the ear of the audience has become more and more
    critical. From the days of “Vitaphone” in the first “talkies” to today’s Dolby 7.1 Surround Sound, creating believable
    audio to go along with the visual aspect has been a top priority. For the cinematic pioneers, the goal was keeping the
    audio in sync with the film. Now, the goal is proper recording and mixing of ADR, Foley, music, and other audio
    elements. As interactivity develops, realism becomes more and more the chief goal. It is very likely that audio
    recording and playback will begin to focus on binaural quality as media becomes more immersive. We desire to hear
    audio in media just as we hear audio in the world around us. And why not? If media becomes more like the real
    world, shouldn’t audio be at least equivalent to that? Our focus in research and development in years to come should
    be on making sound design modeled after the real world, because media is becoming a very real, very integrated part
    of our world.
Hands-On Project Directors                                                                                                     26

    Hands-On Project Directors
    The Director's responsibilities can be summarized as follows:
    • Keep all group members up to date on deadlines by creating a project calendar. The calendar doesn't have to be
      completed right way, and in most situations it would be impossible to do so because of the unpredictable nature of
      interactive projects. However, there are general objectives (such as the completion of the project) for which dates
      should be set and posted early. Other details can be filled in as the project progresses.
    • Together with the team leaders, analyze any ideas that team members or the client have for the project. If the
      ideas are worth implementing, the Director is responsible for rearranging the team's assignments to include the
      new ideas. If the ideas are impractical or impossible to include in the project, the Director must make and
      communicate that decision.
    • Post current tasks for each team (Interactive, Graphics, and Audio-Visual) so that each team knows what they
      should be working on at any point in time.
    • Stay up to date with the latest developments in the project's general direction to ensure that each team's work is
      directed properly and efficiently.
    • Communicate with the client and any other involved vendors throughout the development and production process.
      The Director must serve as a liaison between the client, any outside vendors, and the development teams. It is
      essential for the Director to receive timely and complete reports from the team leaders so that communication
      errors are minimized.
    • Ensure that project is completed as agreed upon by the team and the client.

    Hands-On Interactive Team
    The Interactive Team is responsible for creating and integrating a user-controlled interface into the final project as
    well as understand the client and end user profile. The team will take the content generated by the Design and
    Audio/Video Teams and, utilizing an interactive authoring program such as Adobe Director or Adobe Flash, link it
    all together to form a fully interactive presentation or program. The team is also responsible for developing
    interactive content and functionality such as games, navigation, and button layout that will be part of the project. The
    team is highly dependent on the work of the other teams as the majority of their work is content driven. Although
    filler material can be used to build menus and basic navigation, the team must have the overall look and feel from the
    design team before final authoring can really begin. The team must also have the content from the Audio/Video team
    to place in the project to complete it. Interactive team's work load is mostly focus in phase one and three. Phase one
    the interactive team should be obtaining end user information and profiling it and building a basic framework for the
    project. In Phase two the interactive team will be focused on building prototypes of the project. In Phase three the
    workload picks back up as the team is focused on disc authoring and finalization of the project.
Hands-On Design Team                                                                                                         27

    Hands-On Design Team
    The Design Team is a vital part of a production and is in charge of creating designs to express a concept. The team
    provides a variety of color palettes, fonts, designs, and ways to complete a solid idea. The team creates innovative
    designs to help express the main idea given by the director and/or team. The Design Team works side by side with
    other teams to deliver an excellent project/production.

    Video Team
    The Audio/Video Team is in charged of projecting what the Design and Interactive team delivers through audio and
    video. The Audio/Video Team is really dependant of other teams, but it's also independent when it comes to working
    together as a team. It is necessary to be familiar with video and audio equipment to be effective and useful to a
    greater scale. The team uses a variation of software to accomplish the final product such as, Avid, Final Cut, Motion,
    Livetype, After effects, Director, DVD Studio Pro, Newtek's 3-D & Animation with Lightwave. The team must be in
    constant communication with the design team to know how the project can improve in order to demonstrate and
    deliver an excellent product.

    Using Wikibooks and Facebook As Tools In an
    Interactive Society
    Using and as tools in an interactive society is a great way of connecting people with
    similar interests, not only all over the country, but all over the world. Using them in the classroom creates a new
    availability for student and teacher communication. Assignments that are online bring a convenience to the student
    because of the accessibility of being able to study or contribute at home or wherever they may choose. These
    networks creates a new way of communicating, far different from cell phones, business meetings, or even email.
    With tools such as these you can search people, things, subjects, and groups that you want or are interested in. You
    can become members of different networks that are interested in the same things as you such as an art group or a
    Christian Music group. You can also connect with old classmates, or friends from a long time ago. It is a great way
    to emerge yourself in the ever growing Interactive Media.
Presentation Photo Documentary       28

    Presentation Photo Documentary
Learning Resources                                                                                                           29

    Learning Resources
    There is no specific text book for this class; however, software posted below is available to students in the AI Class
    when requested.

    A listing of software
    relevant to the production
    of interactive multimedia
    (listed in approximate
    order of relevance to this
    class project:
    • "Director" [1]
    • "Facebook" [2]
    • "Profcast for Podcasting" [3]
    • Inspiration Project Planner
    • "Flash" [4]
    • "InDesign" [5]
    • "DVD Studio Pro" [6]
    • "Youtube" [7]
    •   "" [8]
    •   "Garage Band" [9]
    •   "Light Room" [10]
    •   "Lightwave 3-D" [11]
    •   "Motion" [12]
    •   " Photoshop" [13]
    •   Xti 10.1 megpix Still Camera
    •   "Aperture" [14]
    •   "Stitcher with hotlinks" [15]
    •   "Technorati" [16]
    •   "Visual Composer Pro" [17]
    •   "WIKIbook" [18]
    •   "Compressor" [19]
    •   "Final Cut Pro" [20]
    •   "LiveType" [21]
    •   "Automator" [22]
    •   Blue Screen Keyer - Ultra 2
    Other Software/Hardware
    •   Boris Red 4
    •   Design
    •   Poser
    •   Shake
    • Blogger
    • Del.ic.ious
    • Desire2Learn
Learning Resources                                                                                                  30

    •   Dreamweaver
    •   Eluminate
    •   Imatronics Interactive
    •   Live Stage
    •   Panoramio - Satellite map photos
    •   Sethgodin - Alexaholic leads
    •   Vue 5
    •   Balloon Cam
    •   Zip Cam
    •   Alexaholic
    An excellent website that provides online tutorials is Adobe After Effects tutorials are
    exceptional at this site.

    [1] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ director
    [2] http:/ / www. facebook. com
    [3] http:/ / www. profcast. com
    [4] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ flash
    [5] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ indesign
    [6] http:/ / www. apple. com/ finalcutstudio/ dvdstudiopro
    [7] http:/ / www. youtube. com
    [8] http:/ / www. flickr. com
    [9] http:/ / www. apple. com/ ilife/ garageband
    [10] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ photoshoplightroom
    [11] http:/ / www. newtek. com/ lightwave
    [12] http:/ / www. apple. com/ finalcutstudio/ motion
    [13] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ photoshop/ index. html
    [14] http:/ / www. apple. com/ aperture
    [15] http:/ / stitcher. realviz. com/
    [16] http:/ / www. technorati. com
    [17] http:/ / www. pixelpops. com/ products/ vcpro. shtml
    [18] http:/ / www. wikibooks. com
    [19] http:/ / www. apple. com/ finalcutstudio/ compressor/
    [20] http:/ / www. apple. com/ finalcutstudio/ finalcutpro/
    [21] http:/ / www. apple. com/ finalcutstudio/ finalcutpro/ livetype. html
    [22] http:/ / www. apple. com/ macosx/ features/ automator/
Adobe Photoshop CS3 and Lightroom                                                                                             31

    Adobe Photoshop CS3 and Lightroom
    The gurus at Adobe have been making a lot of changes for their latest Photoshop release. Adobe's acquisition of
    Macromedia is sure to give them even more of the market share. One of the more recent additions to the Adobe suite
    is Adobe Lightroom. Lightroom was released a few weeks ago, and is great for photography pros. Lightroom offers
    features that are found in Photoshop, but focuses on the features that a photographer uses most commonly. The
    power of Lightroom is in its ability to "import, select, develop, and showcase large volumes of digital images".
    Lightroom is a great Photoshop alternative for those not needing all the features Photoshop offers, has a reasonable
    price tag of around $200. The biggest news in the Adobe world is the release of the CS3 suite. Photoshop is the
    industry standard in photo editing and manipulation, with Corel coming in as a distant second. New with the release
    of Photoshop CS3 there are two distinct versions. Adobe now offers the standard and extended version. According to the price of Photoshop CS3 (for Mac) is 772.94 US dollars, whereas CS2 is available now for $599.95.
    The added features of the extended version sound amazing. From the Adobe website: CS3 offers "3D and motion
    support with the ability to edit 3D content and incorporate it into 2D compositions, paint and clone over multiple
    video frames, and more. Comprehensive image analysis with new image measurement and counting tools".
    Photoshop CS3 adds the extra edge for professionals in the medical, film, scientific, and engineering fields. For more
    info on the release specs see [[1]]Adobe Photoshop CS3

    [1] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ photoshop/ ps_psext_info. html

    Final Cut Pro
    Final Cut is a user friendly non-linear editing software for video and audio. It allows you to edit both HD and SD
    formats. Inclusive of this editing tool, it has different video transitions, video filters, video generators, audio
    transitions and audio filters. All of these can be found in the effects panel. Another great feature that the designers
    added was the Master Templates. The user would be able to explore pre structured templates in the form of text,
    backgrounds, shapes in SD and HD. This tool also give the user the option to batch capture and log the various
    projects. The user can also export the finish edited products to different sources.
Flash                                                                                                                         32

    The Adobe Flash platform (formerly part of Macromedia until acquired by Adobe in 2005) was initially known as
    Shockwave Flash and is often called simply Flash. Flash refers to both the Adobe Flash Player and to the Adobe
    Flash authoring software. The Flash Player is a client application or plug-in available in most common web
    browsers. There are also versions of the Flash Player for mobile phones and other devices. Since its introduction in
    1996, Flash technology has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. Flash is
    commonly used to create animated advertisements, various web page components, to integrate video into web pages,
    and more recently, to develop Internet applications.
    Market Share
    According to a Millward Brown survey, conducted June 2007, Adobe claims Flash reaches 99.3% of desktop
    Internet users.
    Flash Video Technology
    Flash is increasingly used as a way to display video on web pages. Flash video technology is used as the basis for
    many popular video sites, including YouTube and Google Video. One major flaw with multimedia embedded
    through Flash, however, is the considerable performance penalty placed on playback hardware as compared with
    other video playback systems such as Apple’s QuickTime or Windows Media Video. Many files that drop frames
    and skip audio when embedded within Flash may play without any issues using other formats on the same hardware.
    However the next version of the Flash player will include MPEG-4 support which could significantly increase video

    Motion is a Apple software application that is used to create and to edit motion graphics. The latest version is Motion
    3 and it comes with the Final Cut Studio 2.
    Getting Started
    Start Up
    - Double Click on Motion Icon - Welcome screen appears - Select Start a New Project - Select NTSC DV - in the
    project preset Menu Setup


    - File Browser

        All media is access here
        Change Size
        Import files, drag drop, file import
        Search for various files
        Preview all images (gives you all the relevant information about the project.)

    For tutorials on motion you can access it through
Director                                                                                                                     33

    Macromedia Director is the proven multimedia authoring tool for professionals. Director combines broad media
    support for media types, ease of use, high-performance, and an infinitely extendible development environment to
    deliver rich content and applications for CDs, DVDs, kiosks, and the Internet. Director MX 2004 offers powerful
    new features, including two scripting languages, DVD-Video support, cross-platform publishing, and Flash MX
    2004 integration. [[1]]
    Keyboard Shortcuts
    4.5 out of 5: "Macromedia Director is the King Kong of interactive multimedia authoring programs! You'd have to
    search a lot of jungles to find any other authoring program that has as many features as Macromedia Director." -
    Merrily Miller and David Rosenblatt. MacDesign.
    Create accessible content for people with disabilities. Deploy on CD, DVD, or corporate intranets—or to over 300
    million web users with Adobe Shockwave Player. Expand your creative possibilities by incorporating new, powerful
    DVD functionality, which lets you embed, control, and play back DVD-video within multimedia projects. Extend in
    any direction with Director's powerful Xtras plug-in architecture. Xtras let you extend the authoring environment and
    playback engine in nearly limitless ways. Use third-party Xtras or write your own to control external devices, such as
    joysticks and cameras, and perform sophisticated operating system-level tasks. Make content more engaging by
    incorporating most major media formats including DVD-Video, Windows Media, RealMedia, QuickTime, and
    Macromedia Flash, as well as audio, bitmap, and 3D formats. http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ director/

    [1] http:/ / www. adobe. com/ products/ director/
DVD Studio Pro                                                                                                      34

    DVD Studio Pro
    General notes
    Historical Perspective:
    • 1. Desktop publishing: 1980s - Pagemaker – Reliable/affordable, personal computers
    • 2. MIDI & sequencing1990s – Studio Vision/Personal Composer, Finale
    • 3. Desktop audio: 1996 – Protools, 100 MHz processors
    • 4. Desktop video: 2003 – Premiere, 2 GHz processors, cheap hard drives & RAM, consumer DVD cameras,
      affordable/reliable/easy DVD burning
    • 5. Desktop virtual reality – multiprocessor PCs, the end of the information age

    • 1. ROM: Read only, like CD but much more storage.
    • 2. -R: 2 kinds (General/Super drive & Authoring/Professional drive Pineer DVR-S201)
    •   3. -RW: Same as -r but read/write.
    •   4. RAM: Multisession, but won't play in most drives so is not recommended
    •   5. +R & +RW: Won't record in a superdrive, but plays in most drives AFTER recorded.
    •   6. Double sided
    •   7. Double sided double density Vrs Blueray
    •   8. DVD Hybrids: Video and Data
    •   9. DVD audio: much greater capacity AND higher quality audio. DVD Pro - No

    Things to Know:
    • 1. Tracks - 99 maximum
    • 2. Angles - 8 maximum
    • 3. Menus - still or motion - a total file size of no more than 1 gig.
    • 4. Buttons - 36 total on 4x3, only 18 on 16x9 video
    • 5. Slideshow - maximum of 100 images in one show
    • 6. Audio: AIFF, WAV, SDII, MPEG-1, AC3 - all OK in Studio Pro
    • 7. Subtitltes: up to 32 streams with a maximum of 4 colors
    • 8. Scripting: DVD can make decisions (loop x times, play random, create a random button, passcode protect a
      certain track.
    • 9. Region coding: 9 total. Don't use them. Not on DVD -R. 1=US, 2=Europe, 3=Orient, . 8=special purpose
DVD Studio Pro                                                                                                            35

    Help info you won’t find in Books:
    • 1. A one-off disc is NOT the same as one pressed from a glass master.
    • 2. No longer necessary to use digital tape masters.
    • 3. There is no such thing as a one-off disc that is 100% reliable. The combination of blank media brand, playback
      drives, and authoring software produces more than 20,000 permutations.
    • 4. Copy protection: CSS or Macrovision (APS) prevents copy to VHS tape.
    • 5. Info Source:
    • 6. Double sided duplication is now cost effective
    • 7. DVD/CD ROM double format discs duplication can be located with difficulty.
    • 8. Don't create a track, slideshow or menu that you may not require - can't be deleted consistently.
    • 9. Improve reliability by playing a 1 second video track, rather than a menu, first.
    • 10. 3. Be sure your content will fit. Encoding quality determines maximum size. Don't plan on more than 80
      minutes (not including slideshows, menus, ROM data, etc.) on a 4.7 gig DVD.

    Terminology to Impress Your Friends:
    • 1. GOP: MPEG group of pictures is 15 frames. Markers go ONLY on GOPs.
    • 2. VOBU: Video group of objects - usually 2 GOPs - .4 to 1.2 seconds long. Most common source of burn errors.
    • 3. One chapter = A program
    • 4. A story = a chain of programs (chapters)
    • 5. VTS" video title set: maximum of 99 on any single video DVD

    Storage Capacities:
    • 1. 4.7 gigs
    • 2. 8.5 gigs Sony DRX 820UL-T $90, $3 per disc for under 50 in quantity.
    • 3. 100 gigs

    Three steps in production (plus three more they don’t’ tell you about)
    •   1. Plan
    •   2. Author
    •   3. Encode
    •   4. Duplicate
    •   5. Label
    •   6. Packaging

    Still Image Formats:
    • Photoshop, Tif, JPG or TGA at 72 DPI (plus 6 other formats, if you care)
    • Multiplexed into MPEG-2 stills
    • To avoid square pixel, rectangular pixel distortion:
    Create at 720x540, resize to 720x480 (don't bother to crop 6 pixels from 486)
    • An exception for Pros: Create at 640x480 and stretch up to 720x540 to accommodate thin lines that stretch
      horiznontally, but not vertically)
DVD Studio Pro                                                                                                                  36

    Compressor Tips:
    Use VRB Variable Bit Rate 2 pass of higher

    Advanced DVDs:
    •   1. DVD@ccess
    •   2. Widescreen 16x9
    •   3. Multilanguage discs
    •   4. Subtitles

    Issues That Matter:
    •   1. Assets
    •   2. Tracks, markers
    •   3. Layered Menus
    •   4. Overlay Menus
    •   5. Slideshows
    •   6. Finishing: first play, hybrids, burn/format

    LiveType is text creator in the following paragraphs the basics of this program will be explained. Start out by typing
    in the Inspector window in the upper left hand box. After typing in a word, it appears on the Canvas. The Blue Bar
    under the text moves the text around, or by just clicking on a letter that letter will move by itself. The start and end
    points on blue bar moves the text vertically. A person can create a control point on the blue bar to skew the text by
    holding down control then click on the blue bar and choose ‘add control point’. To curve the text hold control then
    click on the control point and choose add a curve point. Attributes and text settings are similar to that in Photoshop.
    There is two different font types Regular and LiveFonts. In the media browser window on the far right choose the
    font tab and choose a font and click apply to change it. To style the regular font a viewer can go back to the inspector
    window and change the text in any way that they wish with attributes, effects, style and text. Under the style tab
    there are four ways to style the text shadow, outline, glow and extrude. LiveFonts are pre made animated texts that a
    user can choose from in the media browser under Livefonts. To change the color of the Livefont the user can simply
    go to attributes in the inspector window and change the color where it says color. The texture tab in the media
    browser allows the user to put an animated background to the text. When adding textures the texture gets put onto
    the timeline below the separated bar, this is so that the user can choose whether or not they want to include it in final
    render. The viewer can drag the background on the timeline above the separation bar and that would make the
    background automatically render out in final output with the text. The timeline in LiveType isn’t like a normal
    editing system timeline. This is because when an animated text or background is dragged out or shortened it makes it
    faster and longer in speed. In the inspector window under the tab timing it displays the speed of the layer and the
    user can notice as they shorten or lengthen the speed changes. But, this doesn’t apply to anything static. The user can
    also slide the layer up and down the timeline horizontally to make it appear earlier or later in the animation. One
    very good feature about LifeType is that the preset textures can loop seamlessly. Another cool feature about
    LiveFont is that it can have multiple projects open at a time and be able to switch between them with tabs right
    above the timeline. The user can also hold down control and click on a track to copy and then paste it on another
    project. One more handy feature is that the user can hold down control and click on a track and choose reveal media
    browser to find the original source of that track quickly. Some really good free tutorials on LiveType can be found
LiveType                                                                                                                                                37

    Product Link:

    Newtek's 3-D & Animation with Lightwave
    One of the industry leading software for motion graphics is Lightwave. Maya monopolized character animation (for
    film, cartoon, etc.), but most professionals agree that Lightwave is a superior tools for motion graphics like the kind
    you see on sports shows and openers for TV programming.
    3-D software can be overwhelming on first encounter because the professional tools are more complex than
    video/audio editing software and other multimedia software products. The learning curve is well-worth it when you
    realize how 3-D expertise can set apart your work in a very competitive job market.
    Wikipedia tells us, "LightWave gained fame as the program used to create special effects for the Babylon 5, Star
    Trek Voyager and seaQuest DSV science fiction television series; the program was also utilized in the production of
    Titanic as well as the recent Battlestar Galactica TV-series, Sin City and Star Wars movies." Most recently though,
    Lightwave was used for the special effects and environmental effects in the film, "300."
    Quote reference:
    External link:
    Lightwave is not only used for motion graphics however. It, like Maya, is used to create still images of 3d renders
    for use in graphic designs. Graphic artists have been known to utilize the imported image data from Lightwave as
    focus points for artwork or for complimentary geometry within a design.
    The actual Lightwave program consists of two separate programs that were designed for specific tasks.

   Modeler      Modeler is the application within the Lightwave package that allows the user to create or manipulate 3D models within a limitless

   Layout    Layout is the application within the Lightwave package that allows lighting and animation to be added to models that were created within
Canon Still Camera                                                                                                       38

    Canon Still Camera
    The Canon PowerShot A640 is one of the still cameras that are made available for the MMI students to use for their
    (See below link for photograph and product details)
    Product Link: http:/ / www. usa. canon. com/ consumer/ controller?act=ModelDetailAct& fcategoryid=145&

    Canon Digital Rebel XTi 10.1MP DSLR
    The Canon EOS 400D / Rebel XTi digital SLR is the successor to the
    best-selling EOS 350D / Rebel XT. Announced in August 2006, it
    combines a number of anticipated improvements along with a few
    genuine surprises.
    Most people won’t be surprised to learn the 400D / XTi now features a
    larger 2.5in screen and Canon’s Picture Styles, but following the earlier
    EOS 30D, many equally expected the new entry-level body to employ
    the same sensor as its predecessor.
                                                                                            Canon Digital Rebel XTi
    But instead of re-using the 350D / XT’s 8 Megapixel sensor, Canon’s
    developed a brand new 10.1 Megapixel CMOS sensor for the 400D / XTi. This makes it Canon’s highest resolution
    digital SLR with an EF-S lens mount to date.
    In addition the EOS 400D / Rebel XTi is the first Canon digital SLR to feature a self-cleaning sensor which shakes
    off dust particles. Reference frames can also be tagged to images for automatic removal of more stubborn dust
    particles later using supplied software.
    Following the design of the Canon 350D, the Canon 400D (Digital Rebel XTi) is very compact, relatively
    lightweight, and compromises little on manual controls and in-use performance.
    Summary of chages (compared to the EOS 350D / Digital Rebel XT)
    - 10.1 megapixel CMOS sensor with improved microlens array, fill factor and lower noise
    - EOS Integrated Cleaning System
    - Anti-static coatings on sensor surfaces plus anti-dust materials in the camera body
    - Separate low pass filter with ultra-sonic vibration
    - Software based dust mapping / removal
    - Nine point Auto Focus sensor (same as EOS 30D) with F2.8 support
    - Continuous shooting burst up to 27 JPEG and 10 RAW images
    - Single large, bright, 2.5" LCD monitor with 160° viewing angles (horizontal and vertical)
    - Camera settings and adjustment on LCD monitor
    - Proximity sensor below viewfinder eyepiece to disable the LCD during composition
    - New viewfinder view includes 9 AF points as well as EOS 30D style status bar
    - Picture Styles, larger range of image parameter adjustment (same as EOS 30D)
    - Improved user interface
    - Image magnification available in record review
Canon Digital Rebel XTi 10.1MP DSLR                                                                                          39

    - Histogram available as brightness (Luminance) or RGB (Red, Green, Blue)
    - Three settings for long exposure noise reduction (adds Auto option)
    - Auto rotation with three options (not recorded, record don't rotate, record and rotate)
    - Additional custom functions (magnified view in record review, LCD display at power on)
    - Up to 9999 images per folder on storage card
    - Automatic storage of setting adjustments (no longer requires a press of the SET button)
    - Improved print / share / direct print features
    - Lower introductory list price ($100 lower)

    Avid vs. FCP
    In the world of cinematography and film, two giants have emerged at the threshold of the industry. Founded in 1987,
    the nonlinear editing software called AVID, that would soon take hollywood by storm. By the mid 1990's the many
    films and dozens of TV shows had switched to AVID, marking the end of cutting celluloid. The program allows
    editors to handle their film with greater ease. With the emergence of Apple, Final Cut Pro (part of Final Cut Studio)
    has become quite popular with its easier navigation and interface. Most professionals in Hollywood are still doubtful
    about the upstart Apple software. However, experts agree, that to choose your editing software, depends upon the
    type of project to be produced. There is no right or wrong.

    After Effects vs. Motion
    After Effects is a variable, mathematic-based animation program that has the ability to make use of click and drag
    animation. After Effects also has built in scripting abilities through its expressions language to allow for animation
    without key frames. After Effects can also make use of many third party plug-ins to extend its abilities to include 3D
    animation, advanced particle systems and much more. Although After Effects uses a similar interface to other Adobe
    Creative Suite products it does have a significant learning curve; however there are many free training resources
    available online to help a new user get started. Both PC and Mac platforms are supported by AE, and at the moment
    it's the industry standard for motion graphics editing..
    Motion is a loop-based animation program (can also be linear if desired) that primarily utilizes click and drag
    animation. The platform is Mac only and it uses various particle systems and basic movement animation to bring
    projects to life. Motion also allows keyframing in its simple key frame editor which lets you draw out your
    animation curves. Like After Effects, Motion keyframing allows you to edit many different aspects of your
    animation such as opacity, position, rotation, and many others. Motion has many time-saving features. Unlike After
    Effects, Motion allows you to click and drag your animation into Final Cut without having to render, export, and
    import. Motion is also able to send animations to After Effects 7 as a nested composition..
3-D Products                                                                                                               40

    3-D Products
    Below are links to a few unbiased reviews (is such a concept possible?) regarding a some of the leading 3D and
    Animation software products. 3D requires such a commitment to master, that most users become religiously
    committed to their product. It's rare to find someone who is qualified to make a fair comparison of competing
    These gallery links might interest students considering a commitment to 3D learning http:/ / forums. cgsociety. org/
    3D models can be viewed and downloaded from dozens of excellent sites: http:/ / www. 3d02-ae. com/
    The Society of Digital Artists provides
    an excellent technical comparison of
    3D tools for those already using a
    product. http:/ / wiki. cgsociety. org/
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                           41

    Article Sources and Contributors
    Advanced Interactive Media  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassBurleson, AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga, AiClassShull, Aiclass,
    Cybidude3, Dallas1278, Dapendleton, Derekdbutler, Dmurphree, ElandInteractive, EricD2001, GEisiminger, Herbythyme, Iamunknown, JDelao, Khupza, Mike.lifeguard,,
    Panic2k4, Re-ton77, Stephens2745714Ai, Thereen, Youngbish, ZimmermanAiClass, 65 anonymous edits

    A Definition For Interactive Media  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga, AiClassShull, AiClassSullivan,
    Alexandriareynolds, Avicennasis, Brandon111, EricD2001, JDelao,, 2 anonymous edits

    The Future For Immersive Media  Source:  Contributors: AIcraft, Ai Class M Walters, AiClassBeacham, AiClassBurleson,
    AiClassCoussens, AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga, AiClassShull, Cybidude3, GEisiminger, Jennydalby,, Rojas AIclass, Stephens2745714Ai, 1 anonymous edits

    A New Challenge: Ethics and Morality for Future Media  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Ai Class Brown, AiClassEland,
    Amalilsweetchic, Broadwaymelodywise, Cybidude3, Derekapollardaiclass, Dmurphree, GEisiminger,, Stephens2745714Ai, Youngbish, 5 anonymous edits

    Media in Video Games  Source:  Contributors: AIcraft, Adrignola, AiClassHurling, Avicennasis, CommonsDelinker, Cybidude3,
    Dapendleton, Darklama, GEisiminger, Mike.lifeguard,, 2 anonymous edits

    Multisensory Media Is About To Explode  Source:  Contributors: AiBurt, AiClassBurleson, AiClassEland, Avicennasis, Benlindsey,
    Brandon111, ElandInteractive, GEisiminger,, 6 anonymous edits

    Virtual Experiences: Now More Like Our Real World  Source:  Contributors: AiClassCoussens, AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga,
    QuiteUnusual, 1 anonymous edits

    Emerging Technologies: Preparing For The Next Job Market  Source:  Contributors: AiClassBeacham, AiClassEland, AiClassShull,
    Cybidude3, GEisiminger,, Tibbular, 1 anonymous edits

    Interactive Media Versus Other Kinds Of Media  Source:  Contributors: AiClassBeacham, AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga, AiDunlap13,
    EricD2001, Jennydalby,, 1 anonymous edits

    Creating an Interactive, Immersive, Multi-sensory, MultiMedia Project: A Student Log  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, AiOvel,
    Aiwells, Wink824

    Determining Project Pixel Size for Various Digital Medias  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland, 1 anonymous edits

    How We Did This: A Brief History for One Interactive Project  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola,

    Designing Media -- Impacting Your Audience beyond the Eye  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Re-ton77, Stephens2745714Ai

    Hands-On Project Directors  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, AiVincent, Fishpi,

    Hands-On Interactive Team  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Aijackson, Dmurphree, GEisiminger

    Hands-On Design Team  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Fishpi, JDelao

    Video Team  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, JDelao

    Using Wikibooks and Facebook As Tools In an Interactive Society  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Mike.lifeguard, Nataliegore

    Presentation Photo Documentary  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, Xania

    Learning Resources  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga, AiClassSullivan, Brandon111, EricD2001

    Adobe Photoshop CS3 and Lightroom  Source:  Contributors: AiClassSaliga, ElandInteractive

    Final Cut Pro  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola

    Flash  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Dmurphree

    Motion  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Youngbish

    Director  Source:  Contributors: AiClassSaliga, Brandon111, 3 anonymous edits

    DVD Studio Pro  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, GEisiminger, 7 anonymous edits

    LiveType  Source:  Contributors: AiClassShull, EricD2001

    Newtek's 3-D & Animation with Lightwave  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, AiClassSaliga, Derbeth, EricD2001, QuiteUnusual, Van
    der Hoorn

    Canon Still Camera  Source:  Contributors: EricD2001, Reece

    Canon Digital Rebel XTi 10.1MP DSLR  Source:  Contributors: AiClassSaliga, QuiteUnusual, ZimmermanAiClass

    Avid vs. FCP  Source:  Contributors: Adrignola, AiMuirhead, Fishpi

    After Effects vs. Motion  Source:  Contributors: AiClassSaliga, Avicennasis, Dapendleton, Dmurphree, EricD2001, Reece

    3-D Products  Source:  Contributors: AiClassEland, Avicennasis
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors                                                                                                                                                         42

    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
    Image:MGM01.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:IMclass01.JPG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AiClassEland
    Image:Videographer.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Original uploader was
    AiClassEland at en.wikibooks
    Image:Vegas02.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:IMclass02.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AiClassEland
    Image:REDcamera.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:JonathanSlide.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola,
    Image:IMG_o2661.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:IMG_0116.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:Eland007.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:0106.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: AiClassEland, Koavf
    File:Psp.svg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Mistman123
    Image:AmerFlag.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:VideoCylinder__.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola,
    Image:0108.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: AiClassEland
    Image:IMG_00152.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:IMG_00176.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:IMG_02360.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:ELA_0686.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:ELA_0569.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:ELA_0684.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:ELA_0586.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:ELA_0601.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:ELA_0607.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    Image:IMG_02588.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Adrignola, AiClassEland
    File:Canon Digital Rebel XTi.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Sujit kumar
    Image:CGimage.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Society of Digital Artists
License                                                     43

    Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Description: Multimedia: Adobe Photoshop CS3 and Lightroom, Final Cut Pro, Flash, Motion, Director, DVD Studio Pro, LiveType, Newtek's 3-D & Animation with Lightwave, Canon Still Camera, Canon Digital Rebel XTi 10.1MP DSLR, 3-D Products, Avis, FCP.